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1

Lockport Sewage Lagoon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

Perry, John

1995-01-01

2

Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1975-01-01

3

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

4

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available

1994-06-01

5

Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge: Application to the macroalgae from the Venice lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities of co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with other organic wastes are examined in this paper. Anaerobic co-digestion of macroalgae of the Venice lagoon (A) with SS, in wastewater treatment plants is studied in detail. This approach can contribute to the solution of the final disposal of the 50 000 m3 of macrophytes harvested each season. These are mainly Ulva

F. Cecchi; P. Pavan; J. Mata-Alvarez

1996-01-01

6

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

7

Dynamics of pollution-indicator and heterotrophic bacteria in sewage treatment lagoons.  

PubMed Central

The spatio-temporal dynamics of pollution-indicator bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were studied in the sewage treatment lagoons of an urban wastewater center after 26 months of biweekly sampling at eight stations in these lagoons. Robust statistical methods of time-series analysis were used to study successional steps (through chronological clustering) and rhythmic behavior through time (through contingency periodogram). The aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community showed two types of temporal evolution: in the first four stations, it seems mainly controlled by the nutrient support capacity of the sewage input, whereas in the remaining part of the lagoon, it seems likely that the pollution-indicator bacteria are gradually replaced by other bacterial types that are better adapted to this environment. On the other hand, the pollution-indicator bacteria showed an annual cycle which increased in amplitude at distances further from the wastewater source. The main events in this cycle were produced simultaneously at all stations, indicating control of these bacterial populations by climatic factors, which act through physical and chemical factors, and also through other biological components of this ecosystem (phytoplankton and zooplankton). Finally, we use results from this study to suggest a modified design for a future study program. Images PMID:6497372

Legendre, P; Baleux, B; Troussellier, M

1984-01-01

8

Nitrogen Species in Soil, Sediment, and Ground Water at a Former Sewage-Treatment Wastewater Lagoon: Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for contamination of ground water from remnant sewage sludge in re-graded sediments of a deconstructed sewage-treatment lagoon was evaluated. Ground-water levels were measured in temporary drive-point wells, and ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and other water-quality characteristics. Composite soil and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for organic carbon and nitrogen species. Multiple lines of evidence, including lack of appreciable organic matter in sediments of the former lagoon, agronomic analysis of nitrogen, the sequestration of nitrogen in the developing soils at the former lagoon, and likely occurrence of peat deposits within the aquifer material, suggest that the potential for substantial additions of nitrogen to ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon resulting from remnant sewage sludge not removed from the former lagoon are small. Concentrations of nitrogen species measured in ground-water samples were small and did not exceed the established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for nitrate (10 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of nitrate in ground-water samples were less than the laboratory reporting limit of 0.06 milligram per liter. Seventy to 90 percent of the total nitrogen present in ground water was in the ammonia form with a maximum concentration of 7.67 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of total nitrogen in ground water beneath the site, which is the sum of all forms of nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, ranged from 1.15 to 8.44 milligrams per liter. Thus, even if all forms of nitrogen measured in ground water were converted to nitrate, the combined mass would be less than the maximum contaminant level. Oxidation-reduction conditions in ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon were reducing. Given the abundant supply of ambient organic carbon in the subsurface and in ground water at the former lagoon, any nitrate that may leach from residual sludge and be transported to ground water with recharge is expected to be quickly denitrified or transformed to nitrite and ammonia under the strongly reducing geochemical conditions that are present. Concentrations of organic carbon, the primary constituent of sewage sludge, in sediments of the former sewage lagoon were less than 1 percent, indicating a near absence of organic matter. The amount of total nitrogen present in the sediments at the former sewage lagoon was only about 25 percent of the amount typically present in developed agricultural soils. The lack of substantial carbon and nitrogen in sediments of the former sewage lagoon indicates that surficial sediments of the former lagoon are essentially devoid of residual sewage sludge. The largest concentration of total nitrogen measured in soil samples from the former sewage lagoon (330 milligrams per kilogram) was used to calculate an estimate of the amount of nitrogen that might be leached from residual sewage sludge by recharge. During the first two years following deconstruction of the former sewage lagoon, the concentration of total nitrogen in recharge leachate might exceed 10 milligrams per liter but the recharge leachate would not likely result in substantial increases in the nitrate concentration in ground water to concentrations greater than the drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.

Cox, S.E.; Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

2007-01-01

9

Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014  

SciTech Connect

The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

Alan Giesbrecht

2014-05-01

10

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

US DOE/Nevada Operations Office

1999-06-10

11

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Air port Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

1999-06-10

12

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

D. S. Tobiason

2000-09-01

13

Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. (USGS)

Bobay, K.E.

1988-01-01

14

Distribution of anionic and nonionic surfactants in a sewage-impacted Mediterranean coastal lagoon: Inputs and seasonal variations.  

PubMed

In this work we have monitored the seasonal inputs, occurrence and distribution of the world's most widely used surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs, and alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs) in Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) and its main tributary (El Albujón) for the first time. Concentration of target compounds was determined in both surface waters and sediments after solid phase extraction and pressurized liquid extraction, respectively, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). There were significant differences in surfactant fluxes from El Albujón towards Mar Menor depending on the season and the day of the week, with maximum estimated annual inputs being detected for LAS (406kg) and their metabolites, sulfophenyl carboxylic acids (482kg). Average concentrations of surfactants in the lagoon were between 44 and 1665?g/kg in sediment, and between 0.3 and 63?g/L in water. These levels were significantly higher for samples collected near the shore than for those measured inside the lagoon itself. Overall, the occurrence and distribution of surfactants in the system could be explained due to a combination of different sources (surface and groundwater inputs, treated and untreated wastewater effluents, towns, ports, etc.) and simultaneous in-situ physicochemical and biological processes, with an special emphasis on degradation during warmer months. PMID:25046983

Traverso-Soto, Juan M; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; León, Víctor M

2015-01-15

15

300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

NONE

1995-05-01

16

PERFORMANCE AND UPGRADING OF WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings contain 18 papers discussing and describing the design, operation, performance, and upgrading of lagoon systems. Performance data for facultative and aerated lagoons collected at numerous sites throughout the USA are presented. Design criteria and the applicabilit...

17

Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of hermaphrodite fish in the lagoons of sewage treatment works led us to hypothesize that sewage effluent might contain a substance, or substances, estrogenic to fish. to test this hypothesis, we placed cages containing rainbow trout in the effluent from sewage-treatment works, and one to three weeks later measured the vitellogenin concentration in the plasma of the fish.

C. E. Purdom; P. A. Hardiman; V. V. J. Bye; N. C. Eno; C. R. Tyler; J. P. Sumpter

1994-01-01

18

Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential  

E-print Network

Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential use as sewage conditions of a coastal mangrove lagoon in Venezuela which is completely isolated from the sea, lacking any is to relate some of the effects of disconnection, with the potential use of the mangrove as a sewage pond

Vegas Vlarrúbia, Teresa

19

Moxos' Lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a long-standing debate on the anthropogenic origin of Moxos' lagoons. In the late 1990s, an analysis of the orientation of a comprehensive and statistically significant number of lagoons showed that only human action could explain the peculiarities of their geometry and especially their orientation according to a main axis aligned to an azimuth of 50° and its complementary angle. Besides, the absence of distinctive geographical marks in the horizon strongly suggested an astronomical justification for such peculiar pattern. Thus, the lagoons could have been deliberately orientated in agreement with certain stellar positions which may have marked special moments of the local climatic or economic cycle, a fact which might be confirmed in ethno-historic references.

Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Barba, Josep F.

20

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

1984-01-01

21

Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

O'Brien, W. J.

1978-01-01

22

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

1991-01-01

23

Brazil The Duck Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) which reaches peak production during summer. Sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) can be found in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is restricted to Central America). MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

24

Brazil: Duck Lagoon  

... in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is ...

2013-04-18

25

Estrogenic potential of the Venice, Italy, lagoon waters.  

PubMed

The exposure of the Venice lagoon (Italy) to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) from different sources was investigated. Spatial and time distribution of EDC concentrations were determined in four sampling sessions (December 2001-May 2002) by solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with mass spectrometry detection via electrospray interface (SPE-HPLC-ESI-MS), which allowed identification of natural (estradiol, estrone) and synthetic estrogenic compounds, both steroidal (ethinylestradiol, mestranol) and nonsteroidal (benzophenone, bisphenol-A, nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate carboxylate). No significant differences in the EDC distribution were observed between stations located near selected sources (raw sewage from the historical center of Venice, treated municipal and industrial effluents from sewage treatment plants, and areas undergoing the inflow of rivers). While synthetic nonsteroidal analytes were recorded in the 1 to 1040 ng/L range (average concentration: 34 ng/L), steroidal EDC (estradiol, ethinylestradiol) concentrations were lower (1-125 ng/L; average concentration: 8 ng/L). The estrogenic activity of lagoon waters was estimated in terms of estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ) by applying the estradiol equivalency factors (EEFs). Steroidal EDCs (estradiol, ethinylestradiol) contributed >97% to the total potential estrogenicity of the waters, which accounted for 4 to 172 ng/L (average: 25 ng/L), as total EEQs. These levels are likely to pose adverse effects on the Venice lagoon aquatic organisms. PMID:15352475

Pojana, Giulio; Bonfà, Angela; Busetti, Francesco; Collarin, Anna; Marcomini, Antonio

2004-08-01

26

Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence  

SciTech Connect

Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

27

Dynamic modelling of nitrification in an aerated facultative lagoon.  

