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Sample records for updating recursive xml

  1. XML in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy, Ed.

    This book presents examples of how libraries are using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) to solve problems, expand services, and improve systems. Part I contains papers on using XML in library catalog records: "Updating MARC Records with XMLMARC" (Kevin S. Clarke, Stanford University) and "Searching and Retrieving XML Records via the Web" (Theo van…

  2. XML in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy, Ed.

    This book presents examples of how libraries are using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) to solve problems, expand services, and improve systems. Part I contains papers on using XML in library catalog records: "Updating MARC Records with XMLMARC" (Kevin S. Clarke, Stanford University) and "Searching and Retrieving XML Records via the Web" (Theo van…

  3. XML Files

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/xml.html MedlinePlus XML Files To use the sharing features on this page, ... information on all English and Spanish topic groups. Files generated on April 01, 2016 MedlinePlus Health Topic ...

  4. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  5. Recursive SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Randolph L.; Ash, Joshua N.

    2008-04-01

    We investigate a recursive procedure for synthetic aperture imaging. We consider a concept in which a SAR system persistently interrogates a scene, for example as it flies along or around that scene. In traditional SAR imaging, the radar measurements are processed in blocks, by partitioning the data into a set of non-overlapping or overlapping azimuth angles, then processing each block. We consider a recursive update approach, in which the SAR image is continually updated, as a linear combination of a small number of previous images and a term containing the current radar measurement. We investigate the crossrange sidelobes realized by such an imaging approach. We show that a first-order autoregression of the image gives crossrange sidelobes similar to a rectangular azimuth window, while a third-order autoregression gives sidelobes comparable to those obtained from widely-used windows in block-processing image formation. The computational and memory requirements of the recursive imaging approach are modest - on the order of M • N2 where M is the recursion order (typically <= 3) and N2 is the image size. We compare images obtained from the recursive and block processing techniques, both for a synthetic scene and for X-band SAR measurements from the Gotcha data set.

  6. XML under the Hood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML (extensible markup language), particularly as it relates to libraries. Topics include organizing information; cataloging; metadata; similarities to HTML; organizations dealing with XML; making XML useful; a history of XML; the semantic Web; related technologies; XML at the Library of Congress; and its role in improving the…

  7. Recursion Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Alton T.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of the recursive method to permutations of n objects and a problem making c cents in change using pennies and nickels when order is important. Presents a LOGO program for the examples. (YP)

  8. On recursion

    PubMed Central

    Watumull, Jeffrey; Hauser, Marc D.; Roberts, Ian G.; Hornstein, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    It is a truism that conceptual understanding of a hypothesis is required for its empirical investigation. However, the concept of recursion as articulated in the context of linguistic analysis has been perennially confused. Nowhere has this been more evident than in attempts to critique and extend Hauseretal's. (2002) articulation. These authors put forward the hypothesis that what is uniquely human and unique to the faculty of language—the faculty of language in the narrow sense (FLN)—is a recursive system that generates and maps syntactic objects to conceptual-intentional and sensory-motor systems. This thesis was based on the standard mathematical definition of recursion as understood by Gödel and Turing, and yet has commonly been interpreted in other ways, most notably and incorrectly as a thesis about the capacity for syntactic embedding. As we explain, the recursiveness of a function is defined independent of such output, whether infinite or finite, embedded or unembedded—existent or non-existent. And to the extent that embedding is a sufficient, though not necessary, diagnostic of recursion, it has not been established that the apparent restriction on embedding in some languages is of any theoretical import. Misunderstanding of these facts has generated research that is often irrelevant to the FLN thesis as well as to other theories of language competence that focus on its generative power of expression. This essay is an attempt to bring conceptual clarity to such discussions as well as to future empirical investigations by explaining three criterial properties of recursion: computability (i.e., rules in intension rather than lists in extension); definition by induction (i.e., rules strongly generative of structure); and mathematical induction (i.e., rules for the principled—and potentially unbounded—expansion of strongly generated structure). By these necessary and sufficient criteria, the grammars of all natural languages are recursive. PMID:24409164

  9. Recursive percolation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan-Wen; Deng, Youjin; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a simple lattice model in which percolation is constructed on top of critical percolation clusters, and find compelling numerical evidence that it can be repeated recursively any number n of generations. In two dimensions, we determine the percolation thresholds up to n=5. The corresponding critical clusters become more and more compact as n increases, and define universal scaling functions of the standard two-dimensional form and critical exponents that are distinct for any n. This family of exponents differs from previously known universality classes, and cannot be accommodated by existing analytical methods. We confirm that recursive percolation is well defined also in three dimensions. PMID:26274102

  10. ScotlandsPlaces XML: Bespoke XML or XML Mapping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Ashley; Gillick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate web services (in the form of parameterised URLs), specifically in the context of the ScotlandsPlaces project. This involves cross-domain querying, data retrieval and display via the development of a bespoke XML standard rather than existing XML formats and mapping between them.…

  11. ScotlandsPlaces XML: Bespoke XML or XML Mapping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Ashley; Gillick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate web services (in the form of parameterised URLs), specifically in the context of the ScotlandsPlaces project. This involves cross-domain querying, data retrieval and display via the development of a bespoke XML standard rather than existing XML formats and mapping between them.…

  12. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  13. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  14. Adaptable Iterative and Recursive Kalman Filter Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear filters are often very computationally expensive and usually not suitable for real-time applications. Real-time navigation algorithms are typically based on linear estimators, such as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and, to a much lesser extent, the unscented Kalman filter. The Iterated Kalman filter (IKF) and the Recursive Update Filter (RUF) are two algorithms that reduce the consequences of the linearization assumption of the EKF by performing N updates for each new measurement, where N is the number of recursions, a tuning parameter. This paper introduces an adaptable RUF algorithm to calculate N on the go, a similar technique can be used for the IKF as well.

  15. XML: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes XML (extensible markup language), a new language classification submitted to the World Wide Web Consortium that is defined in terms of both SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), specifically designed for the Internet. Limitations of PDF (Portable Document Format) files for electronic journals…

  16. Recursion, Language, and Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed that recursion is one of the properties that distinguishes human language from any other form of animal communication. Contrary to this claim, a recent study purports to demonstrate center-embedded recursion in starlings. I show that the performance of the birds in this study can be explained by a counting strategy, without any…

  17. Recursion, Language, and Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed that recursion is one of the properties that distinguishes human language from any other form of animal communication. Contrary to this claim, a recent study purports to demonstrate center-embedded recursion in starlings. I show that the performance of the birds in this study can be explained by a counting strategy, without any…

  18. Recursive Deadbeat Controller Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh Q.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive algorithm for a deadbeat predictive controller design. The method combines together the concepts of system identification and deadbeat controller designs. It starts with the multi-step output prediction equation and derives the control force in terms of past input and output time histories. The formulation thus derived satisfies simultaneously system identification and deadbeat controller design requirements. As soon as the coefficient matrices are identified satisfying the output prediction equation, no further work is required to compute the deadbeat control gain matrices. The method can be implemented recursively just as any typical recursive system identification techniques.

  19. phyloXML: XML for evolutionary biology and comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mira V; Zmasek, Christian M

    2009-01-01

    Background Evolutionary trees are central to a wide range of biological studies. In many of these studies, tree nodes and branches need to be associated (or annotated) with various attributes. For example, in studies concerned with organismal relationships, tree nodes are associated with taxonomic names, whereas tree branches have lengths and oftentimes support values. Gene trees used in comparative genomics or phylogenomics are usually annotated with taxonomic information, genome-related data, such as gene names and functional annotations, as well as events such as gene duplications, speciations, or exon shufflings, combined with information related to the evolutionary tree itself. The data standards currently used for evolutionary trees have limited capacities to incorporate such annotations of different data types. Results We developed a XML language, named phyloXML, for describing evolutionary trees, as well as various associated data items. PhyloXML provides elements for commonly used items, such as branch lengths, support values, taxonomic names, and gene names and identifiers. By using "property" elements, phyloXML can be adapted to novel and unforeseen use cases. We also developed various software tools for reading, writing, conversion, and visualization of phyloXML formatted data. Conclusion PhyloXML is an XML language defined by a complete schema in XSD that allows storing and exchanging the structures of evolutionary trees as well as associated data. More information about phyloXML itself, the XSD schema, as well as tools implementing and supporting phyloXML, is available at . PMID:19860910

  20. "The Wonder Years" of XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazan, Rich

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the current state of Extensible Markup Language (XML), a metalanguage for creating structured documents that describe their own content, and its implications for information professionals. Predicts that XML will become the common language underlying Web, word processing, and database formats. Also discusses Extensible Stylesheet Language…

  1. How Does XML Help Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Kyle

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML, how it has transformed the way information is managed and delivered, and its impact on libraries. Topics include how XML differs from other markup languages; the document object model (DOM); style sheets; practical applications for archival materials, interlibrary loans, digital collections, and MARC data; and future possibilities.…

  2. Language and Recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  3. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  4. Recursion, Computers and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Andy

    2007-01-01

    "Geomlab" is a functional programming language used to describe pictures that are made up of tiles. The beauty of "Geomlab" is that it introduces students to recursion, a very powerful mathematical concept, through a very simple and enticing graphical environment. Alongside the software is a series of eight worksheets which lead into producing…

  5. Recursion in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banreti, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how aphasic impairment impinges on syntactic and/or semantic recursivity of human language. A series of tests has been conducted with the participation of five Hungarian speaking aphasic subjects and 10 control subjects. Photographs representing simple situations were presented to subjects and questions were asked about…

  6. Publishing Scientific Articles in XML.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaya, E.; Borne, K.; Thomas, B.; Cheung, C. Y.

    2001-12-01

    Most publication houses are using SGML for electronic mark up of pages intended for hardcopy. Since XML is a major subset of SGML with W3C backing and greater database compatibility, many publication houses are naturally considering switching to or including XML. Now, if authors were also to switch to XML for their manuscripts, it would greatly reduce the work load at the publication houses and reduce the number of errors that are introduced in the translation process. XML is also a logical progression for authors since it is rapidly becoming incorporated into editors such as Word Perfect, Notepad, Emacs, etc. There is an XML standard for equation markup, MathML, and equation editors exist for it. It is easy to put these manuscripts onto the Web; all one needs is to link to a standard cascade style sheet (CSS2). Leveraging our experience with encapsulating scientific data in XML the ADC (Astronomical Data Center) staff are working out details of a scientific XML article format called "AXML" (Article XML Markup Language). We foresee using AXML eventually as an end to end solution for data from experiment/observation through analysis to publication. With fewer transformations needed on article text, equations, and tables, less human intervention will be required and fewer human errors will be introduced, for example, proofing of XML documents by publication houses could someday be unnecessary or (at least) vastly more efficient. In this poster we discuss examine several important aspects of this technology, give the technical details of AXML (including a DTD) and give examples which show the power of AXML.

  7. Health Topic XML File Description

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/xmldescription.html Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus To use the sharing features on ... Tags Definitions of every possible tag in the file, with examples and their use on MedlinePlus.

  8. Recursive Objects--An Object Oriented Presentation of Recursion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, David B.

    2004-01-01

    Generally, when recursion is introduced to students the concept is illustrated with a toy (Towers of Hanoi) and some abstract mathematical functions (factorial, power, Fibonacci). These illustrate recursion in the same sense that counting to 10 can be used to illustrate a for loop. These are all good illustrations, but do not represent serious…

  9. ADASS Web Database XML Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barg, M. I.; Stobie, E. B.; Ferro, A. J.; O'Neil, E. J.

    In the spring of 2000, at the request of the ADASS Program Organizing Committee (POC), we began organizing information from previous ADASS conferences in an effort to create a centralized database. The beginnings of this database originated from data (invited speakers, participants, papers, etc.) extracted from HyperText Markup Language (HTML) documents from past ADASS host sites. Unfortunately, not all HTML documents are well formed and parsing them proved to be an iterative process. It was evident at the beginning that if these Web documents were organized in a standardized way, such as XML (Extensible Markup Language), the processing of this information across the Web could be automated, more efficient, and less error prone. This paper will briefly review the many programming tools available for processing XML, including Java, Perl and Python, and will explore the mapping of relational data from our MySQL database to XML.

  10. XWeB: The XML Warehouse Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahboubi, Hadj; Darmont, Jérôme

    With the emergence of XML as a standard for representing business data, new decision support applications are being developed. These XML data warehouses aim at supporting On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) operations that manipulate irregular XML data. To ensure feasibility of these new tools, important performance issues must be addressed. Performance is customarily assessed with the help of benchmarks. However, decision support benchmarks do not currently support XML features. In this paper, we introduce the XML Warehouse Benchmark (XWeB), which aims at filling this gap. XWeB derives from the relational decision support benchmark TPC-H. It is mainly composed of a test data warehouse that is based on a unified reference model for XML warehouses and that features XML-specific structures, and its associate XQuery decision support workload. XWeB's usage is illustrated by experiments on several XML database management systems.

  11. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  12. Using recursion to compute the inverse of the genomic relationship matrix.

    PubMed

    Misztal, I; Legarra, A; Aguilar, I

    2014-01-01

    Computing the inverse of the genomic relationship matrix using recursion was investigated. A traditional algorithm to invert the numerator relationship matrix is based on the observation that the conditional expectation for an additive effect of 1 animal given the effects of all other animals depends on the effects of its sire and dam only, each with a coefficient of 0.5. With genomic relationships, such an expectation depends on all other genotyped animals, and the coefficients do not have any set value. For each animal, the coefficients plus the conditional variance can be called a genomic recursion. If such recursions are known, the mixed model equations can be solved without explicitly creating the inverse of the genomic relationship matrix. Several algorithms were developed to create genomic recursions. In an algorithm with sequential updates, genomic recursions are created animal by animal. That algorithm can also be used to update a known inverse of a genomic relationship matrix for additional genotypes. In an algorithm with forward updates, a newly computed recursion is immediately applied to update recursions for remaining animals. The computing costs for both algorithms depend on the sparsity pattern of the genomic recursions, but are lower or equal than for regular inversion. An algorithm for proven and young animals assumes that the genomic recursions for young animals contain coefficients only for proven animals. Such an algorithm generates exact genomic EBV in genomic BLUP and is an approximation in single-step genomic BLUP. That algorithm has a cubic cost for the number of proven animals and a linear cost for the number of young animals. The genomic recursions can provide new insight into genomic evaluation and possibly reduce costs of genetic predictions with extremely large numbers of genotypes. PMID:24679933

  13. Setting the Standard: XML on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Explains what XML (Extensible Markup Language) is; where to find it in a few years (everywhere from Web pages, to database management systems, to common campus applications); issues that will make XML somewhat of an experimental strategy in the near term; and the importance of decision-makers being abreast of XML trends in standards, tools…

  14. Recursivity in Lingua Cosmica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollongren, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    In a sequence of papers on the topic of message construction for interstellar communication by means of a cosmic language, the present author has discussed various significant requirements such a lingua should satisfy. The author's Lingua Cosmica is a (meta) system for annotating contents of possibly large-scale messages for ETI. LINCOS, based on formal constructive logic, was primarily designed for dealing with logic contents of messages but is also applicable for denoting structural properties of more general abstractions embedded in such messages. The present paper explains ways and means for achieving this for a special case: recursive entities. As usual two stages are involved: first the domain of discourse is enriched with suitable representations of the entities concerned, after which properties over them can be dealt with within the system itself. As a representative example the case of Russian dolls (Matrjoshka's) is discussed in some detail and relations with linguistic structures in natural languages are briefly exploited.

  15. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    PubMed Central

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs. PMID:21969921

  16. An Efficient G-XML Data Management Method using XML Spatial Index for Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamada, Takashi; Momma, Kei; Seo, Kazuo; Hijikata, Yoshinori; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper presents an efficient G-XML data management method for mobile devices. G-XML is XML based encoding for the transport of geographic information. Mobile devices, such as PDA and mobile-phone, performance trail desktop machines, so some techniques are needed for processing G-XML data on mobile devices. In this method, XML-format spatial index file is used to improve an initial display time of G-XML data. This index file contains XML pointer of each feature in G-XML data and classifies these features by multi-dimensional data structures. From the experimental result, we can prove this method speed up about 3-7 times an initial display time of G-XML data on mobile devices.

  17. Tomcat, Oracle & XML Web Archive

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-01-01

    The TOX (Tomcat Oracle & XML) web archive is a foundation for development of HTTP-based applications using Tomcat (or some other servlet container) and an Oracle RDBMS. Use of TOX requires coding primarily in PL/SQL, JavaScript, and XSLT, but also in HTML, CSS and potentially Java. Coded in Java and PL/SQL itself, TOX provides the foundation for more complex applications to be built.

  18. Hopf algebras and topological recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, João N.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model for topological recursion based on the Hopf algebra of planar binary trees defined by Loday and Ronco (1998 Adv. Math. 139 293-309 We show that extending this Hopf algebra by identifying pairs of nearest neighbor leaves, and thus producing graphs with loops, we obtain the full recursion formula discovered by Eynard and Orantin (2007 Commun. Number Theory Phys. 1 347-452).

  19. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  20. XML technology planning database : lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael R.; Neff, Jon M.

    2005-01-01

    A hierarchical Extensible Markup Language(XML) database called XCALIBR (XML Analysis LIBRary) has been developed by Millennium Program to assist in technology investment (ROI) analysis and technology Language Capability the New return on portfolio optimization. The database contains mission requirements and technology capabilities, which are related by use of an XML dictionary. The XML dictionary codifies a standardized taxonomy for space missions, systems, subsystems and technologies. In addition to being used for ROI analysis, the database is being examined for use in project planning, tracking and documentation. During the past year, the database has moved from development into alpha testing. This paper describes the lessons learned during construction and testing of the prototype database and the motivation for moving from an XML taxonomy to a standard XML-based ontology.

  1. Speed up of XML parsers with PHP language implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, authors introduce PHP5's XML implementation and show how to read, parse, and write a short and uncomplicated XML file using Simple XML in a PHP environment. The possibilities for mutual work of PHP5 language and XML standard are described. The details of parsing process with Simple XML are also cleared. A practical project PHP-XML-MySQL presents the advantages of XML implementation in PHP modules. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of PHP software tools. The proposed project includes database, which can be extended with new data and new XML parsing functions.

  2. XML Schema Representation of DICOM Structured Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. P.; Hu, Jingkun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Structured Reporting (SR) standard improves the expressiveness, precision, and comparability of documentation about diagnostic images and waveforms. It supports the interchange of clinical reports in which critical features shown by images and waveforms can be denoted unambiguously by the observer, indexed, and retrieved selectively by subsequent reviewers. It is essential to provide access to clinical reports across the health care enterprise by using technologies that facilitate information exchange and processing by computers as well as provide support for robust and semantically rich standards, such as DICOM. This is supported by the current trend in the healthcare industry towards the use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) technologies for storage and exchange of medical information. The objective of the work reported here is to develop XML Schema for representing DICOM SR as XML documents. Design: We briefly describe the document type definition (DTD) for XML and its limitations, followed by XML Schema (the intended replacement for DTD) and its features. A framework for generating XML Schema for representing DICOM SR in XML is presented next. Measurements: None applicable. Results: A schema instance based on an SR example in the DICOM specification was created and validated against the schema. The schema is being used extensively in producing reports on Philips Medical Systems ultrasound equipment. Conclusion: With the framework described it is feasible to generate XML Schema using the existing DICOM SR specification. It can also be applied to generate XML Schemas for other DICOM information objects. PMID:12595410

  3. Recursive calculation of Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    1990-06-01

    Hansen coefficients are used in expansions of the elliptic motion. Three methods for calculating the coefficients are studied: Tisserand's method, the Von Zeipel-Andoyer (VZA) method with explicit representation of the polynomials required to compute the Hansen coefficients, and the VZA method with the values of the polynomials calculated recursively. The VZA method with explicit polynomials is by far the most rapid, but the tabulation of the polynomials only extends to 12th order in powers of the eccentricity, and unless one has access to the polynomials in machine-readable form their entry is laborious and error-prone. The recursive calculation of the VZA polynomials, needed to compute the Hansen coefficients, while slower, is faster than the calculation of the Hansen coefficients by Tisserand's method, up to 10th order in the eccentricity and is still relatively efficient for higher orders. The main advantages of the recursive calculation are the simplicity of the program and one's being able to extend the expansions to any order of eccentricity with ease. Because FORTRAN does not implement recursive procedures, this paper used C for all of the calculations. The most important conclusion is recursion's genuine usefulness in scientific computing.

  4. A Novel Navigation Paradigm for XML Repositories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azagury, Alain; Factor, Michael E.; Maarek, Yoelle S.; Mandler, Benny

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data exchange over the Internet and describes the architecture and implementation of an XML document repository that promotes a navigation paradigm for XML documents based on content and context. Topics include information retrieval and semistructured documents; and file systems as information storage infrastructure, particularly XMLFS.…

  5. XML Content Finally Arrives on the Web!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funke, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Explains extensible markup language (XML) and how it differs from hypertext markup language (HTML) and standard generalized markup language (SGML). Highlights include features of XML, including better formatting of documents, better searching capabilities, multiple uses for hyperlinking, and an increase in Web applications; Web browsers; and what…

  6. Compressing Aviation Data in XML Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Hemil; Lau, Derek; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    Design, operations and maintenance activities in aviation involve analysis of variety of aviation data. This data is typically in disparate formats making it difficult to use with different software packages. Use of a self-describing and extensible standard called XML provides a solution to this interoperability problem. XML provides a standardized language for describing the contents of an information stream, performing the same kind of definitional role for Web content as a database schema performs for relational databases. XML data can be easily customized for display using Extensible Style Sheets (XSL). While self-describing nature of XML makes it easy to reuse, it also increases the size of data significantly. Therefore, transfemng a dataset in XML form can decrease throughput and increase data transfer time significantly. It also increases storage requirements significantly. A natural solution to the problem is to compress the data using suitable algorithm and transfer it in the compressed form. We found that XML-specific compressors such as Xmill and XMLPPM generally outperform traditional compressors. However, optimal use of Xmill requires of discovery of optimal options to use while running Xmill. This, in turn, depends on the nature of data used. Manual disc0ver.y of optimal setting can require an engineer to experiment for weeks. We have devised an XML compression advisory tool that can analyze sample data files and recommend what compression tool would work the best for this data and what are the optimal settings to be used with a XML compression tool.

  7. Recursive least-squares learning algorithms for neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S. ); Hwang, Jenq-Neng . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a pair of recursive least squares (RLS) algorithms for online training of multilayer perceptrons, which are a class of feedforward artificial neural networks. These algorithms incorporate second order information about the training error surface in order to achieve faster learning rates than are possible using first order gradient descent algorithms such as the generalized delta rule. A least squares formulation is derived from a linearization of the training error function. Individual training pattern errors are linearized about the network parameters that were in effect when the pattern was presented. This permits the recursive solution of the least squares approximation, either via conventional RLS recursions or by recursive QR decomposition-based techniques. The computational complexity of the update is in the order of (N{sup 2}), where N is the number of network parameters. This is due to the estimation of the N {times} N inverse Hessian matrix. Less computationally intensive approximations of the RLS algorithms can be easily derived by using only block diagonal elements of this matrix, thereby partitioning the learning into independent sets. A simulation example is presented in which a neural network is trained to approximate a two dimensional Gaussian bump. In this example, RLS training required an order of magnitude fewer iterations on average (527) than did training with the generalized delta rule (6331). 14 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The counting recursive digital filter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the bit-level operations involved in the convolutions realizing recursive digital filters leads to hardware designs of such filters based on the operation of counting. Various designs realizing both the canonic and 'direct' forms are presented with particular emphasis on low-cost low-speed high-flexibility machines.

  9. How Learning Logic Programming Affects Recursion Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Bruria

    2004-01-01

    Recursion is a central concept in computer science, yet it is difficult for beginners to comprehend. Israeli high-school students learn recursion in the framework of a special modular program in computer science (Gal-Ezer & Harel, 1999). Some of them are introduced to the concept of recursion in two different paradigms: the procedural programming…

  10. The inclusion problem for monadic recursion schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E. P.

    1973-01-01

    The inclusion problem for the class of monadic recursion schemes is shown to be undecidable. The proof illustrates the close relationship between monadic recursion schemes and deterministic pushdown automata. The proof is extended to show that both the weak equivalence problem for the class of monadic recursion schemes and the weak equivalence problem for the class of free schemes without identity are undecidable.

  11. Core Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James

    2011-01-01

    The Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation (RHSEG) software has been repackaged to provide a version of the RHSEG software that is not subject to patent restrictions and that can be released to the general public through NASA GSFC's Open Source release process. Like the Core HSEG Software Package, this Core RHSEG Software Package also includes a visualization program called HSEGViewer along with a utility program HSEGReader. It also includes an additional utility program called HSEGExtract. The unique feature of the Core RHSEG package is that it is a repackaging of the RHSEG technology designed to specifically avoid the inclusion of the certain software technology. Unlike the Core HSEG package, it includes the recursive portions of the technology, but does not include processing window artifact elimination technology.

  12. An Introduction to the Extensible Markup Language (XML).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Describes Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that is designed to make it easy to interchange structured documents over the Internet. Topics include Document Type Definition (DTD), components of XML, the use of XML, text and non-text elements, and uses for XML-coded files. (LRW)

  13. MedlinePlus XML Data Sources

    MedlinePLUS

    ... format. The Web service provides access to all English and Spanish MedlinePlus health topics and offers a ... Health Topic Group XML These files cover all English and Spanish health topics and can be found ...

  14. XML data compression in web publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ruiheng; Hu, Wei; Tang, Zhi; Lu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lei

    2012-03-01

    XML is widely used in various document formats on the web. But it has caused negative impacts such as expensive document distribution time over the web, and long content jumping and rendering delay, especially on mobile devices. Hence we proposed a Schema-based efficient queryable XML compressor, called XTrim, which significantly improves compression ratio by utilizing optimized information in XML Schema while supporting efficient queries. Firstly, XTrim draws structure information from XML document and corresponding XML Schema. Then a novel technique is used to transform the XML tree-like structure into a compact indexed form to support efficient queries. At the same time, text values are obtained, and a language-based text trim method (LTT) that facilitates language-specific text compressors is adopted to reduce the size of text values in various languages. In LTT a word composition detection method is proposed to better process text in non-Latin languages. To evaluate the performance of XTrim, we have implemented a compressor and query engine prototype. Via extensive experiments, results show that XTrim outperforms XMill and existing queryable alternatives in terms of compression ratio, as well as the query efficiency. By applying XTrim to documents, the storage space can save up to 30% and the content jumping and rendering delay is reduced to less than 100ms from 4 seconds.

  15. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette

    2007-01-01

    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  16. Augmenting Traditional Conceptual Models to Accommodate XML Structural Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kamha, Reema; Embley, David W.; Liddle, Stephen W.

    Current graphical notations for XML Schema do not raise the level of abstraction for XML schemata in the same way traditional conceptual models raise the level of abstraction for data schemata. Traditional conceptual models, on the other hand, do not accommodate several XML Schema structures. Thus, there is a need to enrich traditional conceptual models with new XML Schema features. After establishing criteria for XML conceptual modeling, we propose an enrichment to represent the XML features missing in traditional models. We argue that our solution can be adapted generally for traditional conceptual models and show how it can be adapted for two popular conceptual models.

  17. Modeling geological objects with the XML Schema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Babaei, Abbed

    2005-11-01

    Interchange, storage, and management of geological data require the development of knowledge-based, standardized vocabularies and data structures. Concepts modeled and designed with the Unified Markup Language (UML), can be mapped into XML Schema Definition Language (XSDL) to compose modular markup languages for each discipline. Developing such efficient, intra-disciplinary, modular and reusable components, based on the XSDL namespace facility and the principles of object-oriented design, reduces redundancy, increases efficiency, scalability, and extensibility, and simplifies the maintenance and future extension of the code. This paper discusses the best practices of composition and reuse of modular intra-disciplinary components by applying XML Schema namespace syntax. In addition to several small examples given for a variety of geological cases, the paper constructs a UML conceptual model and markup language, applying an XML-type library, for a component of the plate tectonics knowledge base (TectonicsML) that deals with the divergent plate boundary.

  18. XML Based Scientific Data Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, P.; Zubair, M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The World Wide Web consortium has developed an Extensible Markup Language (XML) to support the building of better information management infrastructures. The scientific computing community realizing the benefits of XML has designed markup languages for scientific data. In this paper, we propose a XML based scientific data management ,facility, XDMF. The project is motivated by the fact that even though a lot of scientific data is being generated, it is not being shared because of lack of standards and infrastructure support for discovering and transforming the data. The proposed data management facility can be used to discover the scientific data itself, the transformation functions, and also for applying the required transformations. We have built a prototype system of the proposed data management facility that can work on different platforms. We have implemented the system using Java, and Apache XSLT engine Xalan. To support remote data and transformation functions, we had to extend the XSLT specification and the Xalan package.

  19. Using Spreadsheets to Help Students Think Recursively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Spreadsheets lend themselves naturally to recursive computations, since a formula can be defined as a function of one of more preceding cells. A hypothesized closed form for the "n"th term of a recursive sequence can be tested easily by using a spreadsheet to compute a large number of the terms. Similarly, a conjecture about the limit of a series…

  20. A Survey in Indexing and Searching XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Robert W. P.; Leong, H. V.; Dillon, Tharam S.; Chan, Alvin T. S.; Croft, W. Bruce; Allan, James

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on indexing techniques for XML documents, grouping them into flat-file, semistructured, and structured indexing paradigms. Highlights include searching techniques, including full text search and multistage search; search result presentations; database and information retrieval system integration; XML query languages; and…

  1. Flight Dynamic Model Exchange using XML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee has worked for several years to develop a standard by which the information needed to develop physics-based models of aircraft can be specified. The purpose of this standard is to provide a well-defined set of information, definitions, data tables and axis systems so that cooperating organizations can transfer a model from one simulation facility to another with maximum efficiency. This paper proposes using an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to implement the AIAA simulation standard. The motivation and justification for using a standard such as XML is discussed. Necessary data elements to be supported are outlined. An example of an aerodynamic model as an XML file is given. This example includes definition of independent and dependent variables for function tables, definition of key variables used to define the model, and axis systems used. The final steps necessary for implementation of the standard are presented. Software to take an XML-defined model and import/export it to/from a given simulation facility is discussed, but not demonstrated. That would be the next step in final implementation of standards for physics-based aircraft dynamic models.

  2. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Lubell, Joshua; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Morris, Katherine; Harvey, Betty

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  3. Shuttle-Data-Tape XML Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    JSDTImport is a computer program for translating native Shuttle Data Tape (SDT) files from American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format into databases in other formats. JSDTImport solves the problem of organizing the SDT content, affording flexibility to enable users to choose how to store the information in a database to better support client and server applications. JSDTImport can be dynamically configured by use of a simple Extensible Markup Language (XML) file. JSDTImport uses this XML file to define how each record and field will be parsed, its layout and definition, and how the resulting database will be structured. JSDTImport also includes a client application programming interface (API) layer that provides abstraction for the data-querying process. The API enables a user to specify the search criteria to apply in gathering all the data relevant to a query. The API can be used to organize the SDT content and translate into a native XML database. The XML format is structured into efficient sections, enabling excellent query performance by use of the XPath query language. Optionally, the content can be translated into a Structured Query Language (SQL) database for fast, reliable SQL queries on standard database server computers.

  4. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  5. XML-based resources for simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R. L.; Riese, J. M.; Young, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    As simulations and the machines they run on become larger and more complex the inputs and outputs become more unwieldy. Increased complexity makes the setup of simulation problems difficult. It also contributes to the burden of handling and analyzing large amounts of output results. Another problem is that among a class of simulation codes (such as those for physical system simulation) there is often no single standard format or resource for input data. To run the same problem on different simulations requires a different setup for each simulation code. The extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to represent a general set of data resources including physical system problems, materials, and test results. These resources provide a 'plug and play' approach to simulation setup. For example, a particular material for a physical system can be selected from a material database. The XML-based representation of the selected material is then converted to the native format of the simulation being run and plugged into the simulation input file. In this manner a user can quickly and more easily put together a simulation setup. In the case of output data, an XML approach to regression testing includes tests and test results with XML-based representations. This facilitates the ability to query for specific tests and make comparisons between results. Also, output results can easily be converted to other formats for publishing online or on paper.

  6. Is recursion language-specific? Evidence of recursive mechanisms in the structure of intentional action.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Giuseppe; Adenzato, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In their 2002 seminal paper Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch hypothesize that recursion is the only human-specific and language-specific mechanism of the faculty of language. While debate focused primarily on the meaning of recursion in the hypothesis and on the human-specific and syntax-specific character of recursion, the present work focuses on the claim that recursion is language-specific. We argue that there are recursive structures in the domain of motor intentionality by way of extending John R. Searle's analysis of intentional action. We then discuss evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience supporting the claim that motor-intentional recursion is language-independent and suggest some explanatory hypotheses: (1) linguistic recursion is embodied in sensory-motor processing; (2) linguistic and motor-intentional recursions are distinct and mutually independent mechanisms. Finally, we propose some reflections about the epistemic status of HCF as presenting an empirically falsifiable hypothesis, and on the possibility of testing recursion in different cognitive domains. PMID:24762973

  7. Method for implementation of recursive hierarchical segmentation on parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method, computer readable storage, and apparatus for implementing a recursive hierarchical segmentation algorithm on a parallel computing platform. The method includes setting a bottom level of recursion that defines where a recursive division of an image into sections stops dividing, and setting an intermediate level of recursion where the recursive division changes from a parallel implementation into a serial implementation. The segmentation algorithm is implemented according to the set levels. The method can also include setting a convergence check level of recursion with which the first level of recursion communicates with when performing a convergence check.

  8. Time-varying modal parameters identification of a spacecraft with rotating flexible appendage by recursive algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhiyu; Mu, Ruinan; Xun, Guangbin; Wu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The rotation of spacecraft flexible appendage may cause changes in modal parameters. For this time-varying system, the computation cost of the frequently-used singular value decomposition (SVD) identification method is high. Some control problems, such as the self-adaptive control, need the latest modal parameters to update the controller parameters in time. In this paper, the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) recursive algorithm is applied as an alternative method to identify the time-varying modal parameters. This method avoids the SVD by signal subspace projection and improves the computational efficiency. To verify the ability of this recursive algorithm in spacecraft modal parameters identification, a spacecraft model with rapid rotational appendage, Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) satellite, is established, and the time-varying modal parameters of the satellite are identified recursively by designing the input and output signals. The results illustrate that this recursive algorithm can obtain the modal parameters in the high signal noise ratio (SNR) and it has better computational efficiency than the SVD method. Moreover, to improve the identification precision of this recursive algorithm in the low SNR, the wavelet de-noising technology is used to decrease the effect of noises.

  9. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    This document describes a simple XML-based protocol that can be used for producers of events to communicate with consumers of events. The protocol described here is not meant to be the most efficient protocol, the most logical protocol, or the best protocol in any way. This protocol was defined quickly and it's intent is to give us a reasonable protocol that we can implement relatively easily and then use to gain experience in distributed event services. This experience will help us evaluate proposals for event representations, XML-based encoding of information, and communication protocols. The next section of this document describes how we represent events in this protocol and then defines the two events that we choose to use for our initial experiments. These definitions are made by example so that they are informal and easy to understand. The following section then proceeds to define the producer-consumer protocol we have agreed upon for our initial experiments.

  10. An Exponentiation Method for XML Element Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    XML document is now widely used for modelling and storing structured documents. The structure is very rich and carries important information about contents and their relationships, for example, e-Commerce. XML data-centric collections require query terms allowing users to specify constraints on the document structure; mapping structure queries and assigning the weight are significant for the set of possibly relevant documents with respect to structural conditions. In this paper, we present an extension to the MEXIR search system that supports the combination of structural and content queries in the form of content-and-structure queries, which we call the Exponentiation function. It has been shown the structural information improve the effectiveness of the search system up to 52.60% over the baseline BM25 at MAP. PMID:24696643

  11. XML Based Scientific Data Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Zubair, M.; Ziebartt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The World Wide Web consortium has developed an Extensible Markup Language (XML) to support the building of better information management infrastructures. The scientific computing community realizing the benefits of HTML has designed markup languages for scientific data. In this paper, we propose a XML based scientific data management facility, XDMF. The project is motivated by the fact that even though a lot of scientific data is being generated, it is not being shared because of lack of standards and infrastructure support for discovering and transforming the data. The proposed data management facility can be used to discover the scientific data itself, the transformation functions, and also for applying the required transformations. We have built a prototype system of the proposed data management facility that can work on different platforms. We have implemented the system using Java, and Apache XSLT engine Xalan. To support remote data and transformation functions, we had to extend the XSLT specification and the Xalan package.

  12. An exponentiation method for XML element retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wichaiwong, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    XML document is now widely used for modelling and storing structured documents. The structure is very rich and carries important information about contents and their relationships, for example, e-Commerce. XML data-centric collections require query terms allowing users to specify constraints on the document structure; mapping structure queries and assigning the weight are significant for the set of possibly relevant documents with respect to structural conditions. In this paper, we present an extension to the MEXIR search system that supports the combination of structural and content queries in the form of content-and-structure queries, which we call the Exponentiation function. It has been shown the structural information improve the effectiveness of the search system up to 52.60% over the baseline BM25 at MAP. PMID:24696643

  13. The potential of XML encoding in geomatics converting raster images to XML and SVG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Byron; Tsoulos, Lysandros

    2006-03-01

    The evolution of open standards and especially those pertaining to the family of XML technologies, have a considerable impact on the way the Geomatics community addresses the acquisition, storage, analysis and display of spatial data. The most recent version of the GML specification enables the merging of vector and raster data into a single "open" format. The notion of "coverage" as described in GML 3.0 can be the equivalent of a raster multi-band dataset. In addition, vector data storage is also described in detail through the GML Schemas and XML itself can store the values of a raster dataset, as values of a multi-table dataset. Under these circumstances an issue that must be addressed is the transformation of raster data into XML format and their subsequent visualization through SVG. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the steps that can be followed in order to embody open standards and XML technologies in the raster domain. The last part of the work refers to a case study that suggests a step by step methodology to accomplish classification, an important function in Cartography and Remote Sensing, using the XML-encoded images.

  14. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal solution, and the region from which new configurations can be selected shrinks as the search continues. The key difference between these algorithms is that in the SA algorithm, a single path, or trajectory, is taken in parameter space, from the starting point to the globally optimal solution, while in the RBSA algorithm, many trajectories are taken; by exploring multiple regions of the parameter space simultaneously, the algorithm has been shown to converge on the globally optimal solution about an order of magnitude faster than when using conventional algorithms. Novel features of the RBSA algorithm include: 1. More efficient searching of the parameter space due to the branching structure, in which multiple random configurations are generated and multiple promising regions of the parameter space are explored; 2. The implementation of a trust region for each parameter in the parameter space, which provides a natural way of enforcing upper- and lower-bound constraints on the parameters; and 3. The optional use of a constrained gradient- search optimization, performed on the continuous variables around each branch s configuration in parameter space to improve search efficiency by allowing for fast fine-tuning of the continuous variables within the trust region at that configuration point.

  15. Using Heaps in Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    A modification to increase processing speed has been made in the algorithm and implementing software reported in Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data (GSC-14681-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 51. That software performs recursive hierarchical segmentation of data having spatial characteristics (e.g., spectral-image data). The segmentation process includes an iterative subprocess, in each iteration of which it is necessary to determine a best pair of regions to merge [merges being justified by one or more measure(s) similarity of pixels in the regions]. In the previously reported version of the algorithm and software, the choice of a best pair of regions to merge involved the use of a fully sorted list of regions. That version was computationally inefficient because a fully sorted list is not needed: what is needed is only the identity of the pair of regions characterized by the smallest measure of dissimilarity. The present modification replaces the use of a fully sorted list with the use of data heaps, which are computationally more efficient for performing the required comparisons among dissimilarity measures. The modification includes the incorporation of standard and modified functions for creating and updating data heaps

  16. Processing heterogeneous XML data from multi-source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Liu, Da-Xin; Sun, Wei; Lin, Xuanzuo

    2006-04-01

    Recently XML heterogeneity has become a new challenge. In this paper, a novel clustering strategy is proposed to regroup these heterogeneous XML sources, for searching in a relatively smaller space with certain similarity can reduce cost. The strategy consists of four steps. We at first extract features about paths and map them into High-dimension Vector Space (HDVS). In the data pre-process, two algorithms are applied to diminish the redundancies in XML sources. Then heterogeneous documents are clustered. Finally, Multivalued Dependency (MVD) is introduced, for MVD can be redefined according to the range of constraints of XML. This paper also proposes a novel algorithm that discovering minimal MVD, based on the rough set handling non-integrity data. It can solve the problem that non-integrity data of XML influence on finding the MVD of XML, thus patterns can be extracted from each cluster.

  17. δ-dependency for privacy-preserving XML data publishing.

    PubMed

    Landberg, Anders H; Nguyen, Kinh; Pardede, Eric; Rahayu, J Wenny

    2014-08-01

    An ever increasing amount of medical data such as electronic health records, is being collected, stored, shared and managed in large online health information systems and electronic medical record systems (EMR) (Williams et al., 2001; Virtanen, 2009; Huang and Liou, 2007) [1-3]. From such rich collections, data is often published in the form of census and statistical data sets for the purpose of knowledge sharing and enabling medical research. This brings with it an increasing need for protecting individual people privacy, and it becomes an issue of great importance especially when information about patients is exposed to the public. While the concept of data privacy has been comprehensively studied for relational data, models and algorithms addressing the distinct differences and complex structure of XML data are yet to be explored. Currently, the common compromise method is to convert private XML data into relational data for publication. This ad hoc approach results in significant loss of useful semantic information previously carried in the private XML data. Health data often has very complex structure, which is best expressed in XML. In fact, XML is the standard format for exchanging (e.g. HL7 version 3(1)) and publishing health information. Lack of means to deal directly with data in XML format is inevitably a serious drawback. In this paper we propose a novel privacy protection model for XML, and an algorithm for implementing this model. We provide general rules, both for transforming a private XML schema into a published XML schema, and for mapping private XML data to the new privacy-protected published XML data. In addition, we propose a new privacy property, δ-dependency, which can be applied to both relational and XML data, and that takes into consideration the hierarchical nature of sensitive data (as opposed to "quasi-identifiers"). Lastly, we provide an implementation of our model, algorithm and privacy property, and perform an experimental analysis, to demonstrate the proposed privacy scheme in practical application. PMID:24518557

  18. XML — an opportunity for data standards in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlding, Simon W.

    2001-08-01

    Extensible markup language (XML) is a recently introduced meta-language standard on the Web. It provides the rules for development of metadata (markup) standards for information transfer in specific fields. XML allows development of markup languages that describe what information is rather than how it should be presented. This allows computer applications to process the information in intelligent ways. In contrast hypertext markup language (HTML), which fuelled the initial growth of the Web, is a metadata standard concerned exclusively with presentation of information. Besides its potential for revolutionizing Web activities, XML provides an opportunity for development of meaningful data standards in specific application fields. The rapid endorsement of XML by science, industry and e-commerce has already spawned new metadata standards in such fields as mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, multi-media and Web micro-payments. Development of XML-based data standards in the geosciences would significantly reduce the effort currently wasted on manipulating and reformatting data between different computer platforms and applications and would ensure compatibility with the new generation of Web browsers. This paper explores the evolution, benefits and status of XML and related standards in the more general context of Web activities and uses this as a platform for discussion of its potential for development of data standards in the geosciences. Some of the advantages of XML are illustrated by a simple, browser-compatible demonstration of XML functionality applied to a borehole log dataset. The XML dataset and the associated stylesheet and schema declarations are available for FTP download.

  19. Recursive technique for inverting the lidar equation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R

    1988-07-01

    A method for extracting the extinction coefficient from lidar signals is presented. The method assumes the backscatter and extinction coefficient to be related by a power law and consists of approximating the integral in the lidar equation by a Riemann sum of the extinction coefficients. This approximation allows us to develop two recursion formulas for extracting the extinction coefficient as a function of range. One formula is a forward recursion, and the other is a backward recursion in the sense that solutions are generated for r >/= r(0) and for r

  20. Information persistence using XML database technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Thomas A.; Lipa, Brian E. G.; Macera, Anthony R.; Staskevich, Gennady R.

    2005-05-01

    The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) Information Management (IM) services provide information exchange and persistence capabilities that support tailored, dynamic, and timely access to required information, enabling near real-time planning, control, and execution for DoD decision making. JBI IM services will be built on a substrate of network centric core enterprise services and when transitioned, will establish an interoperable information space that aggregates, integrates, fuses, and intelligently disseminates relevant information to support effective warfighter business processes. This virtual information space provides individual users with information tailored to their specific functional responsibilities and provides a highly tailored repository of, or access to, information that is designed to support a specific Community of Interest (COI), geographic area or mission. Critical to effective operation of JBI IM services is the implementation of repositories, where data, represented as information, is represented and persisted for quick and easy retrieval. This paper will address information representation, persistence and retrieval using existing database technologies to manage structured data in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format as well as unstructured data in an IM services-oriented environment. Three basic categories of database technologies will be compared and contrasted: Relational, XML-Enabled, and Native XML. These technologies have diverse properties such as maturity, performance, query language specifications, indexing, and retrieval methods. We will describe our application of these evolving technologies within the context of a JBI Reference Implementation (RI) by providing some hopefully insightful anecdotes and lessons learned along the way. This paper will also outline future directions, promising technologies and emerging COTS products that can offer more powerful information management representations, better persistence mechanisms and improved retrieval techniques.

  1. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of performance data. These standard protocols and representations must support tasks such as profiling parallel applications, monitoring the status of computers and networks, and monitoring the performance of services provided by a computational grid. This paper describes a proposed protocol and data representation for the exchange of events in a distributed system. The protocol exchanges messages formatted in XML and it can be layered atop any low-level communication protocol such as TCP or UDP Further, we describe Java and C++ implementations of this protocol and discuss their performance. The next section will provide some further background information. Section 3 describes the main communication patterns of our protocol. Section 4 describes how we represent events and related information using XML. Section 5 describes our protocol and Section 6 discusses the performance of two implementations of the protocol. Finally, an appendix provides the XML Schema definition of our protocol and event information.

  2. Parallel scheduling of recursively defined arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. J.; Gokhale, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method of automatic generation of concurrent programs which constructs arrays defined by sets of recursive equations is described. It is assumed that the time of computation of an array element is a linear combination of its indices, and integer programming is used to seek a succession of hyperplanes along which array elements can be computed concurrently. The method can be used to schedule equations involving variable length dependency vectors and mutually recursive arrays. Portions of the work reported here have been implemented in the PS automatic program generation system.

  3. Recursive Implementations of the Consider Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; DSouza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    One method to account for parameters errors in the Kalman filter is to consider their effect in the so-called Schmidt-Kalman filter. This work addresses issues that arise when implementing a consider Kalman filter as a real-time, recursive algorithm. A favorite implementation of the Kalman filter as an onboard navigation subsystem is the UDU formulation. A new way to implement a UDU consider filter is proposed. The non-optimality of the recursive consider filter is also analyzed, and a modified algorithm is proposed to overcome this limitation.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Processing Time for the Synchronization of XML-Based Business Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameling, Michael; Wolf, Bernhard; Springer, Thomas; Schill, Alexander

    Business objects (BOs) are data containers for complex data structures used in business applications such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management. Due to the replication of application logic, multiple copies of BOs are created which have to be synchronized and updated. This is a complex and time consuming task because BOs rigorously vary in their structure according to the distribution, number and size of elements. Since BOs are internally represented as XML documents, the parsing of XML is one major cost factor which has to be considered for minimizing the processing time during synchronization. The prediction of the parsing time for BOs is an significant property for the selection of an efficient synchronization mechanism. In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the influence of the structure of BOs on their parsing time. The results of our experimental evaluation incorporating four different XML parsers examine the dependencies between the distribution of elements and the parsing time. Finally, a general cost model will be validated and simplified according to the results of the experimental setup.

