Science.gov

Sample records for updating recursive xml

  1. A recursive method for updating apple firmness prediction models based on spectral scattering images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yankun; Lu, Renfu

    2007-09-01

    Multispectral scattering is effective for nondestructive prediction of fruit firmness. However, the established prediction models for multispectral scattering are variety specific and may not perform appropriately for fruit harvested from different orchards or at different times. In this research, a recursive least squares method was proposed to update the existing prediction model by adding samples from a new population to assure good performance of the model for predicting fruit from the new population. Multispectral scattering images acquired by a multispectral imaging system from Golden Delicious apples that were harvested at the same time but had different postharvest storage time periods were used to develop the updating method. Radial scattering profiles were described by the modified Lorentzian distribution (MLD) function with four profile parameters for eight wavelengths. Multi-linear regression was performed on MLD parameters to establish prediction models for fruit firmness for each group. The prediction model established in the first group was then updated by using selected samples from the second group, and four different sampling methods were compared and validated with the rest apples. The prediction model corrected by the model-updating method gave good firmness predictions with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.86 and the standard error of prediction (SEP) of 6.11 N. This model updating method is promising for implementing the spectral scattering technique for real-time prediction of apple fruit firmness.

  2. XML in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy, Ed.

    This book presents examples of how libraries are using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) to solve problems, expand services, and improve systems. Part I contains papers on using XML in library catalog records: "Updating MARC Records with XMLMARC" (Kevin S. Clarke, Stanford University) and "Searching and Retrieving XML Records via the Web" (Theo van…

  3. XML Files

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/xml.html MedlinePlus XML Files To use the sharing features on this page, ... information on all English and Spanish topic groups. Files generated on July 09, 2016 MedlinePlus Health Topic ...

  4. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  5. Recursion Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Alton T.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of the recursive method to permutations of n objects and a problem making c cents in change using pennies and nickels when order is important. Presents a LOGO program for the examples. (YP)

  6. XML under the Hood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML (extensible markup language), particularly as it relates to libraries. Topics include organizing information; cataloging; metadata; similarities to HTML; organizations dealing with XML; making XML useful; a history of XML; the semantic Web; related technologies; XML at the Library of Congress; and its role in improving the…

  7. On recursion

    PubMed Central

    Watumull, Jeffrey; Hauser, Marc D.; Roberts, Ian G.; Hornstein, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    It is a truism that conceptual understanding of a hypothesis is required for its empirical investigation. However, the concept of recursion as articulated in the context of linguistic analysis has been perennially confused. Nowhere has this been more evident than in attempts to critique and extend Hauseretal's. (2002) articulation. These authors put forward the hypothesis that what is uniquely human and unique to the faculty of language—the faculty of language in the narrow sense (FLN)—is a recursive system that generates and maps syntactic objects to conceptual-intentional and sensory-motor systems. This thesis was based on the standard mathematical definition of recursion as understood by Gödel and Turing, and yet has commonly been interpreted in other ways, most notably and incorrectly as a thesis about the capacity for syntactic embedding. As we explain, the recursiveness of a function is defined independent of such output, whether infinite or finite, embedded or unembedded—existent or non-existent. And to the extent that embedding is a sufficient, though not necessary, diagnostic of recursion, it has not been established that the apparent restriction on embedding in some languages is of any theoretical import. Misunderstanding of these facts has generated research that is often irrelevant to the FLN thesis as well as to other theories of language competence that focus on its generative power of expression. This essay is an attempt to bring conceptual clarity to such discussions as well as to future empirical investigations by explaining three criterial properties of recursion: computability (i.e., rules in intension rather than lists in extension); definition by induction (i.e., rules strongly generative of structure); and mathematical induction (i.e., rules for the principled—and potentially unbounded—expansion of strongly generated structure). By these necessary and sufficient criteria, the grammars of all natural languages are recursive. PMID

  8. On recursion.

    PubMed

    Watumull, Jeffrey; Hauser, Marc D; Roberts, Ian G; Hornstein, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    It is a truism that conceptual understanding of a hypothesis is required for its empirical investigation. However, the concept of recursion as articulated in the context of linguistic analysis has been perennially confused. Nowhere has this been more evident than in attempts to critique and extend Hauseretal's. (2002) articulation. These authors put forward the hypothesis that what is uniquely human and unique to the faculty of language-the faculty of language in the narrow sense (FLN)-is a recursive system that generates and maps syntactic objects to conceptual-intentional and sensory-motor systems. This thesis was based on the standard mathematical definition of recursion as understood by Gödel and Turing, and yet has commonly been interpreted in other ways, most notably and incorrectly as a thesis about the capacity for syntactic embedding. As we explain, the recursiveness of a function is defined independent of such output, whether infinite or finite, embedded or unembedded-existent or non-existent. And to the extent that embedding is a sufficient, though not necessary, diagnostic of recursion, it has not been established that the apparent restriction on embedding in some languages is of any theoretical import. Misunderstanding of these facts has generated research that is often irrelevant to the FLN thesis as well as to other theories of language competence that focus on its generative power of expression. This essay is an attempt to bring conceptual clarity to such discussions as well as to future empirical investigations by explaining three criterial properties of recursion: computability (i.e., rules in intension rather than lists in extension); definition by induction (i.e., rules strongly generative of structure); and mathematical induction (i.e., rules for the principled-and potentially unbounded-expansion of strongly generated structure). By these necessary and sufficient criteria, the grammars of all natural languages are recursive. PMID:24409164

  9. ScotlandsPlaces XML: Bespoke XML or XML Mapping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Ashley; Gillick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate web services (in the form of parameterised URLs), specifically in the context of the ScotlandsPlaces project. This involves cross-domain querying, data retrieval and display via the development of a bespoke XML standard rather than existing XML formats and mapping between them.…

  10. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  11. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  12. XML Based Course Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollowski, Michael

    XML, the extensible markup language, is a quickly evolving technology that presents a viable alternative to courseware products and promises to ease the burden of Web authors, who edit their course pages directly. XML uses tags to label kinds of contents, rather than format information. The use of XML enables faculty to focus on providing…

  13. XML algebras for data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yao, JingTao

    2004-04-01

    The XML is a new standard for data representation and exchange on the Internet. There are studies on XML query languages as well as XML algebras in literature. However, attention has not been paid to research on XML algebras for data mining due to partially the fact that there is no widely accepted definition of XML mining tasks. This paper tries to examine the XML mining tasks and provide guidelines to design XML algebras for data mining. Some summarization and comparison have been done to existing XML algebras. We argue that by adding additional operators for mining tasks, XML algebras may work well for data mining with XML documents.

  14. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  15. XML and Free Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Ken Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses problems with marking free text, text that is either natural language or semigrammatical but unstructured, that prevent well-formed XML from marking text for readily available meaning. Proposes a solution to mark meaning in free text that is consistent with the intended simplicity of XML versus SGML. (Author/LRW)

  16. XML: A Publisher's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Timothy M.

    1999-01-01

    Explains eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and describes how Dow Jones Interactive is using it to improve the news-gathering and dissemination process through intranets and the World Wide Web. Discusses benefits of using XML, the relationship to HyperText Markup Language (HTML), lack of available software tools and industry support, and future…

  17. Adaptable Iterative and Recursive Kalman Filter Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear filters are often very computationally expensive and usually not suitable for real-time applications. Real-time navigation algorithms are typically based on linear estimators, such as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and, to a much lesser extent, the unscented Kalman filter. The Iterated Kalman filter (IKF) and the Recursive Update Filter (RUF) are two algorithms that reduce the consequences of the linearization assumption of the EKF by performing N updates for each new measurement, where N is the number of recursions, a tuning parameter. This paper introduces an adaptable RUF algorithm to calculate N on the go, a similar technique can be used for the IKF as well.

  18. Recursion, Language, and Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed that recursion is one of the properties that distinguishes human language from any other form of animal communication. Contrary to this claim, a recent study purports to demonstrate center-embedded recursion in starlings. I show that the performance of the birds in this study can be explained by a counting strategy, without any…

  19. XML Files: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/xml.html MedlinePlus XML Files To use the sharing features on this page, ... information on all English and Spanish topic groups. Files generated on September 15, 2016 MedlinePlus Health Topic ...

  20. XML and Better Web Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Joe; Gilstrap, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the implications of the new Web metalanguage XML for searching on the World Wide Web and considers the future of XML on the Web. Compared to HTML, XML is more concerned with structure of data than documents, and these data structures should prove conducive to precise, context rich searching. (Author/LRW)

  1. XML: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes XML (extensible markup language), a new language classification submitted to the World Wide Web Consortium that is defined in terms of both SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), specifically designed for the Internet. Limitations of PDF (Portable Document Format) files for electronic journals…

  2. Chapter 56: Introduction to XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, G.; Krughoff, K. S.

    This is an introduction to the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). XML is a key technology component in the VO development of data models and standard formats for services, e.g. VOTable data formats for cone and SIA (Simple Image Access) services, VOResource schemas for VO Registries, and Space Time Coordinate (STC) schema. We present here the basic anatomy of XML documents, discuss the advantages and uses of XML and provide simple examples for how to describe your own data types. We also discuss reading and writing XML including the commercially available APIs and tools included in the NVO Summer School library.

  3. Distinctive signatures of recursion

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Maurício Dias

    2012-01-01

    Although recursion has been hypothesized to be a necessary capacity for the evolution of language, the multiplicity of definitions being used has undermined the broader interpretation of empirical results. I propose that only a definition focused on representational abilities allows the prediction of specific behavioural traits that enable us to distinguish recursion from non-recursive iteration and from hierarchical embedding: only subjects able to represent recursion, i.e. to represent different hierarchical dependencies (related by parenthood) with the same set of rules, are able to generalize and produce new levels of embedding beyond those specified a priori (in the algorithm or in the input). The ability to use such representations may be advantageous in several domains: action sequencing, problem-solving, spatial navigation, social navigation and for the emergence of conventionalized communication systems. The ability to represent contiguous hierarchical levels with the same rules may lead subjects to expect unknown levels and constituents to behave similarly, and this prior knowledge may bias learning positively. Finally, a new paradigm to test for recursion is presented. Preliminary results suggest that the ability to represent recursion in the spatial domain recruits both visual and verbal resources. Implications regarding language evolution are discussed. PMID:22688640

  4. Document image representation using XML technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kwae, Essam A.; Atmakuri, Kusuma H.

    2001-12-01

    Electronic documents have gained wide acceptance due to the ease of editing and sharing of information. However, paper documents are still widely used in many environments. Moving into a paperless and distributed office has become a major goal for document image research. A new approach for form document representation is presented. This approach allows for electronic document sharing over the World Wide Web (WWW) using Extensible Markup Language (XML) technologies. Each document is mapped into three different views, an XML view to represent the preprinted and filled-in data, an XSL (Extensible style Sheets) view to represent the structure of the document, and a DTD (Document Type Definition) view to represent the document grammar and field constraints. The XML and XSL views are generated from a document template, either automatically using image processing techniques, or semi-automatically with minimal user interaction. The DTD representation may be fixed for general documents or may be generated semi-automatically by mining a number of filled-in document examples. Document templates need to be entered once to create the proposed representation. Afterwards, documents may be displayed, updated, or shared over the web. The merits of this approach are demonstrated using a number of examples of widely used forms.

  5. Language and Recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  6. "The Wonder Years" of XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazan, Rich

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the current state of Extensible Markup Language (XML), a metalanguage for creating structured documents that describe their own content, and its implications for information professionals. Predicts that XML will become the common language underlying Web, word processing, and database formats. Also discusses Extensible Stylesheet Language…

  7. How Does XML Help Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Kyle

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML, how it has transformed the way information is managed and delivered, and its impact on libraries. Topics include how XML differs from other markup languages; the document object model (DOM); style sheets; practical applications for archival materials, interlibrary loans, digital collections, and MARC data; and future possibilities.…

  8. XML Schema Languages: Beyond DTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannides, Demetrios

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of XML (extensible markup language) and the traditional DTD (document type definition) format focuses on efforts of the World Wide Web Consortium's XML schema working group to develop a schema language to replace DTD that will be capable of defining the set of constraints of any possible data resource. (Contains 14 references.) (LRW)

  9. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  10. Recursion in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banreti, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how aphasic impairment impinges on syntactic and/or semantic recursivity of human language. A series of tests has been conducted with the participation of five Hungarian speaking aphasic subjects and 10 control subjects. Photographs representing simple situations were presented to subjects and questions were asked about…

  11. Recursion, Computers and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Andy

    2007-01-01

    "Geomlab" is a functional programming language used to describe pictures that are made up of tiles. The beauty of "Geomlab" is that it introduces students to recursion, a very powerful mathematical concept, through a very simple and enticing graphical environment. Alongside the software is a series of eight worksheets which lead into producing…

  12. Recursive rational choice

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, A.A.

    1981-11-01

    It is the purpose of the present study to indicate the means by which Kramer's results may be generalized to considerations of stronger computing devices than the finite state automata considered in Kramer's approach, and to domains of alternatives having the cardinality of the continuum. The means we employ in the approach makes use of the theory of recursive functions in the context of Church's Thesis. The result, which we consider as a preliminary result to a more general research program, shows that a choice function that is rational in the sense of Richter (not necessarily regular) when defined on a restricted family of subsets of a continuum of alternatives, when recursively represented by a partial predicate on equivalence classes of approximations by rational numbers, is recursively unsolvable. By way of Church's Thesis, therefore, such a function cannot be realized by means of a very general class of effectively computable procedures. An additional consequence that can be derived from the result of recursive unsolvability of rational choice in this setting is the placement of a minimal bound on the amount of computational complexity entailed by effective realizations of rational choice.

  13. Cytometry metadata in XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) has created a standard for the Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt 1.0). CytometryML will serve as a common metadata standard for flow and image cytometry (digital microscopy). Methods: The MIFlowCyt data-types were created, as is the rest of CytometryML, in the XML Schema Definition Language (XSD1.1). The datatypes are primarily based on the Flow Cytometry and the Digital Imaging and Communication (DICOM) standards. A small section of the code was formatted with standard HTML formatting elements (p, h1, h2, etc.). Results:1) The part of MIFlowCyt that describes the Experimental Overview including the specimen and substantial parts of several other major elements has been implemented as CytometryML XML schemas (www.cytometryml.org). 2) The feasibility of using MIFlowCyt to provide the combination of an overview, table of contents, and/or an index of a scientific paper or a report has been demonstrated. Previously, a sample electronic publication, EPUB, was created that could contain both MIFlowCyt metadata as well as the binary data. Conclusions: The use of CytometryML technology together with XHTML5 and CSS permits the metadata to be directly formatted and together with the binary data to be stored in an EPUB container. This will facilitate: formatting, data- mining, presentation, data verification, and inclusion in structured research, clinical, and regulatory documents, as well as demonstrate a publication's adherence to the MIFlowCyt standard, promote interoperability and should also result in the textual and numeric data being published using web technology without any change in composition.

  14. Compression of Probabilistic XML Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldman, Irma; de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    Database techniques to store, query and manipulate data that contains uncertainty receives increasing research interest. Such UDBMSs can be classified according to their underlying data model: relational, XML, or RDF. We focus on uncertain XML DBMS with as representative example the Probabilistic XML model (PXML) of [10,9]. The size of a PXML document is obviously a factor in performance. There are PXML-specific techniques to reduce the size, such as a push down mechanism, that produces equivalent but more compact PXML documents. It can only be applied, however, where possibilities are dependent. For normal XML documents there also exist several techniques for compressing a document. Since Probabilistic XML is (a special form of) normal XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In this paper, we show that existing compression mechanisms can be combined with PXML-specific compression techniques. We also show that best compression rates are obtained with a combination of PXML-specific technique with a rather simple generic DAG-compression technique.

  15. Recursive Objects--An Object Oriented Presentation of Recursion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, David B.

    2004-01-01

    Generally, when recursion is introduced to students the concept is illustrated with a toy (Towers of Hanoi) and some abstract mathematical functions (factorial, power, Fibonacci). These illustrate recursion in the same sense that counting to 10 can be used to illustrate a for loop. These are all good illustrations, but do not represent serious…

  16. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  17. A recursive technique for adaptive vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Vector Quantization (VQ) is fast becoming an accepted, if not preferred method for image compression. The VQ performs well when compressing all types of imagery including Video, Electro-Optical (EO), Infrared (IR), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Multi-Spectral (MS), and digital map data. The only requirement is to change the codebook to switch the compressor from one image sensor to another. There are several approaches for designing codebooks for a vector quantizer. Adaptive Vector Quantization is a procedure that simultaneously designs codebooks as the data is being encoded or quantized. This is done by computing the centroid as a recursive moving average where the centroids move after every vector is encoded. When computing the centroid of a fixed set of vectors the resultant centroid is identical to the previous centroid calculation. This method of centroid calculation can be easily combined with VQ encoding techniques. The defined quantizer changes after every encoded vector by recursively updating the centroid of minimum distance which is the selected by the encoder. Since the quantizer is changing definition or states after every encoded vector, the decoder must now receive updates to the codebook. This is done as side information by multiplexing bits into the compressed source data.

  18. XWeB: The XML Warehouse Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahboubi, Hadj; Darmont, Jérôme

    With the emergence of XML as a standard for representing business data, new decision support applications are being developed. These XML data warehouses aim at supporting On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) operations that manipulate irregular XML data. To ensure feasibility of these new tools, important performance issues must be addressed. Performance is customarily assessed with the help of benchmarks. However, decision support benchmarks do not currently support XML features. In this paper, we introduce the XML Warehouse Benchmark (XWeB), which aims at filling this gap. XWeB derives from the relational decision support benchmark TPC-H. It is mainly composed of a test data warehouse that is based on a unified reference model for XML warehouses and that features XML-specific structures, and its associate XQuery decision support workload. XWeB's usage is illustrated by experiments on several XML database management systems.

  19. Recursivity in Lingua Cosmica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollongren, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    In a sequence of papers on the topic of message construction for interstellar communication by means of a cosmic language, the present author has discussed various significant requirements such a lingua should satisfy. The author's Lingua Cosmica is a (meta) system for annotating contents of possibly large-scale messages for ETI. LINCOS, based on formal constructive logic, was primarily designed for dealing with logic contents of messages but is also applicable for denoting structural properties of more general abstractions embedded in such messages. The present paper explains ways and means for achieving this for a special case: recursive entities. As usual two stages are involved: first the domain of discourse is enriched with suitable representations of the entities concerned, after which properties over them can be dealt with within the system itself. As a representative example the case of Russian dolls (Matrjoshka's) is discussed in some detail and relations with linguistic structures in natural languages are briefly exploited.