PubMed

Faced with the need to improve ammonia removal from lagoon wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated in Quebec, Canada, mechanistic modelling has been proposed as a tool for explaining the seasonal nitrification phenomenon and to evaluate optimization and upgrade scenarios. A lagoon model that includes a modified activated sludge biokinetic model and that assumes completely mixed conditions in the water column and sediments has been applied to simulate 3 years of consecutive effluent data for a lagoon from the Drummondville WWTP. Successful prediction of results from this plant indicates that the seasonal nitrification is determined by temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the water column and washout driven by a well-mixed water column. Results also indicate that sediments contribute to the ammonia load in the lagoon effluent, particularly in spring and early summer. Sensitivity analyses performed with the model indicate that the nitrification period could be prolonged by increasing DO concentrations in the lagoon and that bioaugmentation would be particularly effective in spring and early summer. Limitations of the model are discussed, as well as ways to improve the hydraulic model. PMID:17689585

Houweling, Dwight; Kharoune, Lynda; Escalas, Antoni; Comeau, Yves

2008-01-01

28

A Preliminary Survey of the Nitrogen and Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Fish from the Lagoons of Egypt’s Nile Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data (?15N and ?13C) from four large (63–400 km2), shallow (?1 m) coastal lagoons on Egypt’s Nile Delta. While the lagoons all receive sewage and agricultural drainage, the\\u000a magnitude of loading varies. In this preliminary survey, we document wide variability in the ?15N and ?13C isotope values of major fish groups among these

Autumn Oczkowski; Scott Nixon; Steve Granger; Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed; Mark Altabet; Richard McKinney

2008-01-01

29

Fingerprints of lagoonal life: Migration of the marine flatfish Solea solea assessed by stable isotopes and otolith microchemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commercially important marine flatfish common sole (Solea solea) facultatively uses NW Mediterranean lagoons as nurseries. To assess the imprint left by the lagoonal passage, muscle carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope values of S. solea juveniles caught in Mauguio lagoon in spring (shortly after arrival from the sea) and in autumn (before the return to the sea) were compared with values of juveniles from adjacent coastal marine nurseries. In addition, in the lagoon, sole otolith stable isotope (C and oxygen (O)) and elemental (11 elements) composition in spring and autumn, and the stable isotope composition (C and N) of organic matter sources in autumn, were determined. Overall, our data indicate that a distinct lagoonal signature existed. Specifically, lagoon soles showed a strong enrichment in muscle tissue 15N (>6‰) compared to their coastal relatives, likely linked to sewage inputs (see below), and a depletion in 13C (1-2‰), indicative of higher importance of 13C depleted terrestrial POM in the lagoon compared to coastal nurseries. In addition, over the time spent in the lagoon, sole otolith ?13C and ?18O values and otolith elemental composition changed significantly. Analysis of the lagoon sole foodweb based on C and N isotopes placed sediment particulate organic matter (POM) at the base. Seagrasses, formerly common but in decline in Mauguio lagoon, played a minor role in the detritus cycle. The very strong 15N enrichment of the entire foodweb (+7 to +11‰) compared to little impacted lagoons and coastal areas testified of important human sewage inputs. Regarding the S. solea migration, the analysis of higher turnover and fast growth muscle tissue and metabolically inert and slower growth otoliths indicated that soles arrived at least several weeks prior to capture in spring, and that no migrations took place in summer. In the autumn, the high muscle ?15N value acquired in Mauguio lagoon would be a good marker of recent return to the sea, whereas altered otolith ?18O values and elemental ratios hold promise as long-term markers. The combination of several complementary tracers from muscle and otoliths may present the chance to distinguish between fish from specific lagoons and coastal nurseries in the future.

Dierking, Jan; Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

2012-06-01

30

Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

NONE

1995-03-01

31

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.  

PubMed

Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

2013-02-15

32

Ecosystem metabolism and carbon fluxes of a tidally-dominated coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism and carbon flux in the western sector of the highly dynamic coastal lagoon Ria Formosa (south Portugal) were\\u000a assessed to elucidate the relative importance of the contribution of the main communities, the treated sewage inputs from\\u000a the adjacent city of Faro, and the exchange with the adjacent coastal waters to the ecosystem metabolism. The results depict\\u000a the Ria

Rui Santos; João Silva; Ana Alexandre; Nuria Navarro; Cristina Barrón; Carlos M. Duarte

2004-01-01

33

Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO3 and SiO4 concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters

Alvin Y. T. Ho; Jie Xu; Kedong Yin; Xiangcheng Yuan; Lei He; Yuelu Jiang; Joseph H. W. Lee; Donald M. Anderson; Paul J. Harrison

2008-01-01

34

Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

2003-01-01

35

Benthic foraminifera distribution in a tourist lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a response to anthropogenic impacts.  

PubMed

Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, located in the Rio de Janeiro City, receives several types of polluted discharges. The knowledge of the sediment microfauna correlated with heavy metal and organic matter concentrations could supply important data about the conditions of the lagoon. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage presented larger diversity and more abundant samples in the lagoon entrance than in the inner area. The Ammonia tepida - Elphidium excavatum foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by dwarf, corroded and weak organisms. Agglutinated species were found only near the entrance. Low abundance values and sterility of five samples in the inner area (north/northeast) can be caused by high levels of heavy metals and organic matter. A. tepida shows negative correlation with increasing heavy metals values. PAHs and coprostanol high indexes, and the absence or low presence of microfauna in samples around the lagoon margin confirm illegal flows from gas stations and domestic sewage. PMID:21871637

Vilela, Claudia Gutterres; Batista, Daniele Silva; Baptista Neto, José Antonio; Ghiselli, Renato Olindo

2011-10-01

36

Hydrological heterogeneity, nutrient dynamics and water quality of a non-tidal lentic ecosystem (Lesina Lagoon, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the Lesina coastal lagoon (Italy) in terms of nutrients, phytoplankton and chemical-physical parameters were evaluated, together with their functional relationships with freshwater inputs, in order to identify ecosystem responses to changes in driving forces in a Mediterranean non-tidal lentic environment. Lesina Lagoon is a shallow coastal environment characterised by limited exchange with coastal waters, which favours enrichment of nutrients and organic matter and benthic fluxes within the system. Lagoon-sea exchanges are influenced by human management. There is a steep salinity gradient from East to West. High nitrogen and silica values were found close to freshwater inputs, indicating wastewater discharges and agricultural runoff, especially in winter. Dissolved oxygen was well below saturation (65%) near sewage and runoff inputs in the western part of the lagoon during summer. Classification in accordance with EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is of "poor" or "bad" quality in terms of nitrogen concentrations in the eastern zone during the winter rainy period. In terms of phosphate concentrations, the majority of the stations fall into the "good" category, with only two stations (close to the sewage and runoff inputs) classed as "bad". In both cases, the raw nitrogen levels make the lagoon a P-limited system, especially in the eastern part. There was wide space-time variability in chlorophyll a concentrations, which ranged from 0.25 to 56 ?g l -1. No relationships between chlorophyll a and nutrients were found, suggesting that autotrophic biomass may be controlled by a large number of internal and external forcing factors driving eutrophication processes. Water quality for this type of environment depends heavily on pressure from human activities but also on the management of sewage treatment plants, agricultural practices and the channels connecting the lagoon with the sea.

Roselli, Leonilde; Fabbrocini, Adele; Manzo, Cristina; D'Adamo, Raffaele

2009-10-01

37

The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues  

PubMed Central

Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

2012-01-01

38

The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues.  

PubMed

Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

2012-01-01

39

Swine lagoon biogas utilization system  

SciTech Connect

A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M. [Carroll`s Foods of Va., Inc., Waverly, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

40

The present environmental scenario of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco).  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a multivariate approach (waters, sediments, microfauna) concerning the environmental state of the Nador Lagoon (NE Morocco). The normal water quality parameters (salinity, pH, nutrients) of the dominant marine flows are altered by local fecal water effluents, urban discharges, sewages derived from a water treatment station, and residues originated in a slaughterhouse. The geochemical analyses carried out in surficial sediment samples show very high concentrations of all metals studied near an old iron mine and moderate contents between Nador and its treatment station. Ostracods are good bioindicators of these environmental impacts, with the presence of a highly brackish assemblage in the quieter, more confined areas or the appearance of opportunistic species under hypoxic conditions. In addition, these microcrustaceans are absent in polluted bottom sediments or areas with high hydrodynamic gradients, whereas they decrease in both density and diversity if the subaerial exposure increases. PMID:16624276

Ruiz, F; Abad, M; Olías, M; Galán, E; González, I; Aguilá, E; Hamoumi, N; Pulido, I; Cantano, M

2006-10-01

41

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

42

Evaluation of the anthropogenic influx of metallic pollutants into the Oualidia lagoon, Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies on the impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal water quality have been carried out in the last three decades, focusing mainly on urban expansion and agricultural development in coastal areas. In this study, we assess heavy metal pollution in the superficial and cored sediment of the Oualidia lagoon (Morocco). Superficial and cored sediment samples from the Oualidia lagoon were analyzed for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, Hg and Cd using ICP-MS. Sediments near urban and agricultural areas are commonly contaminated with heavy metals and the concentrations found in surface sediments are significantly higher than those from 50-100 years ago. The concentrations of these elements decrease sharply with depth in the sediment column and the elements are preferentially enriched in the <2 µm-size fraction of the sediment. The enrichment factors (EF) and statistical analyses, demonstrated that heavy metals that might pose a risk (Pb, Cu and Hg) have become largely enriched in the lagoon sediments during the recent period of agricultural intensification. Ni and Cr are the main pollutants originating from urban sewage. Keywords: Coastal land use, heavy metals, sediment pollution, lagoon.