  5. A Recursive Method for Calculating Certain Partition Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrum, Luther; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes a simple recursive method for calculating the partition function and average energy of a system consisting of N electrons and L energy levels. Also, presents an efficient APL computer program to utilize the recursion relation. (Author/GA)

  6. A recursive Bayesian approach for fatigue damage prognosis: An experimental validation at the reliability component level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbato, Maurizio; Kosmatka, John B.; Conte, Joel P.

    2014-04-01

    Fatigue-induced damage is one of the most uncertain and highly unpredictable failure mechanisms for a large variety of mechanical and structural systems subjected to cyclic and random loads during their service life. A health monitoring system capable of (i) monitoring the critical components of these systems through non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, (ii) assessing their structural integrity, (iii) recursively predicting their remaining fatigue life (RFL), and (iv) providing a cost-efficient reliability-based inspection and maintenance plan (RBIM) is therefore ultimately needed. In contribution to these objectives, the first part of the paper provides an overview and extension of a comprehensive reliability-based fatigue damage prognosis methodology — previously developed by the authors — for recursively predicting and updating the RFL of critical structural components and/or sub-components in aerospace structures. In the second part of the paper, a set of experimental fatigue test data, available in the literature, is used to provide a numerical verification and an experimental validation of the proposed framework at the reliability component level (i.e., single damage mechanism evolving at a single damage location). The results obtained from this study demonstrate (i) the importance and the benefits of a nearly continuous NDE monitoring system, (ii) the efficiency of the recursive Bayesian updating scheme, and (iii) the robustness of the proposed framework in recursively updating and improving the RFL estimations. This study also demonstrates that the proposed methodology can lead to either an extent of the RFL (with a consequent economical gain without compromising the minimum safety requirements) or an increase of safety by detecting a premature fault and therefore avoiding a very costly catastrophic failure.

  7. Recursive inversion of externally defined linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram

    1988-01-01

    The approximate inversion of an internally unknown linear system, given by its impulse response sequence, by an inverse system having a finite impulse response, is considered. The recursive least squares procedure is shown to have an exact initialization, based on the triangular Toeplitz structure of the matrix involved. The proposed approach also suggests solutions to the problems of system identification and compensation.

  8. TORTIS (Toddler's Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Radia

    TORTIS (Toddler's Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System) is a device which can be used to study or nurture the cognitive development of preschool children. The device consists of a "turtle" which the child can control by use of buttons on a control panel. The "turtle" can be made to move in prescribed directions, to take a given number of paces,…

  9. A Recursive Approach to Office Object Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamersdorf, W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identifies requirements for representing structural aspects of nonconventional information system applications and demonstrates how recursive data models support information systems better than record-based database modelling tools. Structural concepts for representing office data objects are discussed and applied to an office example. Language…

  10. Recursive Generation of Space-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Space-times can be generated recursively from a time-like unit basis vector T and a space-like one S. T is unique up to sign, corresponding to particles and antiparticles. S has the form of qubits. Qubits can make quantum transitions, suggesting spontaneous generation of space-time. Recursive generation leads from 2 dimensions to 4, with grades of the resulting algebra corresponding to space-time, spin-area, momentum-energy, and action. Dimensions can be open (like space-time) or closed. A closed time-like dimension has the symmetry of electromagnetism; 3 closed space-like dimensions have the symmetry of the weak force. The 4 open dimensions and the 4 closed dimensions produce an 8-dimensional space with a symmetry that is the product of the Yang regularization of the Heisenberg-Poincaré group and the GUT regularization of the Standard Model. After 8 dimensions, the pattern of real geometric algebras repeats itself, producing a recursive lattice of spontaneously expanding space-time with the physics of the Standard Model at each point of the lattice, implying conservation laws by Noether's theorem. The laws of nature are not preexistent; rather, they are consequences of the uniformity of space-time. The uniformity of space-time is a consequence of its recursive generation.

  11. On the design of recursive digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoi, K.; Narasimha, M. J.; Peterson, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A change of variables is described which transforms the problem of designing a recursive digital filter to that of approximation by a ratio of polynomials on a finite interval. Some analytic techniques for the design of low-pass filters are presented, illustrating the use of the transformation. Also considered are methods for the design of phase equalizers.

  12. RECURSIVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF HYDROLOGIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed is a nonlinear filtering approach to recursive parameter estimation of conceptual watershed response models in state-space form. he conceptual model state is augmented by the vector of free parameters which are to be estimated from input-output data, and the extended Kal...

  13. Recursive harmonic analysis for computing Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel Sharaf, Mohamed; Hassan Selim, Hadia

    2010-12-01

    We report on a simple pure numerical method developed for computing Hansen coefficients by using a recursive harmonic analysis technique. The precision criteria of the computations are very satisfactory and provide materials for computing Hansen's and Hansen's like expansions, and also to check the accuracy of some existing algorithms.

  14. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from pre-mRNA transcripts. However, some long D. melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, called a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing1,2. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis remain unclear. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of a “RS-exon” that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform due to competition with a reconstituted 5? splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic exons or promoters that are prevalent in long introns, but which fail to reconstitute an efficient 5? splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion may decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling inclusion of cryptic elements with RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  15. Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Christopher R; Emmett, Warren; Blazquez, Lorea; Faro, Ana; Haberman, Nejc; Briese, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John; Modic, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Wilson, Stephen W; Plagnol, Vincent; Ule, Jernej

    2015-05-21

    It is generally believed that splicing removes introns as single units from precursor messenger RNA transcripts. However, some long Drosophila melanogaster introns contain a cryptic site, known as a recursive splice site (RS-site), that enables a multi-step process of intron removal termed recursive splicing. The extent to which recursive splicing occurs in other species and its mechanistic basis have not been examined. Here we identify highly conserved RS-sites in genes expressed in the mammalian brain that encode proteins functioning in neuronal development. Moreover, the RS-sites are found in some of the longest introns across vertebrates. We find that vertebrate recursive splicing requires initial definition of an 'RS-exon' that follows the RS-site. The RS-exon is then excluded from the dominant mRNA isoform owing to competition with a reconstituted 5' splice site formed at the RS-site after the first splicing step. Conversely, the RS-exon is included when preceded by cryptic promoters or exons that fail to reconstitute an efficient 5' splice site. Most RS-exons contain a premature stop codon such that their inclusion can decrease mRNA stability. Thus, by establishing a binary splicing switch, RS-sites demarcate different mRNA isoforms emerging from long genes by coupling cryptic elements with inclusion of RS-exons. PMID:25970246

  16. An Expressive and Efficient Language for XML Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinenyanga, Taurai Tapiwa; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML and information retrieval and describes a query language, ELIXIR (expressive and efficient language for XML information retrieval), with a textual similarity operator that can be used for similarity joins. Explains the algorithm for answering ELIXIR queries to generate intermediate relational data. (Author/LRW)

  17. Adding XML to the MIS Curriculum: Lessons from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William P.; Pant, Vik; Hilken, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a new technology that is currently being extolled by many industry experts and software vendors. Potentially it represents a platform independent language for sharing information over networks in a way that is much more seamless than with previous technologies. It is extensible in that XML serves as a "meta"…

  18. EquiX-A Search and Query Language for XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sara; Kanza, Yaron; Kogan, Yakov; Sagiv, Yehoshua; Nutt, Werner; Serebrenik, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Describes EquiX, a search language for XML that combines querying with searching to query the data and the meta-data content of Web pages. Topics include search engines; a data model for XML documents; search query syntax; search query semantics; an algorithm for evaluating a query on a document; and indexing EquiX queries. (LRW)

  19. Data Manipulation in an XML-Based Digital Image Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To help to clarify the role of XML tools and standards in supporting transition and migration towards a fully XML-based environment for managing access to information. Design/methodology/approach: The Ching Digital Image Library, built on a three-tier architecture, is used as a source of examples to illustrate a number of methods of data…

  20. Data Manipulation in an XML-Based Digital Image Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To help to clarify the role of XML tools and standards in supporting transition and migration towards a fully XML-based environment for managing access to information. Design/methodology/approach: The Ching Digital Image Library, built on a three-tier architecture, is used as a source of examples to illustrate a number of methods of data…

  1. A Typed Text Retrieval Query Language for XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colazzo, Dario; Sartiani, Carlo; Albano, Antonio; Manghi, Paolo; Ghelli, Giorgio; Lini, Luca; Paoli, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on a description of Tequyla-TX, a typed text retrieval query language for XML documents that can search on both content and structures. Highlights include motivations; numerous examples; word-based and char-based searches; tag-dependent full-text searches; text normalization; query algebra; data models and term language;…

  2. An XML file format for exchanging singlet lens specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Shawn C.; Gangadhara, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Zemax has developed an XML schema for the distribution of singlet lens specifications based on the ISO 10110 standard. In OpticStudio 15, this kind of XML data can be exported from the ISO Element Drawing analysis. The data file is then used in a feature that automates exchange of lens data between designer and manufacturer, the Cost Estimator. This Cost Estimator feature submits the XML data to various manufacturers to obtain cost estimates for prototype lens production. The workflow centered on the XML data exchange facilitates rapid cost estimate retrieval and eliminates the need for redundant manual data entry. The XML Schema Definition (XSD) for the XML format can be used with Microsoft developer tools to automatically create .NET classes to serialize and deserialize the singlet lens data to/from XML files. The format provides flexible unit specification for most parameters. Choosing XML as the basis for the file format has provided several benefits, such as the above mentioned automated serialization capabilities in .NET, a human-readable text-based format, and ready support for consumption by web services.

  3. Adding XML to the MIS Curriculum: Lessons from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William P.; Pant, Vik; Hilken, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a new technology that is currently being extolled by many industry experts and software vendors. Potentially it represents a platform independent language for sharing information over networks in a way that is much more seamless than with previous technologies. It is extensible in that XML serves as a "meta"…

  4. A Typed Text Retrieval Query Language for XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colazzo, Dario; Sartiani, Carlo; Albano, Antonio; Manghi, Paolo; Ghelli, Giorgio; Lini, Luca; Paoli, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on a description of Tequyla-TX, a typed text retrieval query language for XML documents that can search on both content and structures. Highlights include motivations; numerous examples; word-based and char-based searches; tag-dependent full-text searches; text normalization; query algebra; data models and term language;…

  5. A Survey on Teaching and Learning Recursive Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinderknecht, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We survey the literature about the teaching and learning of recursive programming. After a short history of the advent of recursion in programming languages and its adoption by programmers, we present curricular approaches to recursion, including a review of textbooks and some programming methodology, as well as the functional and imperative…

  6. Converting European-Pulsar-Network Data to XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiradakis, J. H.; Radioti, E.

    2006-04-01

    The European Pulsar Network (EPN) format for pulsar data was discussed, reviewed and established about 10 years ago, during the EU Human Capital and Mobility project. Since then it has been extensively used in most pulsar observing facilities worldwide. It is a flexible format, able to accommodate the various data-structures of pulsar data. Its use has enhanced collaborative pulsar research and corroborated our understanding of these exotic compact stars. Three years ago it was decided to create a new tool to convert EPN-formatted data to XML (eXtensible Markup Language). The tool automatically converts EPN files to XML Physical Structure (xml) and XML Document Type Definition (dtd) files. The XML-formatted pulsar data allows the use of a wide range of analysis packages to be applied to pulsar research.

  7. An introduction to on-shell recursion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo; Luo, Mingxing

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to on-shell recursion relations for calculations of tree-level amplitudes. Starting with the basics, such as spinor notations and color decompositions, we expose analytic properties of gauge-boson amplitudes, BCFW-deformations, the large z-behavior of amplitudes, and on-shell recursion relations of gluons. We discuss further developments of on-shell recursion relations, including generalization to other quantum field theories, supersymmetric theories in particular, recursion relations for off-shell currents, recursion relation with nonzero boundary contributions, bonus relations, relations for rational parts of one-loop amplitudes, recursion relations in 3D and a proof of CSW rules. Finally, we present samples of applications, including solutions of split helicity amplitudes and of N = 4 SYM theories, consequences of consistent conditions under recursion relation, Kleiss-Kuijf (KK) and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) relations for color-ordered gluon tree amplitudes, Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations.

  8. The recursion relation in Lagrangian perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rampf, Cornelius

    2012-12-01

    We derive a recursion relation in the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory, appropriate for studying the inhomogeneities of the large scale structure of the universe. We use the fact that the perturbative expansion of the matter density contrast is in one-to-one correspondence with standard perturbation theory (SPT) at any order. This correspondence has been recently shown to be valid up to fourth order for a non-relativistic, irrotational and dust-like component. Assuming it to be valid at arbitrary (higher) order, we express the Lagrangian displacement field in terms of the perturbative kernels of SPT, which are itself given by their own and well-known recursion relation. We argue that the Lagrangian solution always contains more non-linear information in comparison with the SPT solution, (mainly) if the non-perturbative density contrast is restored after the displacement field is obtained.

  9. BCFW recursion relations and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; O'Connell, Donal; Wecht, Brian

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate that all tree-level string theory amplitudes can be computed using the BCFW recursion relations. Our proof utilizes the pomeron vertex operator introduced by Brower, Polchinski, Strassler, and Tan. Surprisingly, we find that in a particular large complex momentum limit, the asymptotic expansion of massless string amplitudes is identical in form to that of the corresponding field theory amplitudes. This observation makes manifest the fact that field-theoretic Yang-Mills and graviton amplitudes obey KLT-like relations. Moreover, we conjecture that in this large momentum limit certain string theory and field theory amplitudes are identical, and provide evidence for this conjecture. Additionally, we find a new recursion relation which relates tachyon amplitudes to lower-point tachyon amplitudes.

  10. Geomagnetic modeling by optimal recursive filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, B. P.; Estes, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of using Kalman filter techniques for geomagnetic field modeling are given. Specifically, five separate field models were computed using observatory annual means, satellite, survey and airborne data for the years 1950 to 1976. Each of the individual field models used approximately five years of data. These five models were combined using a recursive information filter (a Kalman filter written in terms of information matrices rather than covariance matrices.) The resulting estimate of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation was propogated four years past the data to the time of the MAGSAT data. The accuracy with which this field model matched the MAGSAT data was evaluated by comparisons with predictions from other pre-MAGSAT field models. The field estimate obtained by recursive estimation was found to be superior to all other models.

  11. A Data Parallel Algorithm for XML DOM Parsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Bhavik; Rao, Praveen R.; Moon, Bongki; Rajagopalan, Mohan

    The extensible markup language XML has become the de facto standard for information representation and interchange on the Internet. XML parsing is a core operation performed on an XML document for it to be accessed and manipulated. This operation is known to cause performance bottlenecks in applications and systems that process large volumes of XML data. We believe that parallelism is a natural way to boost performance. Leveraging multicore processors can offer a cost-effective solution, because future multicore processors will support hundreds of cores, and will offer a high degree of parallelism in hardware. We propose a data parallel algorithm called ParDOM for XML DOM parsing, that builds an in-memory tree structure for an XML document. ParDOM has two phases. In the first phase, an XML document is partitioned into chunks and parsed in parallel. In the second phase, partial DOM node tree structures created during the first phase, are linked together (in parallel) to build a complete DOM node tree. ParDOM offers fine-grained parallelism by adopting a flexible chunking scheme - each chunk can contain an arbitrary number of start and end XML tags that are not necessarily matched. ParDOM can be conveniently implemented using a data parallel programming model that supports map and sort operations. Through empirical evaluation, we show that ParDOM yields better scalability than PXP [23] - a recently proposed parallel DOM parsing algorithm - on commodity multicore processors. Furthermore, ParDOM can process a wide-variety of XML datasets with complex structures which PXP fails to parse.

  12. Application of XML in real-time data warehouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Wang, Beizhan; Liu, Lizhao; Ye, Su

    2009-07-01

    At present, XML is one of the most widely-used technologies of data-describing and data-exchanging, and the needs for real-time data make real-time data warehouse a popular area in the research of data warehouse. What effects can we have if we apply XML technology to the research of real-time data warehouse? XML technology solves many technologic problems which are impossible to be addressed in traditional real-time data warehouse, and realize the integration of OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) and OLTP (Online transaction processing) environment. Then real-time data warehouse can truly be called "real time".

  13. Weighted Laplacians, cocycles and recursion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Hodge's formula represents the gravitational MHV amplitude as the determinant of a minor of a certain matrix. When expanded, this determinant becomes a sum over weighted trees, which is the form of the MHV formula first obtained by Bern, Dixon, Perelstein, Rozowsky and rediscovered by Nguyen, Spradlin, Volovich and Wen. The gravity MHV amplitude satisfies the Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten recursion relation. The main building block of the MHV amplitude, the so-called half-soft function, satisfies a different, Berends-Giele-type recursion relation. We show that all these facts are illustrations to a more general story. We consider a weighted Laplacian for a complete graph of n vertices. The matrix tree theorem states that its diagonal minor determinants are all equal and given by a sum over spanning trees. We show that, for any choice of a cocycle on the graph, the minor determinants satisfy a Berends-Giele as well as Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten type recursion relation. Our proofs are purely combinatorial.

  14. Using XML to Separate Content from the Presentation Software in eLearning Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Paul F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has shown how XML (extensible Markup Language) can be used to mark up content. Since XML documents, with meaningful tags, can be interpreted easily by humans as well as computers, they are ideal for the interchange of information. Because XML tags can be defined by an individual or organization, XML documents have proven useful in a…

  15. Using XML to Separate Content from the Presentation Software in eLearning Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Paul F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has shown how XML (extensible Markup Language) can be used to mark up content. Since XML documents, with meaningful tags, can be interpreted easily by humans as well as computers, they are ideal for the interchange of information. Because XML tags can be defined by an individual or organization, XML documents have proven useful in a…

  16. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  17. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  18. Path Query Processing in Large-Scale XML Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Su-Cheng; Radha Krishna Rao, G. S. V.

    With the ever-increasing popularity of XML (e-Xtensible Markup Language) as data representation and exchange on the Internet, querying XML data has become an important issue to be address. In Native XML Database (NXD), XML documents are usually modeled as trees and XML queries are typically specified in path expression. In path expression, the primitive structural relationships are Parent-Child (P-C) and Ancestor-Descendant (A-D). Thus, finding all occurrences of these relationships is crucial for XML query processing. Current methods for query processing on NXD usually employ either sequential traversing of tree-structured model or a decomposition-matching-merging processes. We adopt the later approach and propose a novel hybrid query optimization technique, INLAB comprising both indexing and labeling technologies. Furthermore, we also propose several algorithms to create INLAB encoding and analyze the path query. We implemented our technique and present performance results over several benchmarking datasets, which prove the viability of our approach.

  19. Specifics on a XML Data Format for Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaya, E.; Thomas, B.; Cheung, C.

    An XML-based data format for interchange and archiving of scientific data would benefit in many ways from the features standardized in XML. Foremost of these features is the world-wide acceptance and adoption of XML. Applications, such as browsers, XQL and XSQL advanced query, XML editing, or CSS or XSLT transformation, that are coming out of industry and academia can be easily adopted and provide startling new benefits and features. We have designed a prototype of a core format for holding, in a very general way, parameters, tables, scalar and vector fields, atlases, animations and complex combinations of these. This eXtensible Data Format (XDF) makes use of XML functionalities such as: self-validation of document structure, default values for attributes, XLink hyperlinks, entity replacements, internal referencing, inheritance, and XSLT transformation. An API is available to aid in detailed assembly, extraction, and manipulation. Conversion tools to and from FITS and other existing data formats are under development. In the future, we hope to provide object oriented interfaces to C++, Java, Python, IDL, Mathematica, Maple, and various databases. http://xml.gsfc.nasa.gov/XDF

  20. Recursion Relations for Double Ramification Hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryak, Alexandr; Rossi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we study various properties of the double ramification hierarchy, an integrable hierarchy of hamiltonian PDEs introduced in Buryak (CommunMath Phys 336(3):1085-1107, 2015) using intersection theory of the double ramification cycle in the moduli space of stable curves. In particular, we prove a recursion formula that recovers the full hierarchy starting from just one of the Hamiltonians, the one associated to the first descendant of the unit of a cohomological field theory. Moreover, we introduce analogues of the topological recursion relations and the divisor equation both for the Hamiltonian densities and for the string solution of the double ramification hierarchy. This machinery is very efficient and we apply it to various computations for the trivial and Hodge cohomological field theories, and for the r -spin Witten's classes. Moreover, we prove the Miura equivalence between the double ramification hierarchy and the Dubrovin-Zhang hierarchy for the Gromov-Witten theory of the complex projective line (extended Toda hierarchy).

  1. Recursion Relations for Double Ramification Hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryak, Alexandr; Rossi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we study various properties of the double ramification hierarchy, an integrable hierarchy of hamiltonian PDEs introduced in Buryak (CommunMath Phys 336(3):1085-1107, 2015) using intersection theory of the double ramification cycle in the moduli space of stable curves. In particular, we prove a recursion formula that recovers the full hierarchy starting from just one of the Hamiltonians, the one associated to the first descendant of the unit of a cohomological field theory. Moreover, we introduce analogues of the topological recursion relations and the divisor equation both for the Hamiltonian densities and for the string solution of the double ramification hierarchy. This machinery is very efficient and we apply it to various computations for the trivial and Hodge cohomological field theories, and for the r -spin Witten's classes. Moreover, we prove the Miura equivalence between the double ramification hierarchy and the Dubrovin-Zhang hierarchy for the Gromov-Witten theory of the complex projective line (extended Toda hierarchy).

  2. The SGML Standardization Framework and the Introduction of XML

    PubMed Central

    Grütter, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    Extensible Markup Language (XML) is on its way to becoming a global standard for the representation, exchange, and presentation of information on the World Wide Web (WWW). More than that, XML is creating a standardization framework, in terms of an open network of meta-standards and mediators that allows for the definition of further conventions and agreements in specific business domains. Such an approach is particularly needed in the healthcare domain; XML promises to especially suit the particularities of patient records and their lifelong storage, retrieval, and exchange. At a time when change rather than steadiness is becoming the faithful feature of our society, standardization frameworks which support a diversified growth of specifications that are appropriate to the actual needs of the users are becoming more and more important; and efforts should be made to encourage this new attempt at standardization to grow in a fruitful direction. Thus, the introduction of XML reflects a standardization process which is neither exclusively based on an acknowledged standardization authority, nor a pure market standard. Instead, a consortium of companies, academic institutions, and public bodies has agreed on a common recommendation based on an existing standardization framework. The consortium's process of agreeing to a standardization framework will doubtlessly be successful in the case of XML, and it is suggested that it should be considered as a generic model for standardization processes in the future. PMID:11720931

  3. The SGML standardization framework and the introduction of XML.

    PubMed

    Fierz, W; Grütter, R

    2000-01-01

    Extensible Markup Language (XML) is on its way to becoming a global standard for the representation, exchange, and presentation of information on the World Wide Web (WWW). More than that, XML is creating a standardization framework, in terms of an open network of meta-standards and mediators that allows for the definition of further conventions and agreements in specific business domains. Such an approach is particularly needed in the healthcare domain; XML promises to especially suit the particularities of patient records and their lifelong storage, retrieval, and exchange. At a time when change rather than steadiness is becoming the faithful feature of our society, standardization frameworks which support a diversified growth of specifications that are appropriate to the actual needs of the users are becoming more and more important; and efforts should be made to encourage this new attempt at standardization to grow in a fruitful direction. Thus, the introduction of XML reflects a standardization process which is neither exclusively based on an acknowledged standardization authority, nor a pure market standard. Instead, a consortium of companies, academic institutions, and public bodies has agreed on a common recommendation based on an existing standardization framework. The consortium's process of agreeing to a standardization framework will doubtlessly be successful in the case of XML, and it is suggested that it should be considered as a generic model for standardization processes in the future. PMID:11720931

  4. Realization Of Algebraic Processor For XML Documents Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2010-10-25

    In this paper, are presented some possibilities concerning the implementation of an algebraic method for XML hierarchical data processing which makes faster the XML search mechanism. Here is offered a different point of view for creation of advanced algebraic processor (with all necessary software tools and programming modules respectively). Therefore, this nontraditional approach for fast XML navigation with the presented algebraic processor may help to build an easier user-friendly interface provided XML transformations, which can avoid the difficulties in the complicated language constructions of XSL, XSLT and XPath. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of the following types of functions: specification functions and so named build-in functions. The choice of programming language Java may appear strange at first, but it isn't when you consider that the applications can run on different kinds of computers. The specific search mechanism based on the linear algebra theory is faster in comparison with MSXML parsers (on the basis of the developed examples with about 30%). Actually, there exists the possibility for creating new software tools based on the linear algebra theory, which cover the whole navigation and search techniques characterizing XSLT/XPath. The proposed method is able to replace more complicated operations in other SOA components.

  5. Language, Mind, Practice: Families of Recursive Thinking in Human Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Marika

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, Chomsky, Hauser, and Fitch asserted that recursion may be the one aspect of the human language faculty that makes human language unique in the narrow sense--unique to language and unique to human beings. They also argue somewhat more quietly (as do Pinker and Jackendoff 2005) that recursion may be possible outside of language: navigation,…

  6. Recursive Frame Analysis: A Practitioner's Tool for Mapping Therapeutic Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recursive frame analysis (RFA), both a practical therapeutic tool and an advanced qualitative research method that maps the structure of therapeutic conversation, is introduced with a clinical case vignette. We present and illustrate a means of mapping metaphorical themes that contextualize the performance taking place in the room, recursively…

  7. KAT: A Flexible XML-based Knowledge Authoring Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Nathan C.; Rocha, Roberto A.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Bradshaw, Richard L.; Hanna, Timothy P.; Roemer, Lorrie K.

    2005-01-01

    As part of an enterprise effort to develop new clinical information systems at Intermountain Health Care, the authors have built a knowledge authoring tool that facilitates the development and refinement of medical knowledge content. At present, users of the application can compose order sets and an assortment of other structured clinical knowledge documents based on XML schemas. The flexible nature of the application allows the immediate authoring of new types of documents once an appropriate XML schema and accompanying Web form have been developed and stored in a shared repository. The need for a knowledge acquisition tool stems largely from the desire for medical practitioners to be able to write their own content for use within clinical applications. We hypothesize that medical knowledge content for clinical use can be successfully created and maintained through XML-based document frameworks containing structured and coded knowledge. PMID:15802477

  8. XAPiir: A recursive digital filtering package

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.

    1990-09-21

    XAPiir is a basic recursive digital filtering package, containing both design and implementation subroutines. XAPiir was developed for the experimental array processor (XAP) software package, and is written in FORTRAN. However, it is intended to be incorporated into any general- or special-purpose signal analysis program. It replaces the older package RECFIL, offering several enhancements. RECFIL is used in several large analysis programs developed at LLNL, including the seismic analysis package SAC, several expert systems (NORSEA and NETSEA), and two general purpose signal analysis packages (SIG and VIEW). This report is divided into two sections: the first describes the use of the subroutine package, and the second, its internal organization. In the first section, the filter design problem is briefly reviewed, along with the definitions of the filter design parameters and their relationship to the subroutine input parameters. In the second section, the internal organization is documented to simplify maintenance and extensions to the package. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  9. On multi-step BCFW recursion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo; Rao, Junjie; Zhou, Kang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we extensively investigate the new algorithm known as the multi-step BCFW recursion relations. Many interesting mathematical properties are found and understanding these aspects, one can find a systematic way to complete the calculation of amplitude after finite, definite steps and get the correct answer, without recourse to any specific knowledge from field theories, besides mass dimension and helicities. This process consists of the pole concentration and inconsistency elimination. Terms that sur-vive inconsistency elimination cannot be determined by the new algorithm. They include polynomials and their generalizations, which turn out to be useful objects to be explored. Afterwards, we apply it to the Standard Model plus gravity to illustrate its power and lim-itation. Ensuring its workability, we also tentatively discuss how to improve its efficiency by reducing the steps.

  10. Bayesian recursive data-pattern tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalychev, Alexander; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Teo, Yong Siah; Řeháček, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdeněk

    2015-11-01

    We present a simple and efficient Bayesian recursive algorithm for the data-pattern scheme for quantum state reconstruction, which is applicable to situations where measurement settings can be controllably varied efficiently. The algorithm predicts the best measurements required to accurately reconstruct the unknown signal state in terms of a fixed set of probe states. In each iterative step, this algorithm seeks the measurement setting that minimizes the variance of the data-pattern estimator, which essentially measures the reconstruction accuracy, with the help of a data-pattern bank that was acquired prior to the signal reconstruction. We show that, with this algorithm, it is possible to minimize the number of measurement settings required to obtain a reasonably accurate state estimator by using just the optimal settings and, at the same time, increasing the numerical efficiency of the data-pattern reconstruction.

  11. Research of home networking system based on XML/BACnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongming

    2008-11-01

    To standardize home networking information and simplify its management, this paper form a universal information module of various devices in home networking by adopting XML technology and BACnet protocol(XML/BACnet). Then, a software architecture of home networking based on this module is designed, having the function like auto management and maintenance, safety, real-time and remote controlling. Consequently, a home networking system based on this architecture is completed. Tested and evaluated, this system is one easy-using, easy-realizing, nice real-time system with strong heterogeneity and stable safety system.

  12. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  13. Applying Analogical Reasoning Techniques for Teaching XML Document Querying Skills in Database Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Michel

    2012-01-01

    XML has become the most ubiquitous format for exchange of data between applications running on the Internet. Most Web Services provide their information to clients in the form of XML. The ability to process complex XML documents in order to extract relevant information is becoming as important a skill for IS students to master as querying…

  14. Applying Analogical Reasoning Techniques for Teaching XML Document Querying Skills in Database Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Michel

    2012-01-01

    XML has become the most ubiquitous format for exchange of data between applications running on the Internet. Most Web Services provide their information to clients in the form of XML. The ability to process complex XML documents in order to extract relevant information is becoming as important a skill for IS students to master as querying…

  15. An XML-based communication protocol for accelerator distributed controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the development of XMLvRPC, an RPC-like communication protocol based, for this particular application, on the TCP/IP and XML (eXtensible Markup Language) tools built-in in LabVIEW. XML is used to format commands and data passed between client and server while socket interface for communication uses either TCP or UDP transmission protocols. This implementation extends the features of these general purpose libraries and incorporates solutions that might provide, with limited modifications, full compatibility with well established and more general communication protocol, i.e. XML-RPC, while preserving portability to different platforms supported by LabVIEW. The XMLvRPC suite of software has been equipped with specific tools for its deployment in distributed control systems as, for instance, a quasi-automatic configuration and registration of the distributed components and a simple plug-and-play approach to the installation of new services. Key feature is the management of large binary arrays that allow coding of large binary data set, e.g. raw images, more efficiently with respect to the standard XML coding.

  16. A Conversion Tool for Mathematical Expressions in Web XML Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Nobuyuki; Kanahori, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the conversion of mathematical equations into Extensible Markup Language (XML) on the World Wide Web for individuals with visual impairments. A program is described that converts the presentation markup style to the content markup style in MathML to allow browsers to render mathematical expressions without other programs.…

  17. Chapter 57: Advanced XML Technologies: Schema, Xpath, XQuery, and XSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R. L.

    Much of what happens behind the scenes in the VO happens using XML A major reason for choosing to use XML is to take advantage of "off-the-shelf" standards and technologies that can help us manage our metadata. Most VO users will not need to know anything about various manipulations of XML going on underneath their applications. However, users who begin to delve into programming for the VO, be it scripting to gather data for a VO research project or developing a general application, will start to see some of these technologies at work under the hood. In four sections in this chapter, we'll look at four of the most useful XML technologies. With each one, we'll start by highlighting how you might find it useful. The intent is not to make you proficient in these tools. Rather, by getting a general sense how these technologies work you will at least have some ability to debug your application when things go wrong. In some cases, you may acquire enough familiarity to edit and use pre-existing samples. In this chapter, you will get a chance to make some of those edits and try out some tools you can find on the CD. We will use some tools from the adqllib package. If you tried out the exercises in Chapter 36, then you may have already built these tools. If not, you can do that now

  18. New NED XML/VOtable Services and Client Interface Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevunova, O.; Good, J.; Mazzarella, J.; Berriman, G. B.; Madore, B.

    2005-12-01

    The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) provides data and cross-identifications for over 7 million extragalactic objects fused from thousands of survey catalogs and journal articles. The data cover all frequencies from radio through gamma rays and include positions, redshifts, photometry and spectral energy distributions (SEDs), sizes, and images. NED services have traditionally supplied data in HTML format for connections from Web browsers, and a custom ASCII data structure for connections by remote computer programs written in the C programming language. We describe new services that provide responses from NED queries in XML documents compliant with the international virtual observatory VOtable protocol. The XML/VOtable services support cone searches, all-sky searches based on object attributes (survey names, cross-IDs, redshifts, flux densities), and requests for detailed object data. Initial services have been inserted into the NVO registry, and others will follow soon. The first client application is a Style Sheet specification for rendering NED VOtable query results in Web browsers that support XML. The second prototype application is a Java applet that allows users to compare multiple SEDs. The new XML/VOtable output mode will also simplify the integration of data from NED into visualization and analysis packages, software agents, and other virtual observatory applications. We show an example SED from NED plotted using VOPlot. The NED website is: http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu.

  19. Personalization of XML Content Browsing Based on User Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encelle, Benoit; Baptiste-Jessel, Nadine; Sedes, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Personalization of user interfaces for browsing content is a key concept to ensure content accessibility. In this direction, we introduce concepts that result in the generation of personalized multimodal user interfaces for browsing XML content. User requirements concerning the browsing of a specific content type can be specified by means of…

  20. Improving the Virtual Learning Development Processes Using XML Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suss, Kurt; Oberhofer, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that distributed learning environments and content often lack a common basis for the exchange of learning materials, which can hinder or even delay innovation and delivery of learning technology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. Provides an XML-based approach…

  1. Progress on an implementation of MIFlowCyt in XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: The International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Data Standards Task Force (DSTF) has created a standard for the Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt 1.0). The CytometryML schemas, are based in part upon the Flow Cytometry Standard and Digital Imaging and Communication (DICOM) standards. CytometryML has and will be extended and adapted to include MIFlowCyt, as well as to serve as a common standard for flow and image cytometry (digital microscopy). Methods: The MIFlowCyt data-types were created, as is the rest of CytometryML, in the XML Schema Definition Language (XSD1.1). Individual major elements of the MIFlowCyt schema were translated into XML and filled with reasonable data. A small section of the code was formatted with HTML formatting elements. Results: The differences in the amount of detail to be recorded for 1) users of standard techniques including data analysts and 2) others, such as method and device creators, laboratory and other managers, engineers, and regulatory specialists required that separate data-types be created to describe the instrument configuration and components. A very substantial part of the MIFlowCyt element that describes the Experimental Overview part of the MIFlowCyt and substantial parts of several other major elements have been developed. Conclusions: The future use of structured XML tags and web technology should facilitate searching of experimental information, its presentation, and inclusion in structured research, clinical, and regulatory documents, as well as demonstrate in publications adherence to the MIFlowCyt standard. The use of CytometryML together with XML technology should also result in the textual and numeric data being published using web technology without any change in composition. Preliminary testing indicates that CytometryML XML pages can be directly formatted with the combination of HTML and CSS.

  2. Non-recursive lowpass digital-filter algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.

    1982-11-01

    A non-recursive lowpass filter has been developed for use with waveform data collected with Tektronix 7912 transient digitizers. The filter subroutine is specifically compatible with Tektronix SPS Basic V02XM.02 software.

  3. Recursive stochastic effects in valley hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vennin, Vincent; Brandenberger, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends because of a tachyonic instability, the duration of which is determined by stochastic effects and has important observational implications. Making use of the recursive approach to the stochastic formalism presented in [L. P. Levasseur, preceding article, Phys. Rev. D 88, 083537 (2013)], these effects are consistently computed. Through an analysis of backreaction, this method is shown to converge in the valley but points toward an (expected) instability in the waterfall. It is further shown that the quasistationarity of the auxiliary field distribution breaks down in the case of a short-lived waterfall. We find that the typical dispersion of the waterfall field at the critical point is then diminished, thus increasing the duration of the waterfall phase and jeopardizing the possibility of a short transition. Finally, we find that stochastic effects worsen the blue tilt of the curvature perturbations by an O(1) factor when compared with the usual slow-roll contribution.

  4. COMPARISON OF RECURSIVE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES FOR POSITION TRACKING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    K. MUSKE; J. HOWSE

    2000-09-01

    This paper compares the performance of recursive state estimation techniques for tracking the physical location of a radioactive source within a room based on radiation measurements obtained from a series of detectors at fixed locations. Specifically, the extended Kalman filter, algebraic observer, and nonlinear least squares techniques are investigated. The results of this study indicate that recursive least squares estimation significantly outperforms the other techniques due to the severe model nonlinearity.

  5. On-Shell Recursion Relations for Effective Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    We derive the first ever on-shell recursion relations applicable to effective field theories. Based solely on factorization and the soft behavior of amplitudes, these recursion relations employ a new rescaling momentum shift to construct all tree-level scattering amplitudes in the nonlinear sigma model, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory, and the Galileon. Our results prove that all theories with enhanced soft behavior are on-shell constructible.

  6. XML: James Webb Space Telescope Database Issues, Lessons, and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detter, Ryan; Mooney, Michael; Fatig, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the current concept using extensible Markup Language (XML) as the underlying structure for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) database. The purpose of using XML is to provide a JWST database, independent of any portion of the ground system, yet still compatible with the various systems using a variety of different structures. The testing of the JWST Flight Software (FSW) started in 2002, yet the launch is scheduled for 2011 with a planned 5-year mission and a 5-year follow on option. The initial database and ground system elements, including the commands, telemetry, and ground system tools will be used for 19 years, plus post mission activities. During the Integration and Test (I&T) phases of the JWST development, 24 distinct laboratories, each geographically dispersed, will have local database tools with an XML database. Each of these laboratories database tools will be used for the exporting and importing of data both locally and to a central database system, inputting data to the database certification process, and providing various reports. A centralized certified database repository will be maintained by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. One of the challenges for the database is to be flexible enough to allow for the upgrade, addition or changing of individual items without effecting the entire ground system. Also, using XML should allow for the altering of the import and export formats needed by the various elements, tracking the verification/validation of each database item, allow many organizations to provide database inputs, and the merging of the many existing database processes into one central database structure throughout the JWST program. Many National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects have attempted to take advantage of open source and commercial technology. Often this causes a greater reliance on the use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS), which is often limiting. In our review of the database requirements and the COTS software available, only very expensive COTS software will meet 90% of requirements. Even with the high projected initial cost of COTS, the development and support for custom code over the 19-year mission period was forecasted to be higher than the total licensing costs. A group did look at reusing existing database tools and formats. If the JWST database was already in a mature state, the reuse made sense, but with the database still needing to handing the addition of different types of command and telemetry structures, defining new spacecraft systems, accept input and export to systems which has not been defined yet, XML provided the flexibility desired. It remains to be determined whether the XML database will reduce the over all cost for the JWST mission.

  7. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant.

    PubMed

    English, Megan; Gillespie, Graeme; Goossens, Benoit; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Linklater, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant's preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have recovered sufficiently to meet their intake requirements. The implications for habitat and elephant management are discussed. PMID:26290779

  8. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Graeme; Goossens, Benoit; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Linklater, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant’s preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have recovered sufficiently to meet their intake requirements. The implications for habitat and elephant management are discussed. PMID:26290779

  9. T:XML: A Tool Supporting User Interface Model Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Jaquero, Víctor; Montero, Francisco; González, Pascual

    Model driven development of user interfaces is based on the transformation of an abstract specification into the final user interface the user will interact with. The design of transformation rules to carry out this transformation process is a key issue in any model-driven user interface development approach. In this paper, we introduce T:XML, an integrated development environment for managing, creating and previewing transformation rules. The tool supports the specification of transformation rules by using a graphical notation that works on the basis of the transformation of the input model into a graph-based representation. T:XML allows the design and execution of transformation rules in an integrated development environment. Furthermore, the designer can also preview how the generated user interface looks like after the transformations have been applied. These previewing capabilities can be used to quickly create prototypes to discuss with the users in user-centered design methods.

  10. voevent-parse: Parse, manipulate, and generate VOEvent XML packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Tim D.

    2014-11-01

    voevent-parse, written in Python, parses, manipulates, and generates VOEvent XML packets; it is built atop lxml.objectify. Details of transients detected by many projects, including Fermi, Swift, and the Catalina Sky Survey, are currently made available as VOEvents, which is also the standard alert format by future facilities such as LSST and SKA. However, working with XML and adhering to the sometimes lengthy VOEvent schema can be a tricky process. voevent-parse provides convenience routines for common tasks, while allowing the user to utilise the full power of the lxml library when required. An earlier version of voevent-parse was part of the pysovo (ascl:1411.002) library.

  11. Online recursive independent component analysis for real-time source separation of high-density EEG.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hsiou; Mullen, Tim; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Online Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms have recently seen increasing development and application across a range of fields, including communications, biosignal processing, and brain-computer interfaces. However, prior work in this domain has primarily focused on algorithmic proofs of convergence, with application limited to small `toy' examples or to relatively low channel density EEG datasets. Furthermore, there is limited availability of computationally efficient online ICA implementations, suitable for real-time application. This study describes an optimized online recursive ICA algorithm (ORICA), with online recursive least squares (RLS) whitening, for blind source separation of high-density EEG data. It is implemented as an online-capable plugin within the open-source BCILAB (EEGLAB) framework. We further derive and evaluate a block-update modification to the ORICA learning rule. We demonstrate the algorithm's suitability for accurate and efficient source identification in high density (64-channel) realistically-simulated EEG data, as well as real 61-channel EEG data recorded by a dry and wearable EEG system in a cognitive experiment. PMID:25570830

  12. Phase Response Design of Recursive All-Pass Digital Filters Using a Modified PSO Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Der

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a new design scheme for the phase response of an all-pass recursive digital filter. A variant of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm will be utilized for solving this kind of filter design problem. It is here called the modified PSO (MPSO) algorithm in which another adjusting factor is more introduced in the velocity updating formula of the algorithm in order to improve the searching ability. In the proposed method, all of the designed filter coefficients are firstly collected to be a parameter vector and this vector is regarded as a particle of the algorithm. The MPSO with a modified velocity formula will force all particles into moving toward the optimal or near optimal solution by minimizing some defined objective function of the optimization problem. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, two different kinds of linear phase response design examples are illustrated and the general PSO algorithm is compared as well. The obtained results show that the MPSO is superior to the general PSO for the phase response design of digital recursive all-pass filter. PMID:26366168

  13. Experiments with recursive estimation in astronomical image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busko, I.

    1992-01-01

    Recursive estimation concepts were applied to image enhancement problems since the 70's. However, very few applications in the particular area of astronomical image processing are known. These concepts were derived, for 2-dimensional images, from the well-known theory of Kalman filtering in one dimension. The historic reasons for application of these techniques to digital images are related to the images' scanned nature, in which the temporal output of a scanner device can be processed on-line by techniques borrowed directly from 1-dimensional recursive signal analysis. However, recursive estimation has particular properties that make it attractive even in modern days, when big computer memories make the full scanned image available to the processor at any given time. One particularly important aspect is the ability of recursive techniques to deal with non-stationary phenomena, that is, phenomena which have their statistical properties variable in time (or position in a 2-D image). Many image processing methods make underlying stationary assumptions either for the stochastic field being imaged, for the imaging system properties, or both. They will underperform, or even fail, when applied to images that deviate significantly from stationarity. Recursive methods, on the contrary, make it feasible to perform adaptive processing, that is, to process the image by a processor with properties tuned to the image's local statistical properties. Recursive estimation can be used to build estimates of images degraded by such phenomena as noise and blur. We show examples of recursive adaptive processing of astronomical images, using several local statistical properties to drive the adaptive processor, as average signal intensity, signal-to-noise and autocorrelation function. Software was developed under IRAF, and as such will be made available to interested users.

  14. XSemantic: An Extension of LCA Based XML Semantic Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supasitthimethee, Umaporn; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Porkaew, Kriengkrai

    One of the most convenient ways to query XML data is a keyword search because it does not require any knowledge of XML structure or learning a new user interface. However, the keyword search is ambiguous. The users may use different terms to search for the same information. Furthermore, it is difficult for a system to decide which node is likely to be chosen as a return node and how much information should be included in the result. To address these challenges, we propose an XML semantic search based on keywords called XSemantic. On the one hand, we give three definitions to complete in terms of semantics. Firstly, the semantic term expansion, our system is robust from the ambiguous keywords by using the domain ontology. Secondly, to return semantic meaningful answers, we automatically infer the return information from the user queries and take advantage of the shortest path to return meaningful connections between keywords. Thirdly, we present the semantic ranking that reflects the degree of similarity as well as the semantic relationship so that the search results with the higher relevance are presented to the users first. On the other hand, in the LCA and the proximity search approaches, we investigated the problem of information included in the search results. Therefore, we introduce the notion of the Lowest Common Element Ancestor (LCEA) and define our simple rule without any requirement on the schema information such as the DTD or XML Schema. The first experiment indicated that XSemantic not only properly infers the return information but also generates compact meaningful results. Additionally, the benefits of our proposed semantics are demonstrated by the second experiment.

  15. Enhance Reuse of Standard e-Business XML Schema Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Buhwan, Jeong; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad; Jones, Albert

    2005-07-01

    Ideally, e-Business application interfaces would be built from highly reusable specifications of business document standards. Since many of these specifications are poorly understood, users often create new ones or customize existing ones every time a new integration problem arises. Consequently, even though there is a potential for reuse, the lack of a component discovery tool means that the cost of reuse is still prohibitively high. In this paper, we explore the potential of using similarity metrics to discover standard XML Schema documents. Our goal is to enhance reuse of XML Schema document/component standards in new integration contexts through the discovery process. We are motivated by the increasing access to the application interface specifications expressed in the form of XML Schema. These specifications are created to facilitate business documents exchange among software applications. Reuse can reduce both the proliferation of standards and the interoperability costs. To demonstrate these potential benefits, we propose and position our research based on an experimental scenario and a novel evaluation approach to qualify alternative similarity metrics on schema discovery. The edge equality in the evaluation method provides a conservative quality measure. We review a number of fundamental approaches to developing similarity metrics, and we organize these metrics into lexical, structural, and logical categories. For each of the metrics, we discuss its relevance and potential issues in its application to the XML Schema discovery task. We conclude that each of the similarity measures has its own strengths and weaknesses and each is expected to yield different results in different search situations. It is important, in the context of an application of these measures to e-Business standards that a schema discovery engine capable of assigning appropriate weights to different similarity measures be used when the search conditions change. This is a subject of our future experimental work.

  16. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad

    2008-01-01

    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  17. On the Termination Problem for Declarative XML Message Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litak, Tadeusz; Helmer, Sven

    We define a formal syntax and semantics for the Rule Definition Language (RDL) of DemaqLite, which is a fragment of the declarative XML message processing system Demaq. Based on this definition, we prove that the termination problem for any practically useful sublanguage of DemaqLiteRDL is undecidable, as any such language can emulate a Single Register Machine—a Turing-complete model of computation proposed by Shepherdson and Sturgis.

  18. An XML Driven Graphical User Interface and Application Management Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    White, Greg R

    2002-01-18

    In the past, the features of a user interface were limited by those available in the existing graphical widgets it used. Now, improvements in processor speed have fostered the emergence of interpreted languages, in which the appropriate method to render a given data object can be loaded at runtime. XML can be used to precisely describe the association of data types with their graphical handling (beans), and Java provides an especially rich environment for programming the graphics. We present a graphical user interface builder based on Java Beans and XML, in which the graphical screens are described textually (in files or a database) in terms of their screen components. Each component may be a simple text read back, or a complex plot. The programming model provides for dynamic data pertaining to a component to be forwarded synchronously or asynchronously, to the appropriate handler, which may be a built-in method, or a complex applet. This work was initially motivated by the need to move the legacy VMS display interface of the SLAC Control Program to another platform while preserving all of its existing functionality. However the model allows us a powerful and generic system for adding new kinds of graphics, such as Matlab, data sources, such as EPICS, middleware, such as AIDA[1], and transport, such as XML and SOAP. The system will also include a management console, which will be able to report on the present usage of the system, for instance who is running it where and connected to which channels.