  20. XML: a lingua franca for science?

    PubMed

    Barillot, E; Achard, F

    2000-08-01

    XML is a new language designed to solve one of the biggest problems of the World Wide Web: its main language, HTML, is not extensible. In this article, the authors discuss the current successes and limitations of the World Wide Web, briefly explain the basics of XML and present the benefits of using XML as a data-exchange language. Finally, they discuss real-life applications that have been developed using XML, with a focus on biology. PMID:10899813

  1. Setting the Standard: XML on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Explains what XML (Extensible Markup Language) is; where to find it in a few years (everywhere from Web pages, to database management systems, to common campus applications); issues that will make XML somewhat of an experimental strategy in the near term; and the importance of decision-makers being abreast of XML trends in standards, tools…

  2. Querying and Ranking XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlieder, Torsten; Meuss, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML, information retrieval, precision, and recall focuses on a retrieval technique that adopts the similarity measure of the vector space model, incorporates the document structure, and supports structured queries. Topics include a query model based on tree matching; structured queries and term-based ranking; and term frequency and…

  3. gfortran2xml V0.6

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-06-28

    the software tool, gfortran2xml, creates an XML representation of a parse tree created by the GNU Fortran compiler. The XML output file describes Fortran interfaces (procedure names and associated parameters and return values). gfortran2xml is useful for projects that perform static analysis to modify existing Fortran source files, tools can automatically insert performance monitoring calls to aid in improving the speed of parallel applications. gfortran2xml is used in projects that generate code for Fortran andmore » C/C++ language interoperability.« less

  4. Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, S. V.

    1988-01-01

    Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.

  5. Recursion relations from soft theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui; Wen, Congkao

    2016-03-01

    We establish a set of new on-shell recursion relations for amplitudes satisfying soft theorems. The recursion relations can apply to those amplitudes whose additional physical inputs from soft theorems are enough to overcome the bad large- z behaviour. This work is a generalization of the recursion relations recently obtained by Cheung et al. for amplitudes in scalar effective field theories with enhanced vanishing soft behaviours, which can be regarded as a special case of those with non-vanishing soft limits. We apply the recursion relations to tree-level amplitudes in various theories, including amplitudes in the Akulov-Volkov theory and amplitudes containing dilatons of spontaneously-broken conformal symmetry.

  6. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  7. Hopf algebras and topological recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, João N.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model for topological recursion based on the Hopf algebra of planar binary trees defined by Loday and Ronco (1998 Adv. Math. 139 293-309 We show that extending this Hopf algebra by identifying pairs of nearest neighbor leaves, and thus producing graphs with loops, we obtain the full recursion formula discovered by Eynard and Orantin (2007 Commun. Number Theory Phys. 1 347-452).

  8. Tomcat, Oracle & XML Web Archive

    SciTech Connect

    Cothren, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    The TOX (Tomcat Oracle & XML) web archive is a foundation for development of HTTP-based applications using Tomcat (or some other servlet container) and an Oracle RDBMS. Use of TOX requires coding primarily in PL/SQL, JavaScript, and XSLT, but also in HTML, CSS and potentially Java. Coded in Java and PL/SQL itself, TOX provides the foundation for more complex applications to be built.

  9. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  10. Recursive total-least-squares adaptive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Eric M.; DeGroat, Ronald D.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper a recursive total least squares (RTLS) adaptive filter is introduced and studied. The TLS approach is more appropriate and provides more accurate results than the LS approach when there is error on both sides of the adaptive filter equation; for example, linear prediction, AR modeling, and direction finding. The RTLS filter weights are updated in time O(mr) where m is the filter order and r is the dimension of the tracked subspace. In conventional adaptive filtering problems, r equals 1, so that updates can be performed with complexity O(m). The updates are performed by tracking an orthonormal basis for the smaller of the signal or noise subspaces using a computationally efficient subspace tracking algorithm. The filter is shown to outperform both LMS and RLS in terms of tracking and steady state tap weight error norms. It is also more versatile in that it can adapt its weight in the absence of persistent excitation, i.e., when the input data correlation matrix is near rank deficient. Through simulation, the convergence and tracking properties of the filter are presented and compared with LMS and RLS.

  11. Speed up of XML parsers with PHP language implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, authors introduce PHP5's XML implementation and show how to read, parse, and write a short and uncomplicated XML file using Simple XML in a PHP environment. The possibilities for mutual work of PHP5 language and XML standard are described. The details of parsing process with Simple XML are also cleared. A practical project PHP-XML-MySQL presents the advantages of XML implementation in PHP modules. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of PHP software tools. The proposed project includes database, which can be extended with new data and new XML parsing functions.

  12. XML technology planning database : lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael R.; Neff, Jon M.

    2005-01-01

    A hierarchical Extensible Markup Language(XML) database called XCALIBR (XML Analysis LIBRary) has been developed by Millennium Program to assist in technology investment (ROI) analysis and technology Language Capability the New return on portfolio optimization. The database contains mission requirements and technology capabilities, which are related by use of an XML dictionary. The XML dictionary codifies a standardized taxonomy for space missions, systems, subsystems and technologies. In addition to being used for ROI analysis, the database is being examined for use in project planning, tracking and documentation. During the past year, the database has moved from development into alpha testing. This paper describes the lessons learned during construction and testing of the prototype database and the motivation for moving from an XML taxonomy to a standard XML-based ontology.

  13. Direct Waveform Inversion: a New Recursive Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the full-waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an Earth's model such that the synthetic waveforms computed using the model fit the observed ones. In practice, such a model is found in the context of the perturbation approach in an iterative fashion. Specifically, to find such a model, one starts from an initial global velocity model and perform model updating iteratively based on the Frechet derivative or single scattering by adjoint methods to minimize some cost function. However, this process often leads to local minima for the nonlinear cost function in the optimization and slow or no convergence when the starting model is far from the true model. To solve for the initial-model dependence and the convergence issue, we show a new direct waveform inversion (DWI) idea to directly invert the waveform data recursively by explicitly enforcing the causality principle. The DWI offers the advantage of assuming no global initial model and no iteration is needed for the model updating. Starting from the source-receiver region, the DWI builds the model outward recursively by fitting the earliest part of the reflection waveforms and the DWI process is always convergent. The DWI combines seismic imaging and velocity model building into one single process and this is in contrast to many industrial applications where seismic imaging/migration and velocity modeling building are done alternatively. The DWI idea is applicable to one-, two-, and three-dimensional spaces. We show numerical examples to support our idea using full waveform data including both free-surface and inter-bed multiples. Using reflection seismic data, we show that the DWI can invert for both velocity and density, separately.

  14. Recursive computer architecture for VLSI

    SciTech Connect

    Treleaven, P.C.; Hopkins, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    A general-purpose computer architecture based on the concept of recursion and suitable for VLSI computer systems built from replicated (lego-like) computing elements is presented. The recursive computer architecture is defined by presenting a program organisation, a machine organisation and an experimental machine implementation oriented to VLSI. The experimental implementation is being restricted to simple, identical microcomputers each containing a memory, a processor and a communications capability. This future generation of lego-like computer systems are termed fifth generation computers by the Japanese. 30 references.

  15. Recursive least-squares learning algorithms for neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S. ); Hwang, Jenq-Neng . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a pair of recursive least squares (RLS) algorithms for online training of multilayer perceptrons, which are a class of feedforward artificial neural networks. These algorithms incorporate second order information about the training error surface in order to achieve faster learning rates than are possible using first order gradient descent algorithms such as the generalized delta rule. A least squares formulation is derived from a linearization of the training error function. Individual training pattern errors are linearized about the network parameters that were in effect when the pattern was presented. This permits the recursive solution of the least squares approximation, either via conventional RLS recursions or by recursive QR decomposition-based techniques. The computational complexity of the update is in the order of (N{sup 2}), where N is the number of network parameters. This is due to the estimation of the N {times} N inverse Hessian matrix. Less computationally intensive approximations of the RLS algorithms can be easily derived by using only block diagonal elements of this matrix, thereby partitioning the learning into independent sets. A simulation example is presented in which a neural network is trained to approximate a two dimensional Gaussian bump. In this example, RLS training required an order of magnitude fewer iterations on average (527) than did training with the generalized delta rule (6331). 14 refs., 3 figs.

  16. How Learning Logic Programming Affects Recursion Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Bruria

    2004-01-01

    Recursion is a central concept in computer science, yet it is difficult for beginners to comprehend. Israeli high-school students learn recursion in the framework of a special modular program in computer science (Gal-Ezer & Harel, 1999). Some of them are introduced to the concept of recursion in two different paradigms: the procedural programming…

  17. A Novel Navigation Paradigm for XML Repositories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azagury, Alain; Factor, Michael E.; Maarek, Yoelle S.; Mandler, Benny

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data exchange over the Internet and describes the architecture and implementation of an XML document repository that promotes a navigation paradigm for XML documents based on content and context. Topics include information retrieval and semistructured documents; and file systems as information storage infrastructure, particularly XMLFS.…

  18. Get It Together: Integrating Data with XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of XML for data integration to move data across different platforms, including across the Internet, from a variety of sources. Topics include flexibility; standards; organizing databases; unstructured data and the use of meta tags to encode it with XML information; cost effectiveness; and eliminating client software licenses.…

  19. Compressing Aviation Data in XML Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Hemil; Lau, Derek; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    Design, operations and maintenance activities in aviation involve analysis of variety of aviation data. This data is typically in disparate formats making it difficult to use with different software packages. Use of a self-describing and extensible standard called XML provides a solution to this interoperability problem. XML provides a standardized language for describing the contents of an information stream, performing the same kind of definitional role for Web content as a database schema performs for relational databases. XML data can be easily customized for display using Extensible Style Sheets (XSL). While self-describing nature of XML makes it easy to reuse, it also increases the size of data significantly. Therefore, transfemng a dataset in XML form can decrease throughput and increase data transfer time significantly. It also increases storage requirements significantly. A natural solution to the problem is to compress the data using suitable algorithm and transfer it in the compressed form. We found that XML-specific compressors such as Xmill and XMLPPM generally outperform traditional compressors. However, optimal use of Xmill requires of discovery of optimal options to use while running Xmill. This, in turn, depends on the nature of data used. Manual disc0ver.y of optimal setting can require an engineer to experiment for weeks. We have devised an XML compression advisory tool that can analyze sample data files and recommend what compression tool would work the best for this data and what are the optimal settings to be used with a XML compression tool.

  20. An XML portable chart format.

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, H. C.; Raila, W. F.; Berkowicz, D. A.; Barnett, G. O.

    1998-01-01

    The clinical chart remains the fundamental record of outpatient clinical care. As this information migrates to electronic form, there is an opportunity to create standard formats for transmitting these charts. This paper describes work toward a Portable Chart Format (PCF) that can represent the relevant aspects of an outpatient chart. The main goal of the format is to provide a packaging medium for outpatient clinical charts in a transfer of care scenario. A secondary goal is to support the aggregation of comparable clinical data for outcomes analysis. The syntax used for PCF is Extended Markup Language (XML), a W3C standard. The structure of the PCF is based on a clinically relevant view of the data. The data definitions and nomenclature used are based primarily on existing clinical standards. PMID:9929315

  1. Core Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James

    2011-01-01

    The Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation (RHSEG) software has been repackaged to provide a version of the RHSEG software that is not subject to patent restrictions and that can be released to the general public through NASA GSFC's Open Source release process. Like the Core HSEG Software Package, this Core RHSEG Software Package also includes a visualization program called HSEGViewer along with a utility program HSEGReader. It also includes an additional utility program called HSEGExtract. The unique feature of the Core RHSEG package is that it is a repackaging of the RHSEG technology designed to specifically avoid the inclusion of the certain software technology. Unlike the Core HSEG package, it includes the recursive portions of the technology, but does not include processing window artifact elimination technology.

  2. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  3. XML, TEI, and Digital Libraries in the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellhaus, Tobin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the history and major features of XML and TEI, discusses their potential utility for the creation of digital libraries, and focuses on XML's application in the humanities, particularly theater and drama studies. Highlights include HTML and hyperlinks; the impact of XML on text encoding and document access; and XML and academic…

  4. An Introduction to the Extensible Markup Language (XML).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Describes Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that is designed to make it easy to interchange structured documents over the Internet. Topics include Document Type Definition (DTD), components of XML, the use of XML, text and non-text elements, and uses for XML-coded files. (LRW)

  5. DTDs go XML schema--a tools perspective.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, R; Hoelzer, S; Heitmann, K U; Dudeck, J

    2001-01-01

    Document Type Definitions (DTDs) are widely used to describe the structure of XML documents. The Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and the Guideline Element Model (GEM) are examples from the healthcare domain. XML schemas provide another way to describe types of XML documents. In this paper we aim to advocate XML schemas from the perspective of an ANSI standard, the XML based CDA from HL7 (ANSI/HL7 CDA R1.0-2000). It turned out that existing tools do not fully exploit the knowledge contained in DTDs and XML schemas. The result of this study is a set of tools (DTD to XML Schema translator, DTD and XML schema browser, XML editor), which can be downloaded from the official W3C site and which work with any DTD and XML schema. PMID:11783713

  6. XML Format for SESAME and LEOS

    SciTech Connect

    Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

    2009-04-29

    The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

  7. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette

    2007-01-01

    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  8. XML data compression in web publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ruiheng; Hu, Wei; Tang, Zhi; Lu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lei

    2012-03-01

    XML is widely used in various document formats on the web. But it has caused negative impacts such as expensive document distribution time over the web, and long content jumping and rendering delay, especially on mobile devices. Hence we proposed a Schema-based efficient queryable XML compressor, called XTrim, which significantly improves compression ratio by utilizing optimized information in XML Schema while supporting efficient queries. Firstly, XTrim draws structure information from XML document and corresponding XML Schema. Then a novel technique is used to transform the XML tree-like structure into a compact indexed form to support efficient queries. At the same time, text values are obtained, and a language-based text trim method (LTT) that facilitates language-specific text compressors is adopted to reduce the size of text values in various languages. In LTT a word composition detection method is proposed to better process text in non-Latin languages. To evaluate the performance of XTrim, we have implemented a compressor and query engine prototype. Via extensive experiments, results show that XTrim outperforms XMill and existing queryable alternatives in terms of compression ratio, as well as the query efficiency. By applying XTrim to documents, the storage space can save up to 30% and the content jumping and rendering delay is reduced to less than 100ms from 4 seconds.

  9. XML Reconstruction View Selection in XML Databases: Complexity Analysis and Approximation Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebotko, Artem; Fu, Bin

    Query evaluation in an XML database requires reconstructing XML subtrees rooted at nodes found by an XML query. Since XML subtree reconstruction can be expensive, one approach to improve query response time is to use reconstruction views - materialized XML subtrees of an XML document, whose nodes are frequently accessed by XML queries. For this approach to be efficient, the principal requirement is a framework for view selection. In this work, we are the first to formalize and study the problem of XML reconstruction view selection. The input is a tree T, in which every node i has a size c i and profit p i , and the size limitation C. The target is to find a subset of subtrees rooted at nodes i 1, ⋯ , i k respectively such that c_{i_1}+\\cdots +c_{i_k}le C, and p_{i_1}+\\cdots +p_{i_k} is maximal. Furthermore, there is no overlap between any two subtrees selected in the solution. We prove that this problem is NP-hard and present a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme (FPTAS) as a solution.

  10. Using Spreadsheets to Help Students Think Recursively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Spreadsheets lend themselves naturally to recursive computations, since a formula can be defined as a function of one of more preceding cells. A hypothesized closed form for the "n"th term of a recursive sequence can be tested easily by using a spreadsheet to compute a large number of the terms. Similarly, a conjecture about the limit of a series…

  11. Conjugate gradient algorithms using multiple recursions

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1996-12-31

    Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short recursions for the direction vectors. The work done in 1984 by Faber and Manteuffel gave necessary and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented with a single recursion of a certain form. However, this form does not take into account all possible recursions. This became evident when Jagels and Reichel used an algorithm of Gragg for unitary matrices to demonstrate that the class of matrices for which a practical conjugate gradient algorithm exists can be extended to include unitary and shifted unitary matrices. The implementation uses short double recursions for the direction vectors. This motivates the study of multiple recursion algorithms.

  12. Recursive estimation techniques for detection of small objects in infrared image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, J. R.; Soni, T.; Ku, W. H.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes a recursive detection scheme for point targets in infrared (IR) images. Estimation of the background noise is done using a weighted autocorrelation matrix update method and the detection statistic is calculated using a recursive technique. A weighting factor allows the algorithm to have finite memory and deal with nonstationary noise characteristics. The detection statistic is created by using a matched filter for colored noise, using the estimated noise autocorrelation matrix. The relationship between the weighting factor, the nonstationarity of the noise and the probability of detection is described. Some results on one- and two-dimensional infrared images are presented.

  13. XML Based Scientific Data Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, P.; Zubair, M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The World Wide Web consortium has developed an Extensible Markup Language (XML) to support the building of better information management infrastructures. The scientific computing community realizing the benefits of XML has designed markup languages for scientific data. In this paper, we propose a XML based scientific data management ,facility, XDMF. The project is motivated by the fact that even though a lot of scientific data is being generated, it is not being shared because of lack of standards and infrastructure support for discovering and transforming the data. The proposed data management facility can be used to discover the scientific data itself, the transformation functions, and also for applying the required transformations. We have built a prototype system of the proposed data management facility that can work on different platforms. We have implemented the system using Java, and Apache XSLT engine Xalan. To support remote data and transformation functions, we had to extend the XSLT specification and the Xalan package.

  14. Modeling geological objects with the XML Schema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Babaei, Abbed

    2005-11-01

    Interchange, storage, and management of geological data require the development of knowledge-based, standardized vocabularies and data structures. Concepts modeled and designed with the Unified Markup Language (UML), can be mapped into XML Schema Definition Language (XSDL) to compose modular markup languages for each discipline. Developing such efficient, intra-disciplinary, modular and reusable components, based on the XSDL namespace facility and the principles of object-oriented design, reduces redundancy, increases efficiency, scalability, and extensibility, and simplifies the maintenance and future extension of the code. This paper discusses the best practices of composition and reuse of modular intra-disciplinary components by applying XML Schema namespace syntax. In addition to several small examples given for a variety of geological cases, the paper constructs a UML conceptual model and markup language, applying an XML-type library, for a component of the plate tectonics knowledge base (TectonicsML) that deals with the divergent plate boundary.