Maanan, Me.; Fattal, P.; Maanan, M.; Ruiz-Fernández, A.-C.; Sahabi, M.

2012-04-01

43

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXISTING LAGOONS, PETERBOROUGH, NEW HAMPSHIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

Although wastewater treatment lagoons are used extensively, little operational data is currently available for evaluating the performance capabilities of lagoons. This report presents data gathered during a one-year period of monitoring the lagoon system at Peterborough, New Hamp...

44

Sewage treatment method  

DOEpatents

The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

1995-01-01

45

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PUBLIC PARTICIPATION INITIATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of public involvement within the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program (IRLNEP) was to develop the public consensus necessary to ensure long-term support for, and implementation of, the Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan (CCMP). Consens...

46

INTRODUCTION The lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Lamel-  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Lamel- libranchia: Cardiidae) is a euryhaline that the main limiting abiotic factor for this cockle was its intolerance to air exposure provoked by tides exposed to tides, currents and waves (Brock 1979). The pelagic larval stage of the lagoon cockle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

THE PALAEARCTIC WADER POPULATION OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pringle, J. S. & Cooper, J. 1975. The Palaearctic wader population of Langebaan Lagoon. Ostrich 46:213-218.Monthly counts of Palaearctic waders were made at high tide in three areas of Langebaan Lagoon, southwestern Cape, during 1973 and 1974. A total of sixteen species was observed. The five commonest species, in order of abundance, were Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Grey Plover Squalarola

J. S. Pringle; J. Cooper

1975-01-01

48

Rare charophytes in Scotland's coastal saline lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently collected data comparing the distribution and performance of the rare lagoonal charophyte Lamprothamnium papulosum across a number of UK coastal lagoon sites, including nine sites in the Western Isles, is presented. The surveys revealed that the species occurred over a wide range of salinities but was absent from sites with high phosphorus concentrations. The sites in the Western Isles

Ainsley Martin; Laurence Carvalho; Alexander J. Downie

2002-01-01

49

TCS Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The original TCS experiment has demonstrated the robust ability to form and sustain FRCs in steady-state using Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF). Radiation levels, which are due in large part to Oxygen, are seen to increase dramatically after the initial formation phase ( ˜0.5 msec), causing a severe drop in the plasma temperature. Since the RMF magnitude and frequency determine the plasma density, as the temperature is limited, so is the FRC's external field and energy confinement time. In order to improve temperatures and flux levels, TCS is being extensively upgraded. All o-ring sealed flanges will be replaced with wire sealed flanges, and heating blankets installed to bake the system to 200 C. Internal flux rings, shielded with Tantalum, will be installed to shield the quartz and stainless steel vacuum wall from the plasma. Unique aspects of this design are related to the interface between the quartz section needed to allow penetration of the RMF from the external antennas and the adjacent stainless steel vacuum chambers. Wall conditioning will include glow discharge, Ti gettering, siliconization, and/or boronization. The total system will be described.

Grossnickle, J. A.; Miller, K. E.

2004-11-01

50

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

51

Residence times in a hypersaline lagoon: Using salinity as a tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally the waters of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal have a short residence time, in the order of 0.5 days (Tett, P., Gilpin, L., Svendsen, H., Erlandsson, C.P., Larsson, U., Kratzer, S., Fouilland, E., Janzen, C., Lee, J., Grenz, C., Newton, A., Ferreira, J.G., Fernandes, T., Scory, S., 2003. Eutrophication and some European waters of restricted exchange. Continental Shelf Research 23, 1635-1671). This estimation is based on the measurements of currents and the modelling of water exchange at the outlets to the ocean. However, observations of the temperature and salinity in the inner channels imply that residence time is greater in these regions of the lagoon. To resolve this apparent contradiction, spatial measurements of the temperature and salinity were made with a meter for conductivity, temperature and depth along the principal channels of the western portion of the lagoon, with a sampling frequency of two per second. Evaporation rates of 5.4 mm day -1 were measured in a salt extraction pond adjacent to the lagoon and used to determine the residence time through salinity differences with the incoming seawater. In June 2004, the water flooding in from the ocean had an average salinity of 36.07 which contrasted with a maximum of 37.82 at mid ebb on a spring tide, corresponding to a residence time of >7 days; the mean residence time was 2.4 days. As the tide flooded into the channels, the existing water was advected back into the lagoon. Although there was a small amount of mixing with water from another inlet, the water body from the inner lagoon essentially remained distinct with respect to temperature and salinity characteristics. The residence time of the water was further prolonged at the junction between the main channels, where distinct boundaries were observed between the different water masses. As the water ebbed out, the shallow Western Channel was essentially isolated from the rest of the outer lagoon, and the water from this channel was forced down the Ramalhete Channel, from where it was unable to exit the lagoon in one tidal cycle due to the extensive path length of ˜14 km to the sea. Although the overall exchange rate of water is short in the outer lagoon, this study emphasizes that management models should take into account additional complexities that might arise from the much longer exchange rates of the inner lagoon. For example, the principal sewage discharge for the urban area of Faro is into the section of the Ramalhete Channel where efficient flushing is impeded by the relatively high residence times of the water body in this channel. The implementation of the techniques used for this study are a quick and relatively cost effective approach to testing assumptions about water quality and exchange in shallow coastal systems.

Mudge, Stephen M.; Icely, John D.; Newton, Alice

2008-04-01

52

Land application of poultry lagoon effluent  

E-print Network

This research studied the effects of three poultry lagoon effluent application rates on two Sol 'I types and two vegetation systems. The purpose of this research was to determine the environmental impacts from the land application of effluent from...

Aldrich, Lance John

1996-01-01

53

How to Love Your LagoonHow to Love Your Lagoon Educate Yourself  

E-print Network

(IRLNEP) is to protect this ecologically significant estuary that is threatened by degradation caused quality of life, the unique nature of this biodiverse estuary and the interconnectedness of the lagoon a boat or a paddleboard and enjoy the most biodiverse estuary in North America! Enjoy Your Lagoon #12

Fernandez, Eduardo

54

The fate of Mediterranean lagoons under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model (SHYFEM) has been applied to 10 Mediterranean lagoons and a comparison study between the lagoons has been carried out. The lagoons are the lagoons of Venice, Marano-Grado, Varano and Lesina in the Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, and the lagoons of Ganzirri and Faro in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain and the Nador lagoon in Morocco. These lagoons give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. The lagoons range from a leaky type of lagoons to a choked type. The number of inlets ranges from just one in the Nador lagoon to 6 in the case of the Marano-Grado lagoons. Tidal range is from nano-tidal to micro-tidal. The depth ranges from an average depth of 1 m to up to 40 meters. The model is a finite element model, especially suited to shallow water basins with complicated geometric and morphologic variations. The model can compute the basic hydrodynamics, dispersion of tracers, temperature and salinity evolution, sediment transport and ecological parameters. Building on an earlier study that focused on the classification of Mediterranean lagoons based on hydrodynamics, exchange rates and renewal time, this study is concerned with the changes in physical parameters under climate change. Data from IPCC has been used to simulate the changes in renewal time, salinity and temperature of all lagoons, with respect to the control simulation. Whenever possible downscaled data for the Mediterranean basin have been used. Sea level rise scenarios are taken from the last IPCC report. The model has been applied in its 3D version and the chosen setup allows a comparison between results in the different lagoons. Results indicate that the differences of renewal time between all studied lagoons become smaller. This means that leaky lagoons become less leaky and choked lagoons less choked. What concerns temperature and salinity, changes occurring in the sea are amplified inside lagoons. All lagoons show an increase of temperature higher than the one found outside in the sea. Salinity changes are also enhanced. This study shows how numerical modeling can be a useful tool to study the hydrodynamic changes forecasted to happen in transitional water bodies like lagoons.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Bellafiore, Debora; Bajo, Marco

2014-05-01

55

Accuracy of lagoon gas emissions using an inverse dispersion method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions. These include those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish ...

56

DECAY OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER LAGOONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estrogenic activity of wastewater held in municipal lagoons was monitored over an ~ three month period, using the MCF-7 cell line in a modified E-screen. One lagoon was emptied and refilled with fresh wastewater effluent over a one month period to reach levels equivalent to a second lagoon that had...

57

PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. ach lagoon was filled with 7.56 m3 of anaerob...

58

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

59

Do human activities affect the picoplankton structure of the Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)?  

PubMed

The spatial variations of the picoplankton (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms) in the Ahe atoll lagoon were studied in May and October 2008 to assess whether they were affected by human activities along the atoll. Spatial patterns were studied using 10 sampling stations chosen according to the location of the anthropogenic activities (pearl farming, harbor). Experiments were also carried out to determine whether bacterial growth, with or without predators, was limited by inorganic (N and P) substrates. The results showed that heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance was superior to the photoautotrophic organisms, especially in May. Significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in May after 24 h incubation with +P and +N (but not in October). All samples complied with the quality levels for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) defined by the European Union and there was no evidence that human sewage had any impact on picoplankton over the whole atoll. PMID:22306310

Bouvy, Marc; Dupuy, Christine; Pagano, Marc; Barani, Aude; Charpy, Loic

2012-01-01

60

Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and environmental managers that eutrophication has had dramatic impacts on the coastal ecosystems, particularly at the Egyptian and Tunisian sites. PMID:21830712

Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

2011-07-01

61

The D0 Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe the approved DO Upgrade detector, and its physics capabilities. The DO Upgrade is under construction and will run during the next Fermilab collider running period in early 1999 (Run II). The upgrade is designed to work at the higher luminosities and shorter bunch spacings expected during this run. The major elements of t he upgrade are: a new tracking system with a silicon tracker, scintillating fiber tracker, a 2T solenoid, and a central preshower detector; new calorimeter electronics; new muon trigger and tracking detectors with new muon system electronics; a forward preshower detector; new trigger electronics and DAQ improvements to handle the higher rates.

Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

1995-07-01

62

Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, ?18O and ?D data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from Malibu Lagoon through the sand berm at the mouth of the Lagoon contributed FIB to the adjacent beach at low tide. Similar increases in FIB concentrations did not occur at beaches adjacent to unsewered residential development, although wastewater indicator compounds and radon-222 (indicative of groundwater discharge) were present. High FIB concentrations at high tide were not related to groundwater discharge, but may be related to FIB associated with debris accumulated along the high-tide line.

Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

2012-01-01

63

Exploring new issues for coastal lagoons monitoring and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are productive and highly vulnerable ecosystems, but their management is still problematic mostly because they constitute transitional interface between terrestrial and marine domains. The "4th European Conference on Coastal Lagoon Research - Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems, South North comparisons", was focused on the scientific research on coastal lagoons and the management for their conservation and sustainable use. Selected contributions were considered in this special issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science "Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems" as they deal with three important aspects for coastal lagoons management: (1) the design of monitoring programmes using biological compartments, (2) the ecosystem functioning and the impacts of perturbations and (3) ecosystem trajectories particularly after ecosystem restoration. Here we introduce the selected papers published in this issue, place these contributions in the perspective of the science-management interface and discuss new issues for coastal lagoon management.

Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; De Wit, Rutger

2012-12-01

64

Anaerobic Pretreatment of Strong Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised by a high concentration of COD tot<\\/sub> with averages higher than 1200 mg\\/l and with a

M. M. Halalsheh

2002-01-01

65

Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger Lagoon. To address this data gap we collected sediment samples during a February 2013 field campaign. One set of sediment samples is from the bottom of the lagoon along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline and another set is from an approximately 1 m depth profile on the lagoon side of the sand berm (depth of the groundwater table at the time of collection). These samples are being analyzed for HgT, MMHg, and total organic carbon (TOC) and will provide a first glimpse into the distribution of mercury species and organic carbon in sediments from the Younger Lagoon Reserve. We will also collect and analyze sediment samples from another lagoon site with comparable watershed characteristics.

Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

2013-12-01

66

Revisiting Methanotrophic Communities in Sewage Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

The methanotrophic potential in sewage treatment sludge was investigated. We detected a diverse aerobic methanotrophic community that potentially plays a significant role in mitigating methane emission in this environment. The results suggest that community structure was determined by conditions specific to the processes in a sewage treatment plant. PMID:23417005

Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter

2013-01-01

67

My Town, My Creek, My Sewage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

Woodburn, John H.

1972-01-01

68

Optics upgrade for switchyard  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

2005-08-01

69

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

70

Spatial and seasonal variation of water quality in an impacted coastal lagoon (Obidos Lagoon, Portugal).  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of silicate, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen in Obidos lagoon was obtained by surveying five sites in eight campaigns, between October 2004 and October 2006. A confined inner branch of the lagoon showed higher availability of ammonium (1.2-81 micromol l(-1)), phosphate (1.9-17 micromol l(-1)), silicate (0.85-86 micromol l(-1)) and chlorophyll a (0.30-18 microg l(-1)) than other sites (0.47-25 micromol l(-1), 0.10-3.9 micromol l(-1), 0.47-25 micromol l(-1), 0.25-11 microg l(-1), respectively). According to several trophic classification tools, that branch is considered eutrophic to polytrophic, emphasising its deteriorated conditions, while the rest of the lagoon is of better quality. In autumn/winter nutrients were inversely correlated to salinity (r > 0.93) reflecting the freshwater inputs enriched in nitrogen and phosphorous compounds to the inner branch. In warmer periods, dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped during the night, and sediments of the branch become an important source of ammonium and phosphate. The low DIN:P ratio (median = 10) obtained in the branch, which suggests an excess of phosphate, that increased in warmer periods and changed the limiting nutrient in the entire lagoon. These results emphasize the spatial heterogeneity of water quality in Obidos lagoon, its seasonal variability, and the importance of recognising these distributions before defining homogenous water body on the scope of Water Framework Directive. PMID:18512123

Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Franco, Vanda; Nogueira, Marta

2009-06-01

71

Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL), which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of different water sources in the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon which is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous groundwater dependent ecosystem.

Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

2014-07-01

72

Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan lagoon (KDL), which is located at the south-west of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet- and dry-season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (> 95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to saltwater intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify highly dynamic and heterogeneous contributions of different water sources in the Köycegiz-Dalyan lagoon.

Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

2014-12-01

73

Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

74

Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti

75

Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.  

PubMed

The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

2013-10-01

76

Distribution and survival of motile Aeromonas spp. in brackish water receiving sewage treatment effluent.  

PubMed Central

The spatiotemporal distributions of Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms in a cove receiving sewage treatment effluent and draining into a brackish lagoon were studied for 34 months with sampling at six stations. A total of 452 strains of Aeromonas spp. were isolated and identified at the outflow of the treatment system and at stations in the cove. Hemolytic activity of 289 Aeromonas strains was determined. The Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliform distributions showed seasonal cycles in the pond effluent. These seasonal bacterial cycles were persistent in effluent, at the discharge point, and in the cove. However, the abundance levels of these bacterial distributions decreased gradually from the coast to the open lagoon. A dilution model showed that the Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliform distributions in the cove water were subject not only to dilution effect but also to other environmental factors, such as salinity. A. sobria is the most common species identified in the Aeromonas population present in the cove water. Survival studies confirmed that Aeromonas spp., especially A. sobria, were more sensitive to saline and/or marine stress than fecal coliforms. Among the Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria strains, 96 and 97%, respectively, produced hemolysin, whereas among the Aeromonas caviae strains, 95% were nonhemolytic. PMID:1768120

Monfort, P; Baleux, B

1991-01-01

77

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

2009-01-01

78

Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project  

SciTech Connect

The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

2014-08-26

79

Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems  

PubMed Central

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

80

DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES  

EPA Science Inventory

A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

81

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

82

Environmental enhancement of swine lagoons through influent treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. Failure of these lagoons during tropical storms in North Carolina along with major public environmental concerns led to a permanent state moratorium of construction of new anaerobic lag...

83

CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

84

EVALUATION OF A TREATMENT LAGOON FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a two year study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 143 MG facultative lagoon for treating combined sewer overflow and polishing secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent. The lagoon performance was evaluated for changes in the deg...

85

Comparing bacteria inside and outside swine lagoon effluent spray fields.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine manure lagoon effluent is a valuable resource in the Mid South US and is applied as fertilizer for hay. Levels of nutrients have been widely studied in lagoon effluent and in fertilized soil and levels of fecal bacteria in effluent, including potential human pathogens, are also known. Less i...

86

A combined wind wavetidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy  

E-print Network

A combined wind wave­tidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy L. Carniello and A. Defina Department March 2005; accepted 1 June 2005; published 27 October 2005. [1] A numerical model that combines wind between waves and tide propagation. The combined wind wave­tidal model is applied to the Venice lagoon

Fagherazzi, Sergio

87

Effect of biodegradation on the consolidation properties of a dewatered municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The effect of biodegradation on the consolidation characteristics of an anaerobically digested, dewatered municipal sewage sludge was studied. Maintained-load oedometer consolidation tests that included measurement of the pore fluid pressure response were conducted on moderately degraded sludge material and saturated bulk samples that had been stored under static conditions and allowed to anaerobically biodegrade further (simulating what would happen in an actual sewage sludge monofill or lagoon condition). Strongly degraded sludge material was produced after a storage period of 13 years at ambient temperatures of 5-15 degrees C, with the total volatile solids reducing from initially 70% to 55%. The sludge materials were highly compressible, although impermeable for practical purposes. Primary consolidation generally occurred very slowly, which was attributed to the microstructure of the solid phase, the composition and viscosity of the pore fluid, ongoing biodegradation and the high organic contents. The coefficient of primary consolidation values decreased from initially about 0.35m2/yr to 0.003-0.03m2/yr with increasing effective stress (sigmav'=3-100kPa). Initially, the strongly degraded sludge material was slightly more permeable, although both the moderately and strongly degraded materials became impermeable for practical purposes (k=10(-9)-10(-12)m/s) below about 650% and 450% water contents, respectively. Secondary compression became more dominant with increasing effective stress with a mean secondary compression index (Calphae) value of 0.9 measured for both the moderately and strongly degraded materials. PMID:17936608

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2008-01-01

88

CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

89

Feed upgrade for autotracking capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author summarizes the feed upgrade performed on the 10-m antenna system originally built by Datron Systems in the mid-1970s. The upgrade added the autotracking capability to the existing feed. The upgrade maintained the simultaneous transmit and receive capability of the feed used in an S-band satellite ground station antenna. The key upgrade component of the feed is the tracking

G. Seck

1989-01-01

90

A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

Connop, Peter J.

1983-01-01

91

The BES upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) detector is a general purpose solenoid detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) in Beijing, China, that has collected large numbers of J\\/?, ??, Ds, D and ? events. In this paper, we describe the recent upgrade of the initial BES detector (BESI) to the improved BESII detector.