  19. Solving Electronic Structure Problems with the Recursion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydock, Roger

    1994-02-01

    The goal of these lectures is to achieve a working knowledge of how to apply the recursion method to problems in electronic structure. The first lecture introduces the basic issues of the electronic structure of condensed matter and explains how the recursion method addresses them. In a macroscopic system it is only possible to compute local quantities which converge exponentially with computational effort due to a quantum analogue of the black body radiation theorem. The second lecture develops the recursion method from quantum path counting, leading to the chain model and its physical interpretation. The third lecture is about the calculation of electronic energies, bounds on them, and differences in total energies. The last lecture is on the recursion method in finite precision, ghosts and how to eliminate their consequences. In summary, the contents of the lectures may be described as: 1. Local environment and the quantum black body theorem, 2. Quantum path counting and The Recursion Method, 3. Orbital peeling-microscopic differences of macroscopic energies, 4. Finite precision and ghosts.

  20. Knot Invariants from Topological Recursion on Augmentation Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jie; Jockers, Hans; Klemm, Albrecht; Soroush, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    Using the duality between Wilson loop expectation values of SU( N) Chern-Simons theory on S 3 and topological open-string amplitudes on the local mirror of the resolved conifold, we study knots on S 3 and their invariants encoded in colored HOMFLY polynomials by means of topological recursion. In the context of the local mirror Calabi-Yau threefold of the resolved conifold, we generalize the topological recursion of the remodelled B-model in order to study branes beyond the class of toric Harvey-Lawson special Lagrangians—as required for analyzing non-trivial knots on S 3. The basic ingredients for the proposed recursion are the spectral curve, given by the augmentation variety of the knot, and the calibrated annulus kernel, encoding the topological annulus amplitudes associated to the knot. We present an explicit construction of the calibrated annulus kernel for torus knots and demonstrate the validity of the topological recursion. We further argue that—if an explicit form of the calibrated annulus kernel is provided for any other knot—the proposed topological recursion should still be applicable. We study the implications of our proposal for knot theory, which exhibit interesting consequences for colored HOMFLY polynomials of mutant knots.

  1. The redundancy of recursion and infinity for natural language.

    PubMed

    Luuk, Erkki; Luuk, Hendrik

    2011-02-01

    An influential line of thought claims that natural language and arithmetic processing require recursion, a putative hallmark of human cognitive processing (Chomsky in Evolution of human language: biolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45-61, 2010; Fitch et al. in Cognition 97(2):179-210, 2005; Hauser et al. in Science 298(5598):1569-1579, 2002). First, we question the need for recursion in human cognitive processing by arguing that a generally simpler and less resource demanding process--iteration--is sufficient to account for human natural language and arithmetic performance. We argue that the only motivation for recursion, the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence, is equally approachable by iteration and recursion. Second, we submit that the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence reduces to imagining infinite embedding or concatenation, which is completely independent from the ability to implement infinite processing, and thus, independent from both recursion and iteration. Furthermore, we claim that a property of natural language is physically uncountable finity and not discrete infinity. PMID:20652723

  2. Recursive least squares estimation and its application to shallow trench isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Qin, S. Joe; Bode, Christopher A.; Purdy, Matthew A.

    2003-06-01

    In recent years, run-to-run (R2R) control technology has received tremendous interest in semiconductor manufacturing. One class of widely used run-to-run controllers is based on the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) statistics to estimate process deviations. Using an EWMA filter to smooth the control action on a linear process has been shown to provide good results in a number of applications. However, for a process with severe drifts, the EWMA controller is insufficient even when large weights are used. This problem becomes more severe when there is measurement delay, which is almost inevitable in semiconductor industry. In order to control drifting processes, a predictor-corrector controller (PCC) and a double EWMA controller have been developed. Chen and Guo (2001) show that both PCC and double-EWMA controller are in effect Integral-double-Integral (I-II) controllers, which are able to control drifting processes. However, since offset is often within the noise of the process, the second integrator can actually cause jittering. Besides, tuning the second filter is not as intuitive as a single EWMA filter. In this work, we look at an alternative way Recursive Least Squares (RLS), to estimate and control the drifting process. EWMA and double-EWMA are shown to be the least squares estimate for locally constant mean model and locally constant linear trend model. Then the recursive least squares with exponential factor is applied to shallow trench isolation etch process to predict the future etch rate. The etch process, which is a critical process in the flash memory manufacturing, is known to suffer from significant etch rate drift due to chamber seasoning. In order to handle the metrology delay, we propose a new time update scheme. RLS with the new time update method gives very good result. The estimate error variance is smaller than that from EWMA, and mean square error decrease more than 10% compared to that from EWMA.

  3. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ariel; Vukusic, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Interference is the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics: specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer structure and solve it using recursion relations. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursion. We compare to experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. Thus, using only the phenomenon of interference and the idea of recursion, we are able to elucidate the concept of band structure in the context of the experimentally observed high reflectance and iridescent appearance of structurally colored beetles.

  4. Theory and applications of sampled analog recursive CTD comb filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, T. F.; Holmes, S. V.; Ejaz, A.; Piazza, F.; Saetre, L. T.; Freund, B.

    1976-01-01

    Sampled analog comb filter using a recursive filter implementation was studied. Charge transfer device delay lines were used as the delay elements. The similarities and differences between sampled analog recursive filter and digital recursive filter were pointed out. Both canceller type and integrator type comb filter using the first order or the second order canonical circuits were studied. Experimental results of frequency response are presented to show their difference from that of digital filters. A theoretical analysis was presented based essentially on the digital filter theory but modified to take into account the differences described above. The usefulness of this theory in analyzing the comb filter characteristics was discussed. Several applications of both the canceller type comb filter and the integrator type comb filter were demonstrated.

  5. The limits on combining recursive horn rules with description logics

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Horn rule languages have formed the basis for many Artificial Intelligence application languages, but are not expressive enough to model domains with a rich hierarchical structure. Description logics have been designed especially to model rich hierarchies. Several applications would significantly benefit from combining the expressive power of both formalisms. This paper focuses on combining recursive function-free Horn rules with the expressive description logic ALCNR, and shows exactly when a hybrid language with decidable inference can be obtained. First, we show that several of the core constructors of description logics lead by themselves to undecidability of inference when combined with recursive function-free Horn rules. We then show that without these constructors we obtain a maximal subset of ALCNRR that yields a decidable hybrid language. Finally, we describe a restriction on the Horn rules that guarantees decidable inference when combined with all of ALCNR, and covers many of the common usages of recursive rules.

  6. Recursive Query Facilities in Relational Databases: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przymus, Piotr; Boniewicz, Aleksandra; Burza?ska, Marta; Stencel, Krzysztof

    The relational model is the basis for most modern databases, while SQL is the most commonly used query language. However, there are data structures and computational problems that cannot be expressed using SQL-92 queries. Among them are those concerned with the bill-of-material and corporate hierarchies. A newer standard, called the SQL-99, introduced recursive queries which can be used to solve such tasks. Yet, only recently recursive queries have been implemented in most of the leading relational databases. In this paper we have reviewed and compared implementations of the recursive queries defined by SQL:1999 through SQL:2008 and offered by leading vendors of DBMSs. Our comparison concerns features, syntax and performance.

  7. Deterministic properties of the recursive separable median filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcloughlin, Michael P.; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    1987-01-01

    The recursive separable median filter has been successfully used to extract features from noisy two-dimensional signals. In many applications, it gives better noise suppression and edge preservation than the standard separable median filter. In this paper, a new approach is used for studying the deterministic properties of separable median filters. In particular, using threshold decomposition, the root structure of the recursive separable median filter is derived, where a root is a signal invariant to further filtering. It is shown that these root structures differ from those of their nonrecursive counterparts. It is also shown that any two-dimensional signal will converge to a root after repeated passes of the recursive separable median filter.

  8. Robust recursive impedance estimation for automotive lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridholm, Björn; Wik, Torsten; Nilsson, Magnus

    2016-02-01

    Recursive algorithms, such as recursive least squares (RLS) or Kalman filters, are commonly used in battery management systems to estimate the electrical impedance of the battery cell. However, these algorithms can in some cases run into problems with bias and even divergence of the estimates. This article illuminates problems that can arise in the online estimation using recursive methods, and lists modifications to handle these issues. An algorithm is also proposed that estimates the impedance by separating the problem in two parts; one estimating the ohmic resistance with an RLS approach, and another one where the dynamic effects are estimated using an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) that is novel in the battery field. The algorithm produces robust estimates of ohmic resistance and time constant of the battery cell in closed loop with SoC estimation, as demonstrated by both in simulations and with experimental data from a lithium-ion battery cell.

  9. Efficient Scheduling of Recursive Control Flow on GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Xin; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Gagan

    2013-06-10

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) have rapidly emerged as a very significant player in high performance computing. Single instruction multiple thread (SIMT) pipelines are typically used in GPUs to exploit parallelism and maximize performance. Although support for unstructured control flow has been included in GPUs, efficiently managing thread divergence for arbitrary parallel programs remains a critical challenge. In this paper, we focus on the problem of supporting recursion in modern GPUs. We design and comparatively evaluate various algorithms to manage thread divergence encountered in recursive programs. The results improve upon traditional post-dominator based reconvergence mechanisms designed to handle thread divergence due to control flow within a procedure.

  10. Recursive multibody dynamics and discrete-time optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deleuterio, G. M. T.; Damaren, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    A recursive algorithm is developed for the solution of the simulation dynamics problem for a chain of rigid bodies. Arbitrary joint constraints are permitted, that is, joints may allow translational and/or rotational degrees of freedom. The recursive procedure is shown to be identical to that encountered in a discrete-time optimal control problem. For each relevant quantity in the multibody dynamics problem, there exists an analog in the context of optimal control. The performance index that is minimized in the control problem is identified as Gibbs' function for the chain of bodies.

  11. Recursive Implementations of the Schmidt-Kalman `Consider' Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    One method to account for parameters errors in the Kalman filter is to `consider' their effect in the so-called Schmidt-Kalman filter. This paper addresses issues that arise when implementing a consider Kalman filter as a real-time, recursive algorithm. A favorite implementation of the Kalman filter as an onboard navigation subsystem is the UDU formulation. A new way to implement a UDU Schmidt-Kalman filter is proposed. The non-optimality of the recursive Schmidt-Kalman filter is also analyzed, and a modified algorithm is proposed to overcome this limitation.

  12. A decoupled recursive approach for constrained flexible multibody system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Hao-Jan; Kim, Sung-Soo; Haug, Edward J.; Bae, Dae-Sung

    1989-01-01

    A variational-vector calculus approach is employed to derive a recursive formulation for dynamic analysis of flexible multibody systems. Kinematic relationships for adjacent flexible bodies are derived in a companion paper, using a state vector notation that represents translational and rotational components simultaneously. Cartesian generalized coordinates are assigned for all body and joint reference frames, to explicitly formulate deformation kinematics under small deformation kinematics and an efficient flexible dynamics recursive algorithm is developed. Dynamic analysis of a closed loop robot is performed to illustrate efficiency of the algorithm.

  13. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  14. An XML-based protocol for distributed event services

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Dan K.; Smith, Warren; Quesnel, Darcy

    2001-06-25

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  15. Research on Heterogeneous Data Exchange based on XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanqin; Liu, Jinfeng

    Integration of multiple data sources is becoming increasingly important for enterprises that cooperate closely with their partners for e-commerce. OLAP enables analysts and decision makers fast access to various materialized views from data warehouses. However, many corporations have internal business applications deployed on different platforms. This paper introduces a model for heterogeneous data exchange based on XML. The system can exchange and share the data among the different sources. The method used to realize the heterogeneous data exchange is given in this paper.

  16. [Quantitatively Determination of Available Phosphorus and Available Potassium in Soil by Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combining with Recursive Partial Least Squares].

    PubMed

    Jia, Sheng-yao; Yang, Xiang-long; Li, Guang; Zhang, Jian-ming

    2015-09-01

    Soil available phosphorus (P) and available potassium (K) don't possess direct spectral response in the near infrared (NIR) region. They are predictable because of their correlation with spectrally active constituents (organic matter, carbonates, clays, water, etc.). Such correlation may of course differ between the soil sample sets. Therefore, the NIR calibration models with fixed structure are difficult to achieve good prediction performances for soil P and K. In this work, the method of recursive partial least squares (RPLS), which is able to update the model coefficients recursively during the prediction process, has been applied to improve the predictive abilities of calibration models. This work compared the performance of partial least squares regression (PLS), locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS), moving window LW-PLS (LW-PLS2) and RPLS for the measurement of soil P and K. The entire data set of 194 soil samples was split into calibration set and prediction set based on soil types. The calibration set was composed of 120 Anthrosols samples, while the prediction set included 29 Ferralsols samples, 23 Anthrosols samples and 22 Primarosols samples. The best prediction results were obtained by the RPLS model. The coefficient of determination (R2) and residual prediction deviation (RPD) were respectively 0.61, 0.76 and 1.60, 2.05 for soil P and K. The results indicate that RPLS is able to learn the information from the latest modeling sample by recursively updating the model coefficients. The proposed method RPLS has the advantages of wider applicability and better performance for NIR prediction of soil P and K compared with other methods in this work. PMID:26669158

  17. Virasoro Constraints and Topological Recursion for Grothendieck's Dessin Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarian, Maxim; Zograf, Peter

    2015-08-01

    We compute the number of coverings of with a given monodromy type over and given numbers of preimages of 0 and 1. We show that the generating function for these numbers enjoys several remarkable integrability properties: it obeys the Virasoro constraints, an evolution equation, the KP (Kadomtsev-Petviashvili) hierarchy and satisfies a topological recursion in the sense of Eynard-Orantin.

  18. An inversion formula for recursion operator of KP hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Guizhang

    2015-12-01

    An inversion formula is established for the recursion operator ? of the KP hierarchy. The formula explains in part how operators {(?/?y)i} are cancelled each other in certain combination of ?i(?/?y)j that is essential for generating the KP hierarchy.

  19. Semantics Boosts Syntax in Artificial Grammar Learning Tasks with Recursion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedor, Anna; Varga, Mate; Szathmary, Eors

    2012-01-01

    Center-embedded recursion (CER) in natural language is exemplified by sentences such as "The malt that the rat ate lay in the house." Parsing center-embedded structures is in the focus of attention because this could be one of the cognitive capacities that make humans distinct from all other animals. The ability to parse CER is usually tested by…

  20. Recursion and the Competence/Performance Distinction in AGL Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobina, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The term "recursion" is used in at least four distinct theoretical senses within cognitive science. Some of these senses in turn relate to the different levels of analysis described by David Marr some 20 years ago; namely, the underlying competence capacity (the "computational" level), the performance operations used in real-time processing (the…

  1. Augmented-space recursion for partially disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Atisdipankar; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2001-11-01

    Off-stoichiometric alloys exhibit partial disorder, in the sense that only some of the sublattices of the stoichiometric ordered alloy become disordered. This paper puts forward a generalization of the augmented-space recursion introduced earlier by Saha and Mookerjee (Saha T and Mookerjee A 1997 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10 2179) for systems with many atoms per unit cell.

  2. Recursive Vocal Pattern Learning and Generalization in Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Tiffany Corinna

    2012-01-01

    Among known communication systems, human language alone exhibits open-ended productivity of meaning. Interest in the psychological mechanisms supporting this ability, and their evolutionary origins, has resurged following the suggestion that the only uniquely human ability underlying language is a mechanism of recursion. This "Unique…

  3. Conflict Propagation and Component Recursion for Canonical Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, Tommi; Kaski, Petteri

    The individualize and refine approach for computing automorphism groups and canonical forms of graphs is studied. Two new search space pruning techniques, conflict propagation based on recorded failure information and recursion over nonuniformly joined components, are presented. Experimental results show that the techniques can result in substantial decrease in both search space sizes and run times.

  4. Exploring the Recursive Nature of Food and Family Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Linda D.

    2006-01-01

    Family meals act as a barometer to signify the changing nature of family life. The primary objective of this activity is to allow students to experience the many ways in which a recursive relationship exists between the food families eat and the patterns of communication families enact. Through this activity, students experience how food and…

  5. A Scale-Invariant Treatment for Recursive Path Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A reparameterization is formulated that yields estimates of scale-invariant parameters in recursive path models with latent variables, and (asymptotically) correct standard errors, without the use of constrained optimization. The method is based on the logical structure of the reticular action model. (Author)

  6. Recursive Inversion By Finite-Impulse-Response Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram

    1991-01-01

    Recursive approximation gives least-squares best fit to exact response. Algorithm yields finite-impulse-response approximation of unknown single-input/single-output, causal, time-invariant, linear, real system, response of which is sequence of impulses. Applicable to such system-inversion problems as suppression of echoes and identification of target from its scatter response to incident impulse.

  7. Recursivity: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Mnesis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormer, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay proposes the genealogical study of remembering and forgetting as recursive rhetorical capacities that enable discourse to place itself in an ever-changing present. "Mnesis" is a meta-concept for the arrangements of remembering and forgetting that enable rhetoric to function. Most of the essay defines the materiality of "mnesis", first…

  8. Wiener-Hammerstein Model Identification-Recursive Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emara-Shabaik, Hosam E.; Ahmed, Mohammed S.; Al-Ajmi, Khaled H.

    Recursive algorithms for parameter estimation of Wiener-Hammerstein (W-H) models are developed. These algorithms are derived on the basis of minimizing cost functions of the output errors, the equation errors, and the prediction errors. Convergence conditions of the developed algorithms are established. Numerical results, to test the algorithms and illustrate their estimation accuracy, are given.

  9. Exploring the Recursive Nature of Food and Family Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Linda D.

    2006-01-01

    Family meals act as a barometer to signify the changing nature of family life. The primary objective of this activity is to allow students to experience the many ways in which a recursive relationship exists between the food families eat and the patterns of communication families enact. Through this activity, students experience how food and…

  10. Recursive inversion of externally defined linear systems by FIR filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram

    1989-01-01

    The approximate inversion of an internally unknown linear system, given by its impulse response sequence, by an inverse system having a finite impulse response, is considered. The recursive least-squares procedure is shown to have an exact initialization, based on the triangular Toeplitz structure of the matrix involved. The proposed approach also suggests solutions to the problem of system identification and compensation.

  11. Recursivity: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Mnesis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormer, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay proposes the genealogical study of remembering and forgetting as recursive rhetorical capacities that enable discourse to place itself in an ever-changing present. "Mnesis" is a meta-concept for the arrangements of remembering and forgetting that enable rhetoric to function. Most of the essay defines the materiality of "mnesis", first…

  12. Recursive Vocal Pattern Learning and Generalization in Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Tiffany Corinna

    2012-01-01

    Among known communication systems, human language alone exhibits open-ended productivity of meaning. Interest in the psychological mechanisms supporting this ability, and their evolutionary origins, has resurged following the suggestion that the only uniquely human ability underlying language is a mechanism of recursion. This "Unique…

  13. Semantics Boosts Syntax in Artificial Grammar Learning Tasks with Recursion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedor, Anna; Varga, Mate; Szathmary, Eors

    2012-01-01

    Center-embedded recursion (CER) in natural language is exemplified by sentences such as "The malt that the rat ate lay in the house." Parsing center-embedded structures is in the focus of attention because this could be one of the cognitive capacities that make humans distinct from all other animals. The ability to parse CER is usually tested by…

  14. Recursion and the Competence/Performance Distinction in AGL Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobina, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The term "recursion" is used in at least four distinct theoretical senses within cognitive science. Some of these senses in turn relate to the different levels of analysis described by David Marr some 20 years ago; namely, the underlying competence capacity (the "computational" level), the performance operations used in real-time processing (the…

  15. A Low-Storage-Consumption XML Labeling Method for Efficient Structural Information Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wenxin; Takahashi, Akihiro; Yokota, Haruo

    Recently, labeling methods to extract and reconstruct the structural information of XML data, which are important for many applications such as XPath query and keyword search, are becoming more attractive. To achieve efficient structural information extraction, in this paper we propose C-DO-VLEI code, a novel update-friendly bit-vector encoding scheme, based on register-length bit operations combining with the properties of Dewey Order numbers, which cannot be implemented in other relevant existing schemes such as ORDPATH. Meanwhile, the proposed method also achieves lower storage consumption because it does not require either prefix schema or any reserved codes for node insertion. We performed experiments to evaluate and compare the performance and storage consumption of the proposed method with those of the ORDPATH method. Experimental results show that the execution times for extracting depth information and parent node labels using the C-DO-VLEI code are about 25% and 15% less, respectively, and the average label size using the C-DO-VLEI code is about 24% smaller, comparing with ORDPATH.

  16. Teaching and Learning Recursive Programming: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Renée; Grissom, Scott; Fitzgerald, Sue; Murphy, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of articles have been published on the topics of teaching and learning recursion, yet fewer than 50 of them have published research results. This article surveys the computing education research literature and presents findings on challenges students encounter in learning recursion, mental models students develop as they learn recursion

  17. Teaching and Learning Recursive Programming: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Renée; Grissom, Scott; Fitzgerald, Sue; Murphy, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of articles have been published on the topics of teaching and learning recursion, yet fewer than 50 of them have published research results. This article surveys the computing education research literature and presents findings on challenges students encounter in learning recursion, mental models students develop as they learn recursion,…

  18. XML-Based Visual Specification of Multidisciplinary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Theneyan, Ahmed; Jakatdar, Amol; Mehrotra, Piyush; Zubair, Mohammad

    2001-01-01

    The advancements in the Internet and Web technologies have fueled a growing interest in developing a web-based distributed computing environment. We have designed and developed Arcade, a web-based environment for designing, executing, monitoring, and controlling distributed heterogeneous applications, which is easy to use and access, portable, and provides support through all phases of the application development and execution. A major focus of the environment is the specification of heterogeneous, multidisciplinary applications. In this paper we focus on the visual and script-based specification interface of Arcade. The web/browser-based visual interface is designed to be intuitive to use and can also be used for visual monitoring during execution. The script specification is based on XML to: (1) make it portable across different frameworks, and (2) make the development of our tools easier by using the existing freely available XML parsers and editors. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the visual and script-based interfaces allowing users to go back and forth between the two. To support this we have developed translators that translate a script-based specification to a visual-based specification, and vice-versa. These translators are integrated with our tools and are transparent to users.

  19. Towards health care process description framework: an XML DTD design.

    PubMed Central

    Staccini, P.; Joubert, M.; Quaranta, J. F.; Aymard, S.; Fieschi, D.; Fieschi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of health care and hospital information systems has to meet users needs as well as requirements such as the tracking of all care activities and the support of quality improvement. The use of process-oriented analysis is of-value to provide analysts with: (i) a systematic description of activities; (ii) the elicitation of the useful data to perform and record care tasks; (iii) the selection of relevant decision-making support. But paper-based tools are not a very suitable way to manage and share the documentation produced during this step. The purpose of this work is to propose a method to implement the results of process analysis according to XML techniques (eXtensible Markup Language). It is based on the IDEF0 activity modeling language (Integration DEfinition for Function modeling). A hierarchical description of a process and its components has been defined through a flat XML file with a grammar of proper metadata tags. Perspectives of this method are discussed. PMID:11825265

  20. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature

    PubMed Central

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher HC; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R.; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A.; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of “taxon treatment” from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes. PMID:22207808

  1. Personalising e-learning modules: targeting Rasmussen levels using XML.

    PubMed

    Renard, J M; Leroy, S; Camus, H; Picavet, M; Beuscart, R

    2003-01-01

    The development of Internet technologies has made it possible to increase the number and the diversity of on-line resources for teachers and students. Initiatives like the French-speaking Virtual Medical University Project (UMVF) try to organise the access to these resources. But both teachers and students are working on a partly redundant subset of knowledge. From the analysis of some French courses we propose a model for knowledge organisation derived from Rasmussen's stepladder. In the context of decision-making Rasmussen has identified skill-based, rule-based and knowledge-based levels for the mental process. In the medical context of problem-solving, we apply these three levels to the definition of three students levels: beginners, intermediate-level learners, experts. Based on our model, we build a representation of the hierarchical structure of data using XML language. We use XSLT Transformation Language in order to filter relevant data according to student level and to propose an appropriate display on students' terminal. The model and the XML implementation we define help to design tools for building personalised e-learning modules. PMID:14664075

  2. 77 FR 46986 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...://www.ferc.gov ) a draft of the XML schema that is being developed for use in filing Electric Quarterly Reports as proposed in the Commission's June 21, 2012 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 77 FR 39447 (July 3...; Availability of Draft XML Schema AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. Integrated Syntactic/Semantic XML Data Validation with a Reusable Software Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golikov, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Data integration is a critical component of enterprise system integration, and XML data validation is the foundation for sound data integration of XML-based information systems. Since B2B e-commerce relies on data validation as one of the critical components for enterprise integration, it is imperative for financial industries and e-commerce…

  4. Integrated Syntactic/Semantic XML Data Validation with a Reusable Software Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golikov, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Data integration is a critical component of enterprise system integration, and XML data validation is the foundation for sound data integration of XML-based information systems. Since B2B e-commerce relies on data validation as one of the critical components for enterprise integration, it is imperative for financial industries and e-commerce…

  5. On the convergence improvement in the metadynamics simulations: a Wang-Landau recursion approach.

    PubMed

    Min, Donghong; Liu, Yusong; Carbone, Irina; Yang, Wei

    2007-05-21

    As a popular tool in exploring free energy landscapes, the metadynamics method has been widely applied to elucidate various chemical or biochemical processes. As deeply discussed by Laio et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6714 (2005)], the size of the updating Gaussian function is pivotal to the free energy convergence toward the target free energy surface. For instance, a greater Gaussian height can facilitate the quick visit of a conformation region of interest; however, it may lead to a larger error of the calculated free energy surface. In contrast, a lower Gaussian height can guarantee a better resolution of the calculated free energy surface; however, it will take longer time for such a simulation to navigate through the defined conformational region. In order to reconcile such confliction, the authors present a method by implementing the Wang-Landau recursion scheme in the metadynamics simulations to adaptively update the height of the unit Gaussian function. As demonstrated in their model studies on both a toy system, and a realistic molecular system treated with the hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QMMM) potential, the present approach can quickly result in more decently converged free energy surfaces, compared with the classical metadynamics simulations employing the fixed Gaussian heights. PMID:17523795

  6. On recursive least-squares filtering algorithms and implementations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Shih-Fu

    1990-01-01

    In many real-time signal processing applications, fast and numerically stable algorithms for solving least-squares problems are necessary and important. In particular, under non-stationary conditions, these algorithms must be able to adapt themselves to reflect the changes in the system and take appropriate adjustments to achieve optimum performances. Among existing algorithms, the QR-decomposition (QRD)-based recursive least-squares (RLS) methods have been shown to be useful and effective for adaptive signal processing. In order to increase the speed of processing and achieve high throughput rate, many algorithms are being vectorized and/or pipelined to facilitate high degrees of parallelism. A time-recursive formulation of RLS filtering employing block QRD will be considered first. Several methods, including a new non-continuous windowing scheme based on selectively rejecting contaminated data, were investigated for adaptive processing. Based on systolic triarrays, many other forms of systolic arrays are shown to be capable of implementing different algorithms. Various updating and downdating systolic algorithms and architectures for RLS filtering are examined and compared in details, which include Householder reflector, Gram-Schmidt procedure, and Givens rotation. A unified approach encompassing existing square-root-free algorithms is also proposed. For the sinusoidal spectrum estimation problem, a judicious method of separating the noise from the signal is of great interest. Various truncated QR methods are proposed for this purpose and compared to the truncated SVD method. Computer simulations provided for detailed comparisons show the effectiveness of these methods. This thesis deals with fundamental issues of numerical stability, computational efficiency, adaptivity, and VLSI implementation for the RLS filtering problems. In all, various new and modified algorithms and architectures are proposed and analyzed; the significance of any of the new method depends crucially on specific application.

  7. Creating preservation metadata from XML-metadata profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Bertelmann, Roland; Gebauer, Petra; Hasler, Tim; Klump, Jens; Kirchner, Ingo; Peters-Kottig, Wolfgang; Mettig, Nora; Rusch, Beate

    2014-05-01

    Registration of dataset DOIs at DataCite makes research data citable and comes with the obligation to keep data accessible in the future. In addition, many universities and research institutions measure data that is unique and not repeatable like the data produced by an observational network and they want to keep these data for future generations. In consequence, such data should be ingested in preservation systems, that automatically care for file format changes. Open source preservation software that is developed along the definitions of the ISO OAIS reference model is available but during ingest of data and metadata there are still problems to be solved. File format validation is difficult, because format validators are not only remarkably slow - due to variety in file formats different validators return conflicting identification profiles for identical data. These conflicts are hard to resolve. Preservation systems have a deficit in the support of custom metadata. Furthermore, data producers are sometimes not aware that quality metadata is a key issue for the re-use of data. In the project EWIG an university institute and a research institute work together with Zuse-Institute Berlin, that is acting as an infrastructure facility, to generate exemplary workflows for research data into OAIS compliant archives with emphasis on the geosciences. The Institute for Meteorology provides timeseries data from an urban monitoring network whereas GFZ Potsdam delivers file based data from research projects. To identify problems in existing preservation workflows the technical work is complemented by interviews with data practitioners. Policies for handling data and metadata are developed. Furthermore, university teaching material is created to raise the future scientists awareness of research data management. As a testbed for ingest workflows the digital preservation system Archivematica [1] is used. During the ingest process metadata is generated that is compliant to the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS). To find datasets in future portals and to make use of this data in own scientific work, proper selection of discovery metadata and application metadata is very important. Some XML-metadata profiles are not suitable for preservation, because version changes are very fast and make it nearly impossible to automate the migration. For other XML-metadata profiles schema definitions are changed after publication of the profile or the schema definitions become inaccessible, which might cause problems during validation of the metadata inside the preservation system [2]. Some metadata profiles are not used widely enough and might not even exist in the future. Eventually, discovery and application metadata have to be embedded into the mdWrap-subtree of the METS-XML. [1] http://www.archivematica.org [2] http://dx.doi.org/10.2218/ijdc.v7i1.215

  8. DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) in XML.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, S; Sugawara, H; Gojobori, T; Tateno, Y

    2003-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ, http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) has collected and released more entries and bases than last year. This is mainly due to large-scale submissions from Japanese sequencing teams on mouse, rice, chimpanzee, nematoda and other organisms. The contributions of DDBJ over the past year are 17.3% (entries) and 10.3% (bases) of the combined outputs of the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases (INSD). Our complete genome sequence database, Genome Information Broker (GIB), has been improved by incorporating XML. It is now possible to perform a more sophisticated database search against the new GIB than the ordinary BLAST or FASTA search. PMID:12519938

  9. Teaching object concepts for XML-based representations.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Students learned about object-oriented design concepts and knowledge representation through the use of a set of toy blocks. The blocks represented a limited and focused domain of knowledge and one that was physical and tangible. The blocks helped the students to better visualize, communicate, and understand the domain of knowledge as well as how to perform object decomposition. The blocks were further abstracted to an engineering design kit for water park design. This helped the students to work on techniques for abstraction and conceptualization. It also led the project from tangible exercises into software and programming exercises. Students employed XML to create object-based knowledge representations and Java to use the represented knowledge. The students developed and implemented software allowing a lay user to design and create their own water slide and then to take a simulated ride on their slide.

  10. Functional Dual Adaptive Control with Recursive Gaussian Process Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prüher, Jakub; Král, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with dual adaptive control problem, where the functional uncertainties in the system description are modelled by a non-parametric Gaussian process regression model. Current approaches to adaptive control based on Gaussian process models are severely limited in their practical applicability, because the model is re-adjusted using all the currently available data, which keeps growing with every time step. We propose the use of recursive Gaussian process regression algorithm for significant reduction in computational requirements, thus bringing the Gaussian process-based adaptive controllers closer to their practical applicability. In this work, we design a bi-criterial dual controller based on recursive Gaussian process model for discrete-time stochastic dynamic systems given in an affine-in-control form. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the proposed controller achieves comparable performance with the full Gaussian process-based controller in terms of control quality while keeping the computational demands bounded.

  11. Recursive utility in a Markov environment with stochastic growth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lars Peter; Scheinkman, José A

    2012-07-24

    Recursive utility models that feature investor concerns about the intertemporal composition of risk are used extensively in applied research in macroeconomics and asset pricing. These models represent preferences as the solution to a nonlinear forward-looking difference equation with a terminal condition. In this paper we study infinite-horizon specifications of this difference equation in the context of a Markov environment. We establish a connection between the solution to this equation and to an arguably simpler Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue equation of the type that occurs in the study of large deviations for Markov processes. By exploiting this connection, we establish existence and uniqueness results. Moreover, we explore a substantive link between large deviation bounds for tail events for stochastic consumption growth and preferences induced by recursive utility. PMID:22778428

  12. EEG and MEG source localization using recursively applied (RAP) MUSIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    The multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) algorithm locates multiple asynchronous dipolar sources from electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. A signal subspace is estimated from the data, then the algorithm scans a single dipole model through a three-dimensional head volume and computes projections onto this subspace. To locate the sources, the user must search the head volume for local peaks in the projection metric. Here we describe a novel extension of this approach which we refer to as RAP (Recursively APplied) MUSIC. This new procedure automatically extracts the locations of the sources through a recursive use of subspace projections, which uses the metric of principal correlations as a multidimensional form of correlation analysis between the model subspace and the data subspace. The dipolar orientations, a form of `diverse polarization,` are easily extracted using the associated principal vectors.

  13. Topological recursion for Gaussian means and cohomological field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. E.; Chekhov, L. O.; Norbury, P.; Penner, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce explicit relations between genus-filtrated s-loop means of the Gaussian matrix model and terms of the genus expansion of the Kontsevich-Penner matrix model (KPMM), which is the generating function for volumes of discretized (open) moduli spaces M g,s disc (discrete volumes). Using these relations, we express Gaussian means in all orders of the genus expansion as polynomials in special times weighted by ancestor invariants of an underlying cohomological field theory. We translate the topological recursion of the Gaussian model into recurrence relations for the coefficients of this expansion, which allows proving that they are integers and positive. We find the coefficients in the first subleading order for M g,1 for all g in three ways: using the refined Harer-Zagier recursion, using the Givental-type decomposition of the KPMM, and counting diagrams explicitly.

  14. Development of a recursion RNG-based turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE; Vahala, George; Thangam, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reynolds stress closure models based on the recursion renormalization group theory are developed for the prediction of turbulent separated flows. The proposed model uses a finite wavenumber truncation scheme to account for the spectral distribution of energy. In particular, the model incorporates effects of both local and nonlocal interactions. The nonlocal interactions are shown to yield a contribution identical to that from the epsilon-renormalization group (RNG), while the local interactions introduce higher order dispersive effects. A formal analysis of the model is presented and its ability to accurately predict separated flows is analyzed from a combined theoretical and computational stand point. Turbulent flow past a backward facing step is chosen as a test case and the results obtained based on detailed computations demonstrate that the proposed recursion -RNG model with finite cut-off wavenumber can yield very good predictions for the backstep problem.

  15. ROOM: A recursive object oriented method for information systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Thelliez, T.; Donahue, S.

    1994-02-09

    Although complementary for the development of complex systems, top-down structured design and object oriented approach are still opposed and not integrated. As the complexity of the systems are still growing, and the so-called software crisis still not solved, it is urgent to provide a framework mixing the two paradigms. This paper presents an elegant attempt in this direction through our Recursive Object-Oriented Method (ROOM) in which a top-down approach divides the complexity of the system and an object oriented method studies a given level of abstraction. Illustrating this recursive schema with a simple example, we demonstrate that we achieve the goal of creating loosely coupled and reusable components.

  16. Recursion relations and branching rules for simple Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovsky, V. D.; Melnikov, S. Yu

    1996-03-01

    The branching rules between simple Lie algebras and their regular (maximal) simple subalgebras are studied. Two types of recursion relations for anomalous relative multiplicities are obtained. One of them is proved to be the factorized version of the other. The factorization property is based on the existence of the set of weights 0305-4470/29/5/020/img1 specific for each injection. The structure of 0305-4470/29/5/020/img1 is easily deduced from the correspondence between the root systems of the algebra and subalgebra. The recursion relations thus obtained give rise to a simple and effective algorithm for branching rules. The details are illustrated by performing the explicit decomposition procedure for the injection 0305-4470/29/5/020/img3.

  17. Using XML and Java Technologies for Astronomical Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Case, Lynne; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project, is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is that the software is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML), a dialect of XML. IML is used to describe the command sets and command formats of the instrument, communication mechanisms, format of the data coming from the instrument, and characteristics of the graphical user interface to control and monitor the instrument. The IRC framework allows the users to define a data analysis pipeline which converts data coming out of the instrument. The data can be used in visualizations in order for the user to assess the data in real-time, if necessary. The data analysis pipeline algorithms can be supplied by the user in a variety of forms or programming languages. Although the current integration effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), first-light instruments of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument. Plans are underway to test the framework with other types of instruments, such as remote sensing earth science instruments.

  18. Recursion formula for electron repulsion integrals over Hermite polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, G. D.

    A method for computing electron repulsion integrals over contracted Gaussian functions is described in which intermediate integrals over Hermite polynomials are generated by a "pre-Hermite" recursion (PHR) step before the conversion to regular integrals. This greatly reduces the floating-point operation counts inside the contraction loops, where only simple "scaling"-type operations are required, making the method efficient for contracted Gaussians, particularly of high angular momentum.

  19. Recursive linearization of multibody dynamics equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Yae, K. Harold

    1989-01-01

    The equations of motion of a multibody system are nonlinear in nature, and thus pose a difficult problem in linear control design. One approach is to have a first-order approximation through the numerical perturbations at a given configuration, and to design a control law based on the linearized model. Here, a linearized model is generated analytically by following the footsteps of the recursive derivation of the equations of motion. The equations of motion are first written in a Newton-Euler form, which is systematic and easy to construct; then, they are transformed into a relative coordinate representation, which is more efficient in computation. A new computational method for linearization is obtained by applying a series of first-order analytical approximations to the recursive kinematic relationships. The method has proved to be computationally more efficient because of its recursive nature. It has also turned out to be more accurate because of the fact that analytical perturbation circumvents numerical differentiation and other associated numerical operations that may accumulate computational error, thus requiring only analytical operations of matrices and vectors. The power of the proposed linearization algorithm is demonstrated, in comparison to a numerical perturbation method, with a two-link manipulator and a seven degrees of freedom robotic manipulator. Its application to control design is also demonstrated.

  20. An Accelerated Recursive Doubling Algorithm for Block Tridiagonal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Sudip K

    2014-01-01

    Block tridiagonal systems of linear equations arise in a wide variety of scientific and engineering applications. Recursive doubling algorithm is a well-known prefix computation-based numerical algorithm that requires O(M^3(N/P + log P)) work to compute the solution of a block tridiagonal system with N block rows and block size M on P processors. In real-world applications, solutions of tridiagonal systems are most often sought with multiple, often hundreds and thousands, of different right hand sides but with the same tridiagonal matrix. Here, we show that a recursive doubling algorithm is sub-optimal when computing solutions of block tridiagonal systems with multiple right hand sides and present a novel algorithm, called the accelerated recursive doubling algorithm, that delivers O(R) improvement when solving block tridiagonal systems with R distinct right hand sides. Since R is typically about 100 1000, this improvement translates to very significant speedups in practice. Detailed complexity analyses of the new algorithm with empirical confirmation of runtime improvements are presented. To the best of our knowledge, this algorithm has not been reported before in the literature.

  1. Recursion relations for AdS/CFT correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, Suvrat

    2011-06-15

    We expand on the results of our recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 091601 (2011)], where we presented new recursion relations for correlation functions of the stress-tensor and conserved currents in conformal field theories with an AdS{sub d+1} dual for d{>=}4. These recursion relations are derived by generalizing the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) relations to amplitudes in anti-de Sitter space (AdS) that are dual to boundary correlators, and are usually computed perturbatively by Witten diagrams. Our results relate vacuum-correlation functions to integrated products of lower-point transition amplitudes, which correspond to correlators calculated between states dual to certain normalizable modes. We show that the set of ''polarization vectors'' for which amplitudes behave well under the BCFW extension is smaller than in flat-space. We describe how transition amplitudes for more general external polarizations can be constructed by combining answers obtained by different pairs of BCFW shifts. We then generalize these recursion relations to supersymmetric theories. In AdS, unlike flat-space, even maximal supersymmetry is insufficient to permit the computation of all correlators of operators in the same multiplet as a stress-tensor or conserved current. Finally, we work out some simple examples to verify our results.

  2. Categorial Compositionality III: F-(co)algebras and the Systematicity of Recursive Capacities in Human Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity includes recursively definable concepts, which are prevalent in domains involving lists, numbers, and languages. Cognitive science currently lacks a satisfactory explanation for the systematic nature of such capacities (i.e., why the capacity for some recursive cognitive abilities–e.g., finding the smallest number in a list–implies the capacity for certain others–finding the largest number, given knowledge of number order). The category-theoretic constructs of initial F-algebra, catamorphism, and their duals, final coalgebra and anamorphism provide a formal, systematic treatment of recursion in computer science. Here, we use this formalism to explain the systematicity of recursive cognitive capacities without ad hoc assumptions (i.e., to the same explanatory standard used in our account of systematicity for non-recursive capacities). The presence of an initial algebra/final coalgebra explains systematicity because all recursive cognitive capacities, in the domain of interest, factor through (are composed of) the same component process. Moreover, this factorization is unique, hence no further (ad hoc) assumptions are required to establish the intrinsic connection between members of a group of systematically-related capacities. This formulation also provides a new perspective on the relationship between recursive cognitive capacities. In particular, the link between number and language does not depend on recursion, as such, but on the underlying functor on which the group of recursive capacities is based. Thus, many species (and infants) can employ recursive processes without having a full-blown capacity for number and language. PMID:22514704

  3. XML as a cross-platform representation for medical imaging with fuzzy algorithms.

    PubMed

    Gal, Norbert; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    Machines that perform linguistic medical image interpretation are based on fuzzy algorithms. There are several frameworks that can edit and simulate fuzzy algorithms, but they are not compatible with most of the implemented applications. This paper suggests a representation for fuzzy algorithms in XML files, and using this XML as a cross-platform between the simulation framework and the software applications. The paper presents a parsing algorithm that can convert files created by simulation framework, and converts them dynamically into an XML file keeping the original logical structure of the files. PMID:21685590

  4. XML-based information system for planetary sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    EuroPlaNet (EPN in the following) has been developed by the planetological community under the "Sixth Framework Programme" (FP6 in the following), the European programme devoted to the improvement of the European research efforts through the creation of an internal market for science and technology. The goal of the EPN programme is the creation of a European network aimed to the diffusion of data produced by space missions dedicated to the study of the Solar System. A special place within the EPN programme is that of I.D.I.S. (Integrated and Distributed Information Service). The main goal of IDIS is to offer to the planetary science community a user-friendly access to the data and information produced by the various types of research activities, i.e. Earth-based observations, space observations, modeling, theory and laboratory experiments. During the FP6 programme IDIS development consisted in the creation of a series of thematic nodes, each of them specialized in a specific scientific domain, and a technical coordination node. The four thematic nodes are the Atmosphere node, the Plasma node, the Interiors & Surfaces node and the Small Bodies & Dust node. The main task of the nodes have been the building up of selected scientific cases related with the scientific domain of each node. The second work done by EPN nodes have been the creation of a catalogue of resources related to their main scientific theme. Both these efforts have been used as the basis for the development of the main IDIS goal, i.e. the integrated distributed service. An XML-based data model have been developed to describe resources using meta-data and to store the meta-data within an XML-based database called eXist. A search engine has been then developed in order to allow users to search resources within the database. Users can select the resource type and can insert one or more values or can choose a value among those present in a list, depending on selected resource. The system searches for all the resources containing the inserted values within the resources descriptions. An important facility of the IDIS search system is the multi-node search capability. This is due to the capacity of eXist to make queries on remote databases. This allows the system to show all resources which satisfy the search criteria on local node and to show how many resources are found on remote nodes, giving also a link to open the results page on remote nodes. During FP7 the development of the IDIS system will have the main goal to make the service Virtual Observatory compliant.

  5. XML-based approaches for the integration of heterogeneous bio-molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Mesiti, Marco; Jiménez-Ruiz, Ernesto; Sanz, Ismael; Berlanga-Llavori, Rafael; Perlasca, Paolo; Valentini, Giorgio; Manset, David

    2009-01-01

    Background The today's public database infrastructure spans a very large collection of heterogeneous biological data, opening new opportunities for molecular biology, bio-medical and bioinformatics research, but raising also new problems for their integration and computational processing. Results In this paper we survey the most interesting and novel approaches for the representation, integration and management of different kinds of biological data by exploiting XML and the related recommendations and approaches. Moreover, we present new and interesting cutting edge approaches for the appropriate management of heterogeneous biological data represented through XML. Conclusion XML has succeeded in the integration of heterogeneous biomolecular information, and has established itself as the syntactic glue for biological data sources. Nevertheless, a large variety of XML-based data formats have been proposed, thus resulting in a difficult effective integration of bioinformatics data schemes. The adoption of a few semantic-rich standard formats is urgent to achieve a seamless integration of the current biological resources. PMID:19828083

  6. XML and the VITAL standard: the document-oriented approach for open telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Anagnostaki, A; Pavlopoulos, S; Koutsouris, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to create a common, document-oriented architecture for the interchange of medical data in healthcare telemedicine applications. Key components are: The VITAL standard specifying a common (medical device independent) representation of Vital Signs Information and the Extensible Markup Language (XML) specifying the document specifications form, an architecture that, in aggregate, define the semantics and structural constraints necessary for the exchange of vital signs and related medical data. The modelling and design technique for the described application has been the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The XMI (XML Metadata Interchange Format) of the Object Management Group (OMG) provided the meta-model for this application, for sharing objects using XML, via the transfer of the application's UML model to XML documents and DTDs. PMID:11604709

  7. XML based tools for assessing potential impact of advanced technology space validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael R.; Weisbin, Charles

    2004-01-01

    A hierarchical XML database and related analysis tools are being developed by the New Millennium Program to provide guidance on the relative impact, to future NASA missions, of advanced technologies under consideration for developmental funding.