  15. Recursive sequences in first-year calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article provides ready-to-use supplementary material on recursive sequences for a second-semester calculus class. It equips first-year calculus students with a basic methodical procedure based on which they can conduct a rigorous convergence or divergence analysis of many simple recursive sequences on their own without the need to invoke inductive arguments as is typically required in calculus textbooks. The sequences that are accessible to this kind of analysis are predominantly (eventually) monotonic, but also certain recursive sequences that alternate around their limit point as they converge can be considered.

  16. XML: How It Will Be Applied to Digital Library Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Hee; Choi, Chang-Seok

    2000-01-01

    Shows how XML is applied to digital library systems. Compares major features of XML with those of HTML and describes an experimental XML-based metadata retrieval system, which is based on the Dublin Core and is designed as a subsystem of the Korean Virtual Library and Information System (VINIS). (Author/LRW)

  17. A Survey in Indexing and Searching XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Robert W. P.; Leong, H. V.; Dillon, Tharam S.; Chan, Alvin T. S.; Croft, W. Bruce; Allan, James

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on indexing techniques for XML documents, grouping them into flat-file, semistructured, and structured indexing paradigms. Highlights include searching techniques, including full text search and multistage search; search result presentations; database and information retrieval system integration; XML query languages; and…

  18. XML and E-Journals: The State of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wusteman, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the introduction of the use of XML (Extensible Markup Language) in publishing electronic journals. Topics include standards, including DTDs (Document Type Definition), or document type definitions; aggregator requirements; SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language); benefits of XML for e-journals; XML metadata; the possibility of…

  19. Shuttle-Data-Tape XML Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    JSDTImport is a computer program for translating native Shuttle Data Tape (SDT) files from American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format into databases in other formats. JSDTImport solves the problem of organizing the SDT content, affording flexibility to enable users to choose how to store the information in a database to better support client and server applications. JSDTImport can be dynamically configured by use of a simple Extensible Markup Language (XML) file. JSDTImport uses this XML file to define how each record and field will be parsed, its layout and definition, and how the resulting database will be structured. JSDTImport also includes a client application programming interface (API) layer that provides abstraction for the data-querying process. The API enables a user to specify the search criteria to apply in gathering all the data relevant to a query. The API can be used to organize the SDT content and translate into a native XML database. The XML format is structured into efficient sections, enabling excellent query performance by use of the XPath query language. Optionally, the content can be translated into a Structured Query Language (SQL) database for fast, reliable SQL queries on standard database server computers.

  20. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Lubell, Joshua; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Morris, Katherine; Harvey, Betty

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  1. MedlinePlus XML Data Sources

    MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus XML Data Sources MedlinePlus Web Service The MedlinePlus Web service accepts keyword searches as requests and returns relevant health topics ... about the health topic, as well as associated data, such as all of the links that appear ...

  2. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  3. Flight Dynamic Model Exchange using XML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee has worked for several years to develop a standard by which the information needed to develop physics-based models of aircraft can be specified. The purpose of this standard is to provide a well-defined set of information, definitions, data tables and axis systems so that cooperating organizations can transfer a model from one simulation facility to another with maximum efficiency. This paper proposes using an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to implement the AIAA simulation standard. The motivation and justification for using a standard such as XML is discussed. Necessary data elements to be supported are outlined. An example of an aerodynamic model as an XML file is given. This example includes definition of independent and dependent variables for function tables, definition of key variables used to define the model, and axis systems used. The final steps necessary for implementation of the standard are presented. Software to take an XML-defined model and import/export it to/from a given simulation facility is discussed, but not demonstrated. That would be the next step in final implementation of standards for physics-based aircraft dynamic models.

  4. XML-based resources for simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R. L.; Riese, J. M.; Young, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    As simulations and the machines they run on become larger and more complex the inputs and outputs become more unwieldy. Increased complexity makes the setup of simulation problems difficult. It also contributes to the burden of handling and analyzing large amounts of output results. Another problem is that among a class of simulation codes (such as those for physical system simulation) there is often no single standard format or resource for input data. To run the same problem on different simulations requires a different setup for each simulation code. The extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to represent a general set of data resources including physical system problems, materials, and test results. These resources provide a 'plug and play' approach to simulation setup. For example, a particular material for a physical system can be selected from a material database. The XML-based representation of the selected material is then converted to the native format of the simulation being run and plugged into the simulation input file. In this manner a user can quickly and more easily put together a simulation setup. In the case of output data, an XML approach to regression testing includes tests and test results with XML-based representations. This facilitates the ability to query for specific tests and make comparisons between results. Also, output results can easily be converted to other formats for publishing online or on paper.

  5. Converting from XML to HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program recreates an HDF-EOS file from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) representation of the contents of that file. This program is one of two programs written to enable testing of the schemas described in the immediately preceding article to determine whether the schemas capture all details of HDF-EOS files.

  6. Application of XML to Journal Table Archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Blackwell, J. H.; Gass, J. E.; Kargatis, V. E.; Schneider, G. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Borne, K. D.; White, R. A.; Cheung, C. Y.

    1998-12-01

    The Astronomical Data Center (ADC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a major archive for machine-readable astronomical data tables. Many ADC tables are derived from published journal articles. Article tables are reformatted to be machine-readable and documentation is crafted to facilitate proper reuse by researchers. The recent switch of journals to web based electronic format has resulted in the generation of large amounts of tabular data that could be captured into machine-readable archive format at fairly low cost. The large data flow of the tables from all major North American astronomical journals (a factor of 100 greater than the present rate at the ADC) necessitates the development of rigorous standards for the exchange of data between researchers, publishers, and the archives. We have selected a suitable markup language that can fully describe the large variety of astronomical information contained in ADC tables. The eXtensible Markup Language XML is a powerful internet-ready documentation format for data. It provides a precise and clear data description language that is both machine- and human-readable. It is rapidly becoming the standard format for business and information transactions on the internet and it is an ideal common metadata exchange format. By labelling, or "marking up", all elements of the information content, documents are created that computers can easily parse. An XML archive can easily and automatically be maintained, ingested into standard databases or custom software, and even totally restructured whenever necessary. Structuring astronomical data into XML format will enable efficient and focused search capabilities via off-the-shelf software. The ADC is investigating XML's expanded hyperlinking power to enhance connectivity within the ADC data/metadata and developing XSL display scripts to enhance display of astronomical data. The ADC XML Definition Type Document can be viewed at http://messier.gsfc.nasa.gov/dtdhtml/DTD-TREE.html

  7. Time-varying modal parameters identification of a spacecraft with rotating flexible appendage by recursive algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhiyu; Mu, Ruinan; Xun, Guangbin; Wu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The rotation of spacecraft flexible appendage may cause changes in modal parameters. For this time-varying system, the computation cost of the frequently-used singular value decomposition (SVD) identification method is high. Some control problems, such as the self-adaptive control, need the latest modal parameters to update the controller parameters in time. In this paper, the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) recursive algorithm is applied as an alternative method to identify the time-varying modal parameters. This method avoids the SVD by signal subspace projection and improves the computational efficiency. To verify the ability of this recursive algorithm in spacecraft modal parameters identification, a spacecraft model with rapid rotational appendage, Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) satellite, is established, and the time-varying modal parameters of the satellite are identified recursively by designing the input and output signals. The results illustrate that this recursive algorithm can obtain the modal parameters in the high signal noise ratio (SNR) and it has better computational efficiency than the SVD method. Moreover, to improve the identification precision of this recursive algorithm in the low SNR, the wavelet de-noising technology is used to decrease the effect of noises.

  8. Is recursion language-specific? Evidence of recursive mechanisms in the structure of intentional action.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Giuseppe; Adenzato, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In their 2002 seminal paper Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch hypothesize that recursion is the only human-specific and language-specific mechanism of the faculty of language. While debate focused primarily on the meaning of recursion in the hypothesis and on the human-specific and syntax-specific character of recursion, the present work focuses on the claim that recursion is language-specific. We argue that there are recursive structures in the domain of motor intentionality by way of extending John R. Searle's analysis of intentional action. We then discuss evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience supporting the claim that motor-intentional recursion is language-independent and suggest some explanatory hypotheses: (1) linguistic recursion is embodied in sensory-motor processing; (2) linguistic and motor-intentional recursions are distinct and mutually independent mechanisms. Finally, we propose some reflections about the epistemic status of HCF as presenting an empirically falsifiable hypothesis, and on the possibility of testing recursion in different cognitive domains. PMID:24762973

  9. Method for implementation of recursive hierarchical segmentation on parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method, computer readable storage, and apparatus for implementing a recursive hierarchical segmentation algorithm on a parallel computing platform. The method includes setting a bottom level of recursion that defines where a recursive division of an image into sections stops dividing, and setting an intermediate level of recursion where the recursive division changes from a parallel implementation into a serial implementation. The segmentation algorithm is implemented according to the set levels. The method can also include setting a convergence check level of recursion with which the first level of recursion communicates with when performing a convergence check.

  10. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  11. Using Heaps in Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    A modification to increase processing speed has been made in the algorithm and implementing software reported in Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data (GSC-14681-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 51. That software performs recursive hierarchical segmentation of data having spatial characteristics (e.g., spectral-image data). The segmentation process includes an iterative subprocess, in each iteration of which it is necessary to determine a best pair of regions to merge [merges being justified by one or more measure(s) similarity of pixels in the regions]. In the previously reported version of the algorithm and software, the choice of a best pair of regions to merge involved the use of a fully sorted list of regions. That version was computationally inefficient because a fully sorted list is not needed: what is needed is only the identity of the pair of regions characterized by the smallest measure of dissimilarity. The present modification replaces the use of a fully sorted list with the use of data heaps, which are computationally more efficient for performing the required comparisons among dissimilarity measures. The modification includes the incorporation of standard and modified functions for creating and updating data heaps

  12. A new Bayesian recursive technique for parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaheil, Yasir H.; Gill, M. Kashif; McKee, Mac; Bastidas, Luis

    2006-08-01

    The performance of any model depends on how well its associated parameters are estimated. In the current application, a localized Bayesian recursive estimation (LOBARE) approach is devised for parameter estimation. The LOBARE methodology is an extension of the Bayesian recursive estimation (BARE) method. It is applied in this paper on two different types of models: an artificial intelligence (AI) model in the form of a support vector machine (SVM) application for forecasting soil moisture and a conceptual rainfall-runoff (CRR) model represented by the Sacramento soil moisture accounting (SAC-SMA) model. Support vector machines, based on statistical learning theory (SLT), represent the modeling task as a quadratic optimization problem and have already been used in various applications in hydrology. They require estimation of three parameters. SAC-SMA is a very well known model that estimates runoff. It has a 13-dimensional parameter space. In the LOBARE approach presented here, Bayesian inference is used in an iterative fashion to estimate the parameter space that will most likely enclose a best parameter set. This is done by narrowing the sampling space through updating the "parent" bounds based on their fitness. These bounds are actually the parameter sets that were selected by BARE runs on subspaces of the initial parameter space. The new approach results in faster convergence toward the optimal parameter set using minimum training/calibration data and fewer sets of parameter values. The efficacy of the localized methodology is also compared with the previously used BARE algorithm.

  13. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    This document describes a simple XML-based protocol that can be used for producers of events to communicate with consumers of events. The protocol described here is not meant to be the most efficient protocol, the most logical protocol, or the best protocol in any way. This protocol was defined quickly and it's intent is to give us a reasonable protocol that we can implement relatively easily and then use to gain experience in distributed event services. This experience will help us evaluate proposals for event representations, XML-based encoding of information, and communication protocols. The next section of this document describes how we represent events in this protocol and then defines the two events that we choose to use for our initial experiments. These definitions are made by example so that they are informal and easy to understand. The following section then proceeds to define the producer-consumer protocol we have agreed upon for our initial experiments.

  14. An exponentiation method for XML element retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wichaiwong, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    XML document is now widely used for modelling and storing structured documents. The structure is very rich and carries important information about contents and their relationships, for example, e-Commerce. XML data-centric collections require query terms allowing users to specify constraints on the document structure; mapping structure queries and assigning the weight are significant for the set of possibly relevant documents with respect to structural conditions. In this paper, we present an extension to the MEXIR search system that supports the combination of structural and content queries in the form of content-and-structure queries, which we call the Exponentiation function. It has been shown the structural information improve the effectiveness of the search system up to 52.60% over the baseline BM25 at MAP. PMID:24696643

  15. An Exponentiation Method for XML Element Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    XML document is now widely used for modelling and storing structured documents. The structure is very rich and carries important information about contents and their relationships, for example, e-Commerce. XML data-centric collections require query terms allowing users to specify constraints on the document structure; mapping structure queries and assigning the weight are significant for the set of possibly relevant documents with respect to structural conditions. In this paper, we present an extension to the MEXIR search system that supports the combination of structural and content queries in the form of content-and-structure queries, which we call the Exponentiation function. It has been shown the structural information improve the effectiveness of the search system up to 52.60% over the baseline BM25 at MAP. PMID:24696643

  16. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  17. XML Based Scientific Data Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Zubair, M.; Ziebartt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The World Wide Web consortium has developed an Extensible Markup Language (XML) to support the building of better information management infrastructures. The scientific computing community realizing the benefits of HTML has designed markup languages for scientific data. In this paper, we propose a XML based scientific data management facility, XDMF. The project is motivated by the fact that even though a lot of scientific data is being generated, it is not being shared because of lack of standards and infrastructure support for discovering and transforming the data. The proposed data management facility can be used to discover the scientific data itself, the transformation functions, and also for applying the required transformations. We have built a prototype system of the proposed data management facility that can work on different platforms. We have implemented the system using Java, and Apache XSLT engine Xalan. To support remote data and transformation functions, we had to extend the XSLT specification and the Xalan package.

  18. Fast Reachability Test on DAGs for XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yusaku; Maita, Tetsuya; Sakamoto, Hiroshi

    We propose an efficient algorithm for deciding the reachability between any nodes on XML data represented by connected directed graphs. We develop a technique to reduce the size of the reference table for the reachability test. Using the small table and the standard range labeling method for rooted ordered trees, we show that our algorithm answers almost queries in a constant time preserving the space efficiency and a reasonable preprocessing time.

  19. The potential of XML encoding in geomatics converting raster images to XML and SVG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Byron; Tsoulos, Lysandros

    2006-03-01

    The evolution of open standards and especially those pertaining to the family of XML technologies, have a considerable impact on the way the Geomatics community addresses the acquisition, storage, analysis and display of spatial data. The most recent version of the GML specification enables the merging of vector and raster data into a single "open" format. The notion of "coverage" as described in GML 3.0 can be the equivalent of a raster multi-band dataset. In addition, vector data storage is also described in detail through the GML Schemas and XML itself can store the values of a raster dataset, as values of a multi-table dataset. Under these circumstances an issue that must be addressed is the transformation of raster data into XML format and their subsequent visualization through SVG. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the steps that can be followed in order to embody open standards and XML technologies in the raster domain. The last part of the work refers to a case study that suggests a step by step methodology to accomplish classification, an important function in Cartography and Remote Sensing, using the XML-encoded images.

  20. δ-dependency for privacy-preserving XML data publishing.

    PubMed

    Landberg, Anders H; Nguyen, Kinh; Pardede, Eric; Rahayu, J Wenny

    2014-08-01

    An ever increasing amount of medical data such as electronic health records, is being collected, stored, shared and managed in large online health information systems and electronic medical record systems (EMR) (Williams et al., 2001; Virtanen, 2009; Huang and Liou, 2007) [1-3]. From such rich collections, data is often published in the form of census and statistical data sets for the purpose of knowledge sharing and enabling medical research. This brings with it an increasing need for protecting individual people privacy, and it becomes an issue of great importance especially when information about patients is exposed to the public. While the concept of data privacy has been comprehensively studied for relational data, models and algorithms addressing the distinct differences and complex structure of XML data are yet to be explored. Currently, the common compromise method is to convert private XML data into relational data for publication. This ad hoc approach results in significant loss of useful semantic information previously carried in the private XML data. Health data often has very complex structure, which is best expressed in XML. In fact, XML is the standard format for exchanging (e.g. HL7 version 3(1)) and publishing health information. Lack of means to deal directly with data in XML format is inevitably a serious drawback. In this paper we propose a novel privacy protection model for XML, and an algorithm for implementing this model. We provide general rules, both for transforming a private XML schema into a published XML schema, and for mapping private XML data to the new privacy-protected published XML data. In addition, we propose a new privacy property, δ-dependency, which can be applied to both relational and XML data, and that takes into consideration the hierarchical nature of sensitive data (as opposed to "quasi-identifiers"). Lastly, we provide an implementation of our model, algorithm and privacy property, and perform an experimental analysis

  1. Parallel scheduling of recursively defined arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. J.; Gokhale, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method of automatic generation of concurrent programs which constructs arrays defined by sets of recursive equations is described. It is assumed that the time of computation of an array element is a linear combination of its indices, and integer programming is used to seek a succession of hyperplanes along which array elements can be computed concurrently. The method can be used to schedule equations involving variable length dependency vectors and mutually recursive arrays. Portions of the work reported here have been implemented in the PS automatic program generation system.

  2. Recursive Implementations of the Consider Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; DSouza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    One method to account for parameters errors in the Kalman filter is to consider their effect in the so-called Schmidt-Kalman filter. This work addresses issues that arise when implementing a consider Kalman filter as a real-time, recursive algorithm. A favorite implementation of the Kalman filter as an onboard navigation subsystem is the UDU formulation. A new way to implement a UDU consider filter is proposed. The non-optimality of the recursive consider filter is also analyzed, and a modified algorithm is proposed to overcome this limitation.

  3. Software Development Of XML Parser Based On Algebraic Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, is presented one software development and implementation of an algebraic method for XML data processing, which accelerates XML parsing process. Therefore, the proposed in this article nontraditional approach for fast XML navigation with algebraic tools contributes to advanced efforts in the making of an easier user-friendly API for XML transformations. Here the proposed software for XML documents processing (parser) is easy to use and can manage files with strictly defined data structure. The purpose of the presented algorithm is to offer a new approach for search and restructuring hierarchical XML data. This approach permits fast XML documents processing, using algebraic model developed in details in previous works of the same authors. So proposed parsing mechanism is easy accessible to the web consumer who is able to control XML file processing, to search different elements (tags) in it, to delete and to add a new XML content as well. The presented various tests show higher rapidity and low consumption of resources in comparison with some existing commercial parsers.