J. Z. Bai; H. C. Bao; I. Blum; Z. W. Chai; G. P. Chen; H. F. Chen; J. Chen; Y. Chen; Y. Q. Chen; B. S. Cheng; X. M. Chu; X. Z. Cui; H. L. Ding; W. Y. Ding; L. Y. Dong; Y. Y. Du; Z. Z. Du; W. Dunwoodie; J. Fang; W. Z. Fang; C. S. Gao; M. L. Gao; S. Q. Gao; P. Gratton; J. H. Gu; S. D. Gu; W. X. Gu; Y. N. Guo; H. G. Han; S. W. Han; F. A. Harris; Y. Han; J. He; M. He; Y. K. Heng; D. G. Hitlin; G. Y. Hu; H. B. Hu; H. M. Hu; J. L. Hu; Q. H. Hu; T. Hu; X. Q. Hu; G. S. Huang; J. D. Huang; Y. Z. Huang; J. M. Izen; C. H. Jiang; Y. Y. Jiang; Y. Jin; B. D. Jones; X. Ju; Z. J. Ke; M. H. Kelsey; B. K. Kim; D. Kong; Y. F. Lai; P. F. Lang; A. Lankford; C. G. Li; F. Li; H. B. Li; J. Li; P. Q. Li; Q. Li; R. B. Li; W. Li; W. G. Li; X. H. Li; X. N. Li; H. M. Liu; J. Liu; Jun Liu; Q. Liu; R. G. Liu; Y. Liu; Z. X. Liu; J. S. Lou; X. C. Lou; B. Lowery; H. Y. Lu; J. G. Lu; H. Luo; S. Q. Luo; X. L. Luo; E. C. Ma; J. M. Ma; R. Malchow; M. Mandelkern; H. S. Mao; Z. P. Mao; X. C. Meng; X. H. Mo; L. G. Mu; H. L. Ni; J. Nie; S. L. Olsen; J. Oyang; D. Paluselli; L. J. Pan; J. Panetta; F. Porter; N. D. Qi; X. R. Qi; C. D. Qian; J. F. Qiu; Y. H. Qu; Y. K. Que; G. Rong; M. Schernau; B. Schmid; J. Schultz; Y. Y. Shao; B. W. Shen; D. L. Shen; H. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; H. Z. Shi; X. F. Song; J. Standifird; D. Stoker; F. Sun; H. S. Sun; S. J. Sun; Y. Sun; Y. P. Tan; S. Q. Tang; W. Toki; G. L. Tong; G. S. Varner; Z. R. Wan; F. Wang; J. F. Wang; L. Wang; L. Z. Wang; Meng Wang; P. Wang; S. M. Wang; T. J. Wang; Y. Y. Wang; M. Weaver; C. L. Wei; D. M. Xi; X. M. Xia; X. Xiao; P. P. Xie; Q. Xie; Y. Xie; W. J. Xiong; C. C. Xu; Z. Q. Xu; S. T. Xu; J. Yan; W. G. Yan; B. Yang; C. M. Yang; C. S. Yang; C. Y. Yang; D. J. Yang; G. A. Yang; H. X. Yang; J. Yang; X. F. Yang; W. Yang; W. L. Yao; M. H. Ye; C. S. Yu; C. X. Yu; Y. H. Yu; Z. Q. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; Y. Yuan; B. Y. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; Dehong Zhan; H. L. Zhang; J. Zhang; Lin. Zhang; L. Zhang; P. Zhang; Q. J. Zhang; S. Q. Zhang; Y. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; H. W. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; M. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; J. P. Zheng; L. S. Zheng; S. C. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; C. C. Zhong; B. Q. Zhou; G. P. Zho; H. S. Zhou; L. Zhou; X. F. Zhou; K. J. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang

2001-01-01

92

Building refurbishment: habitat upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building refurbishment is often considered as a technical matter that concerns technical experts and engineers. However, every refurbishment operation modifies the human living environment. A narrow technical or financial vision can deteriorate people's living environment, while a global approach can upgrade it to current comfort standards, ecological requirements, and optimal energy performance. EPIQR is a decision tool combining financial, technical,

J.-L Genre; F Flourentzos; T Stockli

2000-01-01

93

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOEpatents

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1999-01-12

94

ISIS upgrades David Findlay  

E-print Network

ISIS upgrades David Findlay Head, Accelerator Division ISIS Department Rutherford Appleton Laboratory / STFC Proton Accelerators for Science and Innovation, 12­14 January 2012, FNAL #12;2 ISIS World for research in the physical and life sciences National and international community of >2000 scientists -- ISIS

McDonald, Kirk

95

Tevatron detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

96

Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

Musante, Susan

2011-01-01

97

The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

2006-01-01

98

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOEpatents

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1999-01-12

99

Smithsoniarhynches, a new genus of interstitial Gnathorhynchidae (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia) from Mosquito Lagoon and Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus of marine, interstitial schizorhynch (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia) is described from sediment collected in Mosquito Lagoon and Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Smithsoniarhynches is char- acterized by the presence of proboscis hooks constructed of ten individual spine-like teeth that emerge separately from a basal plate. Histology and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to reveal addi- tional details of

Rick Hochberg

2004-01-01

100

Trophic functioning and nutrient flux in a highly productive tropical lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiku Lagoon is a highly productive tropical lagoon with high fishery yields. Trophic networks and stoichiometrically linked water-salt-nutrient budgets were constructed to relate the functioning of the food web to nonconservative behavior of nutrients in the lagoon. Network analysis showed that the lagoon is more dependent on phytoplankton than detritus and periphyton to generate food sources for consumers. Nevertheless, detritivory

Hsing-Juh Lin; Jia-Jang Hung; Kwang-Tsao Shao; Fancy Kuo

2001-01-01

101

Fisheries in coastal lagoons: An assumed but poorly researched aspect of the ecology and functioning of coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are considered to be among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Many of them support important fisheries, and some of them maintain intensive and extensive aquacultural exploitations. Their particular features, such as shallowness, relative isolation and protection from the sea, and the presence of boundaries with strong physical and ecological gradients help explain this high productivity. Despite the fact that coastal lagoons are among the most studied ecosystems in the world, our knowledge on fisheries in coastal lagoons or why some lagoons capable of maintaining profitable fisheries seem inadequate for intensive aquaculture remains limited. Scarce, too, is our knowledge of the characteristics of target species, their exploitation status, and the ecological processes that are affected by fisheries or that influence them, including the impact of human activities or climatic change. Here, we review present day knowledge on lagoon fisheries and analyse gaps in the science, stressing the need for adequate management of these important resources.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción

2012-09-01

102

Monitoring organic contaminants in small French coastal lagoons: comparison of levels in mussel, passive sampler and sediment.  

PubMed

In this study, the distribution of organic contaminants was investigated in the particular context of three Mediterranean coastal lagoons, where pollution input was hypothesised to come mainly from sediments resuspension. Mussels and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were exposed to the water column for one month and then their content in estrogen-, benzo[a]pyrene- and dioxin-like substances as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls and alkylphenols was determined with biological and chemical analyses. PAH concentration was high in sediments (up to 1028 ng g(-1) dry weight), however the aqueous PAH concentrations estimated from SPMD data could be considered below the levels inducing adverse effects according to the environmental quality standards proposed by the Water Framework Directive. Dioxin-like activity was observed in sediments but not in mussels and SPMDs. In the two sewage-impacted lagoons, nonylphenols could be quantified in sediments, SPMDs and mussels. Nonylphenol concentrations in mussels were among the highest found in the literature. However, since nonylphenols contributed only to a small part of the estrogenic activities observed, natural or synthetic steroids originating from wastewater discharges could be also implicated in these responses in sediments. PMID:20523919

David, Arthur; Gomez, Elena; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Bachelot, Morgane; Rosain, David; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène

2010-07-01

103

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

104

The Ultimate Upgrade Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers, as everyone knows, seems to get cheaper every day. Many users find that they can now buy twice the computer for half the money they spent a few years ago. A brand new computer, however, may not be the only answer for users wishing for better performance or simply a level playing field, as prices for computer components have kept pace with whole computers. This new report from PC Magazine Online is designed to help users decide if and how to upgrade their present hardware to get a few more years out of their original investment. The report is composed of three main sections (Core Components, Multimedia, and Internet and I/O Connections), each of which analyzes the merits and prices of various upgrades, and offers tips and instructions for installation.

105

Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.  

PubMed

Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

2013-07-01

106

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over the next 2 decades.

Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

2014-05-01

107

MEG Upgrade Proposal  

E-print Network

We propose the continuation of the MEG experiment to search for the charged lepton flavour violating decay (cLFV) \\mu \\to e \\gamma, based on an upgrade of the experiment, which aims for a sensitivity enhancement of one order of magnitude compared to the final MEG result, down to the $6 \\times 10^{-14}$ level. The key features of this new MEG upgrade are an increased rate capability of all detectors to enable running at the intensity frontier and improved energy, angular and timing resolutions, for both the positron and photon arms of the detector. On the positron-side a new low-mass, single volume, high granularity tracker is envisaged, in combination with a new highly segmented, fast timing counter array, to track positron from a thinner stopping target. The photon-arm, with the largest liquid xenon (LXe) detector in the world, totalling 900 l, will also be improved by increasing the granularity at the incident face, by replacing the current photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a larger number of smaller photosensors and optimizing the photosensor layout also on the lateral faces. A new DAQ scheme involving the implementation of a new combined readout board capable of integrating the diverse functions of digitization, trigger capability and splitter functionality into one condensed unit, is also under development. We describe here the status of the MEG experiment, the scientific merits of the upgrade and the experimental methods we plan to use.