  8. NeXML: rich, extensible, and verifiable representation of comparative data and metadata.

    PubMed

    Vos, Rutger A; Balhoff, James P; Caravas, Jason A; Holder, Mark T; Lapp, Hilmar; Maddison, Wayne P; Midford, Peter E; Priyam, Anurag; Sukumaran, Jeet; Xia, Xuhua; Stoltzfus, Arlin

    2012-07-01

    In scientific research, integration and synthesis require a common understanding of where data come from, how much they can be trusted, and what they may be used for. To make such an understanding computer-accessible requires standards for exchanging richly annotated data. The challenges of conveying reusable data are particularly acute in regard to evolutionary comparative analysis, which comprises an ever-expanding list of data types, methods, research aims, and subdisciplines. To facilitate interoperability in evolutionary comparative analysis, we present NeXML, an XML standard (inspired by the current standard, NEXUS) that supports exchange of richly annotated comparative data. NeXML defines syntax for operational taxonomic units, character-state matrices, and phylogenetic trees and networks. Documents can be validated unambiguously. Importantly, any data element can be annotated, to an arbitrary degree of richness, using a system that is both flexible and rigorous. We describe how the use of NeXML by the TreeBASE and Phenoscape projects satisfies user needs that cannot be satisfied with other available file formats. By relying on XML Schema Definition, the design of NeXML facilitates the development and deployment of software for processing, transforming, and querying documents. The adoption of NeXML for practical use is facilitated by the availability of (1) an online manual with code samples and a reference to all defined elements and attributes, (2) programming toolkits in most of the languages used commonly in evolutionary informatics, and (3) input-output support in several widely used software applications. An active, open, community-based development process enables future revision and expansion of NeXML. PMID:22357728

  9. NeXML: Rich, Extensible, and Verifiable Representation of Comparative Data and Metadata

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Rutger A.; Balhoff, James P.; Caravas, Jason A.; Holder, Mark T.; Lapp, Hilmar; Maddison, Wayne P.; Midford, Peter E.; Priyam, Anurag; Sukumaran, Jeet; Xia, Xuhua; Stoltzfus, Arlin

    2012-01-01

    In scientific research, integration and synthesis require a common understanding of where data come from, how much they can be trusted, and what they may be used for. To make such an understanding computer-accessible requires standards for exchanging richly annotated data. The challenges of conveying reusable data are particularly acute in regard to evolutionary comparative analysis, which comprises an ever-expanding list of data types, methods, research aims, and subdisciplines. To facilitate interoperability in evolutionary comparative analysis, we present NeXML, an XML standard (inspired by the current standard, NEXUS) that supports exchange of richly annotated comparative data. NeXML defines syntax for operational taxonomic units, character-state matrices, and phylogenetic trees and networks. Documents can be validated unambiguously. Importantly, any data element can be annotated, to an arbitrary degree of richness, using a system that is both flexible and rigorous. We describe how the use of NeXML by the TreeBASE and Phenoscape projects satisfies user needs that cannot be satisfied with other available file formats. By relying on XML Schema Definition, the design of NeXML facilitates the development and deployment of software for processing, transforming, and querying documents. The adoption of NeXML for practical use is facilitated by the availability of (1) an online manual with code samples and a reference to all defined elements and attributes, (2) programming toolkits in most of the languages used commonly in evolutionary informatics, and (3) input–output support in several widely used software applications. An active, open, community-based development process enables future revision and expansion of NeXML. PMID:22357728

  10. Accessing genomic data through XML-based remote procedure calls.

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Alberto; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2002-01-01

    As the amount of data in public genomic databases grows, interoperability among them is becoming an increasingly critical feature. The ability for automated systems to mine and integrate data will be crucial to extracting knowledge from sources of data whose volume far exceeds the capabilities of human researchers. The currently dominant paradigm of presenting information as Web pages and using hyperlinks to describe relationships between pieces of information favors usability, but makes interoperability and automated data exchange more difficult. In this paper we describe how SNPper, a web-based system for the retrieval and analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), was augmented with a Remote Procedure Call interface, allowing client applications to query our program for SNP data and to receive the response as an XML document. Data represented in this form can be easily parsed by the requesting program, and thus reused for other applications. In this paper we describe the implementation of the interface and we show examples of its usage in a number of existing applications. PMID:12463907

  11. The NITE XML Toolkit: flexible annotation for multimodal language data.

    PubMed

    Carletta, Jean; Evert, Stefan; Heid, Ulrich; Kilgour, Jonathan; Robertson, Judy; Voormann, Holger

    2003-08-01

    Multimodal corpora that show humans interacting via language are now relatively easy to collect. Current tools allow one either to apply sets of time-stamped codes to the data and consider their timing and sequencing or to describe some specific linguistic structure that is present in the data, built over the top of some form of transcription. To further our understanding of human communication, the research community needs code sets with both timings and structure, designed flexibly to address the research questions at hand. The NITE XML Toolkit offers library support that software developers can call upon when writing tools for such code sets and, thus, enables richer analyses than have previously been possible. It includes data handling, a query language containing both structural and temporal constructs, components that can be used to build graphical interfaces, sample programs that demonstrate how to use the libraries, a tool for running queries, and an experimental engine that builds interfaces on the basis of declarative specifications. PMID:14587542

  12. A metadata framework for interoperating heterogeneous genome data using XML.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K H; Deshpande, A M; Tosches, N; Nath, S; Agrawal, A; Miller, P; Kumar, A; Snyder, M

    2001-01-01

    The rapid advances in the Human Genome Project and genomic technologies have produced massive amounts of data populated in a large number of network-accessible databases. These technological advances and the associated data can have a great impact on biomedicine and healthcare. To answer many of the biologically or medically important questions, researchers often need to integrate data from a number of independent but related genome databases. One common practice is to download data sets (text files) from various genome Web sites and process them by some local programs. One main problem with this approach is that these programs are written on a case-by-case basis because the data sets involved are heterogeneous in structure. To address this problem, we define metadata that maps these heterogeneously structured files into a common eXtensible Markup Language (XML) structure to facilitate data interoperation. We illustrate this approach by interoperating two sets of essential yeast genes that are stored in two yeast genome databases (MIPS and YPD). PMID:11825164

  13. Generic XML-based framework for metadata portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Uwe; Diepenbroek, Michael

    2008-12-01

    We present a generic and flexible framework for building geoscientific metadata portals independent of content standards for metadata and protocols. Data can be harvested with commonly used protocols (e.g., Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) and metadata standards like DIF or ISO 19115. The new Java-based portal software supports any XML encoding and makes metadata searchable through Apache Lucene. Software administrators are free to define searchable fields independent of their type using XPath. In addition, by extending the full-text search engine (FTS) Apache Lucene, we have significantly improved queries for numerical and date/time ranges by supplying a new trie-based algorithm, thus, enabling high-performance space/time retrievals in FTS-based geo portals. The harvested metadata are stored in separate indexes, which makes it possible to combine these into different portals. The portal-specific Java API and web service interface is highly flexible and supports custom front-ends for users, provides automatic query completion (AJAX), and dynamic visualization with conventional mapping tools. The software has been made freely available through the open source concept.

  14. Using XML and Java for Astronomical Instrumentation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Koons, Lisa; Sall, Ken; Warsaw, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). ]ML is used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, and communication mechanisms. Although the current effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera, a first-light instrument of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument.

  15. An XML based middleware for ECG format conversion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuchen; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Fang, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of information and communication technologies, various e-health solutions have been proposed. The digitized medical images as well as the mono-dimension medical signals are two major forms of medical information that are stored and manipulated within an electronic medical environment. Though a variety of industrial and international standards such as DICOM and HL7 have been proposed, many proprietary formats are still pervasively used by many Hospital Information System (HIS) and Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) vendors. Those proprietary formats are the big hurdle to form a nationwide or even worldwide e-health network. Thus there is an imperative need to solve the medical data integration problem. Moreover, many small clinics, many hospitals in developing countries and some regional hospitals in developed countries, which have limited budget, have been shunned from embracing the latest medical information technologies due to their high costs. In this paper, we propose an XML based middleware which acts as a translation engine to seamlessly integrate clinical ECG data from a variety of proprietary data formats. Furthermore, this ECG translation engine is designed in a way that it can be integrated into an existing PACS to provide a low cost medical information integration and storage solution. PMID:19964551

  16. Recursive partitioned inversion of large (1500 x 1500) symmetric matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putney, B. H.; Brownd, J. E.; Gomez, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A recursive algorithm was designed to invert large, dense, symmetric, positive definite matrices using small amounts of computer core, i.e., a small fraction of the core needed to store the complete matrix. The described algorithm is a generalized Gaussian elimination technique. Other algorithms are also discussed for the Cholesky decomposition and step inversion techniques. The purpose of the inversion algorithm is to solve large linear systems of normal equations generated by working geodetic problems. The algorithm was incorporated into a computer program called SOLVE. In the past the SOLVE program has been used in obtaining solutions published as the Goddard earth models.

  17. Description of an exact, recursive method to simplify shading calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocki, A. D.; Kammerud, R.

    An exact, recursive method called SHADE is described which attempts to simplify shading calculations as performed by a programmable calculator or microcomputer. Preliminary applications of SHADE using a Hewlett Packard HP-41C programmable calculator are outlined. For a given solar hour, SHADE is used to compute the following quantities for overhang and side fin combinations which shade various openings: the percentage of the total area of the opening which is shaded; the shaded area itself; the cosine of the angle of incidence between the Sun and glazing surface; the direct insolation at this surface, with and without shading; and the direct solar power at this surface, with and without shading.

  18. Association-dissociation process with aging subunits: Recursive solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermayer, Thomas; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    The coupling of stochastic growth and shrinkage of one-dimensional structures to random aging of the constituting subunits defines the simple association-dissociation-aging process which captures the essential features of the nonequilibrium assembly of cytoskeletal filaments. Because of correlations, previously employed mean-field methods fail to correctly describe filament growth. We study an alternative formulation of the full master equation of the stochastic process. An ansatz for the steady-state solution leads to a recursion relation which allows for the calculation of all emergent quantities with increasing accuracy and in excellent agreement with stochastic simulations.

  19. Random recursive trees and the elephant random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürsten, Rüdiger

    2016-03-01

    One class of random walks with infinite memory, so-called elephant random walks, are simple models describing anomalous diffusion. We present a surprising connection between these models and bond percolation on random recursive trees. We use a coupling between the two models to translate results from elephant random walks to the percolation process. We calculate, besides other quantities, exact expressions for the first and the second moment of the root cluster size and of the number of nodes in child clusters of the first generation. We further introduce another model, the skew elephant random walk, and calculate the first and second moment of this process.

  20. Recursive time-varying filter banks for subband image coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark J. T.; Chung, Wilson C.

    1992-01-01

    Filter banks and wavelet decompositions that employ recursive filters have been considered previously and are recognized for their efficiency in partitioning the frequency spectrum. This paper presents an analysis of a new infinite impulse response (IIR) filter bank in which these computationally efficient filters may be changed adaptively in response to the input. The filter bank is presented and discussed in the context of finite-support signals with the intended application in subband image coding. In the absence of quantization errors, exact reconstruction can be achieved and by the proper choice of an adaptation scheme, it is shown that IIR time-varying filter banks can yield improvement over conventional ones.

  1. A novel recursive Fourier transform for nonuniform sampled signals: application to heart rate variability spectrum estimation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Alexander; Aboy, Mateo

    2009-07-01

    We present a novel method to iteratively calculate discrete Fourier transforms for discrete time signals with sample time intervals that may be widely nonuniform. The proposed recursive Fourier transform (RFT) does not require interpolation of the samples to uniform time intervals, and each iterative transform update of N frequencies has computational order N. Because of the inherent non-uniformity in the time between successive heart beats, an application particularly well suited for this transform is power spectral density (PSD) estimation for heart rate variability. We compare RFT based spectrum estimation with Lomb-Scargle Transform (LST) based estimation. PSD estimation based on the LST also does not require uniform time samples, but the LST has a computational order greater than Nlog(N). We conducted an assessment study involving the analysis of quasi-stationary signals with various levels of randomly missing heart beats. Our results indicate that the RFT leads to comparable estimation performance to the LST with significantly less computational overhead and complexity for applications requiring iterative spectrum estimations. PMID:19247700

  2. Using XML and XSLT for flexible elicitation of mental-health risk knowledge.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, C D; Ahmed, A; Adams, A E

    2007-03-01

    Current tools for assessing risks associated with mental-health problems require assessors to make high-level judgements based on clinical experience. This paper describes how new technologies can enhance qualitative research methods to identify lower-level cues underlying these judgements, which can be collected by people without a specialist mental-health background. Content analysis of interviews with 46 multidisciplinary mental-health experts exposed the cues and their interrelationships, which were represented by a mind map using software that stores maps as XML. All 46 mind maps were integrated into a single XML knowledge structure and analysed by a Lisp program to generate quantitative information about the numbers of experts associated with each part of it. The knowledge was refined by the experts, using software developed in Flash to record their collective views within the XML itself. These views specified how the XML should be transformed by XSLT, a technology for rendering XML, which resulted in a validated hierarchical knowledge structure associating patient cues with risks. Changing knowledge elicitation requirements were accommodated by flexible transformations of XML data using XSLT, which also facilitated generation of multiple data-gathering tools suiting different assessment circumstances and levels of mental-health knowledge. PMID:17365646

  3. Validation and Simplification of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Wang Meihua; Won, Minhee; Shaw, Edward G.; Coughlin, Christopher; Curran, Walter J.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Previous recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of patients with malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] and anaplastic astrocytoma [AA]) produced six prognostic groups (I-VI) classified by six factors. We sought here to determine whether the classification for GBM could be improved by using an updated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) GBM database excluding AA and by considering additional baseline variables. Methods and Materials: The new analysis considered 42 baseline variables and 1,672 GBM patients from the expanded RTOG glioma database. Patients receiving radiation only were excluded such that all patients received radiation+carmustine. 'Radiation dose received' was replaced with 'radiation dose assigned.' The new RPA models were compared with the original model by applying them to a test dataset comprising 488 patients from six other RTOG trials. Fitness of the original and new models was evaluated using explained variation. Results: The original RPA model explained more variations in survival in the test dataset than did the new models (20% vs. 15%) and was therefore chosen for further analysis. It was reduced by combining Classes V and VI to produce three prognostic classes (Classes III, IV, and V+VI), as Classes V and VI had indistinguishable survival in the test dataset. The simplified model did not further improve performance (explained variation 18% vs. 20%) but is easier to apply because it involves only four variables: age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. Applying this simplified model to the updated GBM database resulted in three distinct classes with median survival times of 17.1, 11.2, and 7.5 months for Classes III, IV, and V+VI, respectively. Conclusions: The final model, the simplified original RPA model combining Classes V and VI, resulted in three distinct prognostic groups defined by age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. This classification will be used in future RTOG GBM trials.

  4. A recursive method for updating apple firmness prediction models based on spectral scattering images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral scattering is effective for nondestructive prediction of fruit firmness. However, the established prediction models for multispectral scattering are variety specific and may not perform appropriately for fruit harvested from different orchards or at different times. In this research, a...

  5. Measurement updating using the U-D factorization. [for Kalman matrix filter error covariance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierman, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    A new mechanization of the Kalman updating algorithm based on a U-D factorization of the estimate error covariance is introduced. Efficient and stable updating recursions are developed for the unit upper triangular factor U and the diagonal factor D, treating only the parameter estimation problem. Properties of the factorization update performed here include efficient one point at a time processing that requires little more computation than the optimal but numerically unstable conventional Kalman measurement update algorithm, and stability that compares with the square root filter.

  6. Recursive subdivision of urban space and Zipf’s law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguang; Wang, Jiejing

    2014-02-01

    Zipf’s law can be used to describe the rank-size distribution of cities in a region. It has seldom been employed to research urban internal structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that the space-filling process within a city follows Zipf’s law and can be characterized with the rank-size rule. A model of spatial disaggregation of urban space is presented to depict the spatial regularity of urban growth. By recursive subdivision of space, an urban region can be geometrically divided into two parts, four parts, eight parts, and so on, and form a hierarchy with cascade structure. If we rank these parts by size, the portions will conform to the Zipf distribution. By means of the GIS technique and remote sensing data, the model of recursive subdivision of urban space is applied to three cities in China. The results show that the intra-urban hierarchy complies with Zipf’s law, and the values of the rank-size scaling exponent are very close to 1. The significance of this study lies in three aspects. First, it shows that the strict subdivision of space is an efficient approach to revealing spatial order of urban form. Second, it discloses the relationships between the urban space-filling process and the rank-size rule. Third, it suggests a new way of understanding fractals, Zipf’s law, and spatial organization of urban evolution.

  7. Gibbs Recursive Sampler: finding transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William; Rouchka, Eric C; Lawrence, Charles E

    2003-07-01

    The Gibbs Motif Sampler is a software package for locating common elements in collections of biopolymer sequences. In this paper we describe a new variation of the Gibbs Motif Sampler, the Gibbs Recursive Sampler, which has been developed specifically for locating multiple transcription factor binding sites for multiple transcription factors simultaneously in unaligned DNA sequences that may be heterogeneous in DNA composition. Here we describe the basic operation of the web-based version of this sampler. The sampler may be acces-sed at http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/gibbs.html and at http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/bayesian/gibbs/gibbs.html. An online user guide is available at http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/bernoulli.html and at http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/bayesian/gibbs/manual/bernoulli.html. Solaris, Solaris.x86 and Linux versions of the sampler are available as stand-alone programs for academic and not-for-profit users. Commercial licenses are also available. The Gibbs Recursive Sampler is distributed in accordance with the ISCB level 0 guidelines and a requirement for citation of use in scientific publications. PMID:12824370

  8. Spectral functions and time evolution from the Chebyshev recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, F. Alexander; Justiniano, Jorge A.; McCulloch, Ian P.; Schollwöck, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    We link linear prediction of Chebyshev and Fourier expansions to analytic continuation. We push the resolution in the Chebyshev-based computation of T =0 many-body spectral functions to a much higher precision by deriving a modified Chebyshev series expansion that allows to reduce the expansion order by a factor ˜1/6 . We show that in a certain limit the Chebyshev technique becomes equivalent to computing spectral functions via time evolution and subsequent Fourier transform. This introduces a novel recursive time-evolution algorithm that instead of the group operator e-i H t only involves the action of the generator H . For quantum impurity problems, we introduce an adapted discretization scheme for the bath spectral function. We discuss the relevance of these results for matrix product state (MPS) based DMRG-type algorithms, and their use within the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We present strong evidence that the Chebyshev recursion extracts less spectral information from H than time evolution algorithms when fixing a given amount of created entanglement.

  9. Quicksort: Combining Concurrency, Recursion, and Mutable Data Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchin, David; Quark, Adrian; Misra, Jayadev

    Quicksort (Commun. ACM 4(7):321-322, 1961) remains one of the most studied algorithms in computer science. It is important not only as a practical sorting method, but also as a splendid teaching aid for introducing recursion and systematic algorithm development. The algorithm has been studied extensively; so, it is natural to assume that everything that needs to be said about it has already been said. Yet, in attempting to code it using a recent programming language of our design, we discovered that its structure is more clearly expressed as a concurrent program that manipulates a shared mutable store, without any locking or explicit synchronization. In this paper, we describe the essential aspects of our programming language Orc (Proceedings of FMOODS/FORTE, vol. 5522 of LNCS, pp. 1-25. Springer 2009), show a number of examples that combine its features in various forms, and then develop a concise description of Quicksort. We hope to highlight the importance of including concurrency, recursion and mutability within a single theory.

  10. Optimal Recursive Digital Filters for Active Bending Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.

    2013-01-01

    In the design of flight control systems for large flexible boosters, it is common practice to utilize active feedback control of the first lateral structural bending mode so as to suppress transients and reduce gust loading. Typically, active stabilization or phase stabilization is achieved by carefully shaping the loop transfer function in the frequency domain via the use of compensating filters combined with the frequency response characteristics of the nozzle/actuator system. In this paper we present a new approach for parameterizing and determining optimal low-order recursive linear digital filters so as to satisfy phase shaping constraints for bending and sloshing dynamics while simultaneously maximizing attenuation in other frequency bands of interest, e.g. near higher frequency parasitic structural modes. By parameterizing the filter directly in the z-plane with certain restrictions, the search space of candidate filter designs that satisfy the constraints is restricted to stable, minimum phase recursive low-pass filters with well-conditioned coefficients. Combined with optimal output feedback blending from multiple rate gyros, the present approach enables rapid and robust parametrization of autopilot bending filters to attain flight control performance objectives. Numerical results are presented that illustrate the application of the present technique to the development of rate gyro filters for an exploration-class multi-engined space launch vehicle.

  11. Change-point detection for recursive Bayesian geoacoustic inversions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S

    2015-04-01

    In order to carry out geoacoustic inversion in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions, extended duration observations coupled with source and/or receiver motion may be necessary. As a result, change in the underlying model parameters due to time or space is anticipated. In this paper, an inversion method is proposed for cases when the model parameters change abruptly or slowly. A model parameter change-point detection method is developed to detect the change in the model parameters using the importance samples and corresponding weights that are already available from the recursive Bayesian inversion. If the model parameters change abruptly, a change-point will be detected and the inversion will restart with the pulse measurement after the change-point. If the model parameters change gradually, the inversion (based on constant model parameters) may proceed until the accumulated model parameter mismatch is significant and triggers the detection of a change-point. These change-point detections form the heuristics for controlling the coherent integration time in recursive Bayesian inversion. The method is demonstrated in simulation with parameters corresponding to the low SNR, 100-900?Hz linear frequency modulation pulses observed in the Shallow Water 2006 experiment [Tan, Gerstoft, Yardim, and Hodgkiss, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 1187-1198 (2014)]. PMID:25920847

  12. Efficient Execution of Recursive Programs on Commodity Vector Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Bin; Jo, Youngjoon; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Kulkarni, Milind

    2015-06-13

    The pursuit of computational efficiency has led to the proliferation of throughput-oriented hardware, from GPUs to increasingly-wide vector units on commodity processors and accelerators. This hardware is designed to efficiently execute data-parallel computations in a vectorized manner. However, many algorithms are more naturally expressed as divide-and-conquer, recursive, task-parallel computations; in the absence of data parallelism, it seems that such algorithms are not well-suited to throughput-oriented architectures. This paper presents a set of novel code transformations that expose the data-parallelism latent in recursive, task-parallel programs. These transformations facilitate straightforward vectorization of task-parallel programs on commodity hardware. We also present scheduling policies that maintain high utilization of vector resources while limiting space usage. Across several task-parallel benchmarks, we demonstrate both efficient vector resource utilization and substantial speedup on chips using Intel's SSE4.2 vector units as well as accelerators using Intel's AVX512 units.

  13. A recursive least squares-based demodulator for electrical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Zhou, Haili; Cao, Zhang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a recursive least squares (RLS)-based demodulator is proposed for Electrical Tomography (ET) that employs sinusoidal excitation. The new demodulator can output preliminary demodulation results on amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal signal by processing the first two sampling data, and the demodulation precision and signal-to-noise ratio can be further improved by involving more sampling data in a recursive way. Thus trade-off between the speed and precision in demodulation of electrical parameters can be flexibly made according to specific requirement of an ET system. The RLS-based demodulator is suitable to be implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA). Numerical simulation was carried out to prove its feasibility and optimize the relevant parameters for hardware implementation, e.g., the precision of the fixed-point parameters, sampling rate, and resolution of the analog to digital convertor. A FPGA-based capacitance measurement circuit for electrical capacitance tomography was constructed to implement and validate the RLS-based demodulator. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed demodulator is valid and capable of making trade-off between demodulation speed and precision and brings more flexibility to the hardware design of ET systems.

  14. REQUEST: A Recursive QUEST Algorithm for Sequential Attitude Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1996-01-01

    In order to find the attitude of a spacecraft with respect to a reference coordinate system, vector measurements are taken. The vectors are pairs of measurements of the same generalized vector, taken in the spacecraft body coordinates, as well as in the reference coordinate system. We are interested in finding the best estimate of the transformation between these coordinate system.s The algorithm called QUEST yields that estimate where attitude is expressed by a quarternion. Quest is an efficient algorithm which provides a least squares fit of the quaternion of rotation to the vector measurements. Quest however, is a single time point (single frame) batch algorithm, thus measurements that were taken at previous time points are discarded. The algorithm presented in this work provides a recursive routine which considers all past measurements. The algorithm is based on on the fact that the, so called, K matrix, one of whose eigenvectors is the sought quaternion, is linerly related to the measured pairs, and on the ability to propagate K. The extraction of the appropriate eigenvector is done according to the classical QUEST algorithm. This stage, however, can be eliminated, and the computation simplified, if a standard eigenvalue-eigenvector solver algorithm is used. The development of the recursive algorithm is presented and illustrated via a numerical example.

  15. James Webb Space Telescope XML Database: From the Beginning to Today

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2005-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has been defining, developing, and exercising the use of a common eXtensible Markup Language (XML) for the command and telemetry (C&T) database structure. JWST is the first large NASA space mission to use XML for databases. The JWST project started developing the concepts for the C&T database in 2002. The database will need to last at least 20 years since it will be used beginning with flight software development, continuing through Observatory integration and test (I&T) and through operations. Also, a database tool kit has been provided to the 18 various flight software development laboratories located in the United States, Europe, and Canada that allows the local users to create their own databases. Recently the JWST Project has been working with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Object Management Group (OMG) XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE) personnel to provide all the information needed by JWST and JPL for exchanging database information using a XML standard structure. The lack of standardization requires custom ingest scripts for each ground system segment, increasing the cost of the total system. Providing a non-proprietary standard of the telemetry and command database definition formation will allow dissimilar systems to communicate without the need for expensive mission specific database tools and testing of the systems after the database translation. The various ground system components that would benefit from a standardized database are the telemetry and command systems, archives, simulators, and trending tools. JWST has exchanged the XML database with the Eclipse, EPOCH, ASIST ground systems, Portable spacecraft simulator (PSS), a front-end system, and Integrated Trending and Plotting System (ITPS) successfully. This paper will discuss how JWST decided to use XML, the barriers to a new concept, experiences utilizing the XML structure, exchanging databases with other users, and issues that have been experienced in creating databases for the C&T system.

  16. Recursive dynamics for flexible multibody systems using spatial operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.; Rodriguez, G.

    1990-01-01

    Due to their structural flexibility, spacecraft and space manipulators are multibody systems with complex dynamics and possess a large number of degrees of freedom. Here the spatial operator algebra methodology is used to develop a new dynamics formulation and spatially recursive algorithms for such flexible multibody systems. A key feature of the formulation is that the operator description of the flexible system dynamics is identical in form to the corresponding operator description of the dynamics of rigid multibody systems. A significant advantage of this unifying approach is that it allows ideas and techniques for rigid multibody systems to be easily applied to flexible multibody systems. The algorithms use standard finite-element and assumed modes models for the individual body deformation. A Newton-Euler Operator Factorization of the mass matrix of the multibody system is first developed. It forms the basis for recursive algorithms such as for the inverse dynamics, the computation of the mass matrix, and the composite body forward dynamics for the system. Subsequently, an alternative Innovations Operator Factorization of the mass matrix, each of whose factors is invertible, is developed. It leads to an operator expression for the inverse of the mass matrix, and forms the basis for the recursive articulated body forward dynamics algorithm for the flexible multibody system. For simplicity, most of the development here focuses on serial chain multibody systems. However, extensions of the algorithms to general topology flexible multibody systems are described. While the computational cost of the algorithms depends on factors such as the topology and the amount of flexibility in the multibody system, in general, it appears that in contrast to the rigid multibody case, the articulated body forward dynamics algorithm is the more efficient algorithm for flexible multibody systems containing even a small number of flexible bodies. The variety of algorithms described here permits a user to choose the algorithm which is optimal for the multibody system at hand. The availability of a number of algorithms is even more important for real-time applications, where implementation on parallel processors or custom computing hardware is often necessary to maximize speed.

  17. Geospatial data and services semantic share based on ebXML registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Zhu, Xinyan; Zhang, Xia; Du, Daosheng

    2007-11-01

    Nowadays, huge volumes of geospatial data and services are available and accessible to people all over the world. However, they are searched mostly based on keyword, which is inherently restricted by the ambiguities of natural language, which can lead to low precision and recall. In this paper, semantic share of geospatial data and services are studied based on ebXML registry. But ebXML registry specification doesn't take into account the registration of the semantic information. So we define how OWL DL constructs are mapped to ebXML registry information model (ebRIM) constructs without causing any changes in the core ebXML registry specification. After that, predefined stored procedures are provided in the ebXML registry for semantic search, which provide necessary means to exploit the enhanced semantics stored in the Registry. Then, geospatial ontologies in change detection application of remote sensing based on Global Change Master Directory, ISO19119 and ISO19115 are established. Finally, a prototype system is developed based on an open source-ebxmlrr to demonstrate the proposed model and approach.

  18. Alternatives to relational database: comparison of NoSQL and XML approaches for clinical data storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ken Ka-Yin; Tang, Wai-Choi; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2013-04-01

    Clinical data are dynamic in nature, often arranged hierarchically and stored as free text and numbers. Effective management of clinical data and the transformation of the data into structured format for data analysis are therefore challenging issues in electronic health records development. Despite the popularity of relational databases, the scalability of the NoSQL database model and the document-centric data structure of XML databases appear to be promising features for effective clinical data management. In this paper, three database approaches--NoSQL, XML-enabled and native XML--are investigated to evaluate their suitability for structured clinical data. The database query performance is reported, together with our experience in the databases development. The results show that NoSQL database is the best choice for query speed, whereas XML databases are advantageous in terms of scalability, flexibility and extensibility, which are essential to cope with the characteristics of clinical data. While NoSQL and XML technologies are relatively new compared to the conventional relational database, both of them demonstrate potential to become a key database technology for clinical data management as the technology further advances. PMID:23177219

  19. The uses of the refined matrix model recursion

    SciTech Connect

    Brini, Andrea; Marino, Marcos; Stevan, Sebastien

    2011-05-15

    We study matrix models in the {beta}-ensemble by building on the refined recursion relation proposed by Chekhov and Eynard. We present explicit results for the first {beta}-deformed corrections in the one-cut and the two-cut cases, as well as two applications to supersymmetric gauge theories: the calculation of superpotentials in N=1 gauge theories, and the calculation of vevs of surface operators in superconformal N=2 theories and their Liouville duals. Finally, we study the {beta}-deformation of the Chern-Simons matrix model. Our results indicate that this model does not provide an appropriate description of the {Omega}-deformed topological string on the resolved conifold, and therefore that the {beta}-deformation might provide a different generalization of topological string theory in toric Calabi-Yau backgrounds.

  20. Recursive Bayesian estimation of regularized and irregular quasar light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, A.; Protopapas, P.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the efficacy of recursive Bayesian estimation of regularized and irregular astrophysical time series using particle filters to understand latent dynamics. We begin by regularizing a MACHO (massive compact halo object) quasar light curve using linear interpolation techniques. This is subsequently modelled using a variety of autoregressive and autoregressive-integrated moving average models. We find that we can learn regularized astrophysical time series using particle filters. Motivated by this result, we proceed by working on raw, irregular light curves. Accurately modelling the underlying dynamics as a continuous autoregressive stochastic process, calibrated using an MCMC we find that the scale variable, ?, is in fact first-order stable across 55 MACHO quasar light curves and thus not correlated with the black hole mass. We show that particle filters can be used to learn regularized and irregular astrophysical light curves. These results can be used to inform classification systems of stellar type and further study variability characteristics of quasars.

  1. Source localization using recursively applied and projected (RAP) MUSIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1998-03-01

    A new method for source localization is described that is based on a modification of the well known multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. In classical MUSIC, the array manifold vector is projected onto an estimate of the signal subspace, but errors in the estimate can make location of multiple sources difficult. Recursively applied and projected (RAP) MUSIC uses each successively located source to form an intermediate array gain matrix, and projects both the array manifold and the signal subspace estimate into its orthogonal complement. The MUSIC projection is then performed in this reduced subspace. Using the metric of principal angles, the authors describe a general form of the RAP-MUSIC algorithm for the case of diversely polarized sources. Through a uniform linear array simulation, the authors demonstrate the improved Monte Carlo performance of RAP-MUSIC relative to MUSIC and two other sequential subspace methods, S and IES-MUSIC.

  2. Priors in sparse recursive decompositions of hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Nicolas; Plemmons, Robert J.; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-06-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization and its variants are powerful techniques for the analysis of hyperspectral images (HSI). Nonnegative matrix underapproximation (NMU) is a recent closely related model that uses additional underapproximation constraints enabling the extraction of features (e.g., abundance maps in HSI) in a recursive way while preserving nonnegativity. We propose to further improve NMU by using the spatial information: we incorporate into the model the fact that neighboring pixels are likely to contain the same materials. This approach thus incorporates structural and textural information from neighboring pixels. We use an l1-norm penalty term more suitable to preserving sharp changes, and solve the corresponding optimization problem using iteratively reweighted least squares. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated with analysis of the real-world cuprite dataset.

  3. Adaptive control of large space structures using recursive lattice filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of recursive lattice filters for identification and adaptive control of large space structures was studied. Lattice filters are used widely in the areas of speech and signal processing. Herein, they are used to identify the structural dynamics model of the flexible structures. This identified model is then used for adaptive control. Before the identified model and control laws are integrated, the identified model is passed through a series of validation procedures and only when the model passes these validation procedures control is engaged. This type of validation scheme prevents instability when the overall loop is closed. The results obtained from simulation were compared to those obtained from experiments. In this regard, the flexible beam and grid apparatus at the Aerospace Control Research Lab (ACRL) of NASA Langley Research Center were used as the principal candidates for carrying out the above tasks. Another important area of research, namely that of robust controller synthesis, was investigated using frequency domain multivariable controller synthesis methods.

  4. Adaptive control of large space structures using recursive lattice filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundararajan, N.; Goglia, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of recursive lattice filters for identification and adaptive control of large space structures is studied. Lattice filters were used to identify the structural dynamics model of the flexible structures. This identification model is then used for adaptive control. Before the identified model and control laws are integrated, the identified model is passed through a series of validation procedures and only when the model passes these validation procedures is control engaged. This type of validation scheme prevents instability when the overall loop is closed. Another important area of research, namely that of robust controller synthesis, was investigated using frequency domain multivariable controller synthesis methods. The method uses the Linear Quadratic Guassian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) approach to ensure stability against unmodeled higher frequency modes and achieves the desired performance.

  5. Learning to play Go using recursive neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Baldi, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Go is an ancient board game that poses unique opportunities and challenges for artificial intelligence. Currently, there are no computer Go programs that can play at the level of a good human player. However, the emergence of large repositories of games is opening the door for new machine learning approaches to address this challenge. Here we develop a machine learning approach to Go, and related board games, focusing primarily on the problem of learning a good evaluation function in a scalable way. Scalability is essential at multiple levels, from the library of local tactical patterns, to the integration of patterns across the board, to the size of the board itself. The system we propose is capable of automatically learning the propensity of local patterns from a library of games. Propensity and other local tactical information are fed into recursive neural networks, derived from a probabilistic Bayesian network architecture. The recursive neural networks in turn integrate local information across the board in all four cardinal directions and produce local outputs that represent local territory ownership probabilities. The aggregation of these probabilities provides an effective strategic evaluation function that is an estimate of the expected area at the end, or at various other stages, of the game. Local area targets for training can be derived from datasets of games played by human players. In this approach, while requiring a learning time proportional to N(4), skills learned on a board of size N(2) can easily be transferred to boards of other sizes. A system trained using only 9 x 9 amateur game data performs surprisingly well on a test set derived from 19 x 19 professional game data. Possible directions for further improvements are briefly discussed. PMID:18420381

  6. Multiangle dynamic light scattering analysis using an improved recursion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Li, Wei; Wang, Wanyan; Zeng, Xianjiang; Chen, Junyao; Du, Peng; Yang, Kecheng

    2015-10-01

    Multiangle dynamic light scattering (MDLS) compensates for the low information in a single-angle dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement by combining the light intensity autocorrelation functions from a number of measurement angles. Reliable estimation of PSD from MDLS measurements requires accurate determination of the weighting coefficients and an appropriate inversion method. We propose the Recursion Nonnegative Phillips-Twomey (RNNPT) algorithm, which is insensitive to the noise of correlation function data, for PSD reconstruction from MDLS measurements. The procedure includes two main steps: 1) the calculation of the weighting coefficients by the recursion method, and 2) the PSD estimation through the RNNPT algorithm. And we obtained suitable regularization parameters for the algorithm by using MR-L-curve since the overall computational cost of this method is sensibly less than that of the L-curve for large problems. Furthermore, convergence behavior of the MR-L-curve method is in general superior to that of the L-curve method and the error of MR-L-curve method is monotone decreasing. First, the method was evaluated on simulated unimodal lognormal PSDs and multimodal lognormal PSDs. For comparison, reconstruction results got by a classical regularization method were included. Then, to further study the stability and sensitivity of the proposed method, all examples were analyzed using correlation function data with different levels of noise. The simulated results proved that RNNPT method yields more accurate results in the determination of PSDs from MDLS than those obtained with the classical regulation method for both unimodal and multimodal PSDs.

  7. Recursive least square vehicle mass estimation based on acceleration partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuan; Xiong, Lu; Yu, Zhuoping; Qu, Tong

    2014-05-01

    Vehicle mass is an important parameter in vehicle dynamics control systems. Although many algorithms have been developed for the estimation of mass, none of them have yet taken into account the different types of resistance that occur under different conditions. This paper proposes a vehicle mass estimator. The estimator incorporates road gradient information in the longitudinal accelerometer signal, and it removes the road grade from the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle. Then, two different recursive least square method (RLSM) schemes are proposed to estimate the driving resistance and the mass independently based on the acceleration partition under different conditions. A 6 DOF dynamic model of four In-wheel Motor Vehicle is built to assist in the design of the algorithm and in the setting of the parameters. The acceleration limits are determined to not only reduce the estimated error but also ensure enough data for the resistance estimation and mass estimation in some critical situations. The modification of the algorithm is also discussed to improve the result of the mass estimation. Experiment data on a sphalt road, plastic runway, and gravel road and on sloping roads are used to validate the estimation algorithm. The adaptability of the algorithm is improved by using data collected under several critical operating conditions. The experimental results show the error of the estimation process to be within 2.6%, which indicates that the algorithm can estimate mass with great accuracy regardless of the road surface and gradient changes and that it may be valuable in engineering applications. This paper proposes a recursive least square vehicle mass estimation method based on acceleration partition.

  8. Interactive, Secure Web-enabled Aircraft Engine Simulation Using XML Databinding Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Risheng; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the detailed design of an XML databinding framework for aircraft engine simulation. The framework provides an object interface to access and use engine data. while at the same time preserving the meaning of the original data. The Language independent representation of engine component data enables users to move around XML data using HTTP through disparate networks. The application of this framework is demonstrated via a web-based turbofan propulsion system simulation using the World Wide Web (WWW). A Java Servlet based web component architecture is used for rendering XML engine data into HTML format and dealing with input events from the user, which allows users to interact with simulation data from a web browser. The simulation data can also be saved to a local disk for archiving or to restart the simulation at a later time.

  9. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  10. Email Updates

    MedlinePLUS

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  11. Dynamic XML-based exchange of relational data: application to the Human Brain Project.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhengming; Kadiyska, Yana; Li, Hao; Suciu, Dan; Brinkley, James F

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to exporting relational data in XML format for data exchange over the web. We describe the first real-world application of SilkRoute, a middleware program that dynamically converts existing relational data to a user-defined XML DTD. The application, called XBrain, wraps SilkRoute in a Java Server Pages framework, thus permitting a web-based XQuery interface to a legacy relational database. The application is demonstrated as a query interface to the University of Washington Brain Project's Language Map Experiment Management System, which is used to manage data about language organization in the brain. PMID:14728252

  12. Managing XML Schema Mappings and Annotations in P2P Data Integration Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankowski, Tadeusz; Niwi?ska, Magdalena

    The crucial problem in semantic data integration is creating and maintaining mappings between heterogeneous, independently designed data sources. To deal with the problem we can enrich XML schemas with semantic information from a domain ontology by annotating the schema. In this paper we discuss how the annotation establishing matches between XML schema components and the ontology, and the ontological knowledge itself, can be used to (quasi)automatic creation of mappings between schemas. A special attention is paid to the original concept of conditional annotations which occur in modeling of specialization.

  13. Dynamic XML–Based Exchange of Relational Data: Application to the Human Brain Project

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhengming; Kadiyska, Yana; Li, Hao; Suciu, Dan; Brinkley, James F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to exporting relational data in XML format for data exchange over the web. We describe the first real-world application of SilkRoute, a middleware program that dynamically converts existing relational data to a user-defined XML DTD. The application, called XBrain, wraps SilkRoute in a Java Server Pages framework, thus permitting a web-based XQuery interface to a legacy relational database. The application is demonstrated as a query interface to the University of Washington Brain Project’s Language Map Experiment Management System, which is used to manage data about language organization in the brain. PMID:14728253

  14. Research on heterogeneous data query and sharing mode based on XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Yaqun; Mu, Qi

    2013-07-01

    At present, XML language has been regarded as a standard of data exchange due to such attributes as being unrelevant to platform, auto-description of itself, easy extention, separation of content and form, and so on. Therefore, in the course of study of share of heterogeneous-data in coal enterprises, we design a heterogeneous-data query system based on XML to provide a unified data integration platform and share of information resource with high quality and speed, which will solve a problem with information islands produced in coal enterprises.

  15. Efficient design of two-dimensional recursive digital filters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, R.E.; Mitra, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report outlines the research progress during the period August 1978 to July 1979. This work can be divided into seven basic project areas. Project 1 deals with a comparative study of 2-D recursive and nonrecursive digital filters. The second project addresses a new design technique for 2-D half-plane recursive filters, and Projects 3 thru 5 deal with implementation issues. The sixth project presents our recent study of the applicability of array processors to 2-D digital signal processing. The final project involves our investigation into techniques for incorporating symmetry constraints on 2-D recursive filters in order to yield more efficient implementations.

  16. A new XML-aware compression technique for improving performance of healthcare information systems over hospital networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammary, Dhiah; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Most organizations exchange, collect, store and process data over the Internet. Many hospital networks deploy Web services to send and receive patient information. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the most usable communication protocol for Web services. XML is the standard encoding language of SOAP messages. However, the major drawback of XML messages is the high network traffic caused by large overheads. In this paper, two XML-aware compressors are suggested to compress patient messages stemming from any data transactions between Web clients and servers. The proposed compression techniques are based on the XML structure concepts and use both fixed-length and Huffman encoding methods for translating the XML message tree. Experiments show that they outperform all the conventional compression methods and can save tremendous amount of network bandwidth. PMID:21095766

  17. Multi-Resolution Seismic Tomography Based on Recursive Tessellation Hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, N A; Myers, S C; Ramirez, A

    2009-07-01

    A 3-D global tomographic model that reconstructs velocity structure at multiple scales and incorporates laterally variable seismic discontinuities is currently being developed. The model parameterization is node-based where nodes are placed along vertices defined by triangular tessellations of a spheroidal surface. The triangular tessellation framework is hierarchical. Starting with a tetrahexahedron representing the whole globe (1st level of the hierarchy, 24 faces), they divide each triangle of the tessellation into daughter triangles. The collection of all daughter triangles comprises the 2nd level of the tessellation hierarchy and further recursion produces an arbitrary number of tessellation levels and arbitrarily fine node-spacing. They have developed an inversion procedure that takes advantage of the recursive properties of the tessellation hierarchies by progressively solving for shorter wavelength heterogeneities. In this procedure, we first perform the tomographic inversion using a tessellation level with coarse node spacing. They find that a coarse node spacing of approximately 8{sup o} is adequate to capture bulk regional properties. They then conduct the tomographic inversion on a 4{sup o} tessellation level using the residuals and inversion results from the 8{sup o} run. In practice they find that the progressive tomography approach is robust, providing an intrinsic regularization for inversion stability and avoids the issue of predefining resolution levels. Further, determining average regional properties with coarser tessellation levels enables long-wavelength heterogeneities to account for sparsely sampled regions (or regions of the mantle where longer wavelength patterns of heterogeneity suffice) while allowing shorter length-scale heterogeneities to emerge where necessary. They demonstrate the inversion approach with a set of synthetic test cases that mimic the complex nature of data arrangements (mixed-determined inversion) common to most tomographic problems. They also apply the progressive inversion approach with Pn waves traveling within the Middle East region and compare the results to simple tomographic inversions. As expected from synthetic testing, the progressive approach results in detailed structure where there is high data density and broader regional anomalies where seismic information is sparse. The ultimate goal is to use these methods to produce a seamless, multi-resolution global tomographic model with local model resolution determined by the constraints afforded by available data. They envisage this new technique as the general approach to be employed for future multi-resolution model development with complex arrangements of regional and teleseismic information.

  18. Modifications to recursion unfolding algorithms to find more appropriate neutron spectra.

    PubMed

    Lowry, K A; Johnson, T L

    1984-10-01

    Modifications were made to recursion unfolding algorithms which allow the incorporation of prior knowledge, such as cutoff energy or preferred spectral shape, into the solution. Using these modifications, more appropriate neutron spectra are obtained. PMID:6548987

  19. A Parallel Implementation of Multilevel Recursive Spectral Bisection for Application to Adaptive Unstructured Meshes. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Stephen T.; Simon, Horst; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The design of a parallel implementation of multilevel recursive spectral bisection is described. The goal is to implement a code that is fast enough to enable dynamic repartitioning of adaptive meshes.

  20. Kalman filtering, smoothing and recursive robot arm forward and inverse dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1986-01-01

    The inverse and forward dynamics problems for multi-link serial manipulators are solved by using recursive techniques from linear filtering and smoothing theory. The pivotal step is to cast the system dynamics and kinematics as a two-point boundary-value problem. Solution of this problem leads to filtering and smoothing techniques identical to the equations of Kalman filtering and Bryson-Frazier fixed time-interval smoothing. The solutions prescribe an inward filtering recursion to compute a sequence of constraint moments and forces followed by an outward recursion to determine a corresponding sequence of angular and linear accelerations. In addition to providing techniques to compute joint accelerations from applied joint moments (and vice versa), the report provides an approach to evaluate recursively the composite multi-link system inertia matrix and its inverse. The report lays the foundation for the potential use of filtering and smoothing techniques in robot inverse and forward dynamics and in robot control design.

  1. Strategic Industrial Alliances in Paper Industry: XML- vs Ontology-Based Integration Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumenko, Anton; Nikitin, Sergiy; Terziyan, Vagan; Zharko, Andriy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify cases related to design of ICT platforms for industrial alliances, where the use of Ontology-driven architectures based on Semantic web standards is more advantageous than application of conventional modeling together with XML standards. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative analysis of the two latest and the most obvious…

  2. XML and Bibliographic Data: The TVS (Transport, Validation and Services) Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Joaquim; Cordeiro, Maria Ines

    This paper discusses the role of XML in library information systems at three major levels: as are presentation language that enables the transport of bibliographic data in a way that is technologically independent and universally understood across systems and domains; as a language that enables the specification of complex validation rules…

  3. Strategic Industrial Alliances in Paper Industry: XML- vs Ontology-Based Integration Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumenko, Anton; Nikitin, Sergiy; Terziyan, Vagan; Zharko, Andriy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify cases related to design of ICT platforms for industrial alliances, where the use of Ontology-driven architectures based on Semantic web standards is more advantageous than application of conventional modeling together with XML standards. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative analysis of the two latest and the most obvious…

  4. A Semantic Analysis of XML Schema Matching for B2B Systems Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jaewook

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical steps to integrating heterogeneous e-Business applications using different XML schemas is schema matching, which is known to be costly and error-prone. Many automatic schema matching approaches have been proposed, but the challenge is still daunting because of the complexity of schemas and immaturity of technologies in…

  5. A Semantic Analysis of XML Schema Matching for B2B Systems Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jaewook

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical steps to integrating heterogeneous e-Business applications using different XML schemas is schema matching, which is known to be costly and error-prone. Many automatic schema matching approaches have been proposed, but the challenge is still daunting because of the complexity of schemas and immaturity of technologies in…

  6. An Electronic Finding Aid Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Encoded Archival Description (EAD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, May

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of electronic finding aids for archives at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign that used XML (extensible markup language) and EAD (encoded archival description) to enable more flexible information management and retrieval than using MARC or a relational database management system. EAD template is appended.…

  7. SPIRIX: A Peer-to-Peer Search Engine for XML-Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Judith; Drobnik, Oswald

    At INEX 2008 we presented SPIRIX, a Peer-to-Peer search engine developed to investigate distributed XML-Retrieval. Such investigations have been neglected by INEX so far: while there is a variety of successful and effective XML-Retrieval approaches, all current solutions are centralized search engines. They do not consider distributed scenarios, where it is undesired or impossible to hold the whole collection on one single machine. Such scenarios include search in large-scale collections, where the load of computations and storage consumption is too high for one server. Other systems consist of different owners of heterogeneous collections willing to share their documents without giving up full control over their documents by uploading them on a central server. Currently, there are research solutions for distributed text-retrieval or multimedia-retrieval. With INEX and innovative techniques for exploiting XML-structure, it is now time to extend research to distributed XML-Retrieval. This paper reports on SPIRIX’ performance at INEX’08.