  4. A Recursive Method for Calculating Certain Partition Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrum, Luther; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes a simple recursive method for calculating the partition function and average energy of a system consisting of N electrons and L energy levels. Also, presents an efficient APL computer program to utilize the recursion relation. (Author/GA)

  5. Information persistence using XML database technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Thomas A.; Lipa, Brian E. G.; Macera, Anthony R.; Staskevich, Gennady R.

    2005-05-01

    The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) Information Management (IM) services provide information exchange and persistence capabilities that support tailored, dynamic, and timely access to required information, enabling near real-time planning, control, and execution for DoD decision making. JBI IM services will be built on a substrate of network centric core enterprise services and when transitioned, will establish an interoperable information space that aggregates, integrates, fuses, and intelligently disseminates relevant information to support effective warfighter business processes. This virtual information space provides individual users with information tailored to their specific functional responsibilities and provides a highly tailored repository of, or access to, information that is designed to support a specific Community of Interest (COI), geographic area or mission. Critical to effective operation of JBI IM services is the implementation of repositories, where data, represented as information, is represented and persisted for quick and easy retrieval. This paper will address information representation, persistence and retrieval using existing database technologies to manage structured data in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format as well as unstructured data in an IM services-oriented environment. Three basic categories of database technologies will be compared and contrasted: Relational, XML-Enabled, and Native XML. These technologies have diverse properties such as maturity, performance, query language specifications, indexing, and retrieval methods. We will describe our application of these evolving technologies within the context of a JBI Reference Implementation (RI) by providing some hopefully insightful anecdotes and lessons learned along the way. This paper will also outline future directions, promising technologies and emerging COTS products that can offer more powerful information management representations, better persistence mechanisms and

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Processing Time for the Synchronization of XML-Based Business Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameling, Michael; Wolf, Bernhard; Springer, Thomas; Schill, Alexander

    Business objects (BOs) are data containers for complex data structures used in business applications such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management. Due to the replication of application logic, multiple copies of BOs are created which have to be synchronized and updated. This is a complex and time consuming task because BOs rigorously vary in their structure according to the distribution, number and size of elements. Since BOs are internally represented as XML documents, the parsing of XML is one major cost factor which has to be considered for minimizing the processing time during synchronization. The prediction of the parsing time for BOs is an significant property for the selection of an efficient synchronization mechanism. In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the influence of the structure of BOs on their parsing time. The results of our experimental evaluation incorporating four different XML parsers examine the dependencies between the distribution of elements and the parsing time. Finally, a general cost model will be validated and simplified according to the results of the experimental setup.

  7. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  8. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from pre-mRNA transcripts. However, some long D. melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, called a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing1,2. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis remain unclear. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of a “RS-exon” that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform due to competition with a reconstituted 5′ splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic exons or promoters that are prevalent in long introns, but which fail to reconstitute an efficient 5′ splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion may decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling inclusion of cryptic elements with RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  9. Boundary operators of BCFW recursion relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qingjun; Feng, Bo

    2016-04-01

    We show that boundary contributions of BCFW recursions can be interpreted as the form factors of some composite operators which we call `boundary operators'. The boundary operators can be extracted from the operator product expansion of deformed fields. We also present an algorithm to compute the boundary operators using path integral.

  10. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Christopher R; Emmett, Warren; Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-05-21

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from precursor messenger RNA transcripts. However, some long Drosophila melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, known as a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis have not been examined. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of an 'RS-exon' that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform owing to competition with a reconstituted 5' splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic promoters or exons that fail to reconstitute an efficient 5' splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion can decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling cryptic elements with inclusion of RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  11. TORTIS (Toddler's Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Radia

    TORTIS (Toddler's Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System) is a device which can be used to study or nurture the cognitive development of preschool children. The device consists of a "turtle" which the child can control by use of buttons on a control panel. The "turtle" can be made to move in prescribed directions, to take a given number of paces,…

  12. On the design of recursive digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoi, K.; Narasimha, M. J.; Peterson, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A change of variables is described which transforms the problem of designing a recursive digital filter to that of approximation by a ratio of polynomials on a finite interval. Some analytic techniques for the design of low-pass filters are presented, illustrating the use of the transformation. Also considered are methods for the design of phase equalizers.

  13. RECURSIVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF HYDROLOGIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed is a nonlinear filtering approach to recursive parameter estimation of conceptual watershed response models in state-space form. he conceptual model state is augmented by the vector of free parameters which are to be estimated from input-output data, and the extended Kal...

  14. A Survey on Teaching and Learning Recursive Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinderknecht, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We survey the literature about the teaching and learning of recursive programming. After a short history of the advent of recursion in programming languages and its adoption by programmers, we present curricular approaches to recursion, including a review of textbooks and some programming methodology, as well as the functional and imperative…

  15. Adaptive Hypermedia Educational System Based on XML Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Yeongtae; Wang, Changjong; Lee, Sehoon

    This paper proposes an adaptive hypermedia educational system using XML technologies, such as XML, XSL, XSLT, and XLink. Adaptive systems are capable of altering the presentation of the content of the hypermedia on the basis of a dynamic understanding of the individual user. The user profile can be collected in a user model, while the knowledge…

  16. Does Being Technical Matter? XML, Single Source, and Technical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Filipp

    2002-01-01

    Describes XML, a recent Web design language that will enable technical communicators to produce documentation that can reuse information and present it across multiple types of media for diverse audiences. Argues that XML requires more interdisciplinary approaches toward the teaching and research of technical communication, particularly with…

  17. An XML file format for exchanging singlet lens specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Shawn C.; Gangadhara, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Zemax has developed an XML schema for the distribution of singlet lens specifications based on the ISO 10110 standard. In OpticStudio 15, this kind of XML data can be exported from the ISO Element Drawing analysis. The data file is then used in a feature that automates exchange of lens data between designer and manufacturer, the Cost Estimator. This Cost Estimator feature submits the XML data to various manufacturers to obtain cost estimates for prototype lens production. The workflow centered on the XML data exchange facilitates rapid cost estimate retrieval and eliminates the need for redundant manual data entry. The XML Schema Definition (XSD) for the XML format can be used with Microsoft developer tools to automatically create .NET classes to serialize and deserialize the singlet lens data to/from XML files. The format provides flexible unit specification for most parameters. Choosing XML as the basis for the file format has provided several benefits, such as the above mentioned automated serialization capabilities in .NET, a human-readable text-based format, and ready support for consumption by web services.

  18. Data Manipulation in an XML-Based Digital Image Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To help to clarify the role of XML tools and standards in supporting transition and migration towards a fully XML-based environment for managing access to information. Design/methodology/approach: The Ching Digital Image Library, built on a three-tier architecture, is used as a source of examples to illustrate a number of methods of data…

  19. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the application of an XML (extensible mark-up language)-based protocol to the developing field of distributed processing by way of a computational grid which resembles an electric power grid. XML tags would be used to transmit events between the participants of a transaction, namely, the consumer and the producer of the grid scheme.

  20. Adding XML to the MIS Curriculum: Lessons from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William P.; Pant, Vik; Hilken, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a new technology that is currently being extolled by many industry experts and software vendors. Potentially it represents a platform independent language for sharing information over networks in a way that is much more seamless than with previous technologies. It is extensible in that XML serves as a "meta"…

  1. EquiX-A Search and Query Language for XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sara; Kanza, Yaron; Kogan, Yakov; Sagiv, Yehoshua; Nutt, Werner; Serebrenik, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Describes EquiX, a search language for XML that combines querying with searching to query the data and the meta-data content of Web pages. Topics include search engines; a data model for XML documents; search query syntax; search query semantics; an algorithm for evaluating a query on a document; and indexing EquiX queries. (LRW)

  2. A Typed Text Retrieval Query Language for XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colazzo, Dario; Sartiani, Carlo; Albano, Antonio; Manghi, Paolo; Ghelli, Giorgio; Lini, Luca; Paoli, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on a description of Tequyla-TX, a typed text retrieval query language for XML documents that can search on both content and structures. Highlights include motivations; numerous examples; word-based and char-based searches; tag-dependent full-text searches; text normalization; query algebra; data models and term language;…

  3. An Expressive and Efficient Language for XML Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinenyanga, Taurai Tapiwa; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML and information retrieval and describes a query language, ELIXIR (expressive and efficient language for XML information retrieval), with a textual similarity operator that can be used for similarity joins. Explains the algorithm for answering ELIXIR queries to generate intermediate relational data. (Author/LRW)

  4. An introduction to on-shell recursion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo; Luo, Mingxing

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to on-shell recursion relations for calculations of tree-level amplitudes. Starting with the basics, such as spinor notations and color decompositions, we expose analytic properties of gauge-boson amplitudes, BCFW-deformations, the large z-behavior of amplitudes, and on-shell recursion relations of gluons. We discuss further developments of on-shell recursion relations, including generalization to other quantum field theories, supersymmetric theories in particular, recursion relations for off-shell currents, recursion relation with nonzero boundary contributions, bonus relations, relations for rational parts of one-loop amplitudes, recursion relations in 3D and a proof of CSW rules. Finally, we present samples of applications, including solutions of split helicity amplitudes and of N = 4 SYM theories, consequences of consistent conditions under recursion relation, Kleiss-Kuijf (KK) and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) relations for color-ordered gluon tree amplitudes, Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations.

  5. Update on the Development and Validation of MERCURY: A Modern, Monte Carlo Particle Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R J; Taylor, J M; McKinley, M S; Greenman, G M; Cullen, D E; O'Brien, M J; Beck, B R; Hagmann, C A

    2005-06-06

    An update on the development and validation of the MERCURY Monte Carlo particle transport code is presented. MERCURY is a modern, parallel, general-purpose Monte Carlo code being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. During the past year, several major algorithm enhancements have been completed. These include the addition of particle trackers for 3-D combinatorial geometry (CG), 1-D radial meshes, 2-D quadrilateral unstructured meshes, as well as a feature known as templates for defining recursive, repeated structures in CG. New physics capabilities include an elastic-scattering neutron thermalization model, support for continuous energy cross sections and S ({alpha}, {beta}) molecular bound scattering. Each of these new physics features has been validated through code-to-code comparisons with another Monte Carlo transport code. Several important computer science features have been developed, including an extensible input-parameter parser based upon the XML data description language, and a dynamic load-balance methodology for efficient parallel calculations. This paper discusses the recent work in each of these areas, and describes a plan for future extensions that are required to meet the needs of our ever expanding user base.

  6. BCFW recursion relations and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; O'Connell, Donal; Wecht, Brian

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate that all tree-level string theory amplitudes can be computed using the BCFW recursion relations. Our proof utilizes the pomeron vertex operator introduced by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler, and Tan. Surprisingly, we find that in a particular large complex momentum limit, the asymptotic expansion of massless string amplitudes is identical in form to that of the corresponding field theory amplitudes. This observation makes manifest the fact that field-theoretic Yang-Mills and graviton amplitudes obey KLT-like relations. Moreover, we conjecture that in this large momentum limit certain string theory and field theory amplitudes are identical, and provide evidence for this conjecture. Additionally, we find a new recursion relation which relates tachyon amplitudes to lower-point tachyon amplitudes.

  7. Acoustic multiple scattering using recursive algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkulova, Feruza A.; Norris, Andrew N.

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic multiple scattering by a cluster of cylinders in an acoustic medium is considered. A fast recursive technique is described which takes advantage of the multilevel Block Toeplitz structure of the linear system. A parallelization technique is described that enables efficient application of the proposed recursive algorithm for solving multilevel Block Toeplitz systems on high performance computer clusters. Numerical comparisons of CPU time and total elapsed time taken to solve the linear system using the direct LAPACK and TOEPLITZ libraries on Intel FORTRAN, show the advantage of the TOEPLITZ solver. Computations are optimized by multi-threading which displays improved efficiency of the TOEPLITZ solver with the increase of the number of scatterers and frequency.

  8. Geomagnetic modeling by optimal recursive filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, B. P.; Estes, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of using Kalman filter techniques for geomagnetic field modeling are given. Specifically, five separate field models were computed using observatory annual means, satellite, survey and airborne data for the years 1950 to 1976. Each of the individual field models used approximately five years of data. These five models were combined using a recursive information filter (a Kalman filter written in terms of information matrices rather than covariance matrices.) The resulting estimate of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation was propogated four years past the data to the time of the MAGSAT data. The accuracy with which this field model matched the MAGSAT data was evaluated by comparisons with predictions from other pre-MAGSAT field models. The field estimate obtained by recursive estimation was found to be superior to all other models.

  9. Weighted Laplacians, cocycles and recursion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Hodge's formula represents the gravitational MHV amplitude as the determinant of a minor of a certain matrix. When expanded, this determinant becomes a sum over weighted trees, which is the form of the MHV formula first obtained by Bern, Dixon, Perelstein, Rozowsky and rediscovered by Nguyen, Spradlin, Volovich and Wen. The gravity MHV amplitude satisfies the Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten recursion relation. The main building block of the MHV amplitude, the so-called half-soft function, satisfies a different, Berends-Giele-type recursion relation. We show that all these facts are illustrations to a more general story. We consider a weighted Laplacian for a complete graph of n vertices. The matrix tree theorem states that its diagonal minor determinants are all equal and given by a sum over spanning trees. We show that, for any choice of a cocycle on the graph, the minor determinants satisfy a Berends-Giele as well as Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten type recursion relation. Our proofs are purely combinatorial.

  10. LCM: A new approach to parse XML documents through loose coupling between XML document design and the corresponding application code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandu, Vaddadi P.

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a widely used language for communication between heterogeneous, homogeneous, and internet software applications. Currently available binding and parsing techniques for XML documents involve tight coupling of the document with the application code and require a redesign of the application code for any change in the document design. This paper proposes a 'Loosely Coupled Model (LCM)' for XML document parsing, which eliminates the need to redesign the application code for moderately large changes in the XML document design. LCM takes a token based approach, which is very different from the existing methodologies for XML parsing. LCM is implemented in Java using Sun's JDK 1.5. The dataset includes 24 XML documents categorized into two sets- (a) deeply nested and (b) non-deeply nested XMLs. Each set contains 12 documents ranging from 2 KB up to 4 MB. A performance comparison for LCM is obtained and is noticed to be comparable or better against this dataset with (a) Sun's Java XML Binding (JAXB), (b) Apache's XMLBeans, and (c) JDOM parser.

  11. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  12. Using XML to Separate Content from the Presentation Software in eLearning Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Paul F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has shown how XML (extensible Markup Language) can be used to mark up content. Since XML documents, with meaningful tags, can be interpreted easily by humans as well as computers, they are ideal for the interchange of information. Because XML tags can be defined by an individual or organization, XML documents have proven useful in a…

  13. Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/xmldescription.html Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus To use the sharing features on ... Tags Definitions of every possible tag in the file, with examples and their use on MedlinePlus.

  14. The XML approach to implementing space link extension service management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, W.; Welz, G. A.; Theis, G.; Yamada, T.

    2001-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted at JPL, ESOC, and ISAS to assess the possible applications of the eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML) capabilities to the implementation of the CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) Service Management function.

  15. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  16. Recursiveness, switching, and fluctuations in a replicating catalytic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-09-01

    A protocell model consisting of mutually catalyzing molecules is studied, in order to investigate how chemical compositions are transferred recursively through cell divisions under replication errors. Depending on the numbers of molecules and species, and the path rate, three phases are found: fast switching state without recursive production, recursive production, and itinerancy between the above two states. The number distributions of the molecules in the recursive states are shown to be log-normal except for those species that form a core hypercycle, and are explained with the help of a heuristic argument.

  17. Recursive deconvolution of combinatorial chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Erb, E; Janda, K D; Brenner, S

    1994-11-22

    A recursive strategy that solves for the active members of a chemical library is presented. A pentapeptide library with an alphabet of Gly, Leu, Phe, and Tyr (1024 members) was constructed on a solid support by the method of split synthesis. One member of this library (NH2-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu) is a native binder to a beta-endorphin antibody. A variation of the split synthesis approach is used to build the combinatorial library. In four vials, a member of the library's alphabet is coupled to a solid support. After each coupling, a portion of the resin from each of the four reaction vials was set aside and catalogued. The solid support from each vial is then combined, mixed, and redivided. The steps of (i) coupling, (ii) saving and cataloging, and (iii) randomizing were repeated until a pentapeptide library was obtained. The four pentapeptide libraries where the N-terminal amino acid is defined were screened against the beta-endorphin antibody and quantitated via an ELISA. The amino acid of the four pools that demonstrated the most binding was then coupled to the four tetrapeptide partial libraries that had been set aside and catalogued during the split synthesis. This recursive deconvolution was repeated until the best binders were deduced. Besides the anticipated native binder, two other members of the library displayed significant binding. This recursive method of deconvolution does not use a molecular tag, requires only one split synthesis, and can be applied to the deconvolution of nonlinear small-molecule combinatorial libraries and linear oligomeric combinatorial libraries, since it is based only on the procedure of the synthesis. PMID:7972077

  18. Elimination and recursions in the scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Carlos; Kalousios, Chrysostomos

    2016-05-01

    We use the elimination theory to explicitly construct the (n - 3) ! order polynomial in one of the variables of the scattering equations. The answer can be given either in terms of a determinant of Sylvester type of dimension (n - 3) ! or a determinant of Bézout type of dimension (n - 4) !. We present a recursive formula for the Sylvester determinant. Expansion of the determinants yields expressions in terms of Plücker coordinates. Elimination of the rest of the variables of the scattering equations is also presented.

  19. Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm and a computer program that implements the algorithm that performs recursive hierarchical segmentation (RHSEG) of data have been developed. While the current implementation is for two-dimensional data having spatial characteristics (e.g., image, spectral, or spectral-image data), the generalized algorithm also applies to three-dimensional or higher dimensional data and also to data with no spatial characteristics. The algorithm and software are modified versions of a prior RHSEG algorithm and software, the outputs of which often contain processing-window artifacts including, for example, spurious segmentation-image regions along the boundaries of processing-window edges.