A. M. Baldini; F. Cei; C. Cerri; S. Dussoni; L. Galli; M. Grassi; D. Nicolò; F. Raffaelli; F. Sergiampietri; G. Signorelli; F. Tenchini; D. Bagliani; M. De Gerone; F. Gatti; E. Baracchini; Y. Fujii; T. Iwamoto; D. Kaneko; T. Mori; M. Nishimura; W. Ootani; R. Sawada; Y. Uchiyama; G. Boca; P. W. Cattaneo; A. de Bari; R. Nardò; M. Rossella; M. Cascella; F. Grancagnolo; A. L'Erario; A. Maffezzoli; A. Miccoli; G. Onorato; G. Palamà; M. Panareo; A. Pepino; S. Rella; G. F. Tassielli; G. Zavarise; G. Cavoto; A. Graziosi; G. Piredda; E. Ripiccini; C. Voena; D. N. Grigoriev; F. Ignatov; B. I. Khazin; A. Popov; Yu. V. Yudin; T. Haruyama; S. Mihara; H. Nishiguchi; A. Yamamoto; M. Hildebrandt; P. -R. Kettle; A. Papa; F. Renga; S. Ritt; A. Stoykov; T. I. Kang; G. Lim; W. Molzon; Z. You; N. Khomutov; A. Korenchenko; N. Kravchuk; N. Kuchinksy

2013-01-30

108

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01

109

The occurrence and ecological risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants, and in natural seawater from a marine reserve of Hong Kong.  

PubMed

We determined the concentrations of 12 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in sewage effluents collected from three different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong, and found 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were the most abundant EDCs. Effluent concentrations of NP and BPA were higher in dry season than in wet season, but opposite seasonal changes of NP were observed in receiving waters, probably due to the surface runoff. The two secondary STPs showed higher removal efficiency for these compounds than the preliminary STP, while having higher removal efficiency in wet season. Therefore, it is necessary to upgrade the preliminary STP and improve the EDC removal efficiency in dry season. Seawaters from the Cape D' Aguilar Marine Reserve adjacent to these STPs also exhibited elevated NP levels with a hazard quotient >1. Furthermore, diluted effluents from the STPs elicited significant transcriptional responses of EDC-related genes in the marine medaka fish. PMID:24650541

Xu, Elvis G B; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zheng, Gene J S; Lee, Joseph H W; Leung, Kenneth M Y

2014-08-30

110

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

111

White pelicans swim in the lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White pelicans search for a meal in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The habitat of white pelicans are marshy lakes along the Pacific and Texas coasts, wintering chiefly in coastal lagoons such as this one. They often capture fish cooperatively, forming a long line, beating their wings and driving the prey into shallow water. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

1999-01-01

112

ELECTROFLOTATION OF DAIRY MANURE LAGOON WATER: CHEMICAL & MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lagoons are important tools for manure management in dairy and livestock operations but are potential sources of transmission of human or animal pathogens and present potential environmental hazards from release of nitrogen and phosphorus. Electroflotation technology utilizes electrolytic gas genera...

113

Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron-reducing bacteria seemed to contribute to methylation and Hg-resistant bacteria increased in importance in the reductive demethylation of MeHg. The high rates of MeHg demethylation in lagoon sediments may diminish the accumulation of MeHg.

Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

2012-11-01

114

Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

2012-12-01

115

Identifying the Source of Nutrient Contamination in a Lagoon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations within watercourses are often associated with the input of sewage or the runoff of fertilizers. Due to population increases, there has been a dramatic rise in the amount of fertilizer applied to land, as well as in the further development of sewage treatment plants (STPs), both of which can lead to significant discharges with associated eutrophication risks in

D. Wayland; D. P. Megson; S. M. Mudge; J. D. Icely; A. Newton

2008-01-01

116

Relative sea level rise and Venice lagoon wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past century, the Venice lagoon has experienced a high rate of wetland loss and a strong net export of sediments;\\u000a currently the local Authority is running several projects for beneficial use of dredging materials. From March 1993 until\\u000a March 1995 the accretionary response of wetlands in the lagoon to changing water levels was studied. Vertical accretion, short\\u000a term

J. W. Day; D. Are; G. Cecconi

1998-01-01

117

Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow.  

PubMed

Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. PMID:24270089

McGowan, D R; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J; Crawley, M T

2014-03-01

118

Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

1981-01-01

119

Diagnostic upgrades on MTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MTX experiment diagnostic capabilities have been recently upgraded with the addition of five new diagnostics. A second beamline was added on the existing Michelson ECE waveguide to accommodate the new polychromator. This provides four orders of magnitude higher time resolution (1-2 microsec) than the Michelson with an improved spectral resolution (5 GHz) using up to nine separate channels. A new four-channel ECE microwave receiver system using both an inside and outside hom placed on the inner tokamak wall allows us to measure the hot electron emission generated from gyrotron and FEL heating. A 15-channel interferometer on MTX has recently been upgraded with the addition of polarimetry to provide measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. This upgrade uses a new technique that determines the Faraday rotation by measuring the phase of a rapidly rotating polarization ellipse. The novel high-speed rotating optics (greater than 60 K rpm) used to produce this state of polarization is reviewed. A new two-channel O-mode reflectometer spanning 75-105 GHz is being added to measure the movements of the cutoff layer. By varying the frequency of this diagnostic, we are able to measure fluctuations deep within the plasma. Finally, a new particle probe diagnostic currently under construction will measure the FEL electric field strength inside the tokamak plasma. Here, we will inject a helium neutral beam into the center of the plasma and excite it with a high power excimer laser, thus, producing a Stark effect emission that is dependent on the FEL electric field strength.

Nilson, D.; Casper, T.; Foote, J.; Lasnier, C.; Lopez, P.; Rice, B.; Stever, R.; Hoshino, K.; Odajima, K.; Oda, T.

1991-09-01

120

The Bevalac Upgrade Project  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact.

Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.; Frias, R.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.R.; Hunt, D.B.; Krebs, G.F.; Krupnick, J.T.; Lewis, S.A.

1987-03-01

121

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08

122

Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

2013-05-01

123

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................................3 2.2.3 Fabrication Project Cost#12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record by OFES B 4/5/10 PPEP Cost and schedule range & comments by SC-OPA C 6/10/2010 Final PEP Draft D 7

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

124

NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................................3 2.2.3 Fabrication Project Cost#12;#12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record by OFES B 4/5/10 PPEP Cost and schedule range & comments by SC-OPA C 6/10/2010 Final PEP Draft D 7

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

125

MEG Upgrade Proposal  

E-print Network

We propose the continuation of the MEG experiment to search for the charged lepton flavor violating decay (cLFV) \\mu \\to e \\gamma, based on an upgrade of the experiment, which aims for a sensitivity enhancement of one order of magnitude compared to the final MEG result, down to a $6 \\times 10^{-14}$ level. The key features of this new MEG upgrade is an increased rate capability of all detectors to enable running at the intensity frontier, while also improving the energy, angular and timing resolutions, for both the positron and photon arms of the detector. On the positron-side a new low-mass, single volume, high granularity tracker is envisaged, in combination with a new highly segmented, fast timing counter array, to track positron from a thinner stopping target. The photon-arm, with the largest liquid xenon (LXe) detector in the world, totalling 900 l, will also be improved by increasing the granularity at the incident face, by replacing the current photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a larger number of small...

Baldini, A M; Cerri, C; Dussoni, S; Galli, L; Grassi, M; Nicolò, D; Raffaelli, F; Sergiampietri, F; Signorelli, G; Tenchini, F; Bagliani, D; De Gerone, M; Gatti, F; Baracchini, E; Fujii, Y; Iwamoto, T; Kaneko, D; Mori, T; Nishimura, M; Ootani, W; Sawada, R; Uchiyama, Y; Boca, G; Cattaneo, P W; de Bari, A; Nardò, R; Rossella, M; Cascella, M; Grancagnolo, F; L'Erario, A; Maffezzoli, A; Miccoli, A; Onorato, G; Palamà, G; Panareo, M; Pepino, A; Rella, S; Tassielli, G F; Zavarise, G; Cavoto, G; Graziosi, A; Piredda, G; Ripiccini, E; Voena, C; Grigoriev, D N; Ignatov, F; Khazin, B I; Popov, A; Yudin, Yu V; Haruyama, T; Mihara, S; Nishiguchi, H; Yamamoto, A; Hildebrandt, M; Kettle, P -R; Papa, A; Renga, F; Ritt, S; Stoykov, A; Kang, T I; Lim, G; Molzon, W; You, Z; Khomutov, N; Korenchenko, A; Kravchuk, N; Kuchinksy, N

2013-01-01

126

Energy Efficiency Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

Roby Williams

2012-03-29

127

Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

Petrik, Milivoj

1954-01-01

128

In-situ caustic generation from sewage: the impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.  