  8. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  9. Association Rule Extraction from XML Stream Data for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Juryon; Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Ung Mo; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    With the advances of wireless sensor networks, they yield massive volumes of disparate, dynamic and geographically-distributed and heterogeneous data. The data mining community has attempted to extract knowledge from the huge amount of data that they generate. However, previous mining work in WSNs has focused on supporting simple relational data structures, like one table per network, while there is a need for more complex data structures. This deficiency motivates XML, which is the current de facto format for the data exchange and modeling of a wide variety of data sources over the web, to be used in WSNs in order to encourage the interchangeability of heterogeneous types of sensors and systems. However, mining XML data for WSNs has two challenging issues: one is the endless data flow; and the other is the complex tree structure. In this paper, we present several new definitions and techniques related to association rule mining over XML data streams in WSNs. To the best of our knowledge, this work provides the first approach to mining XML stream data that generates frequent tree items without any redundancy. PMID:25046017

  10. Censored quantile regression with recursive partitioning-based weights.

    PubMed

    Wey, Andrew; Wang, Lan; Rudser, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Censored quantile regression provides a useful alternative to the Cox proportional hazards model for analyzing survival data. It directly models the conditional quantile of the survival time and hence is easy to interpret. Moreover, it relaxes the proportionality constraint on the hazard function associated with the popular Cox model and is natural for modeling heterogeneity of the data. Recently, Wang and Wang (2009. Locally weighted censored quantile regression. Journal of the American Statistical Association 103, 1117-1128) proposed a locally weighted censored quantile regression approach that allows for covariate-dependent censoring and is less restrictive than other censored quantile regression methods. However, their kernel smoothing-based weighting scheme requires all covariates to be continuous and encounters practical difficulty with even a moderate number of covariates. We propose a new weighting approach that uses recursive partitioning, e.g. survival trees, that offers greater flexibility in handling covariate-dependent censoring in moderately high dimensions and can incorporate both continuous and discrete covariates. We prove that this new weighting scheme leads to consistent estimation of the quantile regression coefficients and demonstrate its effectiveness via Monte Carlo simulations. We also illustrate the new method using a widely recognized data set from a clinical trial on primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:23975800

  11. Intervention-based multidimensional phase unwrapping using recursive orthogonal referring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junmin; Drangova, Maria

    2012-10-01

    We present a new intervention-based phase unwrapping algorithm, which solves the inherent integration-path-dependent problem (typically resulting in streaks), by using a 2D recursive orthogonal referring (PUROR) approach. The streaks were removed by three consecutive procedures: intra-image phase unwrapping, inter-image cross-referring a "good-strip," and cross-referring line segments. The application of these procedures results in streak-free 2D phase images. The phase inconsistencies across slices in a 3D image were removed using a hybrid 3D PUROR algorithm: the two step approach involves stacking the individual slices, by using the mean phase values of each slice, then applying the 2D PUROR algorithm to reformatted 2D images that include the slice direction. The described approach was tested with in vivo multislice phase images acquired in the axial, sagittal, and coronal orientation. The results of the unwrapped phase volume recovered using the PUROR algorithm have equivalent quality to that achieved by using established methods, but the PUROR algorithm is about two orders of magnitude faster (between 1 and 5 s per 256×256 slice; independent of slice orientation and echo time). PMID:22231672

  12. Recursive recovery of Markov transition probabilities from boundary value data

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, S.K.

    1994-04-01

    In an effort to mathematically describe the anisotropic diffusion of infrared radiation in biological tissue Gruenbaum posed an anisotropic diffusion boundary value problem in 1989. In order to accommodate anisotropy, he discretized the temporal as well as the spatial domain. The probabilistic interpretation of the diffusion equation is retained; radiation is assumed to travel according to a random walk (of sorts). In this random walk the probabilities with which photons change direction depend upon their previous as well as present location. The forward problem gives boundary value data as a function of the Markov transition probabilities. The inverse problem requires finding the transition probabilities from boundary value data. Problems in the plane are studied carefully in this thesis. Consistency conditions amongst the data are derived. These conditions have two effects: they prohibit inversion of the forward map but permit smoothing of noisy data. Next, a recursive algorithm which yields a family of solutions to the inverse problem is detailed. This algorithm takes advantage of all independent data and generates a system of highly nonlinear algebraic equations. Pluecker-Grassmann relations are instrumental in simplifying the equations. The algorithm is used to solve the 4 {times} 4 problem. Finally, the smallest nontrivial problem in three dimensions, the 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 problem, is solved.

  13. Recursive image registration with application to motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Yoram; Merhav, Shmuel J.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm for real-time recursive estimation of the two-dimensional shift between successive images in an image sequence occurring, e.g., in a down-looking airborne TV sensor, is presented. The shift, which is linearly related to ground velocity, is adaptively tracked by means of the gradient of a similarity function relating the two successive images. An implementation is presented in which substantial memory capacity and computational complexity are saved by using only a single line in the image frame and by binary quantization of the video signal. A detailed analysis of the algorithm is presented using stochastic mathematical models for the terrain texture, image noise, and velocity variations. Under some simplifying assumptions, closed-form solutions for the error statistics, including temporal power spectral density, are derived. The probability of loss of lock in tracking and the expected time for its reacquisition are evaluated and are found to be low at typical operating conditions. The analysis also indicates considerable robustness of the algorithm to widely different image statistics. Numerical examples indicate very good performance in autonomous navigation applications.

  14. Recursive dynamic programming for adaptive sequence and structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Thiele, R; Zimmer, R; Lengauer, T

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new alignment procedure that is capable of aligning protein sequences and structures in a unified manner. Recursive dynamic programming (RDP) is a hierarchical method which, on each level of the hierarchy, identifies locally optimal solutions and assembles them into partial alignments of sequences and/or structures. In contrast to classical dynamic programming, RDP can also handle alignment problems that use objective functions not obeying the principle of prefix optimality, e.g. scoring schemes derived from energy potentials of mean force. For such alignment problems, RDP aims at computing solutions that are near-optimal with respect to the involved cost function and biologically meaningful at the same time. Towards this goal, RDP maintains a dynamic balance between different factors governing alignment fitness such as evolutionary relationships and structural preferences. As in the RDP method gaps are not scored explicitly, the problematic assignment of gap cost parameters is circumvented. In order to evaluate the RDP approach we analyse whether known and accepted multiple alignments based on structural information can be reproduced with the RDP method. For this purpose, we consider the family of ferredoxins as our prime example. Our experiments show that, if properly tuned, the RDP method can outperform methods based on classical sequence alignment algorithms as well as methods that take purely structural information into account. PMID:7584462

  15. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  16. Recursive segmentation and recognition templates for image parsing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Long Leo; Chen, Yuanhao; Lin, Yuan; Lin, Chenxi; Yuille, Alan

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a Hierarchical Image Model (HIM) which parses images to perform segmentation and object recognition. The HIM represents the image recursively by segmentation and recognition templates at multiple levels of the hierarchy. This has advantages for representation, inference, and learning. First, the HIM has a coarse-to-fine representation which is capable of capturing long-range dependency and exploiting different levels of contextual information (similar to how natural language models represent sentence structure in terms of hierarchical representations such as verb and noun phrases). Second, the structure of the HIM allows us to design a rapid inference algorithm, based on dynamic programming, which yields the first polynomial time algorithm for image labeling. Third, we learn the HIM efficiently using machine learning methods from a labeled data set. We demonstrate that the HIM is comparable with the state-of-the-art methods by evaluation on the challenging public MSRC and PASCAL VOC 2007 image data sets. PMID:22193662

  17. Random forest methodology for model-based recursive partitioning: the mobForest package for R

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recursive partitioning is a non-parametric modeling technique, widely used in regression and classification problems. Model-based recursive partitioning is used to identify groups of observations with similar values of parameters of the model of interest. The mob() function in the party package in R implements model-based recursive partitioning method. This method produces predictions based on single tree models. Predictions obtained through single tree models are very sensitive to small changes to the learning sample. We extend the model-based recursive partition method to produce predictions based on multiple tree models constructed on random samples achieved either through bootstrapping (random sampling with replacement) or subsampling (random sampling without replacement) on learning data. Results Here we present an R package called “mobForest” that implements bagging and random forests methodology for model-based recursive partitioning. The mobForest package constructs large number of model-based trees and the predictions are aggregated across these trees resulting in more stable predictions. The package also includes functions for computing predictive accuracy estimates and plots, residuals plot, and variable importance plot. Conclusion The mobForest package implements a random forest type approach for model-based recursive partitioning. The R package along with it source code is available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=mobForest. PMID:23577585

  18. Fast and Efficient XML Data Access for Next-Generation Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Röst, Hannes L.; Schmitt, Uwe; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Motivation In mass spectrometry-based proteomics, XML formats such as mzML and mzXML provide an open and standardized way to store and exchange the raw data (spectra and chromatograms) of mass spectrometric experiments. These file formats are being used by a multitude of open-source and cross-platform tools which allow the proteomics community to access algorithms in a vendor-independent fashion and perform transparent and reproducible data analysis. Recent improvements in mass spectrometry instrumentation have increased the data size produced in a single LC-MS/MS measurement and put substantial strain on open-source tools, particularly those that are not equipped to deal with XML data files that reach dozens of gigabytes in size. Results Here we present a fast and versatile parsing library for mass spectrometric XML formats available in C++ and Python, based on the mature OpenMS software framework. Our library implements an API for obtaining spectra and chromatograms under memory constraints using random access or sequential access functions, allowing users to process datasets that are much larger than system memory. For fast access to the raw data structures, small XML files can also be completely loaded into memory. In addition, we have improved the parsing speed of the core mzML module by over 4-fold (compared to OpenMS 1.11), making our library suitable for a wide variety of algorithms that need fast access to dozens of gigabytes of raw mass spectrometric data. Availability Our C++ and Python implementations are available for the Linux, Mac, and Windows operating systems. All proposed modifications to the OpenMS code have been merged into the OpenMS mainline codebase and are available to the community at https://github.com/OpenMS/OpenMS. PMID:25927999

  19. XML-Based Generator of C++ Code for Integration With GUIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Hook; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    An open source computer program has been developed to satisfy a need for simplified organization of structured input data for scientific simulation programs. Typically, such input data are parsed in from a flat American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text file into computational data structures. Also typically, when a graphical user interface (GUI) is used, there is a need to completely duplicate the input information while providing it to a user in a more structured form. Heretofore, the duplication of the input information has entailed duplication of software efforts and increases in susceptibility to software errors because of the concomitant need to maintain two independent input-handling mechanisms. The present program implements a method in which the input data for a simulation program are completely specified in an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based text file. The key benefit for XML is storing input data in a structured manner. More importantly, XML allows not just storing of data but also describing what each of the data items are. That XML file contains information useful for rendering the data by other applications. It also then generates data structures in the C++ language that are to be used in the simulation program. In this method, all input data are specified in one place only, and it is easy to integrate the data structures into both the simulation program and the GUI. XML-to-C is useful in two ways: 1. As an executable, it generates the corresponding C++ classes and 2. As a library, it automatically fills the objects with the input data values.

  20. Update '98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  1. Recursive stochastic deconvolution in the estimation of earthquake source parameters: Synthetic waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, J.; Teng, T. L.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper, a method of the linear minimum mean-squares error (LMMSE) solution for source inversion is presented in terms of a recursive algorithm. A covariance matrix of estimation error, as well as a resolution matrix are also computed through recursion. It is shown that this recursive solution corresponds to a stationary Kalman filtering estimation for a linear dynamic system, which makes it possible to perform satisfactorily in an environment where complete knowledge of the relevant signal characteristics is not available. In a stationary environment, our recursive solution converges to the optimum Wiener solution. In a rather straightforward manner, the multichannel deconvolution problem is translated into a set of recursive expressions. The procedures have been tested using a number of synthetic data sets, including a point and a complex source, with satisfactory results. It is found that the solution is improved recursively with each addition of new data. We have found further that it is the error-covariance matrix, not the resolution matrix, that gives a measurement of the recursive performance. Since the recursive scheme of LMMSE runs in a manner based on either block-by-block or sample-by-sample operation, the memory requirement can be quite small. For problems involving sparse matrices, the recursive algorithm leads to fast and efficient computation. This method is tested by examining the Sierra Madre earthquake M(sub s) of 28 June 1991, California. This event is well-recorded by the broad-band TERRAscope array. The moment tensor inversion through the presented method indicates that the solution is improved recursively when new data become available. It was found that the later arrivals on the observed seismograms have very little influence on the solution while the inclusion of new data from different stations yields substantial improvement on the mechanism to a certain point where further addition of data will not make much difference to the resulting best double-couple decomposition. However, the content of double-couple components shows a striking increase from approximately 50 to 90% with the inclusion of more data from other stations. This result demonstrates clearly the robustness of our approach since the inadequacy of the source representation and the earth model in the moment-tensor inversion may be remedied by the inclusion of more data.

  2. Multi-Layer and Recursive Neural Networks for Metagenomic Classification.

    PubMed

    Ditzler, Gregory; Polikar, Robi; Rosen, Gail

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in machine learning, specifically in deep learning with neural networks, has made a profound impact on fields such as natural language processing, image classification, and language modeling; however, feasibility and potential benefits of the approaches to metagenomic data analysis has been largely under-explored. Deep learning exploits many layers of learning nonlinear feature representations, typically in an unsupervised fashion, and recent results have shown outstanding generalization performance on previously unseen data. Furthermore, some deep learning methods can also represent the structure in a data set. Consequently, deep learning and neural networks may prove to be an appropriate approach for metagenomic data. To determine whether such approaches are indeed appropriate for metagenomics, we experiment with two deep learning methods: i) a deep belief network, and ii) a recursive neural network, the latter of which provides a tree representing the structure of the data. We compare these approaches to the standard multi-layer perceptron, which has been well-established in the machine learning community as a powerful prediction algorithm, though its presence is largely missing in metagenomics literature. We find that traditional neural networks can be quite powerful classifiers on metagenomic data compared to baseline methods, such as random forests. On the other hand, while the deep learning approaches did not result in improvements to the classification accuracy, they do provide the ability to learn hierarchical representations of a data set that standard classification methods do not allow. Our goal in this effort is not to determine the best algorithm in terms accuracy-as that depends on the specific application-but rather to highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each of the approach we discuss and provide insight on how they can be improved for predictive metagenomic analysis. PMID:26316190

  3. Development of the Plate Tectonics and Seismology markup languages with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, H.; Babaei, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Extensible Markup Language (XML) and its specifications such as the XSD Schema, allow geologists to design discipline-specific vocabularies such as Seismology Markup Language (SeismML) or Plate Tectonics Markup Language (TectML). These languages make it possible to store and interchange structured geological information over the Web. Development of a geological markup language requires mapping geological concepts, such as "Earthquake" or "Plate" into a UML object model, applying a modeling and design environment. We have selected four inter-related geological concepts: earthquake, fault, plate, and orogeny, and developed four XML Schema Definitions (XSD), that define the relationships, cardinalities, hierarchies, and semantics of these concepts. In such a geological concept model, the UML object "Earthquake" is related to one or more "Wave" objects, each arriving to a seismic station at a specific "DateTime", and relating to a specific "Epicenter" object that lies at a unique "Location". The "Earthquake" object occurs along a "Segment" of a "Fault" object, which is related to a specific "Plate" object. The "Fault" has its own associations with such things as "Bend", "Step", and "Segment", and could be of any kind (e.g., "Thrust", "Transform'). The "Plate" is related to many other objects such as "MOR", "Subduction", and "Forearc", and is associated with an "Orogeny" object that relates to "Deformation" and "Strain" and several other objects. These UML objects were mapped into XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) formats, which were then converted into four XSD Schemas. The schemas were used to create and validate the XML instance documents, and to create a relational database hosting the plate tectonics and seismological data in the Microsoft Access format. The SeismML and TectML allow seismologists and structural geologists, among others, to submit and retrieve structured geological data on the Internet. A seismologist, for example, can submit peer-reviewed and reliable data about a specific earthquake to a Java Server Page on our web site hosting the XML application. Other geologists can readily retrieve the submitted data, saved in files or special tables of the designed database, through a search engine designed with J2EE (JSP, servlet, Java Bean) and XML specifications such as XPath, XPointer, and XSLT. When extended to include all the important concepts of seismology and plate tectonics, the two markup languages will make global interchange of geological data a reality.

  4. Creating an XML representation for science data formats with XDF: cases, design and implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Shaya, E.; Huang, Z.; Cheung, C. Y.

    2001-12-01

    XDF (the eXtensible Data Format) is an XML-based general science data format designed and maintained by the ADC (Astronomical Data Center). XDF may be used to describe both binary and ASCII scientific data and may alternatively serve as an XML wrapper for legacy science data files. The XML heritage of XDF lends it many desirable features including the ability to describe both science data files locally or remotely, to be manipulated by and viewable with a wide variety of XML aware software (including browsers), to have universal validation (via its DTD or schema) and semantic mark-up of data products at all points in the science data cycle. In this poster we will focus on a major aspect of XDF: its ability to describe existing legacy data formats. XDF may be achieve this by either directly describing the legacy data files and serving as a wrapper or, if greater sophistication and a higher level API is needed, by being extended in an object-oriented fashion to create a new hybrid science data format with the features of the legacy science data format. Either of these approaches can be used with minimal effort to create an XML-based representation for existing science data formats. We anticipate that this ability will allow for greater cost effectiveness in science data processing environments and science data archives because XDF can serve as a standard, extensible data format that can be used and re-used for any type of data in any mission and may serve as a transitional bridge between existing dataformats. We will present how XDF may generally be used to describe existing legacy data and cover a general outline of the steps needed to extend XDF to easily create your own XML/XDF-based data format. We will present several test cases including FITS and CDF and use them illustrate the problems and abilities of both approaches and to give examples of how to solve specific common problems.

  5. Transforming XML-based electronic patient records for use in medical case based reasoning systems.

    PubMed

    Abidi, S S; Manickam, S

    2000-01-01

    Electronic patient records (EPR) can be regarded as an implicit source of clinical behaviour and problem-solving knowledge, systematically compiled by clinicians. We present an approach, together with its computational implementation, to pro-actively transform XML-based EPR into specialised Clinical Cases (CC) in the realm of Medical Case Base Systems. The 'correct' transformation of EPR to CC involves structural, terminological and conceptual standardisation, which is achieved by a confluence of techniques and resources, such as XML, UMLS (meta-thesaurus) and medical knowledge ontologies. We present below the functional architecture of a Medical Case-Base Reasoning Info-Structure (MCRIS) that features two distinct, yet related, functionalities: (1) a generic medical case-based reasoning system for decision-support activities; and (2) an EPR-CC transformation system to transform typical EPR's to CC. PMID:11187645

  6. Enhancement of the Work in Scia Engineer's Environment by Employment of XML Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortiš, Ján

    2015-12-01

    The productivity of the work of engineers in the design of building structures by applying the rules of technical standards [1] has been increasing by using different software products for recent years. The software products offer engineers new possibilities to design different structures. However, there are problems especially for design of structures with similar static schemes as it is needed to follow the same work-steps. This can be more effective if the steps are done automatically by using a programming language for leading the processes that are done by software. The design process of timber structure which is done in the environment of Scia Engineer software is presented in the article. XML Programming Language is used for automatization of the design and the XML code is modified in the Excel environment by using VBA Programming language [2], [3].

  7. Light at Night Markup Language (LANML): XML Technology for Light at Night Monitoring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Craine, E. M.; Crawford, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Light at Night Markup Language (LANML) is a standard, based upon XML, useful in acquiring, validating, transporting, archiving and analyzing multi-dimensional light at night (LAN) datasets of any size. The LANML standard can accommodate a variety of measurement scenarios including single spot measures, static time-series, web based monitoring networks, mobile measurements, and airborne measurements. LANML is human-readable, machine-readable, and does not require a dedicated parser. In addition LANML is flexible; ensuring future extensions of the format will remain backward compatible with analysis software. The XML technology is at the heart of communicating over the internet and can be equally useful at the desktop level, making this standard particularly attractive for web based applications, educational outreach and efficient collaboration between research groups.

  8. Transparent XML Binding using the ALMA Common Software (ACS) Container/Component Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H.; Chiozzi, G.; Fugate, D.; Sekoranja, M.

    2004-07-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. The common architecture and infrastructure used for the whole ALMA software is presented at this conference in (Schwarz, Farris, & Sommer 2004). ACS offers a CORBA-based container/component model and supports the exchange and persistence of XML data. For the Java programming language, the container integrates transparently the use of type-safe Java binding classes to let applications conveniently work with XML transfer objects without having to parse or serialize them. This paper will show how the ACS container/component architecture serves to pass complex data structures, such as observation meta-data, between heterogeneous applications.

  9. Using XML Configuration-Driven Development to Create a Customizable Ground Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Brent; DeMore, Martha

    2009-01-01

    The Mission data Processing and Control Subsystem (MPCS) is being developed as a multi-mission Ground Data System with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) as the first fully supported mission. MPCS is a fully featured, Java-based Ground Data System (GDS) for telecommand and telemetry processing based on Configuration-Driven Development (CDD). The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the ideal language for CDD because it is easily readable and editable by all levels of users and is also backed by a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard and numerous powerful processing tools that make it uniquely flexible. The CDD approach adopted by MPCS minimizes changes to compiled code by using XML to create a series of configuration files that provide both coarse and fine grained control over all aspects of GDS operation.

  10. The language faculty that wasn't: a usage-based account of natural language recursion.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Chater, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the generative tradition, the language faculty has been shrinking-perhaps to include only the mechanism of recursion. This paper argues that even this view of the language faculty is too expansive. We first argue that a language faculty is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary considerations. We then focus on recursion as a detailed case study, arguing that our ability to process recursive structure does not rely on recursion as a property of the grammar, but instead emerges gradually by piggybacking on domain-general sequence learning abilities. Evidence from genetics, comparative work on non-human primates, and cognitive neuroscience suggests that humans have evolved complex sequence learning skills, which were subsequently pressed into service to accommodate language. Constraints on sequence learning therefore have played an important role in shaping the cultural evolution of linguistic structure, including our limited abilities for processing recursive structure. Finally, we re-evaluate some of the key considerations that have often been taken to require the postulation of a language faculty. PMID:26379567

  11. The language faculty that wasn't: a usage-based account of natural language recursion

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Morten H.; Chater, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the generative tradition, the language faculty has been shrinking—perhaps to include only the mechanism of recursion. This paper argues that even this view of the language faculty is too expansive. We first argue that a language faculty is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary considerations. We then focus on recursion as a detailed case study, arguing that our ability to process recursive structure does not rely on recursion as a property of the grammar, but instead emerges gradually by piggybacking on domain-general sequence learning abilities. Evidence from genetics, comparative work on non-human primates, and cognitive neuroscience suggests that humans have evolved complex sequence learning skills, which were subsequently pressed into service to accommodate language. Constraints on sequence learning therefore have played an important role in shaping the cultural evolution of linguistic structure, including our limited abilities for processing recursive structure. Finally, we re-evaluate some of the key considerations that have often been taken to require the postulation of a language faculty. PMID:26379567

  12. XTCE and XML Database Evolution and Lessons from JWST, LandSat, and Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Kreistle, Steven; Fatig. Cirtos; Jones, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The database organizations within three different NASA projects have advanced current practices by creating database synergy between the various spacecraft life cycle stakeholders and educating users in the benefits of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE) format. The combination of XML for managing program data and CCSDS XTCE for exchange is a robust approach that will meet all user requirements using Standards and Non proprietary tools. COTS tools for XTCEKML are very wide and varied. To combine together various low cost and free tools can be more expensive in the long run than choosing a more expensive COTS tool that meets all the needs. This was especially important when deploying in 32 remote sites with no need for licenses. A common mission XTCEKML format between dissimilar systems is possible and is not difficult. Command XMLKTCE is more complex than telemetry and the use of XTCEKML metadata to describe pages and scripts is needed due to the proprietary nature of most current ground systems. Other mission and science products such as spacecraft loads, science image catalogs, and mission operation procedures can all be described with XML as well to increase there flexibility as systems evolve and change. Figure 10 is an example of a spacecraft table load. The word is out and the XTCE community is growing, The f sXt TCE user group was held in October and in addition to ESAESOC, SC02000, and CNES identified several systems based on XTCE. The second XTCE user group is scheduled for March 10, 2008 with LDMC and others joining. As the experience with XTCE grows and the user community receives the promised benefits of using XTCE and XML the interest is growing fast.

  13. DICOM-compatible format for analytical cytology data that can be expressed in XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2001-05-01

    Flow cytometry data can be directly mapped to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, DICOM standard. A preliminary mapping of list-mode data to the DICOM Waveform information Object will be presented. This mapping encompasses both flow and image list-mode data. Since list- mode data is also produced by digital slide microscopy, which has already been standardized under DICOM, both branches of Analytical Cytology can be united under the DICOM standard. This will result in the functionality of the present International Society for Analytical Cytology Flow Cytometry Standard, FCS, being significantly extended and the elimination of the previously reported FCS design deficiencies. Thus, the present Flow Cytometry Standard can and should be replaced by a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, DICOM, standard. Expression of Analytical Cytology data in any other format, such as XML, can be made interoperable with DICOM by employing the DICOM data types. A fragment of an XML Schema has been created, which demonstrates the feasibility of expressing DICOM data types in XML syntax. The extension of DICOM to include Flow Cytometry will have the benefits of 1) retiring the present FCS, 2) providing a standard that is ubiquitous, internationally accepted, and backed by the medical profession, and 3) inter-operating with the existing medical informatics infrastructure.

  14. Construction of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma 2D/MS repository with Open Source XML Database – Xindice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Li, Maoyu; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Jianling; Chen, Zhuchu

    2006-01-01

    Background Many proteomics initiatives require integration of all information with uniformcriteria from collection of samples and data display to publication of experimental results. The integration and exchanging of these data of different formats and structure imposes a great challenge to us. The XML technology presents a promise in handling this task due to its simplicity and flexibility. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common cancers in southern China and Southeast Asia, which has marked geographic and racial differences in incidence. Although there are some cancer proteome databases now, there is still no NPC proteome database. Results The raw NPC proteome experiment data were captured into one XML document with Human Proteome Markup Language (HUP-ML) editor and imported into native XML database Xindice. The 2D/MS repository of NPC proteome was constructed with Apache, PHP and Xindice to provide access to the database via Internet. On our website, two methods, keyword query and click query, were provided at the same time to access the entries of the NPC proteome database. Conclusion Our 2D/MS repository can be used to share the raw NPC proteomics data that are generated from gel-based proteomics experiments. The database, as well as the PHP source codes for constructing users' own proteome repository, can be accessed at . PMID:16403238

  15. A novel XML-based document format with printing quality for web publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ruiheng; Tang, Zhi; Gao, Liangcai; Yu, Yinyan

    2010-02-01

    Although many XML-based document formats are available for printing or publishing on the Internet, none of them is well designed to support both high quality printing and web publishing. Therefore, we propose a novel XML-based document format for web publishing, called CEBX, in this paper. The proposed format is a fixed-layout document supporting high quality printing, which has optimized document content organization, physical structure and protection scheme to support web publishing. There are four noteworthy features of CEBX documents: (1) CEBX provides original fixed layout by graphic units for printing quality. (2) The content in CEBX document can be reflowed to fit the display device basing on the content blocks and additional fluid information. (3) XML Document Archiving model (XDA), the packaging model used in CEBX, supports document linearization and incremental edit well. (4) By introducing a segment-based content protection scheme into CEBX, some part of a document can be previewed directly while the remaining part is protected effectively such that readers only need to purchase partial content of a book that they are interested in. This will be very helpful to document distribution and support flexible business models such as try-beforebuy, on-demand reading, superdistribution, etc.

  16. XML-based 3D model visualization and simulation framework for dynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Fishwick, Paul A.

    2002-07-01

    Relatively recent advances in computer technology enable us to create three-dimensional (3D) dynamic models and simulate them within a 3D web environment. The use of such models is especially valuable when teaching simulation, and the concepts behind dynamic models, since the models are made more accessible to the students. Students tend to enjoy a construction process in which they are able to employ their own cultural and aesthetic forms. The challenge is to create a language that allows for a grammar for modeling, while simultaneously permitting arbitrary presentation styles. For further flexibility, we need an effective way to represent and simulate dynamic models that can be shared by modelers over the Internet. We present an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based framework that will guide a modeler in creating personalized 3D models, visualizing its dynamic behaviors, and simulating the created models. A model author will use XML files to represent geometries and topology of a dynamic model. Model Fusion Engine, written in Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT), expedites the modeling process by automating the creation of dynamic models with the user-defined XML files. Modelers can also link simulation programs with a created model to analyze the characteristics of the model. The advantages of this system lie in the education of modeling and simulating dynamic models, and in the exploitation of visualizing the dynamic model behaviors.

  17. WaterML: an XML Language for Communicating Water Observations Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.

    2007-12-01

    One of the great impediments to the synthesis of water information is the plethora of formats used to publish such data. Each water agency uses its own approach. XML (eXtended Markup Languages) are generalizations of Hypertext Markup Language to communicate specific kinds of information via the internet. WaterML is an XML language for water observations data - streamflow, water quality, groundwater levels, climate, precipitation and aquatic biology data, recorded at fixed, point locations as a function of time. The Hydrologic Information System project of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc (CUAHSI) has defined WaterML and prepared a set of web service functions called WaterOneFLow that use WaterML to provide information about observation sites, the variables measured there and the values of those measurments. WaterML has been submitted to the Open GIS Consortium for harmonization with its standards for XML languages. Academic investigators at a number of testbed locations in the WATERS network are providing data in WaterML format using WaterOneFlow web services. The USGS and other federal agencies are also working with CUAHSI to similarly provide access to their data in WaterML through WaterOneFlow services.

  18. NAMAS update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodier, I. W.

    1991-09-01

    An outline of the 'NAMAS update' talk is given. Details of calibrated and testing laboratories that have been accredited by NAMAS in the radiological field are given. The customers of 'NAMAS ' accredited laboratories can be assured of the following: the competence of the laboratory has been assessed by independent, expert assessors; all the measurements performed are traceable to the national standards of measurements at NPL; the laboratories have performed their measurements in a technically sound way; the laboratories operate an approved quality system and therefore quality measurements are made at all times and not just on special occasions; the uncertainties of measurements quoted by the laboratories have been assessed and can be substantiated.

  19. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Fogarasi Szabo, Nathalie; Diezi, Léonore; Delenclos, Laurie; Renard, Delphine; Chtioui, Haithem; Rothuizen, Laura E; Buclin, Thierry; Livio, Françoise

    2015-01-14

    The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2014 are reviewed. Ivabradine: increased risk of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction in patients with symptomatic angina treated with high dosages. Clopidogrel: rare observations of acquired hemophilia. Orlistat: may reduce the absorption of HIV antiretrovirals. Ponatinib: increased risk of arteriopathy and thrombosis. Axitinib: significant risk of heart failure (class effect). Tocilizumab: possible causal relationship with the emergence or aggravation of psoriasis. Lithium: hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism commonly observed. Sildenalfil: suspected causal association with melanoma, so far not proven, Methylphenidate: rare observations of priapism. St John's wort (Hypericum): reduced effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, including implants. PMID:25799668

  20. Recursive generation of one-loop amplitudes in the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Actis, S.; Denner, A.; Hofer, L.; Scharf, A.; Uccirati, S.

    2013-04-01

    We introduce the computer code Recola for the recursive generation of tree-level and one-loop amplitudes in the Standard Model. Tree-level amplitudes are constructed using off-shell currents instead of Feynman diagrams as basic building blocks. One-loop amplitudes are represented as linear combinations of tensor integrals whose coefficients are calculated similarly to the tree-level amplitudes by recursive construction of loop off-shell currents. We introduce a novel algorithm for the treatment of colour, assigning a colour structure to each off-shell current which enables us to recursively construct the colour structure of the amplitude efficiently. Recola is interfaced with a tensor-integral library and provides complete one-loop Standard Model amplitudes including rational terms and counterterms. As a first application we consider Z + 2 jets production at the LHC and calculate with Recola the next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to the dominant partonic channels.

  1. Parameter Estimation of a Closed Loop Coupled Tank Time Varying System using Recursive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basir, Siti Nora; Selamat, Hazlina; Yussof, Hanafiah; Ismarrubie Zahari, Nur; Shamsuddin, Syamimi

    2013-12-01

    This project investigates the direct identification of closed loop plant using discrete-time approach. The uses of Recursive Least Squares (RLS), Recursive Instrumental Variable (RIV) and Recursive Instrumental Variable with Centre-Of-Triangle (RIV + COT) in the parameter estimation of closed loop time varying system have been considered. The algorithms were applied in a coupled tank system that employs covariance resetting technique where the time of parameter changes occur is unknown. The performances of all the parameter estimation methods, RLS, RIV and RIV + COT were compared. The estimation of the system whose output was corrupted with white and coloured noises were investigated. Covariance resetting technique successfully executed when the parameters change. RIV + COT gives better estimates than RLS and RIV in terms of convergence and maximum overshoot.

  2. Methods for assessing movement path recursion with application to African buffalo in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bar-David, Shirli; Bar-David, Israel; Cross, Paul C; Ryan, Sadie J; Knechtel, Christiane U; Getz, Wayne M

    2009-09-01

    Recent developments of automated methods for monitoring animal movement, e.g., global positioning systems (GPS) technology, yield high-resolution spatiotemporal data. To gain insights into the processes creating movement patterns, we present two new techniques for extracting information from these data on repeated visits to a particular site or patch ("recursions"). Identification of such patches and quantification of recursion pathways, when combined with patch-related ecological data, should contribute to our understanding of the habitat requirements of large herbivores, of factors governing their space-use patterns, and their interactions with the ecosystem. We begin by presenting output from a simple spatial model that simulates movements of large-herbivore groups based on minimal parameters: resource availability and rates of resource recovery after a local depletion. We then present the details of our new techniques of analyses (recursion analysis and circle analysis) and apply them to data generated by our model, as well as two sets of empirical data on movements of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): the first collected in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve and the second in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our recursion analyses of model outputs provide us with a basis for inferring aspects of the processes governing the production of buffalo recursion patterns, particularly the potential influence of resource recovery rate. Although the focus of our simulations was a comparison of movement patterns produced by different resource recovery rates, we conclude our paper with a comprehensive discussion of how recursion analyses can be used when appropriate ecological data are available to elucidate various factors influencing movement. Inter alia, these include the various limiting and preferred resources, parasites, and topographical and landscape factors. PMID:19769125

  3. Modification of an amplification reaction in recursively dynamic compartments driven by stirring.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Tetsuo; Tanahashi, Genya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2013-12-17

    In living systems, biochemical reactions are confined to cellular or subcellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane and the organelles within a cell. These biological compartments are usually subjected to recursive changes, such as combinations of growth, fusion, and division, to constitute repeating cell cycles. In such recursively dynamic compartments, the encapsulated biochemical reaction may exhibit dynamics that differ from those of the static compartment (i.e., test tubes) used in conventional biochemistry experiments. To test this hypothesis in a simplified model, we mechanically stirred femtoliter-sized water-in-oil emulsion droplets so that individual droplets were subjected to repeated coalescence and breakage. We show that recursive dynamics appeared in the emulsion, which were measured by the exponential propagation of a water-soluble dye. The rate of the propagation, ?, was controlled by modulating the pulse-width of stirring in an electromagnetic stirrer. Within this system, we studied the dynamics of an RNA-amplification reaction in recursively increasing reaction compartments at various values of ?. We showed that there was an optimal value of ? that maximized RNA amplification. This effect was explained by the balance between the opposing effects of supply of substrate and the dilution of amplified RNA both resulting from coalescence. Moreover, when we mixed two RNA species with different kinetic properties, we found a preferential amplification for one of the species only in the recursively dynamic emulsion. This effect was partly explained by a separation effect which preferentially amplifies the number of compartments for the molecular specie that can better follow the breakage dynamics of the compartments. The present work demonstrated how the recursive dynamics of compartments modifies the internal biochemical reaction. PMID:24219119

  4. Methods for assessing movement path recursion with application to African buffalo in South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bar-David, S.; Bar-David, I.; Cross, P.C.; Ryan, S.J.; Knechtel, C.U.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments of automated methods for monitoring animal movement, e.g., global positioning systems (GPS) technology, yield high-resolution spatiotemporal data. To gain insights into the processes creating movement patterns, we present two new techniques for extracting information from these data on repeated visits to a particular site or patch ("recursions"). Identification of such patches and quantification of recursion pathways, when combined with patch-related ecological data, should contribute to our understanding of the habitat requirements of large herbivores, of factors governing their space-use patterns, and their interactions with the ecosystem. We begin by presenting output from a simple spatial model that simulates movements of large-herbivore groups based on minimal parameters: resource availability and rates of resource recovery after a local depletion. We then present the details of our new techniques of analyses (recursion analysis and circle analysis) and apply them to data generated by our model, as well as two sets of empirical data on movements of African buffalo (Syncerus coffer): the first collected in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve and the second in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our recursion analyses of model outputs provide us with a basis for inferring aspects of the processes governing the production of buffalo recursion patterns, particularly the potential influence of resource recovery rate. Although the focus of our simulations was a comparison of movement patterns produced by different resource recovery rates, we conclude our paper with a comprehensive discussion of how recursion analyses can be used when appropriate ecological data are available to elucidate various factors influencing movement. Inter alia, these include the various limiting and preferred resources, parasites, and topographical and landscape factors. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. RESRAD update

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Zielen, A.J.; Jones, L.G.; LePoire, D.J.; Wang, Y.Y. ); Yuan, Y.C. ); Loureiro, C.O. . Escola de Engenharia); Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H. . Offic

    1993-01-01

    A microcomputer program called RESRAD, which implements a pathway analysis method for radiological risk assessment, was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1989. This program is used to derive allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and to predict effective dose equivalents and excess cancer incidence risks incurred by an individual exposed to radioactive materials. Since its development, the RESRAD code has been adopted by DOE in Order 5400.5 for the derivation of soil cleanup criteria and dose calculations, and it has been used widely by DOE, other agencies, and their contractors. The original models used by ANL to develop RESRAD were initially developed as part of a DOE effort that began in the early 1980s and involved most of the national laboratories and DOE program offices. The RESRAD code is continuously improved and updated to incorporate comments from users and new features that ease the interaction with users and increase the code's capability and flexibility. The DOE Offices of Environmental Guidance and Environmental Restoration also provide periodic guidance regarding any significant changes to the code. The RESRAD update, Version 5.0, has substantial improvements in many aspects compared with the last version released in 1989.

  6. RESRAD update

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Zielen, A.J.; Jones, L.G.; LePoire, D.J.; Wang, Y.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.; Loureiro, C.O.; Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H.; H Williams, W.A.

    1993-05-01

    A microcomputer program called RESRAD, which implements a pathway analysis method for radiological risk assessment, was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1989. This program is used to derive allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and to predict effective dose equivalents and excess cancer incidence risks incurred by an individual exposed to radioactive materials. Since its development, the RESRAD code has been adopted by DOE in Order 5400.5 for the derivation of soil cleanup criteria and dose calculations, and it has been used widely by DOE, other agencies, and their contractors. The original models used by ANL to develop RESRAD were initially developed as part of a DOE effort that began in the early 1980s and involved most of the national laboratories and DOE program offices. The RESRAD code is continuously improved and updated to incorporate comments from users and new features that ease the interaction with users and increase the code`s capability and flexibility. The DOE Offices of Environmental Guidance and Environmental Restoration also provide periodic guidance regarding any significant changes to the code. The RESRAD update, Version 5.0, has substantial improvements in many aspects compared with the last version released in 1989.

  7. A recursion relation for the Wick products of the CAR algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, B. J.; Negrin, E. R.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we obtain an explicit recursion relation for the Wick products of the CAR algebra in terms of Wick products of lesser order and the bracket of the Fermi fields. This formula extends to Fermi fields the recursion formula given by I.E. Segal for Bose fields (cf. S1.4 in [I.E. Segal, Nonlinear functions of weak processes. I, J. Funct. Anal. 4 (1969) 404-456] and S7.1-7.2 in [J.C. Baez, I.E. Segal, Z. Zhou, Introduction to Algebraic and Constructive Quantum Field Theory, Princeton Univ. Press, NJ, 1992]).

  8. Recursive method for computing matrix elements for two-body interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Juhani; Suhonen, Jouni

    2015-05-01

    A recursive method for the efficient computation of two-body matrix elements is presented. The method consists of a set of recursion relations for the computationally demanding radial integral and adds one more tool to the set of computational methods introduced by Horie and Sasaki [H. Horie and K. Sasaki, Prog. Theor. Phys. 25, 475 (1961), 10.1143/PTP.25.475]. The neutrinoless double-β decay will serve as the primary application and example, but the method is general and can be applied equally well to other kinds of nuclear structure calculations involving matrix elements of two-body interactions.

  9. Polarization demultiplexing by recursive least squares constant modulus algorithm based on QR decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhao; Yeling, Wang; Guijun, Hu; Yunpeng, Cui; Jian, Shi; Li, Li

    2013-07-01

    Recursive least squares constant modulus algorithm based on QR decomposition (QR-RLS-CMA) is first proposed as the polarization demultiplexing method. We compare its performance with the stochastic gradient descent constant modulus algorithm (SGD-CMA) and the recursive least squares constant modulus algorithm (RLS-CMA) in a polarization-division-multiplexing system with coherent detection. It is demonstrated that QR-RLS-CMA is an efficient demultiplexing algorithm which can avoid the problem of step-length choice in SGD-CMA. Meanwhile, it also has better symbol error rate (SER) performance and more stable convergence property.

  10. Fast and stable recursive algorithms for continuous-time and discrete-time model conversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, L. S.; Lian, S. R.; Park, C. B.; Coleman, N. P.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the Newton-Raphson method, this paper presents recursive algorithms that are rapidly convergent and more stable for modeling the equivalent continuous-time (discrete-time) model from the available discrete-time (continuous-time) model for a fixed sampling period. The newly developed recursive algorithms relax the constraints imposed upon the existing model conversion algorithms, and, thus, enhance the applications of microprocessors and associated microelectronics to digital control systems. A practical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedures.

  11. Development of a Bayesian recursive algorithm to find free-spaces for an intelligent wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh V; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new shared control strategy for an intelligent wheelchair using a Bayesian recursive algorithm. Using the local environment information gathered by a laser range finder sensor and commands acquired through a user interface, a Bayesian recursive algorithm has been developed to find the most appropriate free-space, which corresponds to the highest posterior probability value. Then, an autonomous navigation algorithm will assist to manoeuvre the wheelchair in the chosen free-space. Experiment results demonstrate that the new method provides excellent performance with great flexibility and fast response. PMID:22256012

  12. A new design for SLAM front-end based on recursive SOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuesi; Xia, Shengping

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the graph optimization-based monocular SLAM, a novel design for the front-end in single camera SLAM is proposed, based on the recursive SOM. Pixel intensities are directly used to achieve image registration and motion estimation, which can save time compared with the current appearance-based frameworks, usually including feature extraction and matching. Once a key-frame is identified, a recursive SOM is used to actualize loop-closure detecting, resulting a more precise location. The experiment on a public dataset validates our method on a computer with a quicker and effective result.

  13. Student Monks--Teaching Recursion in an IS or CS Programming Course Using the Towers of Hanoi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benander, Alan C.; Benander, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Educators have been using the Towers of Hanoi problem for many years as an example of a problem that has a very elegant recursive solution. However, the elegance and conciseness of this solution can make it difficult for students to understand the amount of computer time required in the execution of this solution. And, like many recursive computer…

  14. Split-remerge method for eliminating processing window artifacts in recursive hierarchical segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method, computer readable storage, and apparatus for implementing recursive segmentation of data with spatial characteristics into regions including splitting-remerging of pixels with contagious region designations and a user controlled parameter for providing a preference for merging adjacent regions to eliminate window artifacts.

  15. Recursive Frame Analysis: Reflections on the Development of a Qualitative Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford

    2012-01-01

    The origin of recursive frame analysis (RFA) is revisited and discussed as a postmodern alternative to modernist therapeutic models and research methods that foster hegemony of a preferred therapeutic metaphor, narrative, or strategy. It encourages improvisational performance while enabling a means of scoring the change and movement of the…

  16. A Cognitive Processing Account of Individual Differences in Novice Logo Programmers' Conceptualisation and Use of Recursion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated individual differences in the construction of mental models of recursion in LOGO programming. The learning process was investigated from the perspective of Norman's mental models theory and employed diSessa's ontology regarding distributed, functional, and surrogate mental models, and the Luria model of brain…

  17. The Recursive Process in and of Critical Literacy: Action Research in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Karyn; White, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recursive process of initiating an action research project on literacy for students-at-risk in a Canadian urban elementary school. As this paper demonstrates, this requires development of a school-wide framework, which frames the action research project and desired outcomes, and a shared ownership of this…

  18. Mean-Field Analysis of Recursive Entropic Segmentation of Biological Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Siew-Ann; Stodghill, Paul; Schneider, David; Myers, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer in bacteria results in genomic sequences which are mosaic in nature. An important first step in the analysis of a bacterial genome would thus be to model the statistically nonstationary nucleotide or protein sequence with a collection of P stationary Markov chains, and partition the sequence of length N into M statistically stationary segments/domains. This can be done for Markov chains of order K = 0 using a recursive segmentation scheme based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence, where the unknown parameters P and M are estimated from a hypothesis testing/model selection process. In this talk, we describe how the Jensen-Shannon divergence can be generalized to Markov chains of order K > 0, as well as an algorithm optimizing the positions of a fixed number of domain walls. We then describe a mean field analysis of the generalized recursive Jensen-Shannon segmentation scheme, and show how most domain walls appear as local maxima in the divergence spectrum of the sequence, before highlighting the main problem associated with the recursive segmentation scheme, i.e. the strengths of the domain walls selected recursively do not decrease monotonically. This problem is especially severe in repetitive sequences, whose statistical signatures we will also discuss.

  19. Recursive inverse kinematics for robot arms via Kalman filtering and Bryson-Frazier smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Scheid, R. E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper applies linear filtering and smoothing theory to solve recursively the inverse kinematics problem for serial multilink manipulators. This problem is to find a set of joint angles that achieve a prescribed tip position and/or orientation. A widely applicable numerical search solution is presented. The approach finds the minimum of a generalized distance between the desired and the actual manipulator tip position and/or orientation. Both a first-order steepest-descent gradient search and a second-order Newton-Raphson search are developed. The optimal relaxation factor required for the steepest descent method is computed recursively using an outward/inward procedure similar to those used typically for recursive inverse dynamics calculations. The second-order search requires evaluation of a gradient and an approximate Hessian. A Gauss-Markov approach is used to approximate the Hessian matrix in terms of products of first-order derivatives. This matrix is inverted recursively using a two-stage process of inward Kalman filtering followed by outward smoothing. This two-stage process is analogous to that recently developed by the author to solve by means of spatial filtering and smoothing the forward dynamics problem for serial manipulators.

  20. Closed-form recursive formula for an optimal tracker with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J.-N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Feedback control laws are derived for a class of optimal finite time tracking problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gain and the closed-loop response trajectory. Such formulations are expressed in recursive forms so that a real-time computer implementation becomes feasible. Two examples are given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the formulations.

  1. User's Guide for the Precision Recursive Estimator for Ephemeris Refinement (PREFER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, B. P.

    1982-01-01

    PREFER is a recursive orbit determination program which is used to refine the ephemerides produced by a batch least squares program (e.g., GTDS). It is intended to be used primarily with GTDS and, thus, is compatible with some of the GTDS input/output files.

  2. Lapin Data Interchange Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of grant NCC3-966 was to investigate and evaluate the interchange of application-specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).

  3. Lapin Data Interchange Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate and evaluate the interchange of application- specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. See Engineering Analysis Using a Web-Based Protocol by J.D. Schoeffler and R.W. Claus, NASA TM-2002-211981, October 2002. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).