  20. Fast bilateral filtering using recursive moving sum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Masaki; Ikebe, Masayuki; Shimoyama, Sohsuke; Motohisa, Junichi

    We propose a constant-time algorithm for a bilateral filter. Bilateral filter can be converted into the operation of three-dimensional (3D) convolution. By using recursive moving sum, we can reduce the number of calculations needed to construct a pseudo-Gaussian filter. Applying one-dimensional Gaussian filter to the 3D convolution, we achieved a constant-time bilateral filter. We used a 3-GHz CPU without SIMD instructions, or multi-thread operations. We confirmed our proposed bilateral filter to be processed in constant time. In practical conditions, high PSNR values over 40 dB are obtained.

  1. Path Query Processing in Large-Scale XML Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Su-Cheng; Radha Krishna Rao, G. S. V.

    With the ever-increasing popularity of XML (e-Xtensible Markup Language) as data representation and exchange on the Internet, querying XML data has become an important issue to be address. In Native XML Database (NXD), XML documents are usually modeled as trees and XML queries are typically specified in path expression. In path expression, the primitive structural relationships are Parent-Child (P-C) and Ancestor-Descendant (A-D). Thus, finding all occurrences of these relationships is crucial for XML query processing. Current methods for query processing on NXD usually employ either sequential traversing of tree-structured model or a decomposition-matching-merging processes. We adopt the later approach and propose a novel hybrid query optimization technique, INLAB comprising both indexing and labeling technologies. Furthermore, we also propose several algorithms to create INLAB encoding and analyze the path query. We implemented our technique and present performance results over several benchmarking datasets, which prove the viability of our approach.

  2. Structural Query Optimization in Native XML Databases: A Hybrid Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Su-Cheng; Lee, Chien-Sing

    As XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) is gaining its popularity in data exchange over the Web, querying XML data has become an important issue to be addressed. In native XML databases (NXD), XML documents are usually modeled as trees and XML queries are typically specified in path expression. The primitive structural relationships are Parent-Child (P-C), Ancestor-Descendant (A-D), sibling and ordered query. Thus, a suitable and compact labeling scheme is crucial to identify these relationships and henceforth to process the query efficiently. We propose a novel labeling scheme consisting of < self-level:parent> to support all these relationships efficiently. Besides, we adopt the decomposition-matching-merging approach for structural query processing and propose a hybrid query optimization technique, TwigINLAB to process and optimize the twig query evaluation. Experimental results indicate that TwigINLAB can process all types of XML queries 15% better than the TwigStack algorithm in terms of execution time in most test cases.

  3. Citing geospatial feature inventories with XML manifests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, R.; McGarva, G.

    2006-12-01

    Today published scientific papers include a growing number of citations for online information sources that either complement or replace printed journals and books. We anticipate this same trend for cartographic citations used in the geosciences, following advances in web mapping and geographic feature-based services. Instead of using traditional libraries to resolve citations for print material, the geospatial citation life cycle will include requesting inventories of objects or geographic features from distributed geospatial data repositories. Using a case study from the UK Ordnance Survey MasterMap database, which is illustrative of geographic object-based products in general, we propose citing inventories of geographic objects using XML feature manifests. These manifests: (1) serve as a portable listing of sets of versioned features; (2) could be used as citations within the identification portion of an international geospatial metadata standard; (3) could be incorporated into geospatial data transfer formats such as GML; but (4) can be resolved only with comprehensive, curated repositories of current and historic data. This work has implications for any researcher who foresees the need to make or resolve references to online geospatial databases.

  4. Recursive delay calculation unit for parametric beamformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav I.; Jensen, Jørgen A.; Tomov, Borislav

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a recursive approach for parametric delay calculations for a beamformer. The suggested calculation procedure is capable of calculating the delays for any image line defined by an origin and arbitrary direction. It involves only add and shift operations making it suitable for hardware implementation. One delaycalculation unit (DCU) needs 4 parameters, and all operations can be implemented using fixed-point arithmetics. An N-channel system needs N+ 1 DCUs per line - one for the distance from the transmit origin to the image point and N for the distances from the image point to each of the receivers. Each DCU recursively calculates the square of the distance between a transducer element and a point on the beamformed line. Then it finds the approximate square root. The distance to point i is used as an initial guess for point i + 1. Using fixed-point calculations with 36-bit precision gives an error in the delay calculations on the order of 1/64 samples, at a sampling frequency of f s = 40 MHz. The circuit has been synthesized for a Virtex II Pro device speed grade 6 in two versions - a pipelined and a non-pipelined producing 150 and 30 million delays per second, respectively. The non-pipelined circuit occupies about 0.5 % of the FPGA resources and the pipelined one about 1 %. When the square root is found with a pipelined CORDIC processor, 2 % of the FPGA slices are used to deliver 150 million delays per second.

  5. Improvement in Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    A further modification has been made in the algorithm and implementing software reported in Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data (GSC- 14681-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 51. That software performs recursive hierarchical segmentation of data having spatial characteristics (e.g., spectral-image data). The output of a prior version of the software contained artifacts, including spurious segmentation-image regions bounded by processing-window edges. The modification for suppressing the artifacts, mentioned in the cited article, was addition of a subroutine that analyzes data in the vicinities of seams to find pairs of regions that tend to lie adjacent to each other on opposite sides of the seams. Within each such pair, pixels in one region that are more similar to pixels in the other region are reassigned to the other region. The present modification provides for a parameter ranging from 0 to 1 for controlling the relative priority of merges between spatially adjacent and spatially non-adjacent regions. At 1, spatially-adjacent-/spatially- non-adjacent-region merges have equal priority. At 0, only spatially-adjacent-region merges (no spectral clustering) are allowed. Between 0 and 1, spatially-adjacent- region merges have priority over spatially- non-adjacent ones.

  6. A recursive algorithm for Zernike polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of a function defined on a rotationally symmetric system, with either a circular or annular pupil is discussed. In order to numerically analyze such systems it is typical to expand the given function in terms of a class of orthogonal polynomials. Because of their particular properties, the Zernike polynomials are especially suited for numerical calculations. Developed is a recursive algorithm that can be used to generate the Zernike polynomials up to a given order. The algorithm is recursively defined over J where R(J,N) is the Zernike polynomial of degree N obtained by orthogonalizing the sequence R(J), R(J+2), ..., R(J+2N) over (epsilon, 1). The terms in the preceding row - the (J-1) row - up to the N+1 term is needed for generating the (J,N)th term. Thus, the algorith generates an upper left-triangular table. This algorithm was placed in the computer with the necessary support program also included.

  7. Tetramethyleneethane Equivalents: Recursive Reagents for Serialized Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    New reactions and reagents that allow for multiple bond-forming events per synthetic operation are required to achieve structural complexity and thus value with step-, time-, cost-, and waste-economy. Here we report a new class of reagents that function like tetramethyleneethane (TME), allowing for back-to-back [4 + 2] cycloadditions, thereby amplifying the complexity-increasing benefits of Diels–Alder and metal-catalyzed cycloadditions. The parent recursive reagent, 2,3-dimethylene-4-trimethylsilylbutan-1-ol (DMTB), is readily available from the metathesis of ethylene and THP-protected 4-trimethylsilylbutyn-1-ol. DMTB and related reagents engage diverse dienophiles in an initial Diels–Alder or metal-catalyzed [4 + 2] cycloaddition, triggering a subsequent vinylogous Peterson elimination that recursively generates a new diene for a second cycloaddition. Overall, this multicomponent catalytic cascade produces in one operation carbo- and heterobicyclic building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of natural products, therapeutic leads, imaging agents, and materials. Its application to the three step synthesis of a new solvatochromic fluorophore, N-ethyl(6-N,N-dimethylaminoanthracene-2,3-dicarboximide) (6-DMA), and the photophysical characterization of this fluorophore are described. PMID:25961416

  8. Recursion Relations for Double Ramification Hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryak, Alexandr; Rossi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we study various properties of the double ramification hierarchy, an integrable hierarchy of hamiltonian PDEs introduced in Buryak (CommunMath Phys 336(3):1085-1107, 2015) using intersection theory of the double ramification cycle in the moduli space of stable curves. In particular, we prove a recursion formula that recovers the full hierarchy starting from just one of the Hamiltonians, the one associated to the first descendant of the unit of a cohomological field theory. Moreover, we introduce analogues of the topological recursion relations and the divisor equation both for the Hamiltonian densities and for the string solution of the double ramification hierarchy. This machinery is very efficient and we apply it to various computations for the trivial and Hodge cohomological field theories, and for the r -spin Witten's classes. Moreover, we prove the Miura equivalence between the double ramification hierarchy and the Dubrovin-Zhang hierarchy for the Gromov-Witten theory of the complex projective line (extended Toda hierarchy).

  9. Language, Mind, Practice: Families of Recursive Thinking in Human Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Marika

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, Chomsky, Hauser, and Fitch asserted that recursion may be the one aspect of the human language faculty that makes human language unique in the narrow sense--unique to language and unique to human beings. They also argue somewhat more quietly (as do Pinker and Jackendoff 2005) that recursion may be possible outside of language: navigation,…

  10. Realization Of Algebraic Processor For XML Documents Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, are presented some possibilities concerning the implementation of an algebraic method for XML hierarchical data processing which makes faster the XML search mechanism. Here is offered a different point of view for creation of advanced algebraic processor (with all necessary software tools and programming modules respectively). Therefore, this nontraditional approach for fast XML navigation with the presented algebraic processor may help to build an easier user-friendly interface provided XML transformations, which can avoid the difficulties in the complicated language constructions of XSL, XSLT and XPath. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of the following types of functions: specification functions and so named build-in functions. The choice of programming language Java may appear strange at first, but it isn't when you consider that the applications can run on different kinds of computers. The specific search mechanism based on the linear algebra theory is faster in comparison with MSXML parsers (on the basis of the developed examples with about 30%). Actually, there exists the possibility for creating new software tools based on the linear algebra theory, which cover the whole navigation and search techniques characterizing XSLT/XPath. The proposed method is able to replace more complicated operations in other SOA components.

  11. The SGML Standardization Framework and the Introduction of XML

    PubMed Central

    Grütter, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    Extensible Markup Language (XML) is on its way to becoming a global standard for the representation, exchange, and presentation of information on the World Wide Web (WWW). More than that, XML is creating a standardization framework, in terms of an open network of meta-standards and mediators that allows for the definition of further conventions and agreements in specific business domains. Such an approach is particularly needed in the healthcare domain; XML promises to especially suit the particularities of patient records and their lifelong storage, retrieval, and exchange. At a time when change rather than steadiness is becoming the faithful feature of our society, standardization frameworks which support a diversified growth of specifications that are appropriate to the actual needs of the users are becoming more and more important; and efforts should be made to encourage this new attempt at standardization to grow in a fruitful direction. Thus, the introduction of XML reflects a standardization process which is neither exclusively based on an acknowledged standardization authority, nor a pure market standard. Instead, a consortium of companies, academic institutions, and public bodies has agreed on a common recommendation based on an existing standardization framework. The consortium's process of agreeing to a standardization framework will doubtlessly be successful in the case of XML, and it is suggested that it should be considered as a generic model for standardization processes in the future. PMID:11720931

  12. Realization Of Algebraic Processor For XML Documents Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2010-10-25

    In this paper, are presented some possibilities concerning the implementation of an algebraic method for XML hierarchical data processing which makes faster the XML search mechanism. Here is offered a different point of view for creation of advanced algebraic processor (with all necessary software tools and programming modules respectively). Therefore, this nontraditional approach for fast XML navigation with the presented algebraic processor may help to build an easier user-friendly interface provided XML transformations, which can avoid the difficulties in the complicated language constructions of XSL, XSLT and XPath. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of the following types of functions: specification functions and so named build-in functions. The choice of programming language Java may appear strange at first, but it isn't when you consider that the applications can run on different kinds of computers. The specific search mechanism based on the linear algebra theory is faster in comparison with MSXML parsers (on the basis of the developed examples with about 30%). Actually, there exists the possibility for creating new software tools based on the linear algebra theory, which cover the whole navigation and search techniques characterizing XSLT/XPath. The proposed method is able to replace more complicated operations in other SOA components.

  13. The SGML standardization framework and the introduction of XML.

    PubMed

    Fierz, W; Grütter, R

    2000-01-01

    Extensible Markup Language (XML) is on its way to becoming a global standard for the representation, exchange, and presentation of information on the World Wide Web (WWW). More than that, XML is creating a standardization framework, in terms of an open network of meta-standards and mediators that allows for the definition of further conventions and agreements in specific business domains. Such an approach is particularly needed in the healthcare domain; XML promises to especially suit the particularities of patient records and their lifelong storage, retrieval, and exchange. At a time when change rather than steadiness is becoming the faithful feature of our society, standardization frameworks which support a diversified growth of specifications that are appropriate to the actual needs of the users are becoming more and more important; and efforts should be made to encourage this new attempt at standardization to grow in a fruitful direction. Thus, the introduction of XML reflects a standardization process which is neither exclusively based on an acknowledged standardization authority, nor a pure market standard. Instead, a consortium of companies, academic institutions, and public bodies has agreed on a common recommendation based on an existing standardization framework. The consortium's process of agreeing to a standardization framework will doubtlessly be successful in the case of XML, and it is suggested that it should be considered as a generic model for standardization processes in the future. PMID:11720931

  14. Recursive Partitioning Method on Competing Risk Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Che, Jiahua; Kong, Qin

    2016-01-01

    In some cancer clinical studies, researchers have interests to explore the risk factors associated with competing risk outcomes such as recurrence-free survival. We develop a novel recursive partitioning framework on competing risk data for both prognostic and predictive model constructions. We define specific splitting rules, pruning algorithm, and final tree selection algorithm for the competing risk tree models. This methodology is quite flexible that it can corporate both semiparametric method using Cox proportional hazards model and parametric competing risk model. Both prognostic and predictive tree models are developed to adjust for potential confounding factors. Extensive simulations show that our methods have well-controlled type I error and robust power performance. Finally, we apply both Cox proportional hazards model and flexible parametric model for prognostic tree development on a retrospective clinical study on oropharyngeal cancer patients. PMID:27486300

  15. Post's program and incomplete recursively enumerable sets.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, L; Soare, R I

    1991-01-01

    A set A of nonnegative integers is recursively enumerable (r.e.) if A can be computably listed. It is shown that there is a first-order property, Q(X), definable in E, the lattice of r.e. sets under inclusion, such that (i) if A is any r.e. set satisfying Q(A) then A is nonrecursive and Turing incomplete and (ii) there exists an r.e. set A satisfying Q(A). This resolves a long open question stemming from Post's program of 1944, and it sheds light on the fundamental problem of the relationship between the algebraic structure of an r.e. set A and the (Turing) degree of information that A encodes. PMID:11607241

  16. Overview of the INEX 2008 XML Mining Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoyer, Ludovic; Gallinari, Patrick

    We describe here the XML Mining Track at INEX 2008. This track was launched for exploring two main ideas: first identifying key problems for mining semi-structured documents and new challenges of this emerging field and second studying and assessing the potential of machine learning techniques for dealing with generic Machine Learning (ML) tasks in the structured domain i.e. classification and clustering of semi structured documents. This year, the track focuses on the supervised classification and the unsupervised clustering of XML documents using link information. We consider a corpus of about 100,000 Wikipedia pages with the associated hyperlinks. The participants have developed models using the content information, the internal structure information of the XML documents and also the link information between documents.

  17. The Real Performance Drivers behind XML Lock Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bächle, Sebastian; Härder, Theo

    Fine-grained lock protocols should allow for highly concurrent transaction processing on XML document trees, which is addressed by the taDOM lock protocol family enabling specific lock modes and lock granules adjusted to the various XML processing models. We have already proved its operational flexibility and performance superiority when compared to competitor protocols. Here, we outline our experiences gained during the implementation and optimization of these protocols. We figure out their performance drivers to maximize throughput while keeping the response times at an acceptable level and perfectly exploiting the advantages of our tailor-made lock protocols for XML trees. Because we have implemented all options and alternatives in our prototype system XTC, benchmark runs for all “drivers” allow for comparisons in identical environments and illustrate the benefit of all implementation decisions. Finally, they reveal that careful lock protocol optimization pays off.

  18. Research of home networking system based on XML/BACnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongming

    2008-11-01

    To standardize home networking information and simplify its management, this paper form a universal information module of various devices in home networking by adopting XML technology and BACnet protocol(XML/BACnet). Then, a software architecture of home networking based on this module is designed, having the function like auto management and maintenance, safety, real-time and remote controlling. Consequently, a home networking system based on this architecture is completed. Tested and evaluated, this system is one easy-using, easy-realizing, nice real-time system with strong heterogeneity and stable safety system.

  19. XML in an Adaptive Framework for Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework for instrument command and control, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC), that combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms.

  20. A standard XML Schema for computerised anaesthetic records.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M; Peachey, T

    2002-12-01

    We believe that one of the most influential developments for the practice of anaesthesia in this decade will be the introduction of a national (or possibly international) standard XML Schema for computerised anaesthetic records, and that such development should be actively promoted by appropriate professional groups. We discuss the implications of such a schema, and make suggestions regarding its requirements. We also report on one approach to the development of an XML Schema for anaesthetic records (provisionally named SnowSchema in honour of Dr John Snow), and compare the current version with the suggested requirements. PMID:12437708

  1. Ward identity implies recursion relations in Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang

    2012-07-01

    The Ward identity in gauge theory constrains the behavior of the amplitudes. We discuss the Ward identity for amplitudes with a pair of shifted lines with complex momenta. This will induce a recursion relation identical to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion relations at the finite poles of the complexified amplitudes. Furthermore, according to the Ward identity, it is also possible to transform the boundary term into a simple form, which can be obtained by a new recursion relation. For the amplitude with one off-shell line in pure Yang-Mills theory, we find this technique is effective for obtaining the amplitude even when there are boundary contributions.

  2. Statistical Error Analysis for Digital Recursive Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kevin Chi-Rung

    can see that floating-point arithmetic is less sensitive to maximum/minimum value of a matrix. Implementation of parallelism on complex-valued matrix can be justified in the sense of simpler hardware and higher speed. It will be illustrated that the more correlated inputs are present in the lattice filter, the SNR of the order-recursive filter will be degraded faster. Pipelining technique will be proved to be effective in speed upgradation, especially for the order-recursive lattice filter whose order is usually very high.