PubMed

Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. PMID:23938119

Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

2013-10-01

129

On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives  

E-print Network

-site Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Options, VCE publication 448-403, and Individual Homeowner & SmallOn-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives C. Zipper,Extension specialist and associate professor, especially where current waste- water treatment is inadequate. This work is intended to provide information

Liskiewicz, Maciej

130

VALORATION ADDITION DRY SLUDGE SEWAGE IN CONCRETE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great amount of dry sewage sludge that is generated and the need to stabilize, solidify and, whenever possible, reuse it has led us to attempt the application of new approaches to its treatment. The search for recycling alternatives for this dry sludge has given rise to the possibility of their use addition in concrete with Portland cement. Portland cement

A. Yagüe; S. Valls; E. Vázquez

131

COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

132

Energy minimization at Metro Denver Sewage District  

SciTech Connect

The Metro Denver Sewage District energy minimization includes adjustment of treatment operations to maximize use of high purity oxygen treatment with 31 percent reduction in electric power and replacement of sludge incineration with land disposal at 23 percent energy reduction. Future sludge utilization as fertilizer and minor energy reduction efforts in areas of illumination, heating and employee transportation offer additional benefits.

Korbitz, W.E.

1980-01-01

133

ACTINOMYCETES OF SEWAGE-TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In some activated sludge sewage treatment plants a thick foam rich in Nocardia may be formed at the surface of the secondary aeration and settling tanks. It had previously been observed that the supernatant from anaerobic digesters contained suspended solids which were toxic for ...

134

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30

135

Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol in anaerobic sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in municipal sewage sludge by a chlorophenols (CPs)-adapted consortium was investigated. Results of a batch experiment showed no significant differences in PCP dechlorination following treatment with inoculum at densities ranging from 10% to 50%, but a significant delay following treatment with inoculum at 5% density. Results also show that the higher the PCP concentration, the slower

Bea-Ven Chang; Chen-Wei Chiang; Shaw-Ying Yuan

1998-01-01

136

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

137

Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the heavy metal pollution level of tannery effluent-affected lagoon and canal water in the southwestern Dhaka, Bangladesh. The measured physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, pH, SO²??, PO³??, Cl-, and NO??) and metals (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were subjected to principal component (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses, and examining correlation matrix as well in order to explain the behavior and sources of the parameters/metals. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the lagoon and canal water were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the standard limits recommended by the Bangladesh Government. The following elemental associations were obtained from PCA and CA: Ca-Cd-Cr-Fe-K-Mn-Pb-Zn, Co-Cu-Ni, and As, which could be linked to anthropogenic sources (i.e., processes of the tannery and paint industries with some contributions from the municipal waste system). Potassium, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Cd occurred as important anthropogenic markers in the lagoons and lower part of the canal. Copper, Co, and Ni were importantly distributed in the lower part of the canal, which also received metal inputs from the municipal waste and other industrial sources, including paint industry. GIS-based factor score maps, generated to show the spatial controls of the major processes affecting surface water hydrochemistry, suggest that the activities of paint and tannery industries and municipal sewage are pervasive processes in the area, whereas the contribution from pesticides (used for tanning and disinfecting hides) has localized effects. This study has provided the evidence that effluents discharged from the tannery and auxiliary industries and urban sewage system are the main sources of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon and canal water systems in the Hazaribagh area of southwestern Dhaka. The high mean concentrations (in mg/l) of Cr (5.27), Pb (0.81), As (0.59), and Cd (0.13) observed in the water samples may have serious public health and potential environmental hazard implications. PMID:20544274

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Suruvi, Nahid I; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Quraishi, Shamshad B; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

2011-04-01

138

Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

2014-04-01

139

Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass can be converted into useful bio-fuels and bio-chemicals via biomass upgrading and biorefinery technologies. Biomass upgrading processes include fractionation, liquefaction, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, fermentation, and gasification. The benefits of an integrated biorefinery are numerous because of the diversification in feedstocks and products. There are currently several different levels of integration in biorefineries, which adds to their sustainability, both economically and

A. Demirbas

2010-01-01

140

TMX upgrade experimental operating plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the operating plan for the TMX Upgrade experiment. This plan covers the period from November 1981 to March 1983 and describes how the TMX will be brought into operation, our schedules and milestones, and how we will determine if the TMX Upgrade program milestones have been met.

Coensgen, F.H.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

1981-07-01

141

The LHCb Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment is a high-precision spectrometer searching for New Physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b- and c-quark sector. The quality of the results obtained from the data collected during the first Run of the LHC has demonstrated the excellent performance and the robustness of the detector. In order to significantly increase the statistical precision on theoretically clean observables in the heavy flavor sector, the level of collected data by the LHCb detector must be increased much beyond 1 fb?1 per year. Therefore, it is planned to upgrade the detector, which will allow a 40 MHz readout with a much more flexible software-based triggering system and redesigned sub-detectors.

Akar, S.; Lhcb Collaboration

2014-11-01

142

Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.  

PubMed

Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide. PMID:23109583

Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

2012-01-01

143

Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Human sewage pollution is a major threat to public health because sewage always comes with pathogens. Human sewage is usually received and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to control pathogenic risks and ameliorate environmental health. However, untreated sewage that flows into water environments may cause serious waterborne diseases, as reported in India and Bangladesh. To examine the fate of the human sewage microbiome in a local municipal WWTP of Hong Kong, we used massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to systematically profile microbial communities in samples from three sections (i.e., influent, activated sludge, and effluent) obtained monthly throughout 1 year. The results indicated that: (1) influent sewage bacterial profile reflected the human microbiome; (2) human gut bacterial community was the dominant force shaping influent sewage bacterial profile; (3) most human sewage bacteria could be effectively removed by the WWTP; (4) a total of 75 genera were profiled as potentially pathogenic bacteria, most of which were still present in the effluent although at a very low level; (5) a grouped pattern of bacterial community was observed among the same section samples but a dispersed pattern was found among the different section samples; and (6) activated sludge was less affected by the influent sewage bacteria, but it showed a significant impact on the effluent bacteria. All of these findings provide novel insights toward a mechanistic understanding of the fate of human sewage microbiome in the WWTP. PMID:24305737

Cai, Lin; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

2014-04-01

144

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

1997-01-01

145

Modeling hydrodynamics in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional depth-averaged model for tide propagation is used to determine the respective impact of several forcings on water mass circulation in the Ebrié lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). This lagoon is connected to the Atlantic through a narrow artificial channel and supplied with freshwater by a major river. A real tide is imposed at the seaward boundary through the main harmonic components. Tides propagate from the mouth of the channel. The tidal amplitude decreases with distance from the sea connection while the shallow water depth deforms the tidal wave. A large asymmetry in water circulation shows up throughout the lagoon: very limited to the western part of the lagoon, correlated with the freshwater discharge in the eastern part, fully tide-controlled in the central part. The trade winds (south-west direction) have been verified as an important driving force, acting in the whole lagoon and generating a set-up of the tide amplitude in the area of Abidjan harbour.

Brenon, I.; Mondé, S.; Pouvreau, N.; Maurin, J. C.

2004-06-01

146

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California  

E-print Network

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California ACRES: 28.3 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSORS: City of Long Beach Friends of Colorado Lagoon PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Colorado Lagoon is a 28 of visitors from communities within and surrounding the City of Long Beach, California. There are over 700

US Army Corps of Engineers

147

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution  

E-print Network

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution by Steve Ress UNL Water livestock waste lagoons may not be significant contributors to groundwater pollution. "This is particularly of groundwater pollution from livestock waste lagoons, Spalding said. Samples also were analyzed for nitrogen

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

148

Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons  

E-print Network

Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons Emmanuel Charles-Dominique ABSTRACT: Catch efficiencies of two commonly used fishing gears. in Ivory Coast lagoons, purse seine fisheries are well developed in Ivory Coast lagoons, yielding from 10,000 to 20,000 tons of commercially

149

Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957–1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected

Stefano Covelli; Andrea Emili; Alessandro Acquavita; Neza Koron; Jadran Faganeli

2011-01-01

150

Benthic Respiration and Inorganic Nutrient Fluxes in the Estuarine Region of Patos Lagoon (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ benthic flux chamber experiments were performed during late austral spring and early summer of 1996 at eleven nearshore locations in the southern Patos Lagoon, Brazil. The Patos Lagoon is the largest lagoonal system in South America and is a very important nursery ground for local fin fish and shell fish fisheries. These are the first benthic flux measurements

L. F. NIENCHESKI; R. A. JAHNKE

2002-01-01

151

Lagoon of Venice ecosystem: Seasonal dynamics and environmental guidance with uncertainty analyses and error subspace  

E-print Network

Lagoon of Venice ecosystem: Seasonal dynamics and environmental guidance with uncertainty analyses the seasonal ecosystem dynamics of the Lagoon of Venice and provide guidance on the monitoring and management stochastic ecosystem modeling components are developed to represent prior uncertainties in the Lagoon

Leonard, John J.

152

ECOLOGY OF THE MAYAN CICHLID, CICHLASOMA UROPHTHALMUS GÜNTHER, IN THE ALVARADO LAGOONAL SYSTEM, VERACRUZ, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, has a wide distribution in southeastern Mexico where it inhabits rivers and coastal lagoons. In the Alvarado lagoonal system, Veracruz, it is distributed towards the north in Camaronera Lagoon. The Mayan cichlid shows an affinity for oligohaline to mesohaline sites with submerged vegetation well-oxygenated, deep, and transparent water. The major abundance and biomass of this

Rafael Chávez-López; Mark S. Peterson; Nancy J. Brown-Peterson; Ana Adalia Morales-Gómez; Jonathan Franco-López

2005-01-01

153

A system for estimating bowen ratio And evaporation from waste lagoons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A low cost system was deployed above a swine waste lagoon to obtain estimates of Bowen ratios and characterize lagoon temperatures. The system consisted of humidity and temperature sensors and anemometers deployed above the lagoon, water temperature sensors, and a meteorological station located by t...