  4. XML&CORBA-based distributed system for information integration and dissemination in multimedia neuroimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Ching, Wan; Hawkins, Randall A.; Dillon, William P.

    2002-05-01

    Medical information systems based in different hospital departments face tremendous difficulty in information exchange and dissemination due to the multitudes of hardware and software platforms running these systems. In this paper, we describe a distributed information system for integrating various hospital systems in supporting clinical neuroimaging research and epilepsy surgical planning. Our distributed information system uses a three-tiered architecture consists of a user-interface tier, application logic tier and data store tier. Two system implementations based on this software architecture but using different integration technologies were developed and are discussed in this paper: the XML (extensible Mark Up Language)-based implementation and the CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture)-based implementation. In the XML-based implementation, application logic tier communicates with user-interface tier and data store tier using HTTP and XML for data exchange. For the data exchange in CORBA-based implementation, the middleware uses IIOP (Internet inter-ORB protocol) to call CORBA objects in the data store tier then to return the results to the user-interface tier. For the user-interface tier of either implementation, the Web browsers are served as clients to invoke application components or agents in the middleware. The application of the proposed distributed system allows clinical users to access, search and retrieve the multimedia information in any underlying computer systems with commonly used Web browsers. Preliminary results show that the system is effective for information integration and data sharing among the different departmental systems in the hospital for neuroimaging applications.

  5. A Transcription System from MusicXML Format to Braille Music Notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Gotoh, T.; Minamikawa-Tachino, R.; Tamura, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet enables us to freely access music as recorded sound and even music scores. For the visually impaired, music scores must be transcribed from computer-based musical formats to Braille music notation. This paper proposes a transcription system from the MusicXML format to Braille music notation using a structural model of Braille music notation. The resultant Braille scores inspected by volunteer transcribers are up to the international standard. Using this simple and efficient transcription system, it should be possible to provide Braille music scores via the Internet to the visually impaired.

  6. Agent Based Manufacturing Capability Assessment in the Extended Enterprise Using Step AP224 and XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratchev, Svetan; Medani, Omar

    Data exchange in the extended enterprise is one of the most critical tasks in supporting collaborative decision-making. Companies often rely on geographically distributed suppliers for efficient product design and manufacture. Early design assessment can substantially reduce the cost of product development and production. This research proposes a new STEP AP224 EXPRESS based data model to facilitate the exchange of part and process data between distributed key agents in the early design process. The approach is illustrated using a prototype XML/CORBA environment to support the information exchange between collaborating design and manufacturing agents.

  7. Some applications of recursive functionals to the foundations of mathematics and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szudzik, Matthew P.

    We consider two applications of recursive functionals. The first application concerns Godel's theory T , which provides a rudimentary foundation for the formalization of mathematics. T can be understood as a theory of the simply-typed lambda calculus that is extended to include the constant 0N, the successor function S, and the operator Rtau for primitive recursion on objects of type tau. It is known that the functions from non-negative integers to non-negative integers that can be defined in this theory are exactly the < epsilon 0-recursive functions of non-negative integers. But it is not well-known which functionals of arbitrary type can be defined in T . We show that when the domain and codomain are restricted to pure closed normal forms, the functionals of arbitrary type that are definable in T are exactly those functionals that can be encoded as < epsilon 0-recursive functions of non-negative integers. This result has many interesting consequences, including a new characterization of T . The second application is concerned with the question: "When can a model of a physical system be regarded as computable?" We provide the definition of a computable physical model to answer this question. The connection between our definition and Kreisel's notion of a mechanistic theory is discussed, and several examples of computable physical models are given, including models which feature discrete motion, a model which features non-discrete continuous motion, and non-deterministic models such as radioactive decay. We show how computable physical models on effective topological spaces can be formulated with recursive functionals in the theory of type-two effectivity (TTE). Various common operations on computable physical models are described, such as the operation of coarse-graining and the formation of statistical ensembles. The definition of a computable physical model also allows for a precise formalization of the computable universe hypothesis---the claim that all the laws of physics are computable.

  8. Damped model updating using complex updating parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Vikas; Singh, S. P.; Kundra, T. K.

    2009-02-01

    Most of the model updating techniques do not employ damping matrices and hence cannot be used for the accurate prediction of complex frequency response functions (FRFs) and complex mode shapes. In this paper, the response function method (RFM) is extended to deal with the complexity of FRF and modal data using complex updating parameters. In the proposed model updating procedure, the finite element model is updated in such a way that the updated model reflects general damping in the experimental model by considering the updating parameters as complex. The effectiveness of the proposed finite element updating procedure is demonstrated by numerical examples as well as by actual laboratory experiments. First, a study is performed using numerical simulation based on a fixed-fixed beam structure with structural damping, viscous damping and structural and viscous damping models. Various levels of damping and noise are assumed in the data. The numerical study is followed by a case involving actual measured data for the case of an F-shaped test structure. The updated results have shown that the complex updating finite element model updating procedure can be used to derive an accurate model of the system. This is illustrated by matching of the complex FRFs obtained from the updated model with that of experimental data.

  9. Developing the earthquake markup language and database with UML and XML schema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Babaei, Abbed

    2005-11-01

    Seismic information is commonly shared across networks, and stored in heterogeneous databases that are maintained by different and autonomous groups. Because the metadata of the seismic information is generally not structured, information loss commonly occurs when data is transmitted from one source to another. Minimizing such information loss and enhancing information interchange over the Web require construction of specific markup languages for each part of seismology. The sub-disciplinary data syntax and vocabularies allow construction of corresponding relational databases to store and interchange the structured data. Developing modular data structures and databases for each sub-discipline allows composition of new languages through reuse, and enables future extension of the vocabulary and maintenance of the knowledge base. In this paper, we show how to design the conceptual and logical models for a small set of seismology that deals with earthquake ( EarthquakeML). We discuss the application of the UML to the design and mapping of the object model into W3 XML Schema and database. The emphasis is on designing components that can be reused across discipline, and reduce redundancies by developing type libraries. We show how to map the XML schema into a relational data model; and implement the EarthquakeDB with the Microsoft Access DBMS.

  10. Presentation of problem-specific, text-based medical knowledge: XML and related technologies.

    PubMed Central

    Hoelzer, S.; Boettcher, H.; Schweiger, R. K.; Konetschny, J.; Dudeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    Systematic reviews of the impact of clinical decision support systems on provider behavior and patient outcome have shown evidence of benefit. Knowledge-based functions for decision support or monitoring that are integrated in clinical information systems are a potentially effective way. But these concepts are restricted by the efforts required for development and maintenance of the information systems and the limited number of implemented medical rules. Physicians are familiar to get their information from text-based sources. It seems to be straight-forward to rely on a document-based solution in order to present problem-specific information at the point of care. We have developed a concept for context-sensitive retrieving and presentation of text-based medical knowledge (textbook of internal medicine) using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and related technologies. This concept can facilitate the electronic query and presentation of this resource. XML may replace narrative text as a storage format and allows to structure the data in a stepwise fashion. On the basis of structured data we are able to improve the search quality for clinical information and its presentation which forms a crucial pre-requisite for the use of the information and the implementation of evidence-based care in the clinical routine. PMID:11825191

  11. Distribution of immunodeficiency fact files with XML – from Web to WAP

    PubMed Central

    Väliaho, Jouni; Riikonen, Pentti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2005-01-01

    Background Although biomedical information is growing rapidly, it is difficult to find and retrieve validated data especially for rare hereditary diseases. There is an increased need for services capable of integrating and validating information as well as proving it in a logically organized structure. A XML-based language enables creation of open source databases for storage, maintenance and delivery for different platforms. Methods Here we present a new data model called fact file and an XML-based specification Inherited Disease Markup Language (IDML), that were developed to facilitate disease information integration, storage and exchange. The data model was applied to primary immunodeficiencies, but it can be used for any hereditary disease. Fact files integrate biomedical, genetic and clinical information related to hereditary diseases. Results IDML and fact files were used to build a comprehensive Web and WAP accessible knowledge base ImmunoDeficiency Resource (IDR) available at . A fact file is a user oriented user interface, which serves as a starting point to explore information on hereditary diseases. Conclusion The IDML enables the seamless integration and presentation of genetic and disease information resources in the Internet. IDML can be used to build information services for all kinds of inherited diseases. The open source specification and related programs are available at . PMID:15978138

  12. Use of XML and Java for collaborative petroleum reservoir modeling on the Internet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Victorine, J.; Watney, W.L.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-01-01

    The GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through INternet Informatics) is a public-domain, web-based freeware that is made up of an integrated suite of 14 Java-based software tools to accomplish on-line, real-time geologic and engineering reservoir modeling. GEMINI facilitates distant collaborations for small company and academic clients, negotiating analyses of both single and multiple wells. The system operates on a single server and an enterprise database. External data sets must be uploaded into this database. Feedback from GEMINI users provided the impetus to develop Stand Alone Web Start Applications of GEMINI modules that reside in and operate from the user's PC. In this version, the GEMINI modules run as applets, which may reside in local user PCs, on the server, or Java Web Start. In this enhanced version, XML-based data handling procedures are used to access data from remote and local databases and save results for later access and analyses. The XML data handling process also integrates different stand-alone GEMINI modules enabling the user(s) to access multiple databases. It provides flexibility to the user to customize analytical approach, database location, and level of collaboration. An example integrated field-study using GEMINI modules and Stand Alone Web Start Applications is provided to demonstrate the versatile applicability of this freeware for cost-effective reservoir modeling. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of XML and Java for collaborative petroleum reservoir modeling on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victorine, John; Watney, W. Lynn; Bhattacharya, Saibal

    2005-11-01

    The GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through INternet Informatics) is a public-domain, web-based freeware that is made up of an integrated suite of 14 Java-based software tools to accomplish on-line, real-time geologic and engineering reservoir modeling. GEMINI facilitates distant collaborations for small company and academic clients, negotiating analyses of both single and multiple wells. The system operates on a single server and an enterprise database. External data sets must be uploaded into this database. Feedback from GEMINI users provided the impetus to develop Stand Alone Web Start Applications of GEMINI modules that reside in and operate from the user's PC. In this version, the GEMINI modules run as applets, which may reside in local user PCs, on the server, or Java Web Start. In this enhanced version, XML-based data handling procedures are used to access data from remote and local databases and save results for later access and analyses. The XML data handling process also integrates different stand-alone GEMINI modules enabling the user(s) to access multiple databases. It provides flexibility to the user to customize analytical approach, database location, and level of collaboration. An example integrated field-study using GEMINI modules and Stand Alone Web Start Applications is provided to demonstrate the versatile applicability of this freeware for cost-effective reservoir modeling.

  14. 2-D Impulse Noise Suppression by Recursive Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Yang, Jian; Shu, Huazhong; Shi, Luyao; Wu, Jiasong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Toumoulin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    An effective approach termed Recursive Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Estimation (RGMLE) is developed in this paper to suppress 2-D impulse noise. And two algorithms termed RGMLE-C and RGMLE-CS are derived by using spatially-adaptive variances, which are respectively estimated based on certainty and joint certainty & similarity information. To give reliable implementation of RGMLE-C and RGMLE-CS algorithms, a novel recursion stopping strategy is proposed by evaluating the estimation error of uncorrupted pixels. Numerical experiments on different noise densities show that the proposed two algorithms can lead to significantly better results than some typical median type filters. Efficient implementation is also realized via GPU (Graphic Processing Unit)-based parallelization techniques. PMID:24836960

  15. A recursive vesicle-based model protocell with a primitive model cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Okura, Yusaku; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Toyota, Taro; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sugawara, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Self-organized lipid structures (protocells) have been proposed as an intermediate between nonliving material and cellular life. Synthetic production of model protocells can demonstrate the potential processes by which living cells first arose. While we have previously described a giant vesicle (GV)-based model protocell in which amplification of DNA was linked to self-reproduction, the ability of a protocell to recursively self-proliferate for multiple generations has not been demonstrated. Here we show that newborn daughter GVs can be restored to the status of their parental GVs by pH-induced vesicular fusion of daughter GVs with conveyer GVs filled with depleted substrates. We describe a primitive model cell cycle comprising four discrete phases (ingestion, replication, maturity and division), each of which is selectively activated by a specific external stimulus. The production of recursive self-proliferating model protocells represents a step towards eventual production of model protocells that are able to mimic evolution. PMID:26418735

  16. Recursive graphical construction of Feynman diagrams and their multiplicities in ?4 and ?2A theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, Hagen; Pelster, Axel; Kastening, Boris; Bachmann, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The free energy of a field theory can be considered as a functional of the free correlation function. As such it obeys a nonlinear functional differential equation that can be turned into a recursion relation. This is solved order by order in the coupling constant to find all connected vacuum diagrams with their proper multiplicities. The procedure is applied to a multicomponent scalar field theory with a ?4 self-interaction and then to a theory of two scalar fields ? and A with an interaction ?2A. All Feynman diagrams with external lines are obtained from functional derivatives of the connected vacuum diagrams with respect to the free correlation function. Finally, the recursive graphical construction is automatized by computer algebra with the help of a unique matrix notation for the Feynman diagrams.

  17. A Note on Local Stability Conditions for Two Types of Monetary Models with Recursive Utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kenji; Utsunomiya, Hitoshi

    2009-09-01

    This note explores local stability conditions for money-in-utility-function (MIUF) and transaction-costs (TC) models with recursive utility. Although Chen et al. [Chen, B.-L., M. Hsu, and C.-H. Lin, 2008, Inflation and growth: impatience and a qualitative equivalent, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, Vol. 40, No. 6, 1310-1323] investigated the relationship between inflation and growth in MIUF and TC models with recursive utility, they conducted only a comparative static analysis in a steady state. By establishing sufficient conditions for local stability, this note proves that impatience should be increasing in consumption and real balances. Increasing impatience, although less plausible from an empirical point of view, receives more support from a theoretical viewpoint.

  18. Non-recursive augmented Lagrangian algorithms for the forward and inverse dynamics of constrained flexible multibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayo, Eduardo; Ledesma, Ragnar

    1993-01-01

    A technique is presented for solving the inverse dynamics of flexible planar multibody systems. This technique yields the non-causal joint efforts (inverse dynamics) as well as the internal states (inverse kinematics) that produce a prescribed nominal trajectory of the end effector. A non-recursive global Lagrangian approach is used in formulating the equations for motion as well as in solving the inverse dynamics equations. Contrary to the recursive method previously presented, the proposed method solves the inverse problem in a systematic and direct manner for both open-chain as well as closed-chain configurations. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed procedure provides an excellent tracking of the desired end effector trajectory.

  19. Attitude determination and calibration using a recursive maximum likelihood-based adaptive Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, D. A.; Fermelia, A.; Lee, G. K. F.

    1990-01-01

    An adaptive Kalman filter design that utilizes recursive maximum likelihood parameter identification is discussed. At the center of this design is the Kalman filter itself, which has the responsibility for attitude determination. At the same time, the identification algorithm is continually identifying the system parameters. The approach is applicable to nonlinear, as well as linear systems. This adaptive Kalman filter design has much potential for real time implementation, especially considering the fast clock speeds, cache memory and internal RAM available today. The recursive maximum likelihood algorithm is discussed in detail, with special attention directed towards its unique matrix formulation. The procedure for using the algorithm is described along with comments on how this algorithm interacts with the Kalman filter.

  20. A recursive vesicle-based model protocell with a primitive model cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Okura, Yusaku; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Toyota, Taro; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sugawara, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Self-organized lipid structures (protocells) have been proposed as an intermediate between nonliving material and cellular life. Synthetic production of model protocells can demonstrate the potential processes by which living cells first arose. While we have previously described a giant vesicle (GV)-based model protocell in which amplification of DNA was linked to self-reproduction, the ability of a protocell to recursively self-proliferate for multiple generations has not been demonstrated. Here we show that newborn daughter GVs can be restored to the status of their parental GVs by pH-induced vesicular fusion of daughter GVs with conveyer GVs filled with depleted substrates. We describe a primitive model cell cycle comprising four discrete phases (ingestion, replication, maturity and division), each of which is selectively activated by a specific external stimulus. The production of recursive self-proliferating model protocells represents a step towards eventual production of model protocells that are able to mimic evolution. PMID:26418735

  1. Thermodynamic Transitions of Antiferromagnetic Ising Model on the Fractional Multi-branched Husimi Recursive Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ran; Chen, Chong

    2014-11-01

    The multi-branched Husimi recursive lattice is extended to a virtual structure with fractional numbers of branches joined on one site. Although the lattice is undrawable in real space, the concept is consistent with regular Husimi lattice. The Ising spins of antiferromagnetic interaction on such a set of lattices are calculated to check the critical temperatures (Tc) and ideal glass transition temperatures (Tk) variation with fractional branch numbers. Besides the similar results of two solutions representing the stable state (crystal) and metastable state (supercooled liquid) and indicating the phase transition temperatures, the phase transitions show a well-defined shift with branch number variation. Therefore the fractional branch number as a parameter can be used as an adjusting tool in constructing a recursive lattice model to describe real systems.

  2. A recursive vesicle-based model protocell with a primitive model cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Okura, Yusaku; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Toyota, Taro; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sugawara, Tadashi

    2015-09-01

    Self-organized lipid structures (protocells) have been proposed as an intermediate between nonliving material and cellular life. Synthetic production of model protocells can demonstrate the potential processes by which living cells first arose. While we have previously described a giant vesicle (GV)-based model protocell in which amplification of DNA was linked to self-reproduction, the ability of a protocell to recursively self-proliferate for multiple generations has not been demonstrated. Here we show that newborn daughter GVs can be restored to the status of their parental GVs by pH-induced vesicular fusion of daughter GVs with conveyer GVs filled with depleted substrates. We describe a primitive model cell cycle comprising four discrete phases (ingestion, replication, maturity and division), each of which is selectively activated by a specific external stimulus. The production of recursive self-proliferating model protocells represents a step towards eventual production of model protocells that are able to mimic evolution.

  3. Modifications to iterative recursion unfolding algorithms and computer codes to find more appropriate neutron spectra. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, K.A.; Johnson, T.L.

    1984-06-06

    Modifications were made to iterative recursion unfolding algorithms and computer codes which allow the incorporation of prior knowledge, such as cutoff energy or preferred spectral shape, into the solution. Using these modifications, more appropriate neutron spectra are obtained.

  4. Systematic generation of multibody equations of motion suitable for recursive and parallel manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikravesh, Parviz E.; Gim, Gwanghum; Arabyan, Ara; Rein, Udo

    1989-01-01

    The formulation of a method known as the joint coordinate method for automatic generation of the equations of motion for multibody systems is summarized. For systems containing open or closed kinematic loops, the equations of motion can be reduced systematically to a minimum number of second order differential equations. The application of recursive and nonrecursive algorithms to this formulation, computational considerations and the feasibility of implementing this formulation on multiprocessor computers are discussed.

  5. Closed-form recursive formula for an optimal tracker with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J. N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback control laws are derived for a class of optimal finite time tracking problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gain and the closed-loop response trajectory. Such formulations are expressed in recursive forms so that a real-time computer implementation becomes feasible. An example involving the feedback slewing of a flexible spacecraft is given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the formulations.

  6. Recursive Estimation of the Stein Center of SPD Matrices & its Applications*

    PubMed Central

    Salehian, Hesamoddin; Cheng, Guang; Ho, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Symmetric positive-definite (SPD) matrices are ubiquitous in Computer Vision, Machine Learning and Medical Image Analysis. Finding the center/average of a population of such matrices is a common theme in many algorithms such as clustering, segmentation, principal geodesic analysis, etc. The center of a population of such matrices can be defined using a variety of distance/divergence measures as the minimizer of the sum of squared distances/divergences from the unknown center to the members of the population. It is well known that the computation of the Karcher mean for the space of SPD matrices which is a negatively-curved Riemannian manifold is computationally expensive. Recently, the LogDet divergence-based center was shown to be a computationally attractive alternative. However, the LogDet-based mean of more than two matrices can not be computed in closed form, which makes it computationally less attractive for large populations. In this paper we present a novel recursive estimator for center based on the Stein distance – which is the square root of the LogDet divergence – that is significantly faster than the batch mode computation of this center. The key theoretical contribution is a closed-form solution for the weighted Stein center of two SPD matrices, which is used in the recursive computation of the Stein center for a population of SPD matrices. Additionally, we show experimental evidence of the convergence of our recursive Stein center estimator to the batch mode Stein center. We present applications of our recursive estimator to K-means clustering and image indexing depicting significant time gains over corresponding algorithms that use the batch mode computations. For the latter application, we develop novel hashing functions using the Stein distance and apply it to publicly available data sets, and experimental results have shown favorable comparisons to other competing methods. PMID:25350135

  7. Recursive Estimation of the Stein Center of SPD Matrices & its Applications.

    PubMed

    Salehian, Hesamoddin; Cheng, Guang; Vemuri, Baba C; Ho, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    Symmetric positive-definite (SPD) matrices are ubiquitous in Computer Vision, Machine Learning and Medical Image Analysis. Finding the center/average of a population of such matrices is a common theme in many algorithms such as clustering, segmentation, principal geodesic analysis, etc. The center of a population of such matrices can be defined using a variety of distance/divergence measures as the minimizer of the sum of squared distances/divergences from the unknown center to the members of the population. It is well known that the computation of the Karcher mean for the space of SPD matrices which is a negatively-curved Riemannian manifold is computationally expensive. Recently, the LogDet divergence-based center was shown to be a computationally attractive alternative. However, the LogDet-based mean of more than two matrices can not be computed in closed form, which makes it computationally less attractive for large populations. In this paper we present a novel recursive estimator for center based on the Stein distance - which is the square root of the LogDet divergence - that is significantly faster than the batch mode computation of this center. The key theoretical contribution is a closed-form solution for the weighted Stein center of two SPD matrices, which is used in the recursive computation of the Stein center for a population of SPD matrices. Additionally, we show experimental evidence of the convergence of our recursive Stein center estimator to the batch mode Stein center. We present applications of our recursive estimator to K-means clustering and image indexing depicting significant time gains over corresponding algorithms that use the batch mode computations. For the latter application, we develop novel hashing functions using the Stein distance and apply it to publicly available data sets, and experimental results have shown favorable comparisons to other competing methods. PMID:25350135

  8. The tissue microarray data exchange specification: A document type definition to validate and enhance XML data

    PubMed Central

    Nohle, David G; Ayers, Leona W

    2005-01-01

    Background The Association for Pathology Informatics (API) Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) TMA Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) proposed in April 2003 provides a community-based, open source tool for sharing tissue microarray (TMA) data in a common format. Each tissue core within an array has separate data including digital images; therefore an organized, common approach to produce, navigate and publish such data facilitates viewing, sharing and merging TMA data from different laboratories. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR) is a HIV/AIDS tissue bank consortium sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD). The ACSR offers HIV-related malignancies and uninfected control tissues in microarrays (TMA) accompanied by de-identified clinical data to approved researchers. Exporting our TMA data into the proposed API specified format offers an opportunity to evaluate the API specification in an applied setting and to explore its usefulness. Results A document type definition (DTD) that governs the allowed common data elements (CDE) in TMA DES export XML files was written, tested and evolved and is in routine use by the ACSR. This DTD defines TMA DES CDEs which are implemented in an external file that can be supplemented by internal DTD extensions for locally defined TMA data elements (LDE). Conclusion ACSR implementation of the TMA DES demonstrated the utility of the specification and allowed application of a DTD to validate the language of the API specified XML elements and to identify possible enhancements within our TMA data management application. Improvements to the specification have additionally been suggested by our experience in importing other institution's exported TMA data. Enhancements to TMA DES to remove ambiguous situations and clarify the data should be considered. Better specified identifiers and hierarchical relationships will make automatic use of the data possible. Our tool can be used to reorder data and add identifiers; upgrading data for changes in the specification can be automatically accomplished. Using a DTD (optionally reflecting our proposed enhancements) can provide stronger validation of exported TMA data. PMID:15871741

  9. Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation by Region Growing and Constrained Spectral Clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for hierarchical image segmentation (referred to as HSEG) and its recursive formulation (referred to as RHSEG). The HSEG algorithm is a hybrid of region growing and constrained spectral clustering that produces a hierarchical set of image segmentations based on detected convergence points. In the main, HSEG employs the hierarchical stepwise optimization (HS WO) approach to region growing, which seeks to produce segmentations that are more optimized than those produced by more classic approaches to region growing. In addition, HSEG optionally interjects between HSWO region growing iterations merges between spatially non-adjacent regions (i.e., spectrally based merging or clustering) constrained by a threshold derived from the previous HSWO region growing iteration. While the addition of constrained spectral clustering improves the segmentation results, especially for larger images, it also significantly increases HSEG's computational requirements. To counteract this, a computationally efficient recursive, divide-and-conquer, implementation of HSEG (RHSEG) has been devised and is described herein. Included in this description is special code that is required to avoid processing artifacts caused by RHSEG s recursive subdivision of the image data. Implementations for single processor and for multiple processor computer systems are described. Results with Landsat TM data are included comparing HSEG with classic region growing. Finally, an application to image information mining and knowledge discovery is discussed.

  10. Transitory minimal solutions of hypergeometric recursions and pseudoconvergence of associated continued fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deano, Alfredo; Segura, Javier

    2007-06-01

    Three term recurrence relations y_{n+1}+b_n y_n+a_n y_{n-1}D0 can be used for computing recursively a great number of special functions. Depending on the asymptotic nature of the function to be computed, different recursion directions need to be considered: backward for minimal solutions and forward for dominant solutions. However, some solutions interchange their role for finite values of n with respect to their asymptotic behaviour and certain dominant solutions may transitorily behave as minimal. This phenomenon, related to Gautschi's anomalous convergence of the continued fraction for ratios of confluent hypergeometric functions, is shown to be a general situation which takes place for recurrences with a_n negative and b_n changing sign once. We analyze the anomalous convergence of the associated continued fractions for a number of different recurrence relations (modified Bessel functions, confluent and Gauss hypergeometric functions) and discuss the implication of such transitory behaviour on the numerical stability of recursion.

  11. Commutative Recursive Filters for Explicit-Filter Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myeongkyun; Yoon, Daegeun; You, Donghyun

    2012-11-01

    One of the most notable drawbacks associated with the implicit-filter LES is that the simulation result is dependent on the numerical grid employed due to the inherent dependence of the filtering operation on the numerical discretization. Alternatively, commutative explicit filters can be applied to distinguish the filtering operation from the underlying mesh distribution, thereby eliminating grid sensitivities. The efficacy of explicit-filtering to obtain grid-independent solutions of turbulent flows has been successfully demonstrated in the previous research (Bose, Moin & You, Phys. Fluids, 2010; Singh, You & Bose, Phys. Fluids, 2012). However, the use of broad-width filters accompanies significant increase in computational cost in terms of memory space and communication load for a distributed memory (MPI-based) parallel computation. To overcome the difficulty, a recursive filtering algorithm which can effectively replace a broad-width commutative filter with a series of narrow-width filters. The efficacy of the commutative recursive filtering method is evaluated in explicit-filter LES of turbulent channel flow, with particular attention to the performance of commutative recursive filters in terms of computational cost and memory requirement for a parallel computation. Supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea and the Brain Korea 21 Program of the Korea Research Foundation.

  12. Haydock’s recursive solution of self-adjoint problems. Discrete spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, Alexander

    2014-12-15

    Haydock’s recursive solution is shown to underline a number of different concepts such as (i) quasi-exactly solvable models, (ii) exactly solvable models, (iii) three-term recurrence solutions based on Schweber’s quantization criterion in Hilbert spaces of entire analytic functions, and (iv) a discrete quantum mechanics of Odake and Sasaki. A recurrent theme of Haydock’s recursive solution is that the spectral properties of any self-adjoint problem can be mapped onto a corresponding sequence of polynomials (p{sub n}(E)) in energy variable E. The polynomials (p{sub n}(E)) are orthonormal with respect to the density of states n{sub 0}(E) and energy eigenstate |E? is the generating function of (p{sub n}(E)). The generality of Haydock’s recursive solution enables one to see the different concepts from a unified perspective and mutually benefiting from each other. Some results obtained within the particular framework of any of (i) to (iv) may have much broader significance.

  13. Stable recursive algorithm for elastic wave propagation in layered anisotropic media: Stiffness matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlin, S. I.; Wang, L.

    2002-09-01

    An efficient recursive algorithm, the stiffness matrix method, has been developed for wave propagation in multilayered generally anisotropic media. This algorithm has the computational efficiency and simplicity of the standard transfer matrix method and is unconditionally computationally stable for high frequency and layer thickness. In this algorithm, the stiffness (compliance) matrix is calculated for each layer and recursively applied to generate a stiffness (compliance) matrix for a layered system. Next, reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated for layered media bounded by liquid or solid semispaces. The results show that the method is stable for arbitrary number and thickness of layers and the computation time is proportional to the number of layers. It is shown both numerically and analytically that for a thick structure the solution approaches the solution for a semispace. This algorithm is easily adaptable to laminates with periodicity, such as multiangle lay-up composites. The repetition and symmetry of the unit cell are naturally incorporated in the recursive scheme. As an example the angle beam time domain pulse reflections from fluid-loaded multilayered composites have been computed and compared with experiment. Based on this method, characteristic equations for Lamb waves and Floquet waves in periodic media have also been determined. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  14. Integrating XQuery-Enabled SCORM XML Metadata Repositories into an RDF-Based E-Learning P2P Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qu, Changtao; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Edutella is an RDF-based E-Learning P2P network that is aimed to accommodate heterogeneous learning resource metadata repositories in a P2P manner and further facilitate the exchange of metadata between these repositories based on RDF. Whereas Edutella provides RDF metadata repositories with a quite natural integration approach, XML metadata…

  15. An XML-Based Manipulation and Query Language for Rule-Based Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Essam; Höpfner, Hagen

    Rules are utilized to assist in the monitoring process that is required in activities, such as disease management and customer relationship management. These rules are specified according to the application best practices. Most of research efforts emphasize on the specification and execution of these rules. Few research efforts focus on managing these rules as one object that has a management life-cycle. This paper presents our manipulation and query language that is developed to facilitate the maintenance of this object during its life-cycle and to query the information contained in this object. This language is based on an XML-based model. Furthermore, we evaluate the model and language using a prototype system applied to a clinical case study.

  16. Evaluation of ISO EN 13606 as a result of its implementation in XML

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shanghua; Hassan, Taher; Kalra, Dipak

    2013-01-01

    The five parts of the ISO EN 13606 standard define a means by which health-care records can be exchanged between computer systems. Starting within the European standardisation process, it has now become internationally ratified in ISO. However, ISO standards do not require that a reference implementation be provided, and in order for ISO EN 13606 to deliver the expected benefits, it must be provided not as a document, but as an operational system that is not vendor specific. This article describes the evolution of an Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema through three iterations, each of which emphasised one particular approach to delivering an executable equivalent to the printed standard. Developing these operational versions and incorporating feedback from users of these demonstrated where implementation compromises were needed and exposed defects in the standard. These are discussed herein. They may require a future technical revision to ISO EN 13606 to resolve the issues identified. PMID:23995217

  17. Recursive causality in evolution: a model for epigenetic mechanisms in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Haslberger, A; Varga, F; Karlic, H

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between adaptative and selective processes are illustrated in the model of recursive causality as defined in Rupert Riedl's systems theory of evolution. One of the main features of this theory also termed as theory of evolving complexity is the centrality of the notion of 'recursive' or 'feedback' causality - 'the idea that every biological effect in living systems, in some way, feeds back to its own cause'. Our hypothesis is that "recursive" or "feedback" causality provides a model for explaining the consequences of interacting genetic and epigenetic mechanisms which are known to play a key role in development of cancer. Epigenetics includes any process that alters gene activity without changes of the DNA sequence. The most important epigenetic mechanisms are DNA-methylation and chromatin remodeling. Hypomethylation of so-called oncogenes and hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes appear to be critical determinants of cancer. Folic acid, vitamin B12 and other nutrients influence the function of enzymes that participate in various methylation processes by affecting the supply of methyl groups into a variety of molecules which may be directly or indirectly associated with cancerogenesis. We present an example from our own studies by showing that vitamin D3 has the potential to de-methylate the osteocalcin-promoter in MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Consequently, a stimulation of osteocalcin synthesis can be observed. The above mentioned enzymes also play a role in development and differentiation of cells and organisms and thus illustrate the close association between evolutionary and developmental mechanisms. This enabled new ways to understand the interaction between the genome and environment and may improve biomedical concepts including environmental health aspects where epigenetic and genetic modifications are closely associated. Recent observations showed that methylated nucleotides in the gene promoter may serve as a target for solar UV-induced mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. This illustrates the close interaction of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in cancerogenesis resulting from changes in transcriptional regulation and its contribution to a phenotype at the micro- or macroevolutionary level. Above-mentioned interactions of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in oncogenesis defy explanation by plain linear causality, things like the continuing adaptability of complex systems. They can be explained by the concept of recursive causality and has introduced molecular biology into the realm of cognition science and systems theory: based on the notion of so-called feedback- or recursive causality a model for epigenetic mechanisms with relevance for oncology and biomedicine is provided. PMID:16844314

  18. XML/VOTable and Simple ASCII Tabular Output from NED with Sample Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Pevunova, O.; Mazzarella, J.; Good, J.; Berriman, B.; Madore, B.; NED Team

    2005-12-01

    The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) provides data and cross-identifications for over 8 million objects fused from thousands of survey catalogs and journal articles. The data cover all frequencies from radio through gamma rays and include positions, redshifts, photometry and spectral energy distributions (SEDs), sizes, and images. NED services have traditionally supplied data in HTML format for connections from Web browsers, and a custom ASCII data structure for connections by remote computer programs written in C. We demonstrate new services that provide responses from NED queries in XML documents compliant with the international virtual observatory VOTable protocol, as well as simple tab-separated or comma-separated values (CSV). The NED services that support the new tabular output include By Name, Near Name and Near Position (cone searches), All-Sky searches based on object parameters (survey names, cross-IDs, redshifts, flux densities), and queries for images, photometry/SEDs, redshifts, positions, and diameters. The VOTable services have been integrated into the NVO registry, and they are also available directly from NED's Web interface (http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu). This development greatly simplifies the integration of data from NED into visualization and analysis packages, scripts, and other applications. We illustrate an example of importing a NED SED into Excel, as well as plotting and comparing SEDs using the VOPlot Java applet. NED is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The XML/VOTable portion of this work was funded by the US National Virtual Observatory, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. We also acknowledge assistance from the NVO Technical Working Group.

  19. An Infrastructure for Integrated Electronic Health Record Services: The Role of XML (Extensible Markup Language)

    PubMed Central

    Sfakianakis, Stelios; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Orphanoudakis, Stelios C

    2001-01-01

    Background The sharing of information resources is generally accepted as the key to substantial improvements in productivity and better quality of care. In addition, due to the greater mobility of the population, national and international healthcare networks are increasingly used to facilitate the sharing of healthcare-related information among the various actors of the field. In the context of HYGEIAnet, the regional health telematics network of Crete, an Integrated Electronic Health Record environment has been developed to provide integrated access to online clinical information, accessible throughout the island. Objectives To make available comprehensive medical information about a patient by means of incorporating all the distributed and heterogeneous health record segments into an Integrated Electronic Health Record that can be viewed on-line through a unified user interface and visualization environment. Methods The technological approach for implementing this Integrated Electronic Health Record environment is based on the HYGEIAnet Reference Architecture, which provides the necessary framework for the reuse of services, components, and interfaces. Seamless presentation of information is achieved by means of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), while its underlying capabilities allow for dynamic navigation according to personalized end-user preferences and authorities. Results The Integrated Electronic Health Record environment developed in HYGEIAnet provides the basis for consistent and authenticated access to primary information over the Internet in order to support decision-making. Primary information is always kept at the place where it has been produced, and is maintained by the most appropriate clinical information system, contrasting traditional store and forward techniques, or centralized clinical data repositories. Conclusions Since documents are much more easily accessible rather than data inside a database, Extensible Markup Language has the potential of becoming a very cheap technology provided, of course, that the underlying Healthcare Information Infrastructure exists. XML can be introduced incrementally and its implementation is completely transparent to the end user. PMID:11720949

  20. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high energy physics is divided into several stages. Various programs exist for these stages. In this article we are interested in interfacing different Monte Carlo event generators via data files, in particular, Matrix Element (ME) generators and Showering and Hadronization (SH) generators. There is a widely accepted format for data files for such interfaces - Les Houches Event Format (LHEF). Although information kept in an LHEF file is enough for proper working of SH generators, it is insufficient for understanding how events in the LHEF file have been prepared and which physical model has been applied. In this paper we propose an extension of the format for keeping additional information available in generators. We propose to add a new information block, marked up with XML tags, to the LHEF file. This block describes events in the file in more detail. In particular, it stores information about a physical model, kinematical cuts, generator, etc. This helps to make LHEF files self-documented. Certainly, HepML can be applied in more general context, not in LHEF files only. Solution method: In order to overcome drawbacks of the original LHEF accord we propose to add a new information block of HepML tags. HepML is an XML-based markup language. We designed several XML Schemas for all tags in the language. Any HepML document should follow rules of the Schemas. The language is equipped with a library for operation with HepML tags and documents. This C++ library, called libhepml, consists of classes for HepML objects, which represent a HepML document in computer memory, parsing classes, serializating classes, and some auxiliary classes. Restrictions: The software is adapted for solving problems, described in the article. There are no additional restrictions. Running time: Tests have been done on a computer with Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Solo, 1.4 GHz. Parsing of a HepML file: 6 ms (size of the HepML files is 12.5 Kb) Writing of a HepML block to file: 14 ms (file size 12.5 Kb) Merging of two HepML blocks and writing to file: 18 ms (file size - 25.0 Kb).

  1. Updating Situation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Madden, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how situation models are updated during text comprehension. If comprehenders keep track of the evolving situation, they should update their models such that the most current information, the here and now, is more available than outdated information. Contrary to this updating hypothesis, E. J. O'Brien, M. L. Rizzella, J. E.…

  2. Development of Updated ABsorption SIMulation Software (ABSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhiyao; Tang, Xin; Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2014-01-01

    ABsorption SIMulation, ABSIM, was developed for the simulation of absorption systems by The Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1980s and 1990s. ABSIM provides a platform for users to investigate various cycle configurations and working fluids, to calculate their operating parameters, to predict their performance, and to compare them with each other on a uniform basis. ABSIM is indeed a very useful and accurate tool for researchers to investigate various absorption systems. However, it has not been well maintained: it is incompatible with recent operating systems; the interface needs improved user-friendliness, and the system needs better parameter setting and debugging tools to help achieve convergence. Therefore, it is highly needed to update and improve ABSIM. The paper presents recent efforts to improve ABSIM s compatibility with current operating systems, user interface, and analysis capabilities. The paper details the features and functions of the newly updated ABSIM software. The new ABSIM still uses the previously validated calculation engine of the old ABSIM. The new graphic user interfaces (GUI) were developed in Qt, which is an open source license GUI software based on C++. XML was used as the database for data storage in the new ABSIM. The new ABSIM has been designed to be easily learned and used. It has enhanced editing and construction functions, plus enhanced analysis features including parametric tables, plotting, property plots, and master panels for debugging. A single effect water/LiBr absorption system is used as a case study in this paper to illustrate the features, capabilities, and functions of the new ABSIM. This case study was actually an example system available in the old ABSIM. The new version of ABSIM will be continuously developed to include additional subroutines for the components in liquid desiccant systems. The new ABSIM will be available to public for free. The ultimate goal of the new ABSIM is to allow it to become a simulation platform for both absorption heat pump and liquid desiccant systems.

  3. Recursive Focal Plane Wavefront and Bias Estimation for the Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2016-01-01

    To image the reflected light from exoplanets and disks, an instrument must suppress diffracted starlight by about nine orders of magnitude. A coronagraph alters the stellar PSF to create regions of high contrast, but it is extremely sensitive to wavefront aberrations. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are necessary to mitigate these quasi-static aberrations and recover high-contrast. To avoid non-common path aberrations, the science camera must be used as the primary wavefront sensor. Focal plane wavefront correction is an iterative process, and obtaining sufficient signal in the dark holes requires long exposure times. The fastest coronagraphic wavefront correction techniques require estimates of the stellar electric field. The main challenge of coronagraphy is thus to perform complex wavefront estimation quickly and efficiently using intensity images from the camera. The most widely applicable and tested technique is DM Diversity, in which a DM modulates the focal plane intensity and several images are used to reconstruct the stellar electric field in a batch process. At the High Contrast Imaging Lab (HCIL) at Princeton, we have developed an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to improve upon this technique. The IEKF enables recursive starlight estimation and can utilize fewer images per iteration, thereby speeding up wavefront correction. This IEKF formulation also estimates the bias in the images recursively. Since exoplanets and disks are embedded in the incoherent bias signal, the IEKF enables detection of science targets during wavefront correction. Here we present simulated and experimental results from Princeton's HCIL demonstrating the effectiveness of the IEKF for recursive electric field estimation and exoplanet detection.

  4. CAMORRA: A C++ library for recursive computation of particle scattering amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiss, R.; van den Oord, G.

    2011-02-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo tool that computes full tree-level matrix elements in high-energy physics. The program accepts user-defined models and has no restrictions on the process multiplicity. To achieve acceptable performance, CAMORRA evaluates the matrix elements in a recursive way by combining off-shell currents. Furthermore, CAMORRA can be used to compute amplitudes involving continuous color and helicity final states. Program summaryProgram title: CAMORRA Catalogue identifier: AEHN_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPL version 2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 252 572 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 711 469 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: All Operating system: Tested on Linux and Mac OS, but should work on any system Classification: 4.4 Nature of problem: Current recursive matrix element computation programs are confined to standard model amplitudes, whereas many new physics signatures and backgrounds at hadron colliders are associated with multi-parton final states. Solution method: The library applies the Berends-Giele/Caravaglios-Moretti recursive algorithm in a generic way applicable to a wide range of quantum field theories. It allows the user to define a new physics model and consequently compute its predicted scattering amplitudes with exponential growth of the computing time with process multiplicity rather than factorial growth. Restrictions: There are no built-in restrictions on process complexity. Unusual features: CAMORRA can cope with Majorana fermions. Running time: A ten-gluon amplitude typically takes 9 ms per event.

  5. Recursive encoding and decoding of the noiseless subsystem and decoherence-free subspace

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chi-Kwong; Nakahara, Mikio; Poon, Yiu-Tung; Sze, Nung-Sing; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-15

    When an environmental disturbance to a quantum system has a wavelength much larger than the system size, all qubits in the system are under the action of the same error operator. The noiseless subsystem and decoherence-free subspace are immune to such collective noise. We construct simple quantum circuits that implement these error-avoiding codes for a small number n of physical qubits. A single logical qubit is encoded with n=3 and 4, while two and three logical qubits are encoded with n=5 and 7, respectively. Recursive relations among subspaces employed in these codes play essential roles in our implementation.

  6. Recursive framework for joint inpainting and de-noising of photographic films.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, G R K S; Rajagopalan, A N; Aravind, R

    2010-05-01

    We address the problem of inpainting noisy photographs. We present a recursive image recovery scheme based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to simultaneously inpaint identified damaged portions in an image and suppress film-grain noise. Inpainting of the missing observations is guided by a mask-dependent reconstruction of the image edges. Prediction within the UKF is based on a discontinuity-adaptive Markov random field prior that attempts to preserve edges while achieving noise reduction in uniform regions. We demonstrate the capability of the proposed method with many examples. PMID:20448776

  7. Generalized Recursion Relations for Correlators in the Gauge-Gravity Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, Suvrat

    2011-03-04

    We show that a generalization of the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion relations gives a new and efficient method of computing correlation functions of the stress tensor or conserved currents in conformal field theories with an (d+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space dual, for d{>=}4, in the limit where the bulk theory is approximated by tree-level Yang-Mills theory or gravity. In supersymmetric theories, additional correlators of operators that live in the same multiplet as a conserved current or stress tensor can be computed by these means.

  8. Generalized recursion relations for correlators in the gauge-gravity correspondence.

    PubMed

    Raju, Suvrat

    2011-03-01

    We show that a generalization of the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion relations gives a new and efficient method of computing correlation functions of the stress tensor or conserved currents in conformal field theories with an (d+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space dual, for d?4, in the limit where the bulk theory is approximated by tree-level Yang-Mills theory or gravity. In supersymmetric theories, additional correlators of operators that live in the same multiplet as a conserved current or stress tensor can be computed by these means. PMID:21405614

  9. A convolutional recursive modified Self Organizing Map for handwritten digits recognition.

    PubMed

    Mohebi, Ehsan; Bagirov, Adil

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the handwritten digits recognition is a challenging problem. Different classification algorithms have been applied to solve it. Among them, the Self Organizing Maps (SOM) produced promising results. In this paper, first we introduce a Modified SOM for the vector quantization problem with improved initialization process and topology preservation. Then we develop a Convolutional Recursive Modified SOM and apply it to the problem of handwritten digits recognition. The computational results obtained using the well known MNIST dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over the existing SOM-based algorithms. PMID:25190490

  10. An efficient recursive scheme for the simulation of overvoltages on multiphase systems under corona

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, H.M.; Carneiro, S. Jr.; Azevedo, R.M.

    1995-07-01

    In the present an efficient recursive scheme that was previously described and tested in single-phase transmission lines is extended for multiphase systems. The scheme uses frequency domain modal theory techniques to obtain an independent solution for each multiphase line segment with frequency dependent parameters. The compensation method is then applied for a combined solution of the voltage profile at each section and its associated corona branch. The entire multiphase line is treated as a single nonlinear element by the EMTP. Simulations of field tests on an actual line under corona are presented and comparisons are made with the previous implementations.

  11. Cyclic period-3 window in antiferromagnetic potts and Ising models on recursive lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikian, N. S.; Ananikyan, L. N.; Chakhmakhchyan, L. A.

    2011-09-01

    The magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic Potts model with two-site interaction and the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on recursive lattices have been studied. A cyclic period-3 window has been revealed by the recurrence relation method in the antiferromagnetic Q-state Potts model on the Bethe lattice (at Q < 2) and in the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on the Husimi cactus. The Lyapunov exponents have been calculated, modulated phases and a chaotic regime in the cyclic period-3 window have been found for one-dimensional rational mappings determined the properties of these systems.

  12. Chandrasekhar-type algorithms for fast recursive estimation in linear systems with constant parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, A. K.; Djalali, M.

    1975-01-01

    In this recursive method proposed, the gain matrix for the Kalman filter and the convariance of the state vector are computed not via the Riccati equation, but from certain other equations. These differential equations are of Chandrasekhar-type. The 'invariant imbedding' idea resulted in the reduction of the basic boundary value problem of transport theory to an equivalent initial value system, a significant computational advance. Initial value experience showed that there is some computational savings in the method and the loss of positive definiteness of the covariance matrix is less vulnerable.

  13. A recursive solution for a fading memory filter derived from Kalman filter theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1986-01-01

    A simple recursive solution for a class of fading memory tracking filters is presented. A fading memory filter provides estimates of filter states based on past measurements, similar to a traditional Kalman filter. Unlike a Kalman filter, an exponentially decaying weight is applied to older measurements, discounting their effect on present state estimates. It is shown that Kalman filters and fading memory filters are closely related solutions to a general least squares estimator problem. Closed form filter transfer functions are derived for a time invariant, steady state, fading memory filter. These can be applied in loop filter implementation of the Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver carrier phase locked loop (PLL).

  14. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling A Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Douglas D.; Hanson, John M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a framework for development of specific algorithms and procedures that propagate the time-domain solution for a dynamical system simulation consisting of multiple numerically coupled self-contained stand-alone subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (other dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Centralized and distributed versions of coupling structure have been addressed. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system simultaneous-solution approach.