  3. Applying Analogical Reasoning Techniques for Teaching XML Document Querying Skills in Database Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Michel

    2012-01-01

    XML has become the most ubiquitous format for exchange of data between applications running on the Internet. Most Web Services provide their information to clients in the form of XML. The ability to process complex XML documents in order to extract relevant information is becoming as important a skill for IS students to master as querying…

  4. XML: A Language To Manage the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Tanous, Jennifer R.

    This digest provides an overview of XML (Extensible Markup Language), a markup language used to construct World Wide Web pages. Topics addressed include: (1) definition of a markup language, including comparison of XML with SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language); (2) how XML works, including sample tags,…

  5. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  6. A Conversion Tool for Mathematical Expressions in Web XML Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Nobuyuki; Kanahori, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the conversion of mathematical equations into Extensible Markup Language (XML) on the World Wide Web for individuals with visual impairments. A program is described that converts the presentation markup style to the content markup style in MathML to allow browsers to render mathematical expressions without other programs.…

  7. Castles Made of Sand: Building Sustainable Digitized Collections Using XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragon, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Describes work at the University of Virginia library to digitize special collections. Discusses the use of XML (Extensible Markup Language); providing access to original source materials; DTD (Document Type Definition); TEI (Text Encoding Initiative); metadata; XSL (Extensible Style Language); and future possibilities. (LRW)

  8. Improving the Virtual Learning Development Processes Using XML Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suss, Kurt; Oberhofer, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that distributed learning environments and content often lack a common basis for the exchange of learning materials, which can hinder or even delay innovation and delivery of learning technology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. Provides an XML-based approach…

  9. Using XML, XSLT, and CSS in a Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Timothy W.; Mischo, William H.; Ferrer, Robert; Habing, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the evolving information technologies employed at the Digital Library Initiative (DLI-I) Testbed of full-text journal articles at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Examines how XML, XSLT, and CSS can be used in a digital library application and discusses document representation and transmission, metadata schema, and…

  10. Personalization of XML Content Browsing Based on User Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encelle, Benoit; Baptiste-Jessel, Nadine; Sedes, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Personalization of user interfaces for browsing content is a key concept to ensure content accessibility. In this direction, we introduce concepts that result in the generation of personalized multimodal user interfaces for browsing XML content. User requirements concerning the browsing of a specific content type can be specified by means of…

  11. Chapter 57: Advanced XML Technologies: Schema, Xpath, XQuery, and XSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R. L.

    Much of what happens behind the scenes in the VO happens using XML A major reason for choosing to use XML is to take advantage of "off-the-shelf" standards and technologies that can help us manage our metadata. Most VO users will not need to know anything about various manipulations of XML going on underneath their applications. However, users who begin to delve into programming for the VO, be it scripting to gather data for a VO research project or developing a general application, will start to see some of these technologies at work under the hood. In four sections in this chapter, we'll look at four of the most useful XML technologies. With each one, we'll start by highlighting how you might find it useful. The intent is not to make you proficient in these tools. Rather, by getting a general sense how these technologies work you will at least have some ability to debug your application when things go wrong. In some cases, you may acquire enough familiarity to edit and use pre-existing samples. In this chapter, you will get a chance to make some of those edits and try out some tools you can find on the CD. We will use some tools from the adqllib package. If you tried out the exercises in Chapter 36, then you may have already built these tools. If not, you can do that now

  12. Recursive frame integration of limited data: RAFAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.; Soli, Robert A.

    2005-08-01

    Real time infrared imaging and tracking usually requires a high probability of target detection along with a low false alarm rate, achievable only with a high "Signal-to-Noise Ratio" (SNR). Frame integration--summing of non-correlated frames--is commonly used to improve the SNR. But conventional frame integration requires significant processing to store full frames and integrate intermediate results, normalize frame data, etc. It may drive acquisition of highly specialized hardware, faster processors, dedicated frame integration circuit cards and extra memory cards. Non-stationary noise, low frequency noise correlation, non-ergodic noise, scene dynamics, or pointing accuracy may also limit performance. Recursive frame integration of limited data--RAFAIL, is proposed as a means to improve frame integration performance and mitigate the issues. The technique applies two thresholds--one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate--and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with optimal noise management, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability.

  13. Recursive stochastic effects in valley hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vennin, Vincent; Brandenberger, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends because of a tachyonic instability, the duration of which is determined by stochastic effects and has important observational implications. Making use of the recursive approach to the stochastic formalism presented in [L. P. Levasseur, preceding article, Phys. Rev. D 88, 083537 (2013)], these effects are consistently computed. Through an analysis of backreaction, this method is shown to converge in the valley but points toward an (expected) instability in the waterfall. It is further shown that the quasistationarity of the auxiliary field distribution breaks down in the case of a short-lived waterfall. We find that the typical dispersion of the waterfall field at the critical point is then diminished, thus increasing the duration of the waterfall phase and jeopardizing the possibility of a short transition. Finally, we find that stochastic effects worsen the blue tilt of the curvature perturbations by an O(1) factor when compared with the usual slow-roll contribution.

  14. COMPARISON OF RECURSIVE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES FOR POSITION TRACKING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    K. MUSKE; J. HOWSE

    2000-09-01

    This paper compares the performance of recursive state estimation techniques for tracking the physical location of a radioactive source within a room based on radiation measurements obtained from a series of detectors at fixed locations. Specifically, the extended Kalman filter, algebraic observer, and nonlinear least squares techniques are investigated. The results of this study indicate that recursive least squares estimation significantly outperforms the other techniques due to the severe model nonlinearity.

  15. Recursive graphs with small-world scale-free properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comellas, Francesc; Fertin, Guillaume; Raspaud, André

    2004-03-01

    We discuss a category of graphs, recursive clique trees, which have small-world and scale-free properties and allow a fine tuning of the clustering and the power-law exponent of their discrete degree distribution. We determine relevant characteristics of those graphs: the diameter, degree distribution, and clustering parameter. The graphs have also an interesting recursive property, and generalize recent constructions with fixed degree distributions.

  16. Recursion operators, conservation laws, and integrability conditions for difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Wang, Jing Ping; Xenitidis, P.

    2011-04-01

    We attempt to propose an algebraic approach to the theory of integrable difference equations. We define the concept of a recursion operator for difference equations and show that it generates an infinite sequence of symmetries and canonical conservation laws for a difference equation. As in the case of partial differential equations, these canonical densities can serve as integrability conditions for difference equations. We obtain the recursion operators for the Viallet equation and all the Adler-Bobenko-Suris equations.

  17. Recursion Operators for CBC system with reductions. Geometric theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovski, A.; Vilasi, G.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss some recent developments of the geometric theory of the Recursion Operators (Generating Operators) for Caudrey-Beals-Coifman systems (CBC systems) on semisimple Lie algebras. As is well known the essence of this interpretation is that the Recursion Operators could be considered as adjoint to Nijenhuis tensors on certain infinite-dimensional manifolds. In particular, we discuss the case when there are Zp reductions of Mikhailov type.

  18. On-Shell Recursion Relations for Effective Field Theories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-29

    We derive the first ever on-shell recursion relations applicable to effective field theories. Based solely on factorization and the soft behavior of amplitudes, these recursion relations employ a new rescaling momentum shift to construct all tree-level scattering amplitudes in the nonlinear sigma model, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory, and the Galileon. Our results prove that all theories with enhanced soft behavior are on-shell constructible. PMID:26871321

  19. Progress on an implementation of MIFlowCyt in XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: The International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Data Standards Task Force (DSTF) has created a standard for the Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt 1.0). The CytometryML schemas, are based in part upon the Flow Cytometry Standard and Digital Imaging and Communication (DICOM) standards. CytometryML has and will be extended and adapted to include MIFlowCyt, as well as to serve as a common standard for flow and image cytometry (digital microscopy). Methods: The MIFlowCyt data-types were created, as is the rest of CytometryML, in the XML Schema Definition Language (XSD1.1). Individual major elements of the MIFlowCyt schema were translated into XML and filled with reasonable data. A small section of the code was formatted with HTML formatting elements. Results: The differences in the amount of detail to be recorded for 1) users of standard techniques including data analysts and 2) others, such as method and device creators, laboratory and other managers, engineers, and regulatory specialists required that separate data-types be created to describe the instrument configuration and components. A very substantial part of the MIFlowCyt element that describes the Experimental Overview part of the MIFlowCyt and substantial parts of several other major elements have been developed. Conclusions: The future use of structured XML tags and web technology should facilitate searching of experimental information, its presentation, and inclusion in structured research, clinical, and regulatory documents, as well as demonstrate in publications adherence to the MIFlowCyt standard. The use of CytometryML together with XML technology should also result in the textual and numeric data being published using web technology without any change in composition. Preliminary testing indicates that CytometryML XML pages can be directly formatted with the combination of HTML

  20. Recursive construction of perfect DNA molecules from imperfect oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Linshiz, Gregory; Yehezkel, Tuval Ben; Kaplan, Shai; Gronau, Ilan; Ravid, Sivan; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud

    2008-01-01

    Making faultless complex objects from potentially faulty building blocks is a fundamental challenge in computer engineering, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. Here, we show for the first time how recursion can be used to address this challenge and demonstrate a recursive procedure that constructs error-free DNA molecules and their libraries from error-prone oligonucleotides. Divide and Conquer (D&C), the quintessential recursive problem-solving technique, is applied in silico to divide the target DNA sequence into overlapping oligonucleotides short enough to be synthesized directly, albeit with errors; error-prone oligonucleotides are recursively combined in vitro, forming error-prone DNA molecules; error-free fragments of these molecules are then identified, extracted and used as new, typically longer and more accurate, inputs to another iteration of the recursive construction procedure; the entire process repeats until an error-free target molecule is formed. Our recursive construction procedure surpasses existing methods for de novo DNA synthesis in speed, precision, amenability to automation, ease of combining synthetic and natural DNA fragments, and ability to construct designer DNA libraries. It thus provides a novel and robust foundation for the design and construction of synthetic biological molecules and organisms. PMID:18463615

  1. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Graeme; Goossens, Benoit; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Linklater, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant’s preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have

  2. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant.

    PubMed

    English, Megan; Gillespie, Graeme; Goossens, Benoit; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Linklater, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant's preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have

  3. Methods and Technologies of XML Data Modeling for IP Mode Intelligent Measuring & Controlling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. X.; Hong, X. B.; Liu, J. G.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the IP mode intelligent measuring & controlling system (IMIMCS). Based on object-oriented modeling technology of UML and XML Schema, the innovative methods and technologies of some key problems for XML data modeling in the IMIMCS were especially discussed, including refinement for systemic business by means of use-case diagram of UML, the confirmation of the content of XML data model and logic relationship of the objects of XML Schema with the aid of class diagram of UML, the mapping rules from the UML object model to XML Schema. Finally, the application of the IMIMCS based on XML for a modern greenhouse was presented. The results show that the modeling methods of the measuring & controlling data in the IMIMCS involving the multi-layer structure and many operating systems process strong reliability and flexibility, guarantee uniformity of complex XML documents and meet the requirement of data communication across platform.

  4. Phase Response Design of Recursive All-Pass Digital Filters Using a Modified PSO Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Der

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a new design scheme for the phase response of an all-pass recursive digital filter. A variant of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm will be utilized for solving this kind of filter design problem. It is here called the modified PSO (MPSO) algorithm in which another adjusting factor is more introduced in the velocity updating formula of the algorithm in order to improve the searching ability. In the proposed method, all of the designed filter coefficients are firstly collected to be a parameter vector and this vector is regarded as a particle of the algorithm. The MPSO with a modified velocity formula will force all particles into moving toward the optimal or near optimal solution by minimizing some defined objective function of the optimization problem. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, two different kinds of linear phase response design examples are illustrated and the general PSO algorithm is compared as well. The obtained results show that the MPSO is superior to the general PSO for the phase response design of digital recursive all-pass filter. PMID:26366168

  5. XML: James Webb Space Telescope Database Issues, Lessons, and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detter, Ryan; Mooney, Michael; Fatig, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the current concept using extensible Markup Language (XML) as the underlying structure for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) database. The purpose of using XML is to provide a JWST database, independent of any portion of the ground system, yet still compatible with the various systems using a variety of different structures. The testing of the JWST Flight Software (FSW) started in 2002, yet the launch is scheduled for 2011 with a planned 5-year mission and a 5-year follow on option. The initial database and ground system elements, including the commands, telemetry, and ground system tools will be used for 19 years, plus post mission activities. During the Integration and Test (I&T) phases of the JWST development, 24 distinct laboratories, each geographically dispersed, will have local database tools with an XML database. Each of these laboratories database tools will be used for the exporting and importing of data both locally and to a central database system, inputting data to the database certification process, and providing various reports. A centralized certified database repository will be maintained by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. One of the challenges for the database is to be flexible enough to allow for the upgrade, addition or changing of individual items without effecting the entire ground system. Also, using XML should allow for the altering of the import and export formats needed by the various elements, tracking the verification/validation of each database item, allow many organizations to provide database inputs, and the merging of the many existing database processes into one central database structure throughout the JWST program. Many National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects have attempted to take advantage of open source and commercial technology. Often this causes a greater reliance on the use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS), which is often limiting

  6. Experiments with recursive estimation in astronomical image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busko, I.

    1992-01-01

    Recursive estimation concepts were applied to image enhancement problems since the 70's. However, very few applications in the particular area of astronomical image processing are known. These concepts were derived, for 2-dimensional images, from the well-known theory of Kalman filtering in one dimension. The historic reasons for application of these techniques to digital images are related to the images' scanned nature, in which the temporal output of a scanner device can be processed on-line by techniques borrowed directly from 1-dimensional recursive signal analysis. However, recursive estimation has particular properties that make it attractive even in modern days, when big computer memories make the full scanned image available to the processor at any given time. One particularly important aspect is the ability of recursive techniques to deal with non-stationary phenomena, that is, phenomena which have their statistical properties variable in time (or position in a 2-D image). Many image processing methods make underlying stationary assumptions either for the stochastic field being imaged, for the imaging system properties, or both. They will underperform, or even fail, when applied to images that deviate significantly from stationarity. Recursive methods, on the contrary, make it feasible to perform adaptive processing, that is, to process the image by a processor with properties tuned to the image's local statistical properties. Recursive estimation can be used to build estimates of images degraded by such phenomena as noise and blur. We show examples of recursive adaptive processing of astronomical images, using several local statistical properties to drive the adaptive processor, as average signal intensity, signal-to-noise and autocorrelation function. Software was developed under IRAF, and as such will be made available to interested users.

  7. A proposed referral centre based on HL7/XML.

    PubMed

    Chen, T S; Liao, B S; Lee, C H; Gough, T G

    2002-01-01

    With the growth of the Inteernet, hospitals have also applied HL7 (Health Level Seven) to exchange data between them. The referral system is identified as an appropriate application system. The effect of referral is to transfer the patient to a suitable hospital in a timely fashion, and to arrange appropriate treatment for the patient. Taking advantage of the Internet to exchange referral data can, not only accelerate the process of patient referral, but also avoid the unnecessary repeat examinations to decrease the waste of medical resources. This article builds up a referral-related message according to the HL7 standard, and develops a referral centre using the Internet environment, making use of XML (eXtensible Markup Language) standard to transform the referral-related data to XML format and exchange referral data between platforms. This electronic referral mechanism is expected to offer other hospitals experience of improved referral practice. PMID:15460680

  8. voevent-parse: Parse, manipulate, and generate VOEvent XML packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Tim D.

    2014-11-01

    voevent-parse, written in Python, parses, manipulates, and generates VOEvent XML packets; it is built atop lxml.objectify. Details of transients detected by many projects, including Fermi, Swift, and the Catalina Sky Survey, are currently made available as VOEvents, which is also the standard alert format by future facilities such as LSST and SKA. However, working with XML and adhering to the sometimes lengthy VOEvent schema can be a tricky process. voevent-parse provides convenience routines for common tasks, while allowing the user to utilise the full power of the lxml library when required. An earlier version of voevent-parse was part of the pysovo (ascl:1411.002) library.

  9. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  10. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2011-12-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  11. XQSuggest: An Interactive XML Keyword Search System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Junhu

    Query suggestion is extensively used in web search engines to suggest relevant queries, which can help users better express their information needs. In this paper, we explore the application of query suggestion in xml keyword search and propose a novel interactive xml query system XQSuggest, which mainly targets non-professional users who roughly know the contents of the database. Our system extends conventional keyword search systems by instantly suggesting several understandable semantic strings after each keyword is typed in, so that the users can easily select their desired semantic string, which represents a specific meaning of the keyword, to replace the ambiguous keyword. We provide a novel algorithm to compute the final results. Experimental results are provided to verify the better effectiveness of our system.

  12. The redundancy of recursion and infinity for natural language.

    PubMed

    Luuk, Erkki; Luuk, Hendrik

    2011-02-01

    An influential line of thought claims that natural language and arithmetic processing require recursion, a putative hallmark of human cognitive processing (Chomsky in Evolution of human language: biolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45-61, 2010; Fitch et al. in Cognition 97(2):179-210, 2005; Hauser et al. in Science 298(5598):1569-1579, 2002). First, we question the need for recursion in human cognitive processing by arguing that a generally simpler and less resource demanding process--iteration--is sufficient to account for human natural language and arithmetic performance. We argue that the only motivation for recursion, the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence, is equally approachable by iteration and recursion. Second, we submit that the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence reduces to imagining infinite embedding or concatenation, which is completely independent from the ability to implement infinite processing, and thus, independent from both recursion and iteration. Furthermore, we claim that a property of natural language is physically uncountable finity and not discrete infinity. PMID:20652723

  13. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad

    2008-01-01

    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  14. On the Termination Problem for Declarative XML Message Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litak, Tadeusz; Helmer, Sven

    We define a formal syntax and semantics for the Rule Definition Language (RDL) of DemaqLite, which is a fragment of the declarative XML message processing system Demaq. Based on this definition, we prove that the termination problem for any practically useful sublanguage of DemaqLiteRDL is undecidable, as any such language can emulate a Single Register Machine—a Turing-complete model of computation proposed by Shepherdson and Sturgis.