  15. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling a Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Douglas D.; Ryan, Stephen G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a framework for development of specific algorithms and procedures that propagate the time-domain solution for a dynamical system simulation consisting of multiple numerically coupled, self-contained, stand-alone subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (orbit dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Centralized and distributed versions of coupling structure have been addressed. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system, simultaneous-solution approach.

  16. The Fibonacci sequence modulo [pi], chaos and some rational recursive equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben H. Rhouma, Mohamed

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we provide the closed form solution to the inter-related equations Both of these equations were suggested as open problems in the book by Kocic and Ladas [V.L. Kocic, G. Ladas, Global Behavior of Nonlinear Difference Equations of High Order with Applications, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1993]. We also give the closed form solution to the equations studied by X. Li and D. Zhu [X. Li, D. Zhu, Two rational recursive sequences, Comput. Math. Appl. 47 (2004) 1487-1494].

  17. Recursive polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at arbitrary magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Henshaw, Jacob D.; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2014-12-15

    We introduce an alternate route to dynamically polarize the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Our approach articulates optical, microwave, and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Using two complementary variants of the same underlying principle, we demonstrate nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature both in ensemble and single NV centers. Unlike existing schemes, our approach does not rely on level anti-crossings and is thus applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields. This versatility should prove useful in applications ranging from nanoscale metrology to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.

  18. A pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition processor for real-time EEG system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Ju; Shih, Wei-Yeh; Chang, Jui Chung; Feng, Chih Wei; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition (SVD) processor for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis (ORICA). Since SVD is used frequently in computations of the real-time EEG system, a low-latency and high-accuracy SVD processor is essential. During the EEG system process, the proposed SVD processor aims to solve the diagonal, inverse and inverse square root matrices of the target matrices in real time. Generally, SVD requires a huge amount of computation in hardware implementation. Therefore, this work proposes a novel design concept for data flow updating to assist the pipeline VLSI implementation. The SVD processor can greatly improve the feasibility of real-time EEG system applications such as brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The proposed architecture is implemented using TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. The sample rate of EEG raw data adopts 128 Hz. The core size of the SVD processor is 580×580 um(2), and the speed of operation frequency is 20MHz. It consumes 0.774mW of power during the 8-channel EEG system per execution time. PMID:24110095

  19. Recursive Averaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Scott Smith presents an innocent problem (Problem 12 of the May 2001 Calendar from "Mathematics Teacher" ("MT" May 2001, vol. 94, no. 5, p. 384) that was transformed by several timely "what if?" questions into a rewarding investigation of some interesting mathematics. These investigations led to two…

  20. Recursive Averaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Scott Smith presents an innocent problem (Problem 12 of the May 2001 Calendar from "Mathematics Teacher" ("MT" May 2001, vol. 94, no. 5, p. 384) that was transformed by several timely "what if?" questions into a rewarding investigation of some interesting mathematics. These investigations led to two…

  1. Providing Access to Risk Prediction Tools via the HL7 XML-Formatted Risk Web Service

    PubMed Central

    Drohan, Brian; Blackford, Amanda; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Hughes, Kevin; Bosinoff, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer risk prediction tools provide valuable information to clinicians but remain computationally challenging. Many clinics find that Ca Gene or Hughes Risk Apps fit their needs for easy- and ready-to-use software to obtain cancer risks; however, these resources may not fit all clinics’ needs. The Hughes Risk Apps Group and Bayes Mendel Lab therefore developed a web service, called “Risk Service", which may be integrated into any client software to quickly obtain standardized and up-to-date risk predictions for Bayes Mendel tools (BRCAPRO, MMRpro, PancPRO, and MelaPRO), the Tyrer-Cuzick IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, and the Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. Findings Software clients that can convert their local structured data into the HL7 XML-formatted family and clinical patient history (Pedigree model) may integrate with the Risk Service. The Risk Service uses Apache Tomcat and Apache Axis2 technologies to provide an all Java web service. The software client sends HL7 XML information containing anonymized family and clinical history to a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) server where it is parsed, interpreted, and processed by multiple risk tools. The Risk Service then formats the results into an HL7 style message and returns the risk predictions to the originating software client. Upon consent, users may allow DFCI to maintain the data for future research. The Risk Service implementation is exemplified through Hughes Risk Apps. Conclusions The Risk Service broadens the availability of valuable, up-to-date cancer risk tools and allows clinics and researchers to integrate risk prediction tools into their own software interface designed for their needs. Each software package can collect risk data using its own interface, and display the results using its own interface, while using a central, up-to-date risk calculator. This allows users to choose from multiple interfaces while always getting the latest risk calculations. Consenting users contribute their data for future research, thus building a rich multi-center resource. PMID:23793601

  2. Providing access to risk prediction tools via the HL7 XML-formatted risk web service.

    PubMed

    Chipman, Jonathan; Drohan, Brian; Blackford, Amanda; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Hughes, Kevin; Bosinoff, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Cancer risk prediction tools provide valuable information to clinicians but remain computationally challenging. Many clinics find that CaGene or HughesRiskApps fit their needs for easy- and ready-to-use software to obtain cancer risks; however, these resources may not fit all clinics' needs. The HughesRiskApps Group and BayesMendel Lab therefore developed a web service, called "Risk Service", which may be integrated into any client software to quickly obtain standardized and up-to-date risk predictions for BayesMendel tools (BRCAPRO, MMRpro, PancPRO, and MelaPRO), the Tyrer-Cuzick IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, and the Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. Software clients that can convert their local structured data into the HL7 XML-formatted family and clinical patient history (Pedigree model) may integrate with the Risk Service. The Risk Service uses Apache Tomcat and Apache Axis2 technologies to provide an all Java web service. The software client sends HL7 XML information containing anonymized family and clinical history to a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) server, where it is parsed, interpreted, and processed by multiple risk tools. The Risk Service then formats the results into an HL7 style message and returns the risk predictions to the originating software client. Upon consent, users may allow DFCI to maintain the data for future research. The Risk Service implementation is exemplified through HughesRiskApps. The Risk Service broadens the availability of valuable, up-to-date cancer risk tools and allows clinics and researchers to integrate risk prediction tools into their own software interface designed for their needs. Each software package can collect risk data using its own interface, and display the results using its own interface, while using a central, up-to-date risk calculator. This allows users to choose from multiple interfaces while always getting the latest risk calculations. Consenting users contribute their data for future research, thus building a rich multicenter resource. PMID:23793601

  3. ART-ML - a novel XML format for the biological procedures modeling and the representation of blood flow simulation.

    PubMed

    Karvounis, E C; Tsakanikas, V D; Fotiou, E; Fotiadis, D I

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel Extensible Markup Language (XML) based format called ART-ML that aims at supporting the interoperability and the reuse of models of blood flow, mass transport and plaque formation, exported by ARTool. ARTool is a platform for the automatic processing of various image modalities of coronary and carotid arteries. The images and their content are fused to develop morphological models of the arteries in easy to handle 3D representations. The platform incorporates efficient algorithms which are able to perform blood flow simulation. In addition atherosclerotic plaque development is estimated taking into account morphological, flow and genetic factors. ART-ML provides a XML format that enables the representation and management of embedded models within the ARTool platform and the storage and interchange of well-defined information. This approach influences in the model creation, model exchange, model reuse and result evaluation. PMID:21096364

  4. Development of XML Schema for Broadband Digital Seismograms and Data Center Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, N.; Tsuboi, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Nagao, H.; Yamagishi, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Yanaka, H.; Yamaji, H.

    2008-12-01

    There are a number of data centers around the globe, where the digital broadband seismograms are opened to researchers. Those centers use their own user interfaces and there are no standard to access and retrieve seismograms from different data centers using unified interface. One of the emergent technologies to realize unified user interface for different data centers is the concept of WebService and WebService portal. Here we have developed a prototype of data center portal for digital broadband seismograms. This WebService portal uses WSDL (Web Services Description Language) to accommodate differences among the different data centers. By using the WSDL, alteration and addition of data center user interfaces can be easily managed. This portal, called NINJA Portal, assumes three WebServices: (1) database Query service, (2) Seismic event data request service, and (3) Seismic continuous data request service. Current system supports both station search of database Query service and seismic continuous data request service. Data centers supported by this NINJA portal will be OHP data center in ERI and Pacific21 data center in IFREE/JAMSTEC in the beginning. We have developed metadata standard for seismological data based on QuakeML for parametric data, which has been developed by ETH Zurich, and XML-SEED for waveform data, which was developed by IFREE/JAMSTEC. The prototype of NINJA portal is now released through IFREE web page (http://www.jamstec.go.jp/pacific21/).

  5. Integrating personalized medical test contents with XML and XSL-FO

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004 the adoption of a modular curriculum at the medical faculty in Muenster led to the introduction of centralized examinations based on multiple-choice questions (MCQs). We report on how organizational challenges of realizing faculty-wide personalized tests were addressed by implementation of a specialized software module to automatically generate test sheets from individual test registrations and MCQ contents. Methods Key steps of the presented method for preparing personalized test sheets are (1) the compilation of relevant item contents and graphical media from a relational database with database queries, (2) the creation of Extensible Markup Language (XML) intermediates, and (3) the transformation into paginated documents. Results The software module by use of an open source print formatter consistently produced high-quality test sheets, while the blending of vectorized textual contents and pixel graphics resulted in efficient output file sizes. Concomitantly the module permitted an individual randomization of item sequences to prevent illicit collusion. Conclusions The automatic generation of personalized MCQ test sheets is feasible using freely available open source software libraries, and can be efficiently deployed on a faculty-wide scale. PMID:21362187

  6. Adding Hierarchical Objects to Relational Database General-Purpose XML-Based Information Managements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu-Chun; Knight, Chris; La, Tracy; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Tran, Khai Peter; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput software system for managing, storing, and rapid searching of unstructured and semi-structured documents. NETMARK transforms such documents from their original highly complex, constantly changing, heterogeneous data formats into well-structured, common data formats in using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and/or Extensible Markup Language (XML). The software implements an object-relational database system that combines the best practices of the relational model utilizing Structured Query Language (SQL) with those of the object-oriented, semantic database model for creating complex data. In particular, NETMARK takes advantage of the Oracle 8i object-relational database model using physical-address data types for very efficient keyword searches of records across both context and content. NETMARK also supports multiple international standards such as WEBDAV for drag-and-drop file management and SOAP for integrated information management using Web services. The document-organization and -searching capabilities afforded by NETMARK are likely to make this software attractive for use in disciplines as diverse as science, auditing, and law enforcement.

  7. Automatic Indexing for Content Analysis of Whale Recordings and XML Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénard, Frédéric; Glotin, Hervé

    2010-12-01

    This paper focuses on the robust indexing of sperm whale hydrophone recordings based on a set of features extracted from a real-time passive underwater acoustic tracking algorithm for multiple whales using four hydrophones. Acoustic localization permits the study of whale behavior in deep water without interfering with the environment. Given the position coordinates, we are able to generate different features such as the speed, energy of the clicks, Inter-Click-Interval (ICI), and so on. These features allow to construct different markers which allow us to index and structure the audio files. Thus, the behavior study is facilitated by choosing and accessing the corresponding index in the audio file. The complete indexing algorithm is processed on real data from the NUWC (Naval Undersea Warfare Center of the US Navy) and the AUTEC (Atlantic Undersea Test & Evaluation Center-Bahamas). Our model is validated by similar results from the US Navy (NUWC) and SOEST (School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology) Hawaii university labs in a single whale case. Finally, as an illustration, we index a single whale sound file using the extracted whale's features provided by the tracking, and we present an example of an XML script structuring it.

  8. XML-based clinical data standardisation in the National Health Service Scotland.

    PubMed

    Bunduchi, Raluca; Williams, Robin; Graham, Ian; Smart, Alison

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to clarify the role that socio-economic factors played in shaping the development of XML-based clinical data standards in the National Health Service in Scotland from 2000 to 2004. The paper discusses the NHS Scotland approach to clinical data standardisation, emphasising the actors involved, their choices during the standard development process and the factors that have shaped these choices. The case suggests that the NHS Scotland approach to clinical data standardisation is shaped by strong political pressures for fast development of an integrated electronic patient care system, economic pressures for high efficiency and cost reductions, and organisational requirements for strong clinical support. Such economic, political and organisational pressures explain the informal approach to standard development, the emphasis on fast system development and strong clinical involvement. At the same time, market factors explain the low commitment of the IT vendors, which might have otherwise put significant pressure on NHS Scotland to pursue a more formalised standardisation approach within an internationally recognised standard-setting body. PMID:17504574

  9. XML-based scripting of multimodality image presentations in multidisciplinary clinical conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Allada, Vivekanand; Dahlbom, Magdalena; Marcus, Phillip; Fine, Ian; Lapstra, Lorelle

    2002-05-01

    We developed a multi-modality image presentation software for display and analysis of images and related data from different imaging modalities. The software is part of a cardiac image review and presentation platform that supports integration of digital images and data from digital and analog media such as videotapes, analog x-ray films and 35 mm cine films. The software supports standard DICOM image files as well as AVI and PDF data formats. The system is integrated in a digital conferencing room that includes projections of digital and analog sources, remote videoconferencing capabilities, and an electronic whiteboard. The goal of this pilot project is to: 1) develop a new paradigm for image and data management for presentation in a clinically meaningful sequence adapted to case-specific scenarios, 2) design and implement a multi-modality review and conferencing workstation using component technology and customizable 'plug-in' architecture to support complex review and diagnostic tasks applicable to all cardiac imaging modalities and 3) develop an XML-based scripting model of image and data presentation for clinical review and decision making during routine clinical tasks and multidisciplinary clinical conferences.

  10. A dynamic model of etiology in sport injury: the recursive nature of risk and causation.

    PubMed

    Meeuwisse, Willem H; Tyreman, Hugh; Hagel, Brent; Emery, Carolyn

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to outline a new model representing a dynamic approach that incorporates the consequences of repeated participation in sport, both with and without injury. This model builds on the previous work, while emphasizing the fact that adaptations occur within the context of sport (both in the presence and absence of injury) that alter risk and affect etiology in a dynamic, recursive fashion. Regardless of the type of injury, it is often preceded by a chain of shifting circumstances that, when they come together, constitute sufficient cause to result in an injury. If we are to truly understand the etiology of injury and target appropriate prevention strategies, we must look beyond the initial set of risk factors that are thought to precede an injury and take into consideration how those risk factors may have changed through preceding cycles of participation, whether associated with prior injury or not. This model considers the implications of repeated exposure, whether such exposure produces adaptation, maladaptation, injury or complete/incomplete recovery from injury. When feasible, future studies on sport injury prevention should adopt a methodology and analysis strategy that takes the cyclic nature of changing risk factors into account to create a dynamic, recursive picture of etiology. PMID:17513916

  11. Development of Fast Algorithms Using Recursion, Nesting and Iterations for Computational Electromagnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, W. C.; Song, J. M.; Lu, C. C.; Weedon, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of our work, we have concentrated on laying the foundation to develop fast algorithms, including the use of recursive structure like the recursive aggregate interaction matrix algorithm (RAIMA), the nested equivalence principle algorithm (NEPAL), the ray-propagation fast multipole algorithm (RPFMA), and the multi-level fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). We have also investigated the use of curvilinear patches to build a basic method of moments code where these acceleration techniques can be used later. In the second phase, which is mainly reported on here, we have concentrated on implementing three-dimensional NEPAL on a massively parallel machine, the Connection Machine CM-5, and have been able to obtain some 3D scattering results. In order to understand the parallelization of codes on the Connection Machine, we have also studied the parallelization of 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code with PML material absorbing boundary condition (ABC). We found that simple algorithms like the FDTD with material ABC can be parallelized very well allowing us to solve within a minute a problem of over a million nodes. In addition, we have studied the use of the fast multipole method and the ray-propagation fast multipole algorithm to expedite matrix-vector multiplication in a conjugate-gradient solution to integral equations of scattering. We find that these methods are faster than LU decomposition for one incident angle, but are slower than LU decomposition when many incident angles are needed as in the monostatic RCS calculations.

  12. Recursive Random Lasso (RRLasso) for Identifying Anti-Cancer Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heewon; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering driver genes is crucial for understanding heterogeneity in cancer. L1-type regularization approaches have been widely used for uncovering cancer driver genes based on genome-scale data. Although the existing methods have been widely applied in the field of bioinformatics, they possess several drawbacks: subset size limitations, erroneous estimation results, multicollinearity, and heavy time consumption. We introduce a novel statistical strategy, called a Recursive Random Lasso (RRLasso), for high dimensional genomic data analysis and investigation of driver genes. For time-effective analysis, we consider a recursive bootstrap procedure in line with the random lasso. Furthermore, we introduce a parametric statistical test for driver gene selection based on bootstrap regression modeling results. The proposed RRLasso is not only rapid but performs well for high dimensional genomic data analysis. Monte Carlo simulations and analysis of the “Sanger Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer dataset from the Cancer Genome Project” show that the proposed RRLasso is an effective tool for high dimensional genomic data analysis. The proposed methods provide reliable and biologically relevant results for cancer driver gene selection. PMID:26544691

  13. Block recursive LU preconditioners for the thermally coupled incompressible inductionless MHD problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badia, Santiago; Martín, Alberto F.; Planas, Ramon

    2014-10-01

    The thermally coupled incompressible inductionless magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem models the flow of an electrically charged fluid under the influence of an external electromagnetic field with thermal coupling. This system of partial differential equations is strongly coupled and highly nonlinear for real cases of interest. Therefore, fully implicit time integration schemes are very desirable in order to capture the different physical scales of the problem at hand. However, solving the multiphysics linear systems of equations resulting from such algorithms is a very challenging task which requires efficient and scalable preconditioners. In this work, a new family of recursive block LU preconditioners is designed and tested for solving the thermally coupled inductionless MHD equations. These preconditioners are obtained after splitting the fully coupled matrix into one-physics problems for every variable (velocity, pressure, current density, electric potential and temperature) that can be optimally solved, e.g., using preconditioned domain decomposition algorithms. The main idea is to arrange the original matrix into an (arbitrary) 2×2 block matrix, and consider an LU preconditioner obtained by approximating the corresponding Schur complement. For every one of the diagonal blocks in the LU preconditioner, if it involves more than one type of unknowns, we proceed the same way in a recursive fashion. This approach is stated in an abstract way, and can be straightforwardly applied to other multiphysics problems. Further, we precisely explain a flexible and general software design for the code implementation of this type of preconditioners.

  14. A generalized recursive convolution method for time-domain propagation in porous media.

    PubMed

    Dragna, Didier; Pineau, Pierre; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    An efficient numerical method, referred to as the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) method, is proposed to compute convolutions between relaxation functions and acoustic variables arising in sound propagation equations in porous media. For this purpose, the relaxation functions are approximated in the frequency domain by rational functions. The time variation of the convolution is thus governed by first-order differential equations which can be straightforwardly solved. The accuracy of the method is first investigated and compared to that of recursive convolution methods. It is shown that, while recursive convolution methods are first or second-order accurate in time, the ADE method does not introduce any additional error. The ADE method is then applied for outdoor sound propagation using the equations proposed by Wilson et al. in the ground [(2007). Appl. Acoust. 68, 173-200]. A first one-dimensional case is performed showing that only five poles are necessary to accurately approximate the relaxation functions for typical applications. Finally, the ADE method is used to compute sound propagation in a three-dimensional geometry over an absorbing ground. Results obtained with Wilson's equations are compared to those obtained with Zwikker and Kosten's equations and with an impedance surface for different flow resistivities. PMID:26328719

  15. Real-Time Adaptive EEG Source Separation Using Online Recursive Independent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hsiou; Mullen, Tim R; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2016-03-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) biosignal processing and brain-computer interfaces. The practical use of ICA, however, is limited by its computational complexity, data requirements for convergence, and assumption of data stationarity, especially for high-density data. Here we study and validate an optimized online recursive ICA algorithm (ORICA) with online recursive least squares (RLS) whitening for blind source separation of high-density EEG data, which offers instantaneous incremental convergence upon presentation of new data. Empirical results of this study demonstrate the algorithm's: 1) suitability for accurate and efficient source identification in high-density (64-channel) realistically-simulated EEG data; 2) capability to detect and adapt to nonstationarity in 64-ch simulated EEG data; and 3) utility for rapidly extracting principal brain and artifact sources in real 61-channel EEG data recorded by a dry and wearable EEG system in a cognitive experiment. ORICA was implemented as functions in BCILAB and EEGLAB and was integrated in an open-source Real-time EEG Source-mapping Toolbox (REST), supporting applications in ICA-based online artifact rejection, feature extraction for real-time biosignal monitoring in clinical environments, and adaptable classifications in brain-computer interfaces. PMID:26685257

  16. Recursive evaluation of expectation values ? for arbitrary states of the relativistic one-electron atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrae, Dirk

    1997-10-01

    An algorithm for the recursive evaluation of expectation values 0953-4075/30/20/008/img2 for a given state of the relativistic one-electron atom with a point-like nucleus of charge number Z is proposed. In contrast to previous approaches, the present algorithm is based on only a single recurrence relation, which is a recurrence relation for a special type of generalized hypergeometric 0953-4075/30/20/008/img3 series. Two sequences of values of such 0953-4075/30/20/008/img3 series are generated. Finally, the members of these two sequences are assembled to yield the expectation values. The algorithm can be considered as a relativistic analogue of the Kramers - Pasternack recursion for expectation values 0953-4075/30/20/008/img2 for states of the non-relativistic hydrogen-like atom. As an application closed-form expressions for 0953-4075/30/20/008/img6, were derived. In addition, numerical values for 0953-4075/30/20/008/img2 are given for some representative states of one-electron atoms with Z = 1, 80 and 137.

  17. Recursive Organizer (ROR): an Analytic Framework for Sequence-Based Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lue Ping; Huang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies affords the ability to sequence thousands of subjects cost-effectively, and is revolutionizing the landscape of genetic research. With the evolving genotyping/sequencing technologies, it is not unrealistic to expect that we will soon obtain a pair of diploidic fully-phased genome sequences from each subject in the near future. Here, in light of this potential, we propose an analytic framework called, recursive organizer (ROR), which recursively groups sequence variants based upon sequence similarities and their empirical disease associations, into fewer and potentially more interpretable super sequence variants (SSV). As an illustration, we applied ROR to assess an association between HLA-DRB1 and type 1 diabetes (T1D), discovering SSVs of HLA-DRB1 with sequence data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). Specifically, ROR reduces 36 observed unique HLA-DRB1 sequences into 8 SSVs that empirically associate with T1D, a four-fold reduction of sequence complexity. Using HLA-DRB1 data from Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) as cases and data from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center as controls, we are able to validate associations of these SSVs with T1D. Further, SSVs consist of nine nucleotides, and each associates with its corresponding amino acids. Detailed examination of these selected amino acids reveals their potential functional roles in protein structures and possible implication to the mechanism of T1D. PMID:23494241

  18. Recursive forward dynamics for multiple robot arms moving a common task object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Recursive forward dynamics algorithms are developed for an arbitrary number of robot arms moving a commonly held object. The multiarm forward dynamics problem is to find the angular accelerations at the joints and the contact forces that the arms impart to the task object. The problem also involves finding the acceleration of this object. The multiarm forward dynamics solutions provide a thorough physical and mathematical understanding of the way several arms behave in response to a set of applied joint moments. Such an understanding simplifies and guides the subsequent control design and experimentation process. The forward dynamics algorithms also provide the necessary analytical foundation for conducting analysis and simulation studies. The multiarm algorithms are based on the filtering and smoothing approach recently advanced for single-arm dynamics, and they can be built up modularly from the single-arm algorithms. The algorithms compute recursively the joint-angle accelerations, the contact forces, and the task-object accelerations. Algorithms are also developed to evaluate in closed form the linear transformations from the active joint moments to the joint-angle accelerations, to the task-object accelerations., and to the task-object contact forces. A possible computing architecture is presented as a precursor to a more complete investigation of the computational performance of the dynamics algorithms.

  19. Recursive subspace identification for on-line tracking of structural modal parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Jian-Huang; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop an on-line tracking of system parameter estimation and damage detection techniques using response measurements. To avoid the singular-value-decomposition in data Hankel matrix, a new subspace identification algorithm was developed. Seismic response data of a 3-story steel frame with abrupt change of inter-story stiffness from the shaking table test was used to verify the proposed recursive subspace identification (RSI) method by using both input and output measurements. With the implementation of forgetting factor in RSI method the ability of on-line damage detection of the abrupt change of structural stiffness can be enhanced. Then, the recursive stochastic subspace identification (RSSI) algorithm is also developed for continuous structural health monitor of structure by using the output-only measurements. Verification of the proposed RSSI method by using the white noise response data of a 2-story reinforced concrete frame from its low level white noise excitation was used. Discussion of the subspace identification model parameters is also investigated.

  20. A recursive approach for geometric quantifiers of quantum correlations in multiqubit Schrödinger cat states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.; Seddik, S.

    2015-06-01

    A recursive approach to determine the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of pairwise quantum discord in a special class of symmetric states of k qubits is presented. We especially focus on the reduced states of k qubits obtained from a balanced superposition of symmetric n-qubit states (multiqubit Schrödinger cat states) by tracing out n-k particles (k = 2, 3, …, n-1). Two pairing schemes are considered. In the first one, the geometric discord measuring the correlation between one qubit and the parity grouping (k-1) qubits is explicitly derived. This uses recursive relations between the Fano-Bloch correlation matrices associated with subsystems comprising k, k-1, … and two particles. A detailed analysis is given for two-, three- and four-qubit systems. In the second scheme, the subsystem comprising the (k-1) qubits is mapped into a system of two logical qubits. We show that these two bipartition schemes are equivalents in evaluating the pairwise correlation in multiqubits systems. The explicit expressions of classical states presenting zero discord are derived.

  1. A small-world network derived from the deterministic uniform recursive tree by line graph operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Pengfeng; Zhao, Haixing; Mao, Yaping; Wang, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The deterministic uniform recursive tree ({DURT}) is one of the deterministic versions of the uniform recursive tree ({URT}). Zhang et al (2008 Eur. Phys. J. B 63 507–13) studied the properties of DURT, including its topological characteristics and spectral properties. Although DURT shows a logarithmic scaling with the size of the network, DURT is not a small-world network since its clustering coefficient is zero. Lu et al (2012 Physica A 391 87–92) proposed a deterministic small-world network by adding some edges with a simple rule in each DURT iteration. In this paper, we intoduce a method for constructing a new deterministic small-world network by the line graph operation in each DURT iteration. The line graph operation brings about cliques at each node of the previous given graph, and the resulting line graph possesses larger clustering coefficients. On the other hand, this operation can decrease the diameter at almost one, then giving the analytic solutions to several topological characteristics of the model proposed. Supported by The Ministry of Science and Technology 973 project (No. 2010C B334708); National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61164005, 11161037, 11101232, 11461054, 11551001); The Ministry of education scholars and innovation team support plan of Yangtze River (No. IRT1068); Qinghai Province Nature Science Foundation Project (Nos. 2012-Z-943, 2014-ZJ-907).

  2. “AQMEII Status Update”

    EPA Science Inventory

    “AQMEII Status Update”This presentation provided an overview and status update of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initative (AQMEII) to participants of a workshop of the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF-HTAP) . In addition, the p...

  3. SU-E-T-48: Automated Quality Assurance for XML Controlled Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, G; Morin, O; Pouliot, J; Chuang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To automate routine imaging QA procedures so that complying with TG 142 and TG 179 can be efficient and reliable. Methods: Two QA tests for a True Beam Linac were automatized. A Winston Lutz test as described by Lutz et al{sup 1} using the Winston Lutz test kit from BrainLab, Germany and a CBCT Image Quality test as described in TG 179 using the EMMA phantom, Siemens Medical Physics, Germany were performed in our True Beam. For each QA procedure tested, a 3 step paradigm was used. First, the data was automatically acquired using True Beam Developer Mode and XML scripting. Second, the data acquired in the first step was automatically processed using in-home grown Matlab GUIs. Third, Machine Learning algorithms were used to automatically classify the processed data and reports generated. Results: The Winston Luzt test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 29.0 ± 8.0 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 3.0 ± 0.1 min. In the same lieu, time could be substantially saved for image quality tests. In this case, the amount of time saved will depend on the phantoms used and the initial localization method. Additionally, machine learning algorithms could automatically identify the roots of the problems if any and possibly help reduce machine down time. Conclusion: Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging that are used for patient alignment substantially improving IGRT protocols. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA tests needed. Using the new paradigm described above, not only bare minimum but best practice QA programs could be implemented with the same manpower. This work is supported by Varian, Palo Alto, CA.

  4. XML Web Services and 3D Orbit Viewer Application of SSCWeb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candey, R. M.; Chimiak, R. A.; Harris, B. T.; Kovalick, T. J.; McGuire, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    The Satellite Situation Center Web (SSCWeb) is a browser-based service to provide geocentric spacecraft location information and cast it into a framework of (empirical) geophysical regions and mappings of spacecraft locations along lines of the Earth's magnetic field. While backed by a substantial and maintained database of spacecraft orbit information and extensive software logic, several shortcomings in the present service are the inability of the architecture to support externally-developed clients and limitation of the orbit graphics to static, 2-D plots. This talk introduces a new distributed programming interface to the SSCWeb software based on the SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), a modern, industry standard technology. This interface, SSC XML Web Services, allows systems to communicate with SSC over the open protocols of the Internet. This flexible architecture will enable new SPDF developed client applications, as well as externally developed clients, to access the SSCWeb data and logic to bring new services and capabilities to the SEC community. The first such client application is TIPSOD (Tool for Interactive Plotting, Sonification and 3-D Orbit Display). Implemented in Java 3D, TIPSOD extends the existing SSCWeb 2-D static orbit graphics with 3-D interactive and animated displays linking set of spacecraft positions as a function of time. Additional capability and functional enhancements to SSCWeb services and TIPSOD, as well as the extension of this technology to the CDAWeb service, are being considered to further the relevance and usefulness of this work to the science community. SSCWeb is a joint effort of the NASA GSFC Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) and the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC).

  5. Diverse Pathways to Positive and Negative Affect in Adulthood and Later Life: An Integrative Approach Using Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenewald, Tara L.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Ryff, Carol D.; Singer, Burton H.

    2008-01-01

    Recursive partitioning is an analytic technique that is useful for identifying complex combinations of conditions that predict particular outcomes as well as for delineating multiple subgroup differences in how such factors work together. As such, the methodology is well suited to multidisciplinary, life course inquiry in which the goal is to…

  6. Using Recursive Regression to Explore Nonlinear Relationships and Interactions: A Tutorial Applied to a Multicultural Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how a seldom-used statistical procedure, recursive regression (RR), can numerically and graphically illustrate data-driven nonlinear relationships and interaction of variables. This routine falls into the family of exploratory techniques, yet a few interesting features make it a valuable compliment to factor analysis and…

  7. Question Utilization in Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Recursive Frame Analysis of Insoo Kim Berg's Solution Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Recursive frame analysis (RFA) was used to conduct a single case investigation of Insoo Kim Berg's question utilization talk in a solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) session. Due to the lack of process research that explores how SFBT questions facilitate change, the author investigated how Berg's solution language influenced a client to respond…

  8. Using Recursive Regression to Explore Nonlinear Relationships and Interactions: A Tutorial Applied to a Multicultural Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how a seldom-used statistical procedure, recursive regression (RR), can numerically and graphically illustrate data-driven nonlinear relationships and interaction of variables. This routine falls into the family of exploratory techniques, yet a few interesting features make it a valuable compliment to factor analysis and…

  9. The recursive combination filter approach of pre-processing for the estimation of standard deviation of RR series.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Alok; Swati, D

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the interval between the R-R peaks of the electrocardiogram represents the modulation of the cardiac oscillations by the autonomic nervous system. This variation is contaminated by anomalous signals called ectopic beats, artefacts or noise which mask the true behaviour of heart rate variability. In this paper, we have proposed a combination filter of recursive impulse rejection filter and recursive 20% filter, with recursive application and preference of replacement over removal of abnormal beats to improve the pre-processing of the inter-beat intervals. We have tested this novel recursive combinational method with median method replacement to estimate the standard deviation of normal to normal (SDNN) beat intervals of congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm subjects. This work discusses the improvement in pre-processing over single use of impulse rejection filter and removal of abnormal beats for heart rate variability for the estimation of SDNN and Poncaré plot descriptors (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2) in detail. We have found the 22 ms value of SDNN and 36 ms value of SD2 descriptor of Poincaré plot as clinical indicators in discriminating the normal cases from CHF cases. The pre-processing is also useful in calculation of Lyapunov exponent which is a nonlinear index as Lyapunov exponents calculated after proposed pre-processing modified in a way that it start following the notion of less complex behaviour of diseased states. PMID:26104469

  10. An Introduction to Recursive Partitioning: Rationale, Application, and Characteristics of Classification and Regression Trees, Bagging, and Random Forests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobl, Carolin; Malley, James; Tutz, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Recursive partitioning methods have become popular and widely used tools for nonparametric regression and classification in many scientific fields. Especially random forests, which can deal with large numbers of predictor variables even in the presence of complex interactions, have been applied successfully in genetics, clinical medicine, and…

  11. Technical Note: Analytical sensitivity analysis of a two parameter recursive digital baseflow separation filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, K.

    2011-10-01

    A sensitivity analysis for a well established baseflow separation technique, a two parameter recursive digital filter, is presented. The propagation of errors or uncertainties of the two filter parameters into the calculated baseflow index is analytically ascertained. Representative sensitivity indices (defined as the ratio between the relative error of the baseflow index and the relative error of the respective parameter) are derived by application of the resulting equations to a great number of catchments. It is found that in the mean the parameter a, the recession constant, has a stronger influence on the calculated baseflow index than the second filter parameter BFImax. This is favourable in that a can be determined by a recession analysis and therefore should be less uncertain. Whether this finding also applies for a specific catchment can easily be checked by means of the derived equations.

  12. Management of Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks Utilizing Multi-Parent Recursive Area Hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Delgado-Frias, Jose

    2013-04-19

    Autonomously configuring and self-healing a largescale wireless sensor network requires a light-weight maintenance protocol that is scalable. Further, in a battery powered wireless sensor network duty-cycling a node’s radio can reduce the power consumption of a device and extend the lifetime of a network. With duty-cycled nodes the power consumption of a node’s radio depends on the amount of communication is must perform and by reducing the communication the power consumption can also be reduced. Multi-parent hierarchies can be used to reduce the communication cost when constructing a recursive area clustering hierarchy when compared to singleparent solutions that utilize inefficient communication methods such as flooding and information propagation via single-hop broadcasts. The multi-parent hierarchies remain scalable and provides a level of redundancy for the hierarchy.

  13. Recursive method to obtain the parametric representation of a generic Feynman diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Ivan; Schmidt, Ivan

    2005-11-15

    A recursive algebraic method which allows one to obtain the Feynman or Schwinger parametric representation of a generic L-loops and (E+1) external lines diagram, in a scalar {phi}{sup 3}+{phi}{sup 4} theory, is presented. The representation is obtained starting from an initial parameters matrix, which relates the scalar products between internal and external momenta, and which appears directly when this parametrization is applied to the momentum space representation of the graph. The final product is an algebraic formula that shows explicitly the external momenta dependence and also an algorithm that can be easily programmed, either in a computer programming language (C/C++, Fortran, ...) or in a symbolic calculation package (Maple, Mathematica, ...)

  14. Recursive distribution method for probabilistic fracture mechanics and its application to evaluation of LWR piping

    SciTech Connect

    Akiba, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masabumi; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Yagawa, Genki

    1996-12-01

    The present authors have previously developed a new method for Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM), which they call Recursive Distribution (RD) method. The method is based on the construction of the Lebesgue-Stieltjes measure through a deterministic mapping defining a crack growth process. In the present paper, its theoretical background is first discussed, and the Lebesgue decomposition of the measure is given. Then a numerical example of a Light Water Reactor (LWR)`s piping problem is solved by the present method, and the results are compared with those of the Monte Carlo (MC) method. In addition to leakage probability, a variation in stress cycles of the marginal distribution of an aspect ratio of a semi-elliptical surface crack is calculated, which will be used in a study on LBB evaluation.

  15. Recursive N-Way Partial Least Squares for Brain-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Eliseyev, Andrey; Aksenova, Tetiana

    2013-01-01

    In the article tensor-input/tensor-output blockwise Recursive N-way Partial Least Squares (RNPLS) regression is considered. It combines the multi-way tensors decomposition with a consecutive calculation scheme and allows blockwise treatment of tensor data arrays with huge dimensions, as well as the adaptive modeling of time-dependent processes with tensor variables. In the article the numerical study of the algorithm is undertaken. The RNPLS algorithm demonstrates fast and stable convergence of regression coefficients. Applied to Brain Computer Interface system calibration, the algorithm provides an efficient adjustment of the decoding model. Combining the online adaptation with easy interpretation of results, the method can be effectively applied in a variety of multi-modal neural activity flow modeling tasks. PMID:23922873

  16. Recursive multiport schemes for implementing quantum algorithms with photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel M.

    2016-01-01

    We present recursive multiport schemes for implementing quantum Fourier transforms and the inversion step in Grover's algorithm on an integrated linear optics device. In particular, each scheme shows how to execute a quantum operation on 2 d modes using a pair of circuits for the same operation on d modes. The circuits operate on path-encoded qudits and realize d -dimensional unitary transformations on these states using linear optical networks with O (d2) optical elements. To evaluate the schemes against realistic errors, we ran simulations of proof-of-principle experiments using a simple fabrication model of silicon-based photonic integrated devices that employ directional couplers and thermo-optic modulators for beam splitters and phase shifters, respectively. We find that high-fidelity performance is achievable with our multiport circuits for 2-qubit and 3-qubit quantum Fourier transforms, and for quantum search on four-item and eight-item databases.

  17. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling a Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional construction of digital dynamic system simulations often involves collecting differential equations that model each subsystem, arran g them to a standard form, and obtaining their numerical gin solution as a single coupled, total-system simultaneous set. Simulation by numerical coupling of independent stand-alone subsimulations is a fundamentally different approach that is attractive because, among other things, the architecture naturally facilitates high fidelity, broad scope, and discipline independence. Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a candidate approach to multidiscipline dynamic system simulation by numerical coupling of self-contained, single-discipline subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (orbit dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Distributed and centralized implementations of coupling have been considered. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system, simultaneous-solution approach.

  18. Two dimensional recursive digital filters for near real time image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D.; Sherrod, E.

    1980-01-01

    A program was designed toward the demonstration of the feasibility of using two dimensional recursive digital filters for subjective image processing applications that require rapid turn around. The concept of the use of a dedicated minicomputer for the processor for this application was demonstrated. The minicomputer used was the HP1000 series E with a RTE 2 disc operating system and 32K words of memory. A Grinnel 256 x 512 x 8 bit display system was used to display the images. Sample images were provided by NASA Goddard on a 800 BPI, 9 track tape. Four 512 x 512 images representing 4 spectral regions of the same scene were provided. These images were filtered with enhancement filters developed during this effort.

  19. Parallel Implementation of the Recursive Approximation of an Unsupervised Hierarchical Segmentation Algorithm. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Plaza, Antonio J. (Editor); Chang, Chein-I. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The hierarchical image segmentation algorithm (referred to as HSEG) is a hybrid of hierarchical step-wise optimization (HSWO) and constrained spectral clustering that produces a hierarchical set of image segmentations. HSWO is an iterative approach to region grooving segmentation in which the optimal image segmentation is found at N(sub R) regions, given a segmentation at N(sub R+1) regions. HSEG's addition of constrained spectral clustering makes it a computationally intensive algorithm, for all but, the smallest of images. To counteract this, a computationally efficient recursive approximation of HSEG (called RHSEG) has been devised. Further improvements in processing speed are obtained through a parallel implementation of RHSEG. This chapter describes this parallel implementation and demonstrates its computational efficiency on a Landsat Thematic Mapper test scene.

  20. A Comparison of Evolutionary Algorithms for Tracking Time-Varying Recursive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Michael S.; Flockton, Stuart J.

    2003-12-01

    A comparison is made of the behaviour of some evolutionary algorithms in time-varying adaptive recursive filter systems. Simulations show that an algorithm including random immigrants outperforms a more conventional algorithm using the breeder genetic algorithm as the mutation operator when the time variation is discontinuous, but neither algorithm performs well when the time variation is rapid but smooth. To meet this deficit, a new hybrid algorithm which uses a hill climber as an additional genetic operator, applied for several steps at each generation, is introduced. A comparison is made of the effect of applying the hill climbing operator a few times to all members of the population or a larger number of times solely to the best individual; it is found that applying to the whole population yields the better results, substantially improved compared with those obtained using earlier methods.

  1. Cloud Computing Application for Hotspot Clustering Using Recursive Density Based Clustering (RDBC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Aries; Khiyarin Nisa, Karlina

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has vast areas of tropical forest, but are often burned which causes extensive damage to property and human life. Monitoring hotspots can be one of the forest fire management. Each hotspot is recorded in dataset so that it can be processed and analyzed. This research aims to build a cloud computing application which visualizes hotspots clustering. This application uses the R programming language with Shiny web framework and implements Recursive Density Based Clustering (RDBC) algorithm. Clustering is done on hotspot dataset of the Kalimantan Island and South Sumatra Province to find the spread pattern of hotspots. The clustering results are evaluated using the Silhouette's Coefficient (SC) which yield best value 0.3220798 for Kalimantan dataset. Clustering pattern are displayed in the form of web pages so that it can be widely accessed and become the reference for fire occurrence prediction.

  2. Topological recursion for chord diagrams, RNA complexes, and cells in moduli spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jørgen E.; Chekhov, Leonid O.; Penner, R. C.; Reidys, Christian M.; Su?kowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and study the Hermitian matrix model with potential V(x)=x2/2-stx/(1-tx), which enumerates the number of linear chord diagrams with no isolated vertices of fixed genus with specified numbers of backbones generated by s and chords generated by t. For the one-cut solution, the partition function, correlators and free energies are convergent for small t and all s as a perturbation of the Gaussian potential, which arises for st=0. This perturbation is computed using the formalism of the topological recursion. The corresponding enumeration of chord diagrams gives at once the number of RNA complexes of a given topology as well as the number of cells in Riemann's moduli spaces for bordered surfaces. The free energies are computed here in principle for all genera and explicitly in genus less than four.

  3. Performance and Accuracy of Recursive Subspace Bisection for Hybrid DFT Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William; Gygi, Francois

    2015-03-01

    The high cost of computing the Hartree-Fock exchange has resulted in limited use of Hybrid Functionals in DFT calculations. Approximations based on transformation to localized orbitals provide one way to reduce this cost. One such method is the recursive subspace bisection method (RSB). Such localization methods involve truncation of localized orbitals, which introduces an additional approximation. We take advantage of our ability to systematically reduce the error in RSB calculations through a single parameter to study this approximation. We present the errors in ground state energy, forces, and relative energy differences between configurations for a variety of systems, including tungsten oxide, a silicon-water interface, and liquid water including the calculation of empty states. Supported by DOE/BES Grant DE-SC0008938.

  4. Fault detection in an air-handling unit using residual and recursive parameter identification methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Park, C.; Kelly, G.E.

    1996-11-01

    A scheme for detecting faults in an air-handling unit using residual and parameter identification methods is presented. Faults can be detected by comparing the normal or expected operating condition data with the abnormal, measured data using residuals. Faults can also be detected by examining unmeasurable parameter changes in a model of a controlled system using a system parameter identification technique. In this study, autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) and autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX) models with both single-input/single-output (SISO) and multi-input/single-output (MISO) structures are examined. Model parameters are determined using the Kalman filter recursive identification method. This approach is tested using experimental data from a laboratory`s variable-air-volume (VAV) air-handling unit operated with and without faults.

  5. Social cognition in ADHD: irony understanding and recursive theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Caillies, Stéphanie; Bertot, Vincine; Motte, Jacques; Raynaud, Christine; Abely, Michel

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the present study was to characterise the social cognition abilities of French children with ADHD, in terms of their understanding of people's recursive mental states and their irony comprehension. We hypothesised that these children have difficulty understanding second-order false beliefs and ironic remarks, owing to the executive dysfunction that is characteristic of ADHD. We therefore conducted an experiment in which children with ADHD and typically developing matched controls performed second-order false-belief and executive function tasks. They then listened to ironic stories and answered questions about the ironic comments and about the speakers' beliefs and attitudes. The groups differed significantly on second-order theory of mind, irony comprehension and executive functions, confirming that children with ADHD have impaired social cognition. PMID:25155741

  6. Human motion planning based on recursive dynamics and optimal control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Janzen; Huang, Gang; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient optimal control and recursive dynamics-based computer animation system for simulating and controlling the motion of articulated figures. A quasi-Newton nonlinear programming technique (super-linear convergence) is implemented to solve minimum torque-based human motion-planning problems. The explicit analytical gradients needed in the dynamics are derived using a matrix exponential formulation and Lie algebra. Cubic spline functions are used to make the search space for an optimal solution finite. Based on our formulations, our method is well conditioned and robust, in addition to being computationally efficient. To better illustrate the efficiency of our method, we present results of natural looking and physically correct human motions for a variety of human motion tasks involving open and closed loop kinematic chains.

  7. Spatial join optimization among WFSs based on recursive partitioning and filtering rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Guiwen; Wu, Congcong; Shi, Guangyi; Chen, Qi; Yang, Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Spatial join among Web Feature Services (WFS) is time-consuming for most of non-candidate spatial objects may be encoded by GML and transferred to client side. In this paper, an optimization strategy is proposed to enhance performance of these joins by filtering non-candidate spatial objects as many as possible. By recursive partitioning, the data skew of sub-areas is facilitated to reduce data transmission using spatial semi-join. Moreover filtering rate is used to determine whether a spatial semi-join for a sub-area is profitable and choose a suitable execution plan for it. The experimental results show that the proposed strategy is feasible under most circumstances.

  8. RecRWR: a recursive random walk method for improved identification of diseases.

    PubMed

    Arrais, Joel Perdiz; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput methods such as next-generation sequencing or DNA microarrays lack precision, as they return hundreds of genes for a single disease profile. Several computational methods applied to physical interaction of protein networks have been successfully used in identification of the best disease candidates for each expression profile. An open problem for these methods is the ability to combine and take advantage of the wealth of biomedical data publicly available. We propose an enhanced method to improve selection of the best disease targets for a multilayer biomedical network that integrates PPI data annotated with stable knowledge from OMIM diseases and GO biological processes. We present a comprehensive validation that demonstrates the advantage of the proposed approach, Recursive Random Walk with Restarts (RecRWR). The obtained results outline the superiority of the proposed approach, RecRWR, in identifying disease candidates, especially with high levels of biological noise and benefiting from all data available. PMID:25874227

  9. Use of recursively generated intermediates in state selective multireference coupled-cluster method: A numerical example

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, K.B.; Adamowicz, L.

    1995-12-01

    The present work represents the first attempt to utilize the idea of recursively generated intermediates (RGI) in the framework of the state-selective multi-reference coupled-cluster method truncated at triple excitations [SS CCSD(T)]. The expressions for stepwise generation of intermediates are so structured that the spin and point symmetry simplifications can be easily applied during computation. Suitable modifications in SS CCSD(T) equations are introduced to allow for optional quasilinearization of nonlinear terms in difficult convergence situations. The computational code is, as expected, much faster than the SS CCSD(T) code without RGI adaptation. This has been numerically demonstrated by potential energy surface (PES) calculation of the HF molecule using a double zeta basis. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Visibly Pushdown Kleene Algebra and Its Use in Interprocedural Analysis of (Mutually) Recursive Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolduc, Claude; Ktari, Béchir

    Kleene algebra is a great formalism for doing intraprocedural analysis and verification of programs, but it seems difficult to deal with interprocedural analysis where the power of context-free languages is often needed to represent both the program and the property. In the model checking framework, Alur and Madhusudan defined visibly pushdown automata, which accept a subclass of context-free languages called visibly pushdown languages, to do some interprocedural analyses of programs while remaining decidable. We present visibly pushdown Kleene algebra, an extension of Kleene algebra that axiomatises exactly the equational theory of visibly pushdown languages. The algebra is simply Kleene algebra along with a family of implicit least fixed point operators. Some interprocedural analyses of (mutually) recursive programs are possible in this formalism and it can deal with some non-regular properties.