  15. Enhance Reuse of Standard e-Business XML Schema Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Buhwan, Jeong; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad; Jones, Albert

    2005-07-01

    Ideally, e-Business application interfaces would be built from highly reusable specifications of business document standards. Since many of these specifications are poorly understood, users often create new ones or customize existing ones every time a new integration problem arises. Consequently, even though there is a potential for reuse, the lack of a component discovery tool means that the cost of reuse is still prohibitively high. In this paper, we explore the potential of using similarity metrics to discover standard XML Schema documents. Our goal is to enhance reuse of XML Schema document/component standards in new integration contexts through the discovery process. We are motivated by the increasing access to the application interface specifications expressed in the form of XML Schema. These specifications are created to facilitate business documents exchange among software applications. Reuse can reduce both the proliferation of standards and the interoperability costs. To demonstrate these potential benefits, we propose and position our research based on an experimental scenario and a novel evaluation approach to qualify alternative similarity metrics on schema discovery. The edge equality in the evaluation method provides a conservative quality measure. We review a number of fundamental approaches to developing similarity metrics, and we organize these metrics into lexical, structural, and logical categories. For each of the metrics, we discuss its relevance and potential issues in its application to the XML Schema discovery task. We conclude that each of the similarity measures has its own strengths and weaknesses and each is expected to yield different results in different search situations. It is important, in the context of an application of these measures to e-Business standards that a schema discovery engine capable of assigning appropriate weights to different similarity measures be used when the search conditions change. This is a subject of our

  16. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  17. An XML Driven Graphical User Interface and Application Management Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    White, Greg R

    2002-01-18

    In the past, the features of a user interface were limited by those available in the existing graphical widgets it used. Now, improvements in processor speed have fostered the emergence of interpreted languages, in which the appropriate method to render a given data object can be loaded at runtime. XML can be used to precisely describe the association of data types with their graphical handling (beans), and Java provides an especially rich environment for programming the graphics. We present a graphical user interface builder based on Java Beans and XML, in which the graphical screens are described textually (in files or a database) in terms of their screen components. Each component may be a simple text read back, or a complex plot. The programming model provides for dynamic data pertaining to a component to be forwarded synchronously or asynchronously, to the appropriate handler, which may be a built-in method, or a complex applet. This work was initially motivated by the need to move the legacy VMS display interface of the SLAC Control Program to another platform while preserving all of its existing functionality. However the model allows us a powerful and generic system for adding new kinds of graphics, such as Matlab, data sources, such as EPICS, middleware, such as AIDA[1], and transport, such as XML and SOAP. The system will also include a management console, which will be able to report on the present usage of the system, for instance who is running it where and connected to which channels.

  18. Recursive flexible multibody system dynamics using spatial operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.; Rodriguez, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper uses spatial operators to develop new spatially recursive dynamics algorithms for flexible multibody systems. The operator description of the dynamics is identical to that for rigid multibody systems. Assumed-mode models are used for the deformation of each individual body. The algorithms are based on two spatial operator factorizations of the system mass matrix. The first (Newton-Euler) factorization of the mass matrix leads to recursive algorithms for the inverse dynamics, mass matrix evaluation, and composite-body forward dynamics for the systems. The second (innovations) factorization of the mass matrix, leads to an operator expression for the mass matrix inverse and to a recursive articulated-body forward dynamics algorithm. The primary focus is on serial chains, but extensions to general topologies are also described. A comparison of computational costs shows that the articulated-body, forward dynamics algorithm is much more efficient than the composite-body algorithm for most flexible multibody systems.

  19. Theory and applications of sampled analog recursive CTD comb filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, T. F.; Holmes, S. V.; Ejaz, A.; Piazza, F.; Saetre, L. T.; Freund, B.

    1976-01-01

    Sampled analog comb filter using a recursive filter implementation was studied. Charge transfer device delay lines were used as the delay elements. The similarities and differences between sampled analog recursive filter and digital recursive filter were pointed out. Both canceller type and integrator type comb filter using the first order or the second order canonical circuits were studied. Experimental results of frequency response are presented to show their difference from that of digital filters. A theoretical analysis was presented based essentially on the digital filter theory but modified to take into account the differences described above. The usefulness of this theory in analyzing the comb filter characteristics was discussed. Several applications of both the canceller type comb filter and the integrator type comb filter were demonstrated.

  20. Parameter Uncertainty for Aircraft Aerodynamic Modeling using Recursive Least Squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time method was demonstrated for determining accurate uncertainty levels of stability and control derivatives estimated using recursive least squares and time-domain data. The method uses a recursive formulation of the residual autocorrelation to account for colored residuals, which are routinely encountered in aircraft parameter estimation and change the predicted uncertainties. Simulation data and flight test data for a subscale jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the approach. Results showed that the corrected uncertainties matched the observed scatter in the parameter estimates, and did so more accurately than conventional uncertainty estimates that assume white residuals. Only small differences were observed between batch estimates and recursive estimates at the end of the maneuver. It was also demonstrated that the autocorrelation could be reduced to a small number of lags to minimize computation and memory storage requirements without significantly degrading the accuracy of predicted uncertainty levels.

  1. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ariel; Vukusic, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Interference is the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics: specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer structure and solve it using recursion relations. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursion. We compare to experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. Thus, using only the phenomenon of interference and the idea of recursion, we are able to elucidate the concept of band structure in the context of the experimentally observed high reflectance and iridescent appearance of structurally colored beetles.

  2. Robust recursive impedance estimation for automotive lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridholm, Björn; Wik, Torsten; Nilsson, Magnus

    2016-02-01

    Recursive algorithms, such as recursive least squares (RLS) or Kalman filters, are commonly used in battery management systems to estimate the electrical impedance of the battery cell. However, these algorithms can in some cases run into problems with bias and even divergence of the estimates. This article illuminates problems that can arise in the online estimation using recursive methods, and lists modifications to handle these issues. An algorithm is also proposed that estimates the impedance by separating the problem in two parts; one estimating the ohmic resistance with an RLS approach, and another one where the dynamic effects are estimated using an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) that is novel in the battery field. The algorithm produces robust estimates of ohmic resistance and time constant of the battery cell in closed loop with SoC estimation, as demonstrated by both in simulations and with experimental data from a lithium-ion battery cell.

  3. The limits on combining recursive horn rules with description logics

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Horn rule languages have formed the basis for many Artificial Intelligence application languages, but are not expressive enough to model domains with a rich hierarchical structure. Description logics have been designed especially to model rich hierarchies. Several applications would significantly benefit from combining the expressive power of both formalisms. This paper focuses on combining recursive function-free Horn rules with the expressive description logic ALCNR, and shows exactly when a hybrid language with decidable inference can be obtained. First, we show that several of the core constructors of description logics lead by themselves to undecidability of inference when combined with recursive function-free Horn rules. We then show that without these constructors we obtain a maximal subset of ALCNRR that yields a decidable hybrid language. Finally, we describe a restriction on the Horn rules that guarantees decidable inference when combined with all of ALCNR, and covers many of the common usages of recursive rules.

  4. Efficient Scheduling of Recursive Control Flow on GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Xin; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Gagan

    2013-06-10

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) have rapidly emerged as a very significant player in high performance computing. Single instruction multiple thread (SIMT) pipelines are typically used in GPUs to exploit parallelism and maximize performance. Although support for unstructured control flow has been included in GPUs, efficiently managing thread divergence for arbitrary parallel programs remains a critical challenge. In this paper, we focus on the problem of supporting recursion in modern GPUs. We design and comparatively evaluate various algorithms to manage thread divergence encountered in recursive programs. The results improve upon traditional post-dominator based reconvergence mechanisms designed to handle thread divergence due to control flow within a procedure.

  5. Recursive dynamics algorithm for multibody systems with prescribed motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses spatial operator techniques to develop a new algorithm for the dynamics of multibody systems with hinges undergoing prescribed motion. This algorithm is spatially recursive, and its computational complexity grows only linearly with the number of degrees of freedom in the system. Its structure is a hybrid of known recursive forward and inverse dynamics algorithms for regular multibody systems. Changes to the prescribed/nonprescribed nature of hinges can be implemented during run time since they are handled with very low overhead in the algorithm.

  6. A decoupled recursive approach for constrained flexible multibody system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Hao-Jan; Kim, Sung-Soo; Haug, Edward J.; Bae, Dae-Sung

    1989-01-01

    A variational-vector calculus approach is employed to derive a recursive formulation for dynamic analysis of flexible multibody systems. Kinematic relationships for adjacent flexible bodies are derived in a companion paper, using a state vector notation that represents translational and rotational components simultaneously. Cartesian generalized coordinates are assigned for all body and joint reference frames, to explicitly formulate deformation kinematics under small deformation kinematics and an efficient flexible dynamics recursive algorithm is developed. Dynamic analysis of a closed loop robot is performed to illustrate efficiency of the algorithm.

  7. Information Retrieval System for Japanese Standard Disease-Code Master Using XML Web Service

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Kenji; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Information retrieval system of Japanese Standard Disease-Code Master Using XML Web Service is developed. XML Web Service is a new distributed processing system by standard internet technologies. With seamless remote method invocation of XML Web Service, users are able to get the latest disease code master information from their rich desktop applications or internet web sites, which refer to this service. PMID:14728364

  8. XTaGe: A Flexible Generation System for Complex XML Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, María; Sanz, Ismael; Berlanga, Rafael

    We introduce XTaGe (XML Tester and Generator), a system for the synthesis of XML collections meant for testing and micro-benchmarking applications. In contrast with existing approaches, XTaGe focuses on complex collections, by providing a highly extensible framework to introduce controlled variability in XML structures. In this paper we present the theoretical foundation, internal architecture and main features of our generator; we describe its implementation, which includes a GUI to facilitate the specification of collections; we discuss how XTaGe’s features compare with those in other XML generation systems; finally, we illustrate its usage by presenting a use case in the Bioinformatics domain.

  9. XML — an opportunity for data standards in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlding, Simon W.

    2001-08-01

    Extensible markup language (XML) is a recently introduced meta-language standard on the Web. It provides the rules for development of metadata (markup) standards for information transfer in specific fields. XML allows development of markup languages that describe what information is rather than how it should be presented. This allows computer applications to process the information in intelligent ways. In contrast hypertext markup language (HTML), which fuelled the initial growth of the Web, is a metadata standard concerned exclusively with presentation of information. Besides its potential for revolutionizing Web activities, XML provides an opportunity for development of meaningful data standards in specific application fields. The rapid endorsement of XML by science, industry and e-commerce has already spawned new metadata standards in such fields as mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, multi-media and Web micro-payments. Development of XML-based data standards in the geosciences would significantly reduce the effort currently wasted on manipulating and reformatting data between different computer platforms and applications and would ensure compatibility with the new generation of Web browsers. This paper explores the evolution, benefits and status of XML and related standards in the more general context of Web activities and uses this as a platform for discussion of its potential for development of data standards in the geosciences. Some of the advantages of XML are illustrated by a simple, browser-compatible demonstration of XML functionality applied to a borehole log dataset. The XML dataset and the associated stylesheet and schema declarations are available for FTP download.

  10. Semantics Boosts Syntax in Artificial Grammar Learning Tasks with Recursion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedor, Anna; Varga, Mate; Szathmary, Eors

    2012-01-01

    Center-embedded recursion (CER) in natural language is exemplified by sentences such as "The malt that the rat ate lay in the house." Parsing center-embedded structures is in the focus of attention because this could be one of the cognitive capacities that make humans distinct from all other animals. The ability to parse CER is usually tested by…

  11. Experimental verification of a recursive method to calculate evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a recursive combination method (RCM) to calculate potential and crop evapotranspiration (ET) was given by Lascano and Van Bavel (Agron. J. 2007, 99:585–590). The RCM differs from the Penman-Monteith (PM) method, the main difference being that the assumptions made regarding the temperature ...

  12. Recursive Frame Analysis: A Practitioner's Tool for Mapping Therapeutic Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recursive frame analysis (RFA), both a practical therapeutic tool and an advanced qualitative research method that maps the structure of therapeutic conversation, is introduced with a clinical case vignette. We present and illustrate a means of mapping metaphorical themes that contextualize the performance taking place in the room, recursively…

  13. Exploring the Recursive Nature of Food and Family Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Linda D.

    2006-01-01

    Family meals act as a barometer to signify the changing nature of family life. The primary objective of this activity is to allow students to experience the many ways in which a recursive relationship exists between the food families eat and the patterns of communication families enact. Through this activity, students experience how food and…

  14. Displacement properties of the product of two finite recursive matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnabei, Marilena; Montefusco, Laura B.

    2002-12-01

    We study the displacement properties, with respect to a suitable displacement operator, of the product of two finite sections of recursive matrices, and we give an explicit evaluation of the displacement rank of such a product in the case when the second matrix is a finite Toeplitz or Hankel matrix.

  15. Recursivity: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Mnesis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormer, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay proposes the genealogical study of remembering and forgetting as recursive rhetorical capacities that enable discourse to place itself in an ever-changing present. "Mnesis" is a meta-concept for the arrangements of remembering and forgetting that enable rhetoric to function. Most of the essay defines the materiality of "mnesis", first…

  16. Recursive Vocal Pattern Learning and Generalization in Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Tiffany Corinna

    2012-01-01

    Among known communication systems, human language alone exhibits open-ended productivity of meaning. Interest in the psychological mechanisms supporting this ability, and their evolutionary origins, has resurged following the suggestion that the only uniquely human ability underlying language is a mechanism of recursion. This "Unique…

  17. A Scale-Invariant Treatment for Recursive Path Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A reparameterization is formulated that yields estimates of scale-invariant parameters in recursive path models with latent variables, and (asymptotically) correct standard errors, without the use of constrained optimization. The method is based on the logical structure of the reticular action model. (Author)

  18. Teaching and Learning Recursive Programming: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Renée; Grissom, Scott; Fitzgerald, Sue; Murphy, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of articles have been published on the topics of teaching and learning recursion, yet fewer than 50 of them have published research results. This article surveys the computing education research literature and presents findings on challenges students encounter in learning recursion, mental models students develop as they learn recursion,…

  19. Research on Heterogeneous Data Exchange based on XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanqin; Liu, Jinfeng

    Integration of multiple data sources is becoming increasingly important for enterprises that cooperate closely with their partners for e-commerce. OLAP enables analysts and decision makers fast access to various materialized views from data warehouses. However, many corporations have internal business applications deployed on different platforms. This paper introduces a model for heterogeneous data exchange based on XML. The system can exchange and share the data among the different sources. The method used to realize the heterogeneous data exchange is given in this paper.

  20. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  1. An XML-based format for guideline interchange and execution.

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, A. K.; Chueh, H. C.

    2000-01-01

    In building a general purpose guideline system based on GLIF--the GuideLine Interchange Format, we encountered limitations in the GLIF specification. These limitations, while not so apparent in the static version of guideline content, became readily so in the context of real world implementation, and pertain not only to GLIF-based systems, but generally as well. These limitations can be described as being in one of five categories. In this paper, we describe each of these categories in detail, and show how an execution environment based on XML data structures addresses these concerns. PMID:11079874

  2. An XML-based protocol for distributed event services

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Dan K.; Smith, Warren; Quesnel, Darcy

    2001-06-25

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  3. Optical Ethernet span protection using an XML-based multiprotocol framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Barbara; Baroncelli, Fabio; Cugini, Filippo; Valcarenghi, Luca; Castoldi, Piero

    2004-09-01

    Optical Access Networks based on Optical Ethernet (OE) architectures represent a simple and low cost solution for eliminating the bandwidth bottleneck between high speed Local Area Networks and optical Metropolitan Area Network core. Transparent optical Network Elements (NE), e.g. optical switches, can be successfully introduced in current OE networks to provide an adequate level of resilience and reduce the overall network cost. However network control and management plane must be extended to administrate the optical network elements. This paper shows a hardware and software implementation of a 1:1 optical span protection scheme for OE network based on optical switches triggered by failure detection. Detection is obtained by three different methods based either on hardware or software mechanisms. Link state is updated both at the switch controller and control manager through, respectively, Link Management Protocol (LMP) and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) messaging implemented by a novel Extensible Markup Language (XML) Multi Protocol Framework (XMPF). Experimental results show that a recovery time in the millisecond range can be achieved and network state is correctly synchronized in all the network elements.

  4. XML-Based Visual Specification of Multidisciplinary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Theneyan, Ahmed; Jakatdar, Amol; Mehrotra, Piyush; Zubair, Mohammad

    2001-01-01

    The advancements in the Internet and Web technologies have fueled a growing interest in developing a web-based distributed computing environment. We have designed and developed Arcade, a web-based environment for designing, executing, monitoring, and controlling distributed heterogeneous applications, which is easy to use and access, portable, and provides support through all phases of the application development and execution. A major focus of the environment is the specification of heterogeneous, multidisciplinary applications. In this paper we focus on the visual and script-based specification interface of Arcade. The web/browser-based visual interface is designed to be intuitive to use and can also be used for visual monitoring during execution. The script specification is based on XML to: (1) make it portable across different frameworks, and (2) make the development of our tools easier by using the existing freely available XML parsers and editors. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the visual and script-based interfaces allowing users to go back and forth between the two. To support this we have developed translators that translate a script-based specification to a visual-based specification, and vice-versa. These translators are integrated with our tools and are transparent to users.