  11. Adaptive speed control of hydrogenerators by recursive least squares identification algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, S.C.; Wozniak, L.

    1995-03-01

    An inherent challenge to hydrogenerator speed regulation is the nonlinear and time varying nature of the process. When a fixed gain controller is used to regulate such a process, globally stable system response can be achieved only at the expense of degraded off design-point performance. This paper considers the application of an adaptive control methodology that allows the controller gains to automatically adjust to changing process variables and thereby provide uniform closed loop response over a wide range of operating conditions. Preliminary findings derived from a calculated plant model, and a standard recursive identification technique, indicate that the adaptive system provides desirable dynamic response despite changes in system operating dynamics, maintaining stable operation in situations where constant gain schedules fail.

  12. Recursion relations for graviton scattering amplitudes from Bose symmetry and bonus scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGady, David A.; Rodina, Laurentiu

    2015-05-01

    Modern on-shell S -matrix methods may dramatically improve our understanding of perturbative quantum gravity, but current foundations of on-shell techniques for general relativity still rely on off-shell Feynman diagram analysis. Here, we complete the fully on-shell proof of Schuster and Toro J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2009) 079] that the recursion relations of Britto, Cachazo, Feng, and Witten (BCFW) apply to relativity tree amplitudes. We do so by showing that the surprising requirement of "bonus" z-2 scaling under a BCFW shift directly follows from Bose symmetry. Moreover, we show that amplitudes in generic theories subjected to BCFW deformations of identical particles necessarily scale as zeven. When applied to the color ordered expansions of Yang-Mills, this directly implies the improved behavior under nonadjacent gluon shifts. Using the same analysis, three-dimensional gravity amplitudes scale as z-4, compared to the z-1 behavior for conformal Chern-Simons matter theory.

  13. Towards Interactive Construction of Topical Hierarchy: A Recursive Tensor Decomposition Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi; Liu, Xueqing; Song, Yanglei; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Automatic construction of user-desired topical hierarchies over large volumes of text data is a highly desirable but challenging task. This study proposes to give users freedom to construct topical hierarchies via interactive operations such as expanding a branch and merging several branches. Existing hierarchical topic modeling techniques are inadequate for this purpose because (1) they cannot consistently preserve the topics when the hierarchy structure is modified; and (2) the slow inference prevents swift response to user requests. In this study, we propose a novel method, called STROD, that allows efficient and consistent modification of topic hierarchies, based on a recursive generative model and a scalable tensor decomposition inference algorithm with theoretical performance guarantee. Empirical evaluation shows that STROD reduces the runtime of construction by several orders of magnitude, while generating consistent and quality hierarchies. PMID:26705505

  14. A Recursive Multiscale Correlation-Averaging Algorithm for an Automated Distributed Road Condition Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Ndoye, Mandoye; Barker, Alan M; Krogmeier, James; Bullock, Darcy

    2011-01-01

    A signal processing approach is proposed to jointly filter and fuse spatially indexed measurements captured from many vehicles. It is assumed that these measurements are influenced by both sensor noise and measurement indexing uncertainties. Measurements from low-cost vehicle-mounted sensors (e.g., accelerometers and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers) are properly combined to produce higher quality road roughness data for cost-effective road surface condition monitoring. The proposed algorithms are recursively implemented and thus require only moderate computational power and memory space. These algorithms are important for future road management systems, which will use on-road vehicles as a distributed network of sensing probes gathering spatially indexed measurements for condition monitoring, in addition to other applications, such as environmental sensing and/or traffic monitoring. Our method and the related signal processing algorithms have been successfully tested using field data.

  15. Human motion planning based on recursive dynamics and optimal control techniques.

    PubMed

    Lo, Janzen; Huang, Gang; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient optimal control and recursive dynamics-based computer animation system for simulating and controlling the motion of articulated figures. A quasi-Newton nonlinear programming technique (super-linear convergence) is implemented to solve minimum torque-based human motion-planning problems. The explicit analytical gradients needed in the dynamics are derived using a matrix exponential formulation and Lie algebra. Cubic spline functions are used to make the search space for an optimal solution finite. Based on our formulations, our method is well conditioned and robust, in addition to being computationally efficient. To better illustrate the efficiency of our method, we present results of natural looking and physically correct human motions for a variety of human motion tasks involving open and closed loop kinematic chains. PMID:12583402

  16. RecRWR: A Recursive Random Walk Method for Improved Identification of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Perdiz Arrais, Joel; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput methods such as next-generation sequencing or DNA microarrays lack precision, as they return hundreds of genes for a single disease profile. Several computational methods applied to physical interaction of protein networks have been successfully used in identification of the best disease candidates for each expression profile. An open problem for these methods is the ability to combine and take advantage of the wealth of biomedical data publicly available. We propose an enhanced method to improve selection of the best disease targets for a multilayer biomedical network that integrates PPI data annotated with stable knowledge from OMIM diseases and GO biological processes. We present a comprehensive validation that demonstrates the advantage of the proposed approach, Recursive Random Walk with Restarts (RecRWR). The obtained results outline the superiority of the proposed approach, RecRWR, in identifying disease candidates, especially with high levels of biological noise and benefiting from all data available. PMID:25874227

  17. Parallel 2D and 3D Prestack Depth Migration Using Recursive Kirchhoff Wavefield Extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, H. D.; Margrave, G. F.; Liu, K.

    2004-05-01

    Recursive Kirchhoff wavefield extrapolation in the space-frequency domain can be thought of as a simple convolutional filter that calculates a single output point at depth z+dz using a weighted summation of all input points within the extrapolator aperture at depth z. The desired velocity values for the extrapolator are the ones that provide the best approximation of the true phase (propagation time) of the seismic wavefield between the input points and the output point. Recursive Kirchhoff extrapolators can be designed to handle lateral variations in velocity in a number of ways: a PSPI-type (phase shift plus interpolation) extrapolator uses only the velocity at the output point, a NSPS-type (nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator uses the velocities at the input points; a SNPS-type (symmetric nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator incorporates two extrapolation steps of dz/2 where the first step uses the velocities at the input points (NSPS-type) and the second step uses the velocity at the output point (PSPI-type); while the Weyl-type extrapolator uses an average of the velocities between each input point and the output point. Here, we introduce the PAVG-type (slowness averaged) extrapolator, which uses velocity values calculated by an average of slowness along straight raypaths between each input point and the output point. Parallel 2D and 3D prestack depth migration algorithms have been coded in both MATLAB and C and tested on a small Linux cluster. A simple synthetic with a lateral step in velocity shows that the PAVG Kirchhoff extrapolator is very close to the exact desired response. Tests using the 2D Marmousi synthetic data set suggest that the extrapolator behaviour is only one of many considerations that must be addressed for accurate depth imaging. Other important considerations include preprocessing, aperture size, taper width, extrapolator stability, and imaging condition.

  18. Recursive mass matrix factorization and inversion: An operator approach to open- and closed-chain multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, K.

    1988-01-01

    This report advances a linear operator approach for analyzing the dynamics of systems of joint-connected rigid bodies.It is established that the mass matrix M for such a system can be factored as M=(I+H phi L)D(I+H phi L) sup T. This yields an immediate inversion M sup -1=(I-H psi L) sup T D sup -1 (I-H psi L), where H and phi are given by known link geometric parameters, and L, psi and D are obtained recursively by a spatial discrete-step Kalman filter and by the corresponding Riccati equation associated with this filter. The factors (I+H phi L) and (I-H psi L) are lower triangular matrices which are inverses of each other, and D is a diagonal matrix. This factorization and inversion of the mass matrix leads to recursive algortihms for forward dynamics based on spatially recursive filtering and smoothing. The primary motivation for advancing the operator approach is to provide a better means to formulate, analyze and understand spatial recursions in multibody dynamics. This is achieved because the linear operator notation allows manipulation of the equations of motion using a very high-level analytical framework (a spatial operator algebra) that is easy to understand and use. Detailed lower-level recursive algorithms can readily be obtained for inspection from the expressions involving spatial operators. The report consists of two main sections. In Part 1, the problem of serial chain manipulators is analyzed and solved. Extensions to a closed-chain system formed by multiple manipulators moving a common task object are contained in Part 2. To retain ease of exposition in the report, only these two types of multibody systems are considered. However, the same methods can be easily applied to arbitrary multibody systems formed by a collection of joint-connected regid bodies.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    SciTech Connect

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-08-15

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm.

  20. DbMap: improving database interoperability issues in medical software using a simple, Java-Xml based solution.

    PubMed Central

    Karadimas, H.; Hemery, F.; Roland, P.; Lepage, E.

    2000-01-01

    In medical software development, the use of databases plays a central role. However, most of the databases have heterogeneous encoding and data models. To deal with these variations in the application code directly is error-prone and reduces the potential reuse of the produced software. Several approaches to overcome these limitations have been proposed in the medical database literature, which will be presented. We present a simple solution, based on a Java library, and a central Metadata description file in XML. This development approach presents several benefits in software design and development cycles, the main one being the simplicity in maintenance. PMID:11079915

  1. Multiple concurrent recursive least squares identification with application to on-line spacecraft mass-property identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention is a method for identifying unknown parameters in a system having a set of governing equations describing its behavior that cannot be put into regression form with the unknown parameters linearly represented. In this method, the vector of unknown parameters is segmented into a plurality of groups where each individual group of unknown parameters may be isolated linearly by manipulation of said equations. Multiple concurrent and independent recursive least squares identification of each said group run, treating other unknown parameters appearing in their regression equation as if they were known perfectly, with said values provided by recursive least squares estimation from the other groups, thereby enabling the use of fast, compact, efficient linear algorithms to solve problems that would otherwise require nonlinear solution approaches. This invention is presented with application to identification of mass and thruster properties for a thruster-controlled spacecraft.

  2. Sensors, Update 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2004-04-01

    Sensors Update includes information at the cutting edge of sensor research and related topics such as MEMS. An overview of highlights in this exciting area is presented that covers current developments in materials, design, production and application of sensors and other micro- and nanosystems. Volume 13 gives you an insight into the modelling and simulation of microdevice self-assembly, and the alternatives for smart sensor interfaces. Fluorescent microspheres for ion sensing are reviewed, and from the medical and biosciences sector, optical sensor applications, catheter sensors, microelectronic chips for molecular and cell biology as well as microvalves for bioassays, miniature GC systems and micro-fuel cells are presented. The unique approach makes Sensors Update a valuable reference work for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users. All volumes of Sensors Update are also available online at our Wiley InterScience site: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/78505815

  3. Update on prostate pathology.

    PubMed

    Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2012-08-01

    This update on prostate pathology is very timely, as we celebrate the 20 anniversary of our great society, the International Society of Urological Pathologists (ISUP). Most of the key advances in this field over the past two decades have been made by several distinguished members of our society, as will be demonstrated herein. I am therefore indeed honored and privileged to be given the opportunity to present this paper. I will start with a brief historical perspective prior to delving into the update on prostate pathology over the past two decades and beyond. The topics discussed in this update will be somewhat limited, but will include The Gleason grading system; handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens; variants of prostatic adenocarcinoma; treatment effect on the prostate; other primary and secondary tumours involving the prostate, and biomarkers of prostate cancer. PMID:22772344

  4. Technical Note: Analytical sensitivity analysis of a two parameter recursive digital baseflow separation filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, K.

    2012-02-01

    A sensitivity analysis for a well-established baseflow separation technique, a two parameter recursive digital filter, is presented. The sensitivity of the calculated baseflow index to errors or uncertainties of the two filter parameters and of the initial baseflow value is analytically ascertained. It is found that the influence of the initial baseflow value is negligible for long time series. The propagation of errors or uncertainties of the two filter parameters into the baseflow index is expressed by a dimensionless sensitivity index, the ratio between the relative error of the baseflow index and the relative error of the respective parameter. Representative index values are derived by application of the resulting equations to 65 North American catchments. In the mean the parameter a, the recession constant, has a stronger influence on the calculated baseflow index than the second filter parameter BFImax. This is favourable in that a can be determined by a recession analysis and therefore should be less uncertain. Whether this finding also applies for a specific catchment can easily be checked by means of the derived equations.

  5. An empirical test of the weighted effect approach to generalized prediction using recursive neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.

    1996-12-31

    The requirement of a strict and fixed distinction between dependent variables and independent variables, together with the presence of missing data, typically imposes considerable problems for most standard statistical prediction procedures. This paper describes a solution of these problems through the {open_quotes}weighted effect{close_quotes} approach in which recursive neural nets are used to learn how to compensate for any main and interaction effects attributable to missing data through the use of an {open_quotes}effect set{close_quotes} in addition to the data of actual cases. Extensive simulations of the approach based on an existing psychological data base showed high predictive validity, and a graceful degradation in performance with an increase in the number of unknown predictor variables. Moreover, the method proved amenable to the use of two-parameter logistic curves to arrive at a three way {open_quotes}low,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}high,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}undecided{close_quotes} decision scheme with a-priori known error rates.

  6. Prediction of Protein Structural Class Based on Gapped-Dipeptides and a Recursive Feature Selection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Taigang; Qin, Yufang; Wang, Yongjie; Wang, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    The prior knowledge of protein structural class may offer useful clues on understanding its functionality as well as its tertiary structure. Though various significant efforts have been made to find a fast and effective computational approach to address this problem, it is still a challenging topic in the field of bioinformatics. The position-specific score matrix (PSSM) profile has been shown to provide a useful source of information for improving the prediction performance of protein structural class. However, this information has not been adequately explored. To this end, in this study, we present a feature extraction technique which is based on gapped-dipeptides composition computed directly from PSSM. Then, a careful feature selection technique is performed based on support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE). These optimal features are selected to construct a final predictor. The results of jackknife tests on four working datasets show that our method obtains satisfactory prediction accuracies by extracting features solely based on PSSM and could serve as a very promising tool to predict protein structural class. PMID:26712737

  7. Recursive, in-place algorithm for the hexagonal orthogonal oriented quadrature image pyramid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1989-01-01

    Pyramid image transforms have proven useful in image coding and pattern recognition. The hexagonal orthogonal oriented quadrature image pyramid (HOP), transforms an image into a set of orthogonal, oriented, odd and even bandpass subimages. It operates on a hexagonal input lattice and employs seven kernels, each of which occupies a neighborhood consisting of a point and a hexagon of six nearest neighbors. The kernels consist of one lowpass and six bandpass kernels that are orthogonal, self-similar, and localized in space, spatial frequency, orientation, and phase. The kernels are first applied to the image samples to create the first level of the pyramid, then to the lowpass coefficients to create the next level. The resulting pyramid is a compact, efficient image code. Here, a recursive, in-place algorithm for computation of the HOP transform is described. The transform may be regarded as a depth-first traversal of a tree structure. It is shown that the algorithm requires a number of operations that is on the order of the number of pixels.

  8. A recursive filter for noise reduction in statistical iterative tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Bouman, Charles A.; Sauer, Ken D.; Hsieh, Jiang

    2006-02-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) screening and pediatric imaging, among other applications, demand the development of more efficient reconstruction techniques to diminish radiation dose to the patient. While many methods are proposed to limit or modulate patient exposure to x-ray at scan time, the resulting data is excessively noisy, and generates image artifacts unless properly corrected. Statistical iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques have recently been introduced for reconstruction of low-dose CT data, and rely on the accurate modeling of the distribution of noise in the acquired data. After conversion from detector counts to attenuation measurements, however, noisy data usually deviate from simple Gaussian or Poisson representation, which limits the ability of IR to generate artifact-free images. This paper introduces a recursive filter for IR, which conserves the statistical properties of the measured data while pre-processing attenuation measurements. A basic framework for inclusion of detector electronic noise into the statistical model for IR is also presented. The results are shown to successfully eliminate streaking artifacts in photon-starved situations.

  9. Temporal parameter change of human postural control ability during upright swing using recursive least square method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Akifumi; Ishida, Mizuri; Sagawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to derive quantitative assessment indicators of the human postural control ability. An inverted pendulum is applied to standing human body and is controlled by ankle joint torque according to PD control method in sagittal plane. Torque control parameters (KP: proportional gain, KD: derivative gain) and pole placements of postural control system are estimated with time from inclination angle variation using fixed trace method as recursive least square method. Eight young healthy volunteers are participated in the experiment, in which volunteers are asked to incline forward as far as and as fast as possible 10 times over 10 [s] stationary intervals with their neck joint, hip joint and knee joint fixed, and then return to initial upright posture. The inclination angle is measured by an optical motion capture system. Three conditions are introduced to simulate unstable standing posture; 1) eyes-opened posture for healthy condition, 2) eyes-closed posture for visual impaired and 3) one-legged posture for lower-extremity muscle weakness. The estimated parameters Kp, KD and pole placements are applied to multiple comparison test among all stability conditions. The test results indicate that Kp, KD and real pole reflect effect of lower-extremity muscle weakness and KD also represents effect of visual impairment. It is suggested that the proposed method is valid for quantitative assessment of standing postural control ability.

  10. Temporal parameter change of human postural control ability during upright swing using recursive least square method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Akifumi; Ishida, Mizuri; Sagawa, Koichi

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to derive quantitative assessment indicators of the human postural control ability. An inverted pendulum is applied to standing human body and is controlled by ankle joint torque according to PD control method in sagittal plane. Torque control parameters (KP: proportional gain, KD: derivative gain) and pole placements of postural control system are estimated with time from inclination angle variation using fixed trace method as recursive least square method. Eight young healthy volunteers are participated in the experiment, in which volunteers are asked to incline forward as far as and as fast as possible 10 times over 10 [s] stationary intervals with their neck joint, hip joint and knee joint fixed, and then return to initial upright posture. The inclination angle is measured by an optical motion capture system. Three conditions are introduced to simulate unstable standing posture; 1) eyes-opened posture for healthy condition, 2) eyes-closed posture for visual impaired and 3) one-legged posture for lower-extremity muscle weakness. The estimated parameters Kp, KD and pole placements are applied to multiple comparison test among all stability conditions. The test results indicate that Kp, KD and real pole reflect effect of lower-extremity muscle weakness and KD also represents effect of visual impairment. It is suggested that the proposed method is valid for quantitative assessment of standing postural control ability.

  11. Autonomous self-righting using recursive Bayesian estimation to determine unknown ground angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Jason; Kessens, Chad

    2014-06-01

    As robots are deployed to dynamic, uncertain environments, their ability to discern key aspects of their environment and recover from errors becomes paramount. In particular, tip-over events can potentially end or substantially disrupt mission performance and jeopardize asset recovery. To facilitate recovery from tip-over events (i.e. self-righting), the robot should be able to discern the ground angle on which it lies even when it is not in its preferred upright orientation. In this paper, we present a methodology for determining unknown ground angles using recursive Bayesian estimation. First, we briefly review our previous framework for autonomous self-righting, which we use to generate conformation space maps correlating stable robot configurations and orientations on various ground angles. Using these maps, we compare sensor orientation to predicted orientation for the robot configuration on all mapped ground angles. We then compute the best fit ground angle and assign it a confidence level based on filters such as predicted stability margin and measured rate of orientation change. We compare ground angle prediction error as a function of time using a variety of methods, and show a sensitivity analysis comparing accuracy as a function of the discretization of the ground angle dimension of the conformation space map. Finally, we demonstrate a physical robot's ability to self-right on unknown ground using this methodology.

  12. Recursive pump-adding scheme for optical superchannel multicasting based on FWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Paikun; Li, Juhao; Wu, Zhongying; Chen, Xin; Xu, Yingying; Lin, Bangjiang; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2015-07-01

    Optical superchannel multicasting, whereby a superchannel is replicated simultaneously to multiple spectral locations in a single device, is potentially a promising functionality for future optical networks. Multiple-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) is an effective approach to implement superchannel multicasting. However, if the frequencies of the pumps are not carefully configured, the generated replicas would be spectrally scattered, which would increase the difficulty of controlling replicas' performance and managing spectral resource. In this paper, we propose a recursive pump-adding (RPA) scheme, which makes the replicas more spectrally aggregated than our previous exponentially-growing-spaced (EGS) pump scheme. Such replica aggregation technique can reduce phase mismatching of replicas remote from the original channel, which is beneficial to replicas' performance. RPA scheme also provides an additional option of replica allocation for multicasting. Based on the RPA scheme, we have experimentally demonstrated 1-to-21 superchannel multicasting with 5 pumps. More than 2.3 dB Q-factor margin is achieved across all the replicas compared with the typical 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold. The performance comparison between RPA and EGS pump scheme is also investigated.

  13. Open-Ended Recursive Approach for the Calculation of Multiphoton Absorption Matrix Elements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present an implementation of single residues for response functions to arbitrary order using a recursive approach. Explicit expressions in terms of density-matrix-based response theory for the single residues of the linear, quadratic, cubic, and quartic response functions are also presented. These residues correspond to one-, two-, three- and four-photon transition matrix elements. The newly developed code is used to calculate the one-, two-, three- and four-photon absorption cross sections of para-nitroaniline and para-nitroaminostilbene, making this the first treatment of four-photon absorption in the framework of response theory. We find that the calculated multiphoton absorption cross sections are not very sensitive to the size of the basis set as long as a reasonably large basis set with diffuse functions is used. The choice of exchange–correlation functional, however, significantly affects the calculated cross sections of both charge-transfer transitions and other transitions, in particular, for the larger para-nitroaminostilbene molecule. We therefore recommend the use of a range-separated exchange–correlation functional in combination with the augmented correlation-consistent double-ζ basis set aug-cc-pVDZ for the calculation of multiphoton absorption properties. PMID:25821415

  14. Prediction of Protein Structural Class Based on Gapped-Dipeptides and a Recursive Feature Selection Approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taigang; Qin, Yufang; Wang, Yongjie; Wang, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    The prior knowledge of protein structural class may offer useful clues on understanding its functionality as well as its tertiary structure. Though various significant efforts have been made to find a fast and effective computational approach to address this problem, it is still a challenging topic in the field of bioinformatics. The position-specific score matrix (PSSM) profile has been shown to provide a useful source of information for improving the prediction performance of protein structural class. However, this information has not been adequately explored. To this end, in this study, we present a feature extraction technique which is based on gapped-dipeptides composition computed directly from PSSM. Then, a careful feature selection technique is performed based on support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE). These optimal features are selected to construct a final predictor. The results of jackknife tests on four working datasets show that our method obtains satisfactory prediction accuracies by extracting features solely based on PSSM and could serve as a very promising tool to predict protein structural class. PMID:26712737

  15. ReHypar: A Recursive Hybrid Chunk Partitioning Method Using NAND-Flash Memory SSD

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Soon; Lim, Cheol-Su

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of flash memory, SSD is considered to be the replacement of HDD in the storage market. Although SSD retains several promising characteristics, such as high random I/O performance and nonvolatility, its high expense per capacity is the main obstacle in replacing HDD in all storage solutions. An alternative is to provide a hybrid structure where a small portion of SSD address space is combined with the much larger HDD address space. In such a structure, maximizing the space utilization of SSD in a cost-effective way is extremely important to generate high I/O performance. We developed ReHypar (recursive hybrid chunk partitioning) that enables improving the space utilization of SSD in the hybrid structure. The first objective of ReHypar is to mitigate the fragmentation overhead of SSD address space, by reusing the remaining free space of I/O units as much as possible. Furthermore, ReHypar allows defining several, logical data sections in SSD address space, with each of those sections being configured with the different I/O unit. We integrated ReHypar with ext2 and ext4 and evaluated it using two public benchmarks including IOzone and Postmark. PMID:24987741

  16. Application of a recursive filter to a three-dimensional variational ocean data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye; Yan, Changxiang

    2010-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the Ocean Variational Assimilation System (OVALS), which has been widely used in various applications, an improved OVALS (OVALS2) is developed based on the recursive filter (RF) algorithm. The first advantage of OVALS2 is that memory storage can be substantially reduced in practice because it implicitly computes the background error covariance matrix; the second advantage is that there is no inversion of the background error covariance by preconditioning the control variable. For comparing the effectiveness between OVALS2 and OVALS, a set of experiments was implemented by assimilating expendable bathythermograph (XBT) and ARGO data into the Tropical Pacific circulation model. The results show that the efficiency of OVALS2 is much higher than that of OVALS. The computational time and the computer storage in the assimilation process were reduced by 83% and 77%, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding results produced by the RF are almost as good as those obtained by OVALS. These results prove that OVALS2 is suitable for operational numerical oceanic forecasting.

  17. Magnetic Reconnection: Recursive Current Sheet Collapse Triggered by “Ideal” Tearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco; Rappazzo, Antonio Franco; Pucci, Fulvia

    2015-11-01

    We study, by means of MHD simulations, the onset and evolution of fast reconnection via the “ideal” tearing mode within a collapsing current sheet at high Lundquist numbers (S\\gg {10}4). We first confirm that as the collapse proceeds, fast reconnection is triggered well before a Sweet-Parker-type configuration can form: during the linear stage, plasmoids rapidly grow in a few Alfvén times when the predicted “ideal” tearing threshold S-1/3 is approached from above; after the linear phase of the initial instability, X-points collapse and reform nonlinearly. We show that these give rise to a hierarchy of tearing events repeating faster and faster on current sheets at ever smaller scales, corresponding to the triggering of “ideal” tearing at the renormalized Lundquist number. In resistive MHD, this process should end with the formation of sub-critical (S ≤ 104) Sweet-Parker sheets at microscopic scales. We present a simple model describing the nonlinear recursive evolution that explains the timescale of the disruption of the initial sheet.

  18. Wave propagation across non-linear rock joints based on time-domain recursive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    Studying wave propagation across joints is crucial in geophysics, mining and underground construction. Limited analyses are available for oblique incidence across non-linear joints. In this paper, the time-domain recursive method (TDRM) proposed by Li et al. is extended to analyse wave propagation across a set of non-linear joints. The Barton-Bandis model (B-B model) and the Coulomb-slip model are adopted to describe the non-linear normal and shear properties of the joints, respectively. With the displacement discontinuity model and the time shifting function, the wave propagation equation is established for incident longitudinal-(P-) or transverse-(S-)wave across the joints with arbitrary impinging angles. Comparison between the results from the TDRM and the existing methods is carried out for two specific cases to verify the derived wave propagation equation. The effects of some parameters, such as the incident angle, the joint spacing, the amplitude of incidence and the joint maximum allowable normal closure, on wave propagation are discussed.

  19. Supervised recursive segmentation of volumetric CT images for 3D reconstruction of lung and vessel tree.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanping; Wang, Xue; Dai, Yixiang; Zhang, Pengbo

    2015-12-01

    Three dimensional reconstruction of lung and vessel tree has great significance to 3D observation and quantitative analysis for lung diseases. This paper presents non-sheltered 3D models of lung and vessel tree based on a supervised semi-3D lung tissues segmentation method. A recursive strategy based on geometric active contour is proposed instead of the "coarse-to-fine" framework in existing literature to extract lung tissues from the volumetric CT slices. In this model, the segmentation of the current slice is supervised by the result of the previous one slice due to the slight changes between adjacent slice of lung tissues. Through this mechanism, lung tissues in all the slices are segmented fast and accurately. The serious problems of left and right lungs fusion, caused by partial volume effects, and segmentation of pleural nodules can be settled meanwhile during the semi-3D process. The proposed scheme is evaluated by fifteen scans, from eight healthy participants and seven participants suffering from early-stage lung tumors. The results validate the good performance of the proposed method compared with the "coarse-to-fine" framework. The segmented datasets are utilized to reconstruct the non-sheltered 3D models of lung and vessel tree. PMID:26362225

  20. Recursion-transform method for computing resistance of the complex resistor network with three arbitrary boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    We develop a general recursion-transform (R-T) method for a two-dimensional resistor network with a zero resistor boundary. As applications of the R-T method, we consider a significant example to illuminate the usefulness for calculating resistance of a rectangular m×n resistor network with a null resistor and three arbitrary boundaries, a problem never solved before, since Green's function techniques and Laplacian matrix approaches are invalid in this case. Looking for the exact calculation of the resistance of a binary resistor network is important but difficult in the case of an arbitrary boundary since the boundary is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. In this paper we obtain several general formulas of resistance between any two nodes in a nonregular m×n resistor network in both finite and infinite cases. In particular, 12 special cases are given by reducing one of the general formulas to understand its applications and meanings, and an integral identity is found when we compare the equivalent resistance of two different structures of the same problem in a resistor network. PMID:26066134

  1. The wall signal removal in Doppler ultrasound systems based on recursive PCA.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qian; Wang, Yuanyuan; Fish, Peter; Wang, Weiqi; Cardoso, Jose

    2004-03-01

    In Doppler ultrasound (US) systems, a high-pass filter is usually employed to remove the wall component from the blood flow signal. However, this will lead to the loss of information from the low velocity flow. In this paper, an algorithm based on the principal components analysis (PCA) is proposed, in which singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to extract the main component from the mixed signals. Furthermore, the recursive process is incorporated into the PCA method to improve the performance of wall signal removal. This approach and the traditional high-pass filtering one are, respectively, applied to analyze the computer-simulated in vitro and in vivo Doppler US signals. With the proposed method, the wall signal can be removed while a large portion of low-velocity blood signal remains. Comparison experiments show that this novel approach can satisfy the requirements of Doppler US system and is practicable under a broad range of measurement conditions. Because this algorithm is based on real data, it is currently applied to unidirectional signals. PMID:15063519

  2. Rotorcraft Blade Mode Damping Identification from Random Responses Using a Recursive Maximum Likelihood Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    An on line technique is presented for the identification of rotor blade modal damping and frequency from rotorcraft random response test data. The identification technique is based upon a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm, which is demonstrated to have excellent convergence characteristics in the presence of random measurement noise and random excitation. The RML technique requires virtually no user interaction, provides accurate confidence bands on the parameter estimates, and can be used for continuous monitoring of modal damping during wind tunnel or flight testing. Results are presented from simulation random response data which quantify the identified parameter convergence behavior for various levels of random excitation. The data length required for acceptable parameter accuracy is shown to depend upon the amplitude of random response and the modal damping level. Random response amplitudes of 1.25 degrees to .05 degrees are investigated. The RML technique is applied to hingeless rotor test data. The inplane lag regressing mode is identified at different rotor speeds. The identification from the test data is compared with the simulation results and with other available estimates of frequency and damping.

  3. Lagrangian formulation of stochastic inflation: Langevin equations, one-loop corrections and a proposed recursive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault

    2013-10-01

    We present a new, recursive approach to stochastic inflation which is self-consistent and solves multiple problems that plagued a certain number of previous studies, in particular, in realistic contexts where the background spacetime is taken to be dynamical, where there is more than one field present (especially with a mass hierarchy), or where the role played by backreaction is suspected to be important. We first review the formalism of stochastic inflation as it is usually heuristically presented, that is, deriving the Langevin equations from the field equations of motion, and summarize previous results on the subject. We demonstrate where inconsistent approximations to the Langevin equations are commonly made and show how these can be avoided. This setup shares many similarities with quantum Brownian motion and out-of-equilibrium statistical quantum dynamics. We hence review how path integral techniques can be applied to the stochastic inflationary context. We show that this formalism is consistent with the standard approach. We then develop a natural perturbative expansion and use it to calculate the one-loop corrected Langevin equations.

  4. Recursively partitioned mixture model clustering of DNA methylation data using biologically informed correlation structures

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Devin C.; Christensen, Brock C.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Houseman, E. Andres

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a well-recognized epigenetic mechanism that has been the subject of a growing body of literature typically focused on the identification and study of profiles of DNA methylation and their association with human diseases and exposures. In recent years, a number of unsupervised clustering algorithms, both parametric and non-parametric, have been proposed for clustering large-scale DNA methylation data. However, most of these approaches do not incorporate known biological relationships of measured features, and in some cases, rely on unrealistic assumptions regarding the nature of DNA methylation. Here, we propose a modified version of a recursively partitioned mixture model (RPMM) that integrates information related to the proximity of CpG loci within the genome to inform correlation structures from which subsequent clustering analysis is based. Using simulations and four methylation data sets, we demonstrate that integrating biologically informative correlation structures within RPMM resulted in improved goodness-of-fit, clustering consistency, and the ability to detect biologically meaningful clusters compared to methods which ignore such correlation. Integrating biologically-informed correlation structures to enhance modeling techniques is motivated by the rapid increase in resolution of DNA methylation microarrays and the increasing understanding of the biology of this epigenetic mechanism. PMID:23468465

  5. What contributes to perceived stress in later life? A recursive partitioning approach

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacey B.; Jackson, Brenda R.; Bergeman, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    One possible explanation for the individual differences in outcomes of stress is the diversity of inputs that produce perceptions of being stressed. The current study examines how combinations of contextual features (e.g., social isolation, neighborhood quality, health problems, age discrimination, financial concerns, and recent life events) of later life contribute to overall feelings of stress. Recursive partitioning techniques (regression trees and random forests) were used to examine unique interrelations between predictors of perceived stress in a sample of 282 community-dwelling adults. Trees provided possible examples of equifinality (i.e., subsets of people with similar levels of perceived stress but different predictors) as well as for the identification both of contextual combinations that separated participants with very high and very low perceived stress. Random forest analyses aggregated across many trees based on permuted versions of the data and predictors; loneliness, financial strain, neighborhood strain, ageism, and to some extent life events emerged as important predictors. Interviews with a subsample of participants provided both thick description of the complex relationships identified in the trees, as well as additional risks not appearing in the survey results. Together, the analyses highlight what may be missed when stress is used as a simple unidimensional construct and can guide differential intervention efforts. PMID:21604885

  6. Recursive Bayesian filtering framework for lithium-ion cell state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagade, Piyush; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Gambhire, Priya; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-02-01

    Robust battery management system is critical for a safe and reliable electric vehicle operation. One of the most important functions of the battery management system is to accurately estimate the battery state using minimal on-board instrumentation. This paper presents a recursive Bayesian filtering framework for on-board battery state estimation by assimilating measurables like cell voltage, current and temperature with physics-based reduced order model (ROM) predictions. The paper proposes an improved Particle filtering algorithm for implementation of the framework, and compares its performance against the unscented Kalman filter. Functionality of the proposed framework is demonstrated for a commercial NCA/C cell state estimation at different operating conditions including constant current discharge at room and low temperatures, hybrid power pulse characterization (HPPC) and urban driving schedule (UDDS) protocols. In addition to accurate voltage prediction, the electrochemical nature of ROM enables drawing of physical insights into the cell behavior. Advantages of using electrode concentrations over conventional Coulomb counting for accessible capacity estimation are discussed. In addition to the mean state estimation, the framework also provides estimation of the associated confidence bounds that are used to establish predictive capability of the proposed framework.

  7. Literacity: A multimedia adult literacy package combining NASA technology, recursive ID theory, and authentic instruction theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Jerry; Willis, Dee Anna; Walsh, Clare; Stephens, Elizabeth; Murphy, Timothy; Price, Jerry; Stevens, William; Jackson, Kevin; Villareal, James A.; Way, Bob

    1994-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application under development is LiteraCity, a simulation-based instructional package for adults who do not have functional reading skills. Using fuzzy logic routines and other technologies developed by NASA's Information Systems Directorate and hypermedia sound, graphics, and animation technologies the project attempts to overcome the limited impact of adult literacy assessment and instruction by involving the adult in an interactive simulation of real-life literacy activities. The project uses a recursive instructional development model and authentic instruction theory. This paper describes one component of a project to design, develop, and produce a series of computer-based, multimedia instructional packages. The packages are being developed for use in adult literacy programs, particularly in correctional education centers. They use the concepts of authentic instruction and authentic assessment to guide development. All the packages to be developed are instructional simulations. The first is a simulation of 'finding a friend a job.'

  8. Development of a recursive zero annihilator periodic (ZAP) controller with specific applications in flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Amy M.; Helferty, John J.; Bayard, David S.

    1994-05-01

    When continuous-time systems are discretized in the digital controller design process, it is often the case that unstable discrete-time zeros (i.e., zeros outside the unit circle in the Z- plane) result regardless of whether or not there are unstable zeros in the original continuous- time plant. Such a system is recognized as being nonminimum phase. Unfortunately, many design techniques in adaptive control are dependent upon pole-zero cancellations and stable plant invertibility and, therefore, cannot be utilized when the plant is nonminimum phase. In this research, a matrix parameter recursive least squares adaptation law is developed for the zero annihilator periodic (ZAP) controller first introduced by Bayard and later extended by Jakubowski. This direct adaptive control scheme allows for the construction of an optimal set of matrix controller gains that place the transmission zeros of the system at the origin, alleviating the nonminimum phase condition, and force the system output to track a desired reference signal. Simulations are presented that demonstrate the performance of the adaptive ZAP controller on a 12-state, 2-input, 2-output partial model of one of the Astrex struts, where the model of the particular strut exhibits nonminimum phase characteristics.

  9. New Breast Cancer Recursive Partitioning Analysis Prognostic Index in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Niwinska, Anna; Murawska, Magdalena

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to present a new breast cancer recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) prognostic index for patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases as a guide in clinical decision making. Methods and Materials: A prospectively collected group of 441 consecutive patients with breast cancer and brain metastases treated between the years 2003 and 2009 was assessed. Prognostic factors significant for univariate analysis were included into RPA. Results: Three prognostic classes of a new breast cancer RPA prognostic index were selected. The median survival of patients within prognostic Classes I, II, and III was 29, 9, and 2.4 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Class I included patients with one or two brain metastases, without extracranial disease or with controlled extracranial disease, and with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) of 100. Class III included patients with multiple brain metastases with KPS of {<=}60. Class II included all other cases. Conclusions: The breast cancer RPA prognostic index is an easy and valuable tool for use in clinical practice. It can select patients who require aggressive treatment and those in whom whole-brain radiotherapy or symptomatic therapy is the most reasonable option. An individual approach is required for patients from prognostic Class II.

  10. Born inversion in realistic backgrounds by means of recursive Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, T. J.; Biryulina, M.; Ryzhikov, G.

    The commonly applied methods for seismic inversion are based on some drastic assumptions regarding the known background or macro-velocity model and the data acquisition, that limit their applicability in geologies of realistic complexity or to realistic, noisy and incomplete, data sets. The background is usually assumed smooth, often to such a degree that the wave field can be described by simple ray theory without caustics or multipathing; the data are assumed to be complete and noise-free. Correspondingly, the algorithms for ray-based Green's functions are, until now, mostly developed for smooth media. To be able to image in realistic backgrounds and with realistic data sets, the assumptions have to be weakened. This must be done on two fronts: the imaging formula and the Green's functions. A new, generalized, imaging formula has been developed that takes into account that real data are incomplete, noisy and have a limited frequency band. A new approach for Green's functions allows the backgrounds in the inversion to be non-smooth, and accounts for reflected and transmitted ray fields by organizing the ray tracing recursively. Combined, the two approaches allow a systematical target-oriented inversion, in which upper parts of the Earth model are assumed known and fixed, and the attention is concentrated on important details below. The new imaging formula, together with the realistic Green's functions, has been successfully applied on the imaging of a complicated horst structure from the North sea.

  11. Tracking cerebral blood flow in BOLD fMRI using recursively generated regressors

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yunjie; Frederick, Blaise deB.

    2014-01-01

    BOLD fMRI data is dominated by low frequency signals, many of them of unclear origin. We have recently shown that some portion of the low frequency oscillations found in BOLD fMRI are systemic signals closely related to the blood circulation (Tong, et al., 2013). They are commonly treated as physiological noise in fMRI studies. In the present study, we propose and test a novel data-driven analytical method that uses these systemic low frequency oscillations in the BOLD signal as a tracer to follow cerebral blood flow dynamically. Our findings demonstrate that: (1) systemic oscillations pervade the BOLD signal; (2) the temporal traces evolve as the blood propagates though the brain; and, (3) they can be effectively extracted via a recursive procedure and used to derive the cerebral circulation map. Moreover, this method is independent from functional analyses, and thus allows simultaneous and independent assessment of information about cerebral blood flow to be conducted in parallel with the functional studies. In this study, the method was applied to data from the resting state scans, acquired using a multiband EPI sequence (fMRI scan with much shorter TRs), of 7 healthy participants. Dynamic maps with consistent features resembling cerebral blood circulation were derived, confirming the robustness and repeatability of the method. PMID:24954380

  12. Treatment of dyehouse liquors in a biological sequencing batch reactor with recursive chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Krull, R; Hempel, D C

    2001-01-01

    A new developed sequencing batch process for the purification of residual water containing concentrated azo dye was investigated. Within a treatment cycle the biological anoxic decolorization, followed by an aerobic mineralization of organic metabolites in combination with the biodegradability-achieving partial oxidation with ozone are carried out sequentially. The split flow can be destructively purified to 90% with respect to the parameter DOC. It was decolorized to an extent of 98% and the toxicity measured by the bioluminescence test decreased up to 99%. With an unspecific facultative anaerobic bacterial mixed culture anoxic decolorization of the residual liquor (20 gdye/L) without addition of an external auxiliary substrate was observed. In the first phase of the treatment cycle, the azo dye-molecules are cleft at the azo bond by biochemical reduction which leads to the corresponding sulfonated aromatic amines. In the following aerobic phase the cleft products were mineralized by the same microorganisms in the same reactor. Because of the recalcitrant and respectively toxic character of a part of the remaining metabolites, further aerobic mineralization was initialized by partial oxidation with ozone. The recursive ozonization in a recircled stream with biological post-treatment of the transformed substances led to an increased reaction selectivity and lower consumption of ozone. The results have shown that the chosen sequencing batch reactor with the ozonization bypass is suitable for an effective treatment of high concentrated dyehouse liquors. PMID:11695488

  13. Structural damage diagnosis based on on-line recursive stochastic subspace identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Weng, Jian-Huang; Liu, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Pei-Yang; Huang, Shieh-Kung

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a recursive stochastic subspace identification (RSSI) technique for on-line and almost real-time structural damage diagnosis using output-only measurements. Through RSSI the time-varying natural frequencies of a system can be identified. To reduce the computation time in conducting LQ decomposition in RSSI, the Givens rotation as well as the matrix operation appending a new data set are derived. The relationship between the size of the Hankel matrix and the data length in each shifting moving window is examined so as to extract the time-varying features of the system without loss of generality and to establish on-line and almost real-time system identification. The result from the RSSI technique can also be applied to structural damage diagnosis. Off-line data-driven stochastic subspace identification was used first to establish the system matrix from the measurements of an undamaged (reference) case. Then the RSSI technique incorporating a Kalman estimator is used to extract the dynamic characteristics of the system through continuous monitoring data. The predicted residual error is defined as a damage feature and through the outlier statistics provides an indicator of damage. Verification of the proposed identification algorithm by using the bridge scouring test data and white noise response data of a reinforced concrete frame structure is conducted.

  14. New directions in photonics simulation: Lanczos recursion and finite-difference time-domain

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, R.J.; McLeod, R.R.; Kallman, J.S.; Ratowsky, R.P.; Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    Computational Integrated Photonics (CIP) is the area of computational physics that treats the propagation of light in optical fibers and in integrated optical circuits. The purpose of integrated photonics simulation is to develop the computational tools that will support the design of photonic and optoelectronic integrated devices. CIP has, in general, two thrusts: (1) predictive models of photonic device behavior that can be used reliably to enhance significantly the speed with which designs axe optimized for development applications, and (2) to further our ability to describe the linear and nonlinear processes that occur - and can be exploited - in real photonic devices. Experimental integrated optics has been around for over a decade with much of the work during this period. centered on proof-of-principle devices that could be described using simple analytic and numerical models. Recent advances in material growths, photolithography, and device complexity have conspired to reduce significantly the number of devices that can be designed with simple models and to increase dramatically the interest in CIP. In the area of device design, CIP is viewed as critical to understanding device behavior and to optimization. In the area of propagation physics, CIP is an important tool in the study of nonlinear processes in integrated optical devices and fibers. In this talk I will discuss two of the new directions we have been investigating in CIP: Lanczos recursion and finite-difference time-domain.

  15. Recursive Partitioning Analysis for New Classification of Patients With Esophageal Cancer Treated by Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Motoo; Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya; Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya ; Shitara, Kohei; Kodaira, Takeshi; Kondoh, Chihiro; Takahari, Daisuke; Ura, Takashi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kamata, Minoru; Muro, Kei; Sawada, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    Background: The 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system does not include lymph node size in the guidelines for staging patients with esophageal cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the prognostic impact of the maximum metastatic lymph node diameter (ND) on survival and to develop and validate a new staging system for patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer who were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: Information on 402 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing CRT at two institutions was reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses of data from one institution were used to assess the impact of clinical factors on survival, and recursive partitioning analysis was performed to develop the new staging classification. To assess its clinical utility, the new classification was validated using data from the second institution. Results: By multivariate analysis, gender, T, N, and ND stages were independently and significantly associated with survival (p < 0.05). The resulting new staging classification was based on the T and ND. The four new stages led to good separation of survival curves in both the developmental and validation datasets (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed that lymph node size is a strong independent prognostic factor and that the new staging system, which incorporated lymph node size, provided good prognostic power, and discriminated effectively for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing CRT.

  16. Recursion-transform method for computing resistance of the complex resistor network with three arbitrary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    We develop a general recursion-transform (R-T) method for a two-dimensional resistor network with a zero resistor boundary. As applications of the R-T method, we consider a significant example to illuminate the usefulness for calculating resistance of a rectangular m ×n resistor network with a null resistor and three arbitrary boundaries, a problem never solved before, since Green's function techniques and Laplacian matrix approaches are invalid in this case. Looking for the exact calculation of the resistance of a binary resistor network is important but difficult in the case of an arbitrary boundary since the boundary is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. In this paper we obtain several general formulas of resistance between any two nodes in a nonregular m ×n resistor network in both finite and infinite cases. In particular, 12 special cases are given by reducing one of the general formulas to understand its applications and meanings, and an integral identity is found when we compare the equivalent resistance of two different structures of the same problem in a resistor network.

  17. [Emergency medicine: update 2008].

    PubMed

    Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Rutschmann, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The emergency medicine appears more and more as a transversal discipline, leaning on specific competences regularly updated with evidence-based medicine concepts. This selection of recent articles presents an update on frequent conditions, including the place of neuroimaging for patients with seizures or minor head injuries, the management of acute cocaine intoxications, the diagnosis of aortic dissections, or the management of cardiopulmonary arrest. The primary care physician will find elements of diagnostic or therapeutic strategies. This selection reflects the dynamism of emergency medicine. PMID:19216323

  18. Do we represent intentional action as recursively embedded? The answer must be empirical. A comment on Vicari and Adenzato (2014).

    PubMed

    Martins, Mauricio D; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-12-15

    The relationship between linguistic syntax and action planning is of considerable interest in cognitive science because many researchers suggest that "motor syntax" shares certain key traits with language. In a recent manuscript in this journal, Vicari and Adenzato (henceforth VA) critiqued Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch's 2002 (henceforth HCF's) hypothesis that recursion is language-specific, and that its usage in other domains is parasitic on language resources. VA's main argument is that HCF's hypothesis is falsified by the fact that recursion typifies the structure of intentional action, and recursion in the domain of action is independent of language. Here, we argue that VA's argument is incomplete, and that their formalism can be contrasted with alternative frameworks that are equally consistent with existing data. Therefore their conclusions are premature without further empirical testing and support. In particular, to accept VA's argument it would be necessary to demonstrate both that humans in fact represent self-embedding in the structure of intentional action, and that language is not used to construct these representations. PMID:26497067

  19. Genomics and Health Impact Update

    MedlinePLUS

    ... associated with Lynch syndrome. What's New in the Public Health Genomics Knowledge Base Down Syndrome Tuberculosis Food Safety ... the Genomics & Health Impact Update The Office of Public Health Genomics provides updated and credible information on how ...

  20. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)