  5. Towards health care process description framework: an XML DTD design.

    PubMed

    Staccini, P; Joubert, M; Quaranta, J F; Aymard, S; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M

    2001-01-01

    The development of health care and hospital information systems has to meet users needs as well as requirements such as the tracking of all care activities and the support of quality improvement. The use of process-oriented analysis is of-value to provide analysts with: (i) a systematic description of activities; (ii) the elicitation of the useful data to perform and record care tasks; (iii) the selection of relevant decision-making support. But paper-based tools are not a very suitable way to manage and share the documentation produced during this step. The purpose of this work is to propose a method to implement the results of process analysis according to XML techniques (eXtensible Markup Language). It is based on the IDEF0 activity modeling language (Integration DEfinition for Function modeling). A hierarchical description of a process and its components has been defined through a flat XML file with a grammar of proper metadata tags. Perspectives of this method are discussed. PMID:11825265

  6. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature

    PubMed Central

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher HC; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R.; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A.; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of “taxon treatment” from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes. PMID:22207808

  7. On recursive least-squares filtering algorithms and implementations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Shih-Fu

    1990-01-01

    In many real-time signal processing applications, fast and numerically stable algorithms for solving least-squares problems are necessary and important. In particular, under non-stationary conditions, these algorithms must be able to adapt themselves to reflect the changes in the system and take appropriate adjustments to achieve optimum performances. Among existing algorithms, the QR-decomposition (QRD)-based recursive least-squares (RLS) methods have been shown to be useful and effective for adaptive signal processing. In order to increase the speed of processing and achieve high throughput rate, many algorithms are being vectorized and/or pipelined to facilitate high degrees of parallelism. A time-recursive formulation of RLS filtering employing block QRD will be considered first. Several methods, including a new non-continuous windowing scheme based on selectively rejecting contaminated data, were investigated for adaptive processing. Based on systolic triarrays, many other forms of systolic arrays are shown to be capable of implementing different algorithms. Various updating and downdating systolic algorithms and architectures for RLS filtering are examined and compared in details, which include Householder reflector, Gram-Schmidt procedure, and Givens rotation. A unified approach encompassing existing square-root-free algorithms is also proposed. For the sinusoidal spectrum estimation problem, a judicious method of separating the noise from the signal is of great interest. Various truncated QR methods are proposed for this purpose and compared to the truncated SVD method. Computer simulations provided for detailed comparisons show the effectiveness of these methods. This thesis deals with fundamental issues of numerical stability, computational efficiency, adaptivity, and VLSI implementation for the RLS filtering problems. In all, various new and modified algorithms and architectures are proposed and analyzed; the significance of any of the new method depends

  8. 77 FR 46986 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...://www.ferc.gov ) a draft of the XML schema that is being developed for use in filing Electric Quarterly Reports as proposed in the Commission's June 21, 2012 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 77 FR 39447 (July 3...; Availability of Draft XML Schema AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  9. Integrated Syntactic/Semantic XML Data Validation with a Reusable Software Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golikov, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Data integration is a critical component of enterprise system integration, and XML data validation is the foundation for sound data integration of XML-based information systems. Since B2B e-commerce relies on data validation as one of the critical components for enterprise integration, it is imperative for financial industries and e-commerce…

  10. A Practical Introduction to the XML, Extensible Markup Language, by Way of Some Useful Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin

    2004-01-01

    XML, Extensible Markup Language, is important as a way to represent and encapsulate the structure of underlying data in a portable way that supports data exchange regardless of the physical storage of the data. This paper (and session) introduces some useful and practical aspects of XML technology for sharing information in a educational setting…

  11. Teaching and learning recursive programming: a review of the research literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Renée; Grissom, Scott; Fitzgerald, Sue; Murphy, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of articles have been published on the topics of teaching and learning recursion, yet fewer than 50 of them have published research results. This article surveys the computing education research literature and presents findings on challenges students encounter in learning recursion, mental models students develop as they learn recursion, and best practices in introducing recursion. Effective strategies for introducing the topic include using different contexts such as recurrence relations, programming examples, fractal images, and a description of how recursive methods are processed using a call stack. Several studies compared the efficacy of introducing iteration before recursion and vice versa. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research into how students learn and understand recursion, including a look at the possible impact of instructor attitude and newer pedagogies.

  12. XML at the ADC: Steps to a Next Generation Data Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaya, E.; Gass, J.; Blackwell, J.; Thomas, B.; Holmes, B.; Cheung, C. Y.

    The staff of the Astronomical Data Center at GSFC (ADC, http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is involved in a research project to define the XML format for the metadata of an astronomical repository and for large data tables. In the process, an XML tool box is being developed for importation, enhancement, and distribution of published data and their metadata documents. There is now a working draft Document Type Definition (DTD, http://messier.gsfc.nasa.gov/xml/dataset.dtd) which specifies the required elements of content and their attributes. The documentation for each data set will be viewable in several different styles via eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT, (http://www.w3.org/TR/xslt) scripts. The ADC is actively creating designs for the flow of data through automated pipelines from authors and journal presses into an XML archive, as well as data retrieval through the web via the XML Query Language.

  13. EEG and MEG source localization using recursively applied (RAP) MUSIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    The multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) algorithm locates multiple asynchronous dipolar sources from electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. A signal subspace is estimated from the data, then the algorithm scans a single dipole model through a three-dimensional head volume and computes projections onto this subspace. To locate the sources, the user must search the head volume for local peaks in the projection metric. Here we describe a novel extension of this approach which we refer to as RAP (Recursively APplied) MUSIC. This new procedure automatically extracts the locations of the sources through a recursive use of subspace projections, which uses the metric of principal correlations as a multidimensional form of correlation analysis between the model subspace and the data subspace. The dipolar orientations, a form of `diverse polarization,` are easily extracted using the associated principal vectors.

  14. ROOM: A recursive object oriented method for information systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Thelliez, T.; Donahue, S.

    1994-02-09

    Although complementary for the development of complex systems, top-down structured design and object oriented approach are still opposed and not integrated. As the complexity of the systems are still growing, and the so-called software crisis still not solved, it is urgent to provide a framework mixing the two paradigms. This paper presents an elegant attempt in this direction through our Recursive Object-Oriented Method (ROOM) in which a top-down approach divides the complexity of the system and an object oriented method studies a given level of abstraction. Illustrating this recursive schema with a simple example, we demonstrate that we achieve the goal of creating loosely coupled and reusable components.

  15. Encoding nondeterministic fuzzy tree automata into recursive neural networks.

    PubMed

    Gori, Marco; Petrosino, Alfredo

    2004-11-01

    Fuzzy neural systems have been a subject of great interest in the last few years, due to their abilities to facilitate the exchange of information between symbolic and subsymbolic domains. However, the models in the literature are not able to deal with structured organization of information, that is typically required by symbolic processing. In many application domains, the patterns are not only structured, but a fuzziness degree is attached to each subsymbolic pattern primitive. The purpose of this paper is to show how recursive neural networks, properly conceived for dealing with structured information, can represent nondeterministic fuzzy frontier-to-root tree automata. Whereas available prior knowledge expressed in terms of fuzzy state transition rules are injected into a recursive network, unknown rules are supposed to be filled in by data-driven learning. We also prove the stability of the encoding algorithm, extending previous results on the injection of fuzzy finite-state dynamics in high-order recurrent networks. PMID:15565771

  16. Berends-Giele recursion for double-color-ordered amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafra, Carlos R.

    2016-07-01

    Tree-level double-color-ordered amplitudes are computed using Berends-Giele recursion relations applied to the bi-adjoint cubic scalar theory. The standard notion of Berends-Giele currents is generalized to double-currents and their recursions are derived from a perturbiner expansion of linearized fields that solve the non-linear field equations. Two applications are given. Firstly, we prove that the entries of the inverse KLT matrix are equal to Berends-Giele double-currents (and are therefore easy to compute). And secondly, a simple formula to generate tree-level BCJ-satisfying numerators for arbitrary multiplicity is proposed by evaluating the field-theory limit of tree-level string amplitudes for various color orderings using double-color-ordered amplitudes.

  17. An algorithm for protein engineering: simulations of recursive ensemble mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arkin, A P; Youvan, D C

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for protein engineering, termed recursive ensemble mutagenesis, has been developed to produce diverse populations of phenotypically related mutants whose members differ in amino acid sequence. This method uses a feedback mechanism to control successive rounds of combinatorial cassette mutagenesis. Starting from partially randomized "wild-type" DNA sequences, a highly parallel search of sequence space for peptides fitting an experimenter's criteria is performed. Each iteration uses information gained from the previous rounds to search the space more efficiently. Simulations of the technique indicate that, under a variety of conditions, the algorithm can rapidly produce a diverse population of proteins fitting specific criteria. In the experimental analog, genetic selection or screening applied during recursive ensemble mutagenesis should force the evolution of an ensemble of mutants to a targeted cluster of related phenotypes. Images PMID:1502200

  18. Development of a recursion RNG-based turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE; Vahala, George; Thangam, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reynolds stress closure models based on the recursion renormalization group theory are developed for the prediction of turbulent separated flows. The proposed model uses a finite wavenumber truncation scheme to account for the spectral distribution of energy. In particular, the model incorporates effects of both local and nonlocal interactions. The nonlocal interactions are shown to yield a contribution identical to that from the epsilon-renormalization group (RNG), while the local interactions introduce higher order dispersive effects. A formal analysis of the model is presented and its ability to accurately predict separated flows is analyzed from a combined theoretical and computational stand point. Turbulent flow past a backward facing step is chosen as a test case and the results obtained based on detailed computations demonstrate that the proposed recursion -RNG model with finite cut-off wavenumber can yield very good predictions for the backstep problem.

  19. Topological recursion for Gaussian means and cohomological field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. E.; Chekhov, L. O.; Norbury, P.; Penner, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce explicit relations between genus-filtrated s-loop means of the Gaussian matrix model and terms of the genus expansion of the Kontsevich-Penner matrix model (KPMM), which is the generating function for volumes of discretized (open) moduli spaces M g,s disc (discrete volumes). Using these relations, we express Gaussian means in all orders of the genus expansion as polynomials in special times weighted by ancestor invariants of an underlying cohomological field theory. We translate the topological recursion of the Gaussian model into recurrence relations for the coefficients of this expansion, which allows proving that they are integers and positive. We find the coefficients in the first subleading order for M g,1 for all g in three ways: using the refined Harer-Zagier recursion, using the Givental-type decomposition of the KPMM, and counting diagrams explicitly.

  20. Recursive utility in a Markov environment with stochastic growth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lars Peter; Scheinkman, José A

    2012-07-24

    Recursive utility models that feature investor concerns about the intertemporal composition of risk are used extensively in applied research in macroeconomics and asset pricing. These models represent preferences as the solution to a nonlinear forward-looking difference equation with a terminal condition. In this paper we study infinite-horizon specifications of this difference equation in the context of a Markov environment. We establish a connection between the solution to this equation and to an arguably simpler Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue equation of the type that occurs in the study of large deviations for Markov processes. By exploiting this connection, we establish existence and uniqueness results. Moreover, we explore a substantive link between large deviation bounds for tail events for stochastic consumption growth and preferences induced by recursive utility. PMID:22778428

  1. An update on HL7's XML-based document representation standards.

    PubMed Central

    Dolin, R. H.; Alschuler, L.; Boyer, S.; Beebe, C.

    2000-01-01

    Many people know of HL7 as an organization that creates healthcare messaging standards. But HL7 is also developing standards for the representation of clinical documents (such as discharge summaries and consultation notes). These document standards comprise the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA). Last year we presented a high-level conceptual overview of the CDA. Since that time, CDA has entered HL7's formal ballot process (which when successful will make the CDA an ANSI-approved HL7 standard). This article delves into the technical details of the current CDA proposal. Note that due to space limitations, only a subset of CDA details can be described. Also, because the ballot process elicits considerable feedback, it is likely that the material presented here will undergo evolution prior to becoming a final standard. The most up-to-date information is available on HL7's web site (www.hl7.org). PMID:11079871

  2. Recursive Robot-Arm Dynamics via Filtering and Smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1987-01-01

    Forward and inverse dynamics solved using Kalman filtering and Bryson-Frazier smoothing. Dynamics of serial-link robot arm solved by using recursive techniques from linear filtering and smoothing theory. Solutions of dynamical equations give forces, moments, and accelerations at joints between links, and multilink inertia matrix and its inverse. Theoretical developments lay foundation for use of filtering and smoothing techniques in design of robot controls.

  3. A Precision Recursive Estimate for Ephemeris Refinement (PREFER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, B.

    1980-01-01

    A recursive filter/smoother orbit determination program was developed to refine the ephemerides produced by a batch orbit determination program (e.g., CELEST, GEODYN). The program PREFER can handle a variety of ground and satellite to satellite tracking types as well as satellite altimetry. It was tested on simulated data which contained significant modeling errors and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the program compared to batch estimation.

  4. A fast recursive algorithm for molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.; Vaidehi, N.; Rodriguez, G.

    1993-01-01

    The present recursive algorithm for solving molecular systems' dynamical equations of motion employs internal variable models that reduce such simulations' computation time by an order of magnitude, relative to Cartesian models. Extensive use is made of spatial operator methods recently developed for analysis and simulation of the dynamics of multibody systems. A factor-of-450 speedup over the conventional O(N-cubed) algorithm is demonstrated for the case of a polypeptide molecule with 400 residues.

  5. Creating preservation metadata from XML-metadata profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Bertelmann, Roland; Gebauer, Petra; Hasler, Tim; Klump, Jens; Kirchner, Ingo; Peters-Kottig, Wolfgang; Mettig, Nora; Rusch, Beate

    2014-05-01

    Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS). To find datasets in future portals and to make use of this data in own scientific work, proper selection of discovery metadata and application metadata is very important. Some XML-metadata profiles are not suitable for preservation, because version changes are very fast and make it nearly impossible to automate the migration. For other XML-metadata profiles schema definitions are changed after publication of the profile or the schema definitions become inaccessible, which might cause problems during validation of the metadata inside the preservation system [2]. Some metadata profiles are not used widely enough and might not even exist in the future. Eventually, discovery and application metadata have to be embedded into the mdWrap-subtree of the METS-XML. [1] http://www.archivematica.org [2] http://dx.doi.org/10.2218/ijdc.v7i1.215

  6. Recursive linear optical networks for realizing quantum algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel

    Linear optics has played a leading role in the development of practical quantum technologies. In recent years, advances in integrated quantum photonics have significantly improved the functionality and scalability of linear optical devices. In this talk, I present recursive schemes for implementing quantum Fourier transforms and inversion about the mean in Grover's algorithm with photonic integrated circuits. By recursive, I mean that two copies of a d-dimensional unitary operation is used to build the corresponding unitary operation on 2 d modes. The linear optical networks operate on path-encoded qudits and realize d-dimensional unitary operations using O (d2) elements. To demonstrate that the recursive circuits are viable in practice, I conducted simulations of proof-of-principle experiments using a fabrication model of realistic errors in silicon-based photonic integrated devices. The results indicate high-fidelity performance in the circuits for 2-qubit and 3-qubit quantum Fourier transforms, and for quantum search on 4-item and 8-item databases. This work was funded by institutional research grant IUT2-1 from the Estonian Research Council and by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund.

  7. Recursive Bayesian electromagnetic refractivity estimation from radar sea clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Sathyanarayanan; Anderson, Richard H.; Kraut, Shawn; Gerstoft, Peter; Rogers, L. Ted; Krolik, Jeffrey L.

    2007-04-01

    Estimation of the range- and height-dependent index of refraction over the sea surface facilitates prediction of ducted microwave propagation loss. In this paper, refractivity estimation from radar clutter returns is performed using a Markov state space model for microwave propagation. Specifically, the parabolic approximation for numerical solution of the wave equation is used to formulate the refractivity from clutter (RFC) problem within a nonlinear recursive Bayesian state estimation framework. RFC under this nonlinear state space formulation is more efficient than global fitting of refractivity parameters when the total number of range-varying parameters exceeds the number of basis functions required to represent the height-dependent field at a given range. Moreover, the range-recursive nature of the estimator can be easily adapted to situations where the refractivity modeling changes at discrete ranges, such as at a shoreline. A fast range-recursive solution for obtaining range-varying refractivity is achieved by using sequential importance sampling extensions to state estimation techniques, namely, the forward and Viterbi algorithms. Simulation and real data results from radar clutter collected off Wallops Island, Virginia, are presented which demonstrate the ability of this method to produce propagation loss estimates that compare favorably with ground truth refractivity measurements.

  8. Parallelizable approximate solvers for recursions arising in preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Y.

    1996-12-31

    For the recursions used in the Modified Incomplete LU (MILU) preconditioner, namely, the incomplete decomposition, forward elimination and back substitution processes, a parallelizable approximate solver is presented. The present analysis shows that the solutions of the recursions depend only weakly on their initial conditions and may be interpreted to indicate that the inexact solution is close, in some sense, to the exact one. The method is based on a domain decomposition approach, suitable for parallel implementations with message passing architectures. It requires a fixed number of communication steps per preconditioned iteration, independently of the number of subdomains or the size of the problem. The overlapping subdomains are either cubes (suitable for mesh-connected arrays of processors) or constructed by the data-flow rule of the recursions (suitable for line-connected arrays with possibly SIMD or vector processors). Numerical examples show that, in both cases, the overhead in the number of iterations required for convergence of the preconditioned iteration is small relatively to the speed-up gained.

  9. Recursion relations for AdS/CFT correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, Suvrat

    2011-06-15

    We expand on the results of our recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 091601 (2011)], where we presented new recursion relations for correlation functions of the stress-tensor and conserved currents in conformal field theories with an AdS{sub d+1} dual for d{>=}4. These recursion relations are derived by generalizing the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) relations to amplitudes in anti-de Sitter space (AdS) that are dual to boundary correlators, and are usually computed perturbatively by Witten diagrams. Our results relate vacuum-correlation functions to integrated products of lower-point transition amplitudes, which correspond to correlators calculated between states dual to certain normalizable modes. We show that the set of ''polarization vectors'' for which amplitudes behave well under the BCFW extension is smaller than in flat-space. We describe how transition amplitudes for more general external polarizations can be constructed by combining answers obtained by different pairs of BCFW shifts. We then generalize these recursion relations to supersymmetric theories. In AdS, unlike flat-space, even maximal supersymmetry is insufficient to permit the computation of all correlators of operators in the same multiplet as a stress-tensor or conserved current. Finally, we work out some simple examples to verify our results.

  10. An Accelerated Recursive Doubling Algorithm for Block Tridiagonal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Sudip K

    2014-01-01

    Block tridiagonal systems of linear equations arise in a wide variety of scientific and engineering applications. Recursive doubling algorithm is a well-known prefix computation-based numerical algorithm that requires O(M^3(N/P + log P)) work to compute the solution of a block tridiagonal system with N block rows and block size M on P processors. In real-world applications, solutions of tridiagonal systems are most often sought with multiple, often hundreds and thousands, of different right hand sides but with the same tridiagonal matrix. Here, we show that a recursive doubling algorithm is sub-optimal when computing solutions of block tridiagonal systems with multiple right hand sides and present a novel algorithm, called the accelerated recursive doubling algorithm, that delivers O(R) improvement when solving block tridiagonal systems with R distinct right hand sides. Since R is typically about 100 1000, this improvement translates to very significant speedups in practice. Detailed complexity analyses of the new algorithm with empirical confirmation of runtime improvements are presented. To the best of our knowledge, this algorithm has not been reported before in the literature.