154

Seagrasses and sediment response to the changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary - coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that has steadily increased over more than one century. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of 1-3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet channel and propagate to the end of the lagoon

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; M. J. Pereira; J. B. Catarino

2003-01-01

155

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

156

Upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electronics are required to operate in a harsh environment and are constrained by the existing infrastructure. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ADC ASIC, the design and testing of higher speed transmitters to handle the increased data volume, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design and improvements in the overall architecture.

Anderson, Jacob; CMS Hcal Collaboration

2012-12-01

157

The RHIC polarized source upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

2010-09-27

158

EFITviewer UpgradesEFITviewer Upgrades MDSplus Event Management System  

E-print Network

EFITviewer UpgradesEFITviewer Upgrades #12;#12;MDSplus Event Management System ev2files.pro sumEventsD/EPICS = Test_c | Test_d ... Init File EVS.QCS Log File log/idlQCSserver.log X X MonEvents.pro 11:29:01 ev2files wrote EventShots/Test_a.123456 11:29:02 sumEvents saw event Test_a for shot 123456 11:29:13 ev2files

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

159

Spring and Summer Proliferation of Floating Macroalgae in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Tancada Lagoon, Ebro Delta, NE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 10 years, a drastic change in the structure of the community of primary producers has been observed in Tancada Lagoon (Ebro Delta, NE Spain). This consisted of a decrease in the abundance of submerged rooted macrophyte cover and a spring and summer increase in floating macroalgae. Two spatial patterns have been observed. In the west part of the lagoon, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, dominated during winter and decreased progressively in spring when Cladophora sp. reached its maximum development. In the east part of the lagoon, higher macroalgal diversity was observed, together with lower cover in winter and early spring. Cladophora sp., Gracilaria verrucosa Papenfuss and Chondria tenuissima Agardh, increased cover and biomass in summer. Maximum photosynthetic production was observed in spring for G. verrucosa (10·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and C. tenuissima (19·0 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) in contrast with Cladophora sp. (15·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and Chaetomorpha linum (7·2 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) which reached maximum production in summer. Increased conductivity from reduced freshwater inflow, and higher water temperatures during periods of lagoon isolation, mainly in summer, were the main physical factors associated with an increase in floating macroalgal biomass across the lagoon. Reduced nitrogen availability and temperature-related changes in carbon availability during summer were related to a decrease in abundance of C. linum and increases in G. verrucosa and Cladophora sp.

Menéndez, M.; Comín, F. A.

2000-08-01

160

Is There Sewage in My Sample?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

161

Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 ? M in 1987 to 2.7 ? M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

2007-05-01

162

Production of long ceramic sewage pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

shaped from the plastic bodies using screw presses of high capacity (rigid construction) which permit one to obtain pipes from the bodies having a low moisture content (13-14%). At the Soviet ceramic plants, sewage pipes are made from the bodies having a moisture content of 17.5-18.5% which restricts the possibility of increasing the length of the pipes. The studies conducted

V. S. Radyukhin; B. V. Lebedev; V. M. Kraev; Yu. F. Mikhailov

1986-01-01

163

Influence of CDOM and particle composition on ocean color of the Eastern New Caledonia Lagoon during the CALIOPE cruises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean color of tropical lagoons is dependent on bathymetry and bottom type, as well as input of coastal living and mineral particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The New Caledonia lagoon lies in the Southwestern Tropical Pacific around 21° 30'S and 166° 30'E, with a great marine biodiversity in UNESCO Heritage coral reefs, benthic sea grass, and benthic communities. They are largely connected to the open ocean in the southern and eastern parts, but only by narrow passes in the southwest part. The trophic state is linked to spatial variations in flushing times. High run offs due to rain carrying abundant chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particle loads may greatly impact the functioning of ecosystems while rivers and sewage effluents may induce localized impacts. Two oceanographic cruises (CALIOPE 1 in 2011 and CALIOPE 2 in 2014) were carried out off the Eastern Coast of New Caledonia during a calm dry period and during high winds, respectively. Multi- and hyper-spectral marine reflectance was measured with a SIMBADA instrument and a TRIOS radiometer system, together with inherent optical properties (total and CDOM absorption coefficients with a PSICAM, in situ absorption and scattering with an AC9, backscattering with a Hydroscat-6). Fluorescence of CDOM (EEM/PARAFAC) was measured on collected 0.2 ?m filtered samples. In 2014, Satlantic and FieldSpec hyper-spectral radiometers were available for in-water profiling of upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance and above-water reflectance measurements, respectively. Inherent and apparent optical data from the two cruises are compared and used to estimate ocean color algorithms performance and evaluate a Linear Matrix Inversion method, providing tools for remote sensing on this highly under-sampled coastal region of New Caledonia.

Dupouy, Cécile; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Tedetti, Marc; Martias, Chloe; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doxaran, David; Lantoine, Francois; Rodier, Martine; Favareto, Luciane; Kampel, Milton; Goutx, Madeleine; Frouin, Robert J.

2014-11-01

164

ISIS Project Upgrade Campus Community  

E-print Network

ISIS Project Upgrade Campus Community Page Navigation Page | 1 Page navigation has changed in the ISIS Application. This document provides you with the new location of all your key Campus Community the Navigation Pagelets": ISIS.UML..EDU #12;

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

165

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-04-01

166

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-01-01

167

HYDROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL LAGOONS AT HUGH TAYLOR BIRCH STATE RECREATION AREA, FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The author presents initial results of an ongoing study of Southeast Florida coastal lagoon lakes. Objectives include presenting environmental conditions within and adjacent to the lagoons under a variety of hydrologic conditions and to determine water-quality changes in ground water and surface water and how these changes in water quality affect lagoonal biological communities within the lagoons.

Brock, Robert J.

1987-01-01

168

Sediment biogeochemical differences in two pristine Mediterranean coastal lagoons (in Italy) characterized by different phanerogam dominance-A comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate functional differences in two Italian coastal lagoons (Caprolace and Fogliano, Tyrrhenian Sea) characterized by the dominance of two different seagrass species: Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in the Caprolace lagoon and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande in the Fogliano lagoon. 2. A monitoring system was set up in both lagoons in order to (i)

A. SIGNORINI; G. MASSINI; G. MIGLIORE; M. TOSONI; C. VARRONE; G. IZZO

2008-01-01

169

NCSU PULSTAR Reactor instrumentation upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University initiated an upgrade program at the NCSU PULSTAR Reactor in 1990. Twenty-year-old instrumentation is currently undergoing replacement with solid-state and current technology equipment. The financial assistance from the United States Department of Energy has been the primary source of support. This interim report provides the status of the first two phases of the upgrade program.

Perez, P.B.; Bilyj, S.J.

1993-08-12

170

Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking.

Kruse, M.C. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States); CDF Collaboration

1998-04-01

171

Upgrading of TREAT experimental capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREAT facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is being upgraded to provide capabilities for fast-reactor-safety transient experiments not possible at any other experimental facility. Principal TREAT Upgrade (TU) goal is provision for 37-pin size experiments on energetics of core-disruptive accidents (CDA) in fast breeder reactor cores with moderate sodium void coefficients. this

C. E. Dickerman; D. Rose; S. K. Bhattacharyya

1982-01-01

172

Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

Zak, B.D. (ed.)

1982-12-01

173

User and Performance Impacts from Franklin Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The NERSC flagship computer Cray XT4 system"Franklin" has gone through three major upgrades: quad core upgrade, CLE 2.1 upgrade, and IO upgrade, during the past year. In this paper, we will discuss the various aspects of the user impacts such as user access, user environment, and user issues etc from these upgrades. The performance impacts on the kernel benchmarks and selected application benchmarks will also be presented.

He, Yun (Helen)

2009-05-10

174

Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)  

PubMed Central

High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m?2 specimen area d?1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m?2 lagoon area d?1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems. PMID:24367570

Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

2013-01-01

175

REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM TREATED ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need for treatment technologies that can eliminate environmental problems associated with anaerobic lagoons. These technologies must be able to capture nutrients, kill pathogens and reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors. To meet these needs, a full-scale wastewater treatment plan...

176

Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons  

E-print Network

to demand into high­value demand­following power; and second, it can simultaneously serve as a tidal powerEnhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons David J.C. MacKay Cavendish/3/07 Summary The principle that the net energy delivered by a tidal pool can be increased by pumping extra

MacKay, David J.C.

177

Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons  

E-print Network

to demand into high-value demand-following power; and second, it can simultaneously serve as a tidal powerEnhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons David J.C. MacKay Cavendish/3/07 Summary The principle that the net energy delivered by a tidal pool can be increased by pumping extra

MacKay, David J.C.

178

Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to assess spatial change from 1987. Eelgrass beds were the predominant vegetation type in the lagoon, comprising 44-47% (15000-16000 ha) of the total area in 1978 and 1987. Izembek Lagoon contains the largest bed of seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America and largest known single stand of eelgrass in the world. There was a high degree of overlap in the spatial distribution of eelgrass among years of change detection. The overall net change was a 6% gain between, 1978 and 1987 and a <1% gain between 1987 and 1995. The lack of significant change in eelgrass cover suggests that eelgrass meadows in Izembek Lagoon have been stable during the 17-year period of our study.

Ward, D.H.; Markon, C.J.; Douglas, D.C.

1997-01-01

179

Tidal Inlet and Lagoon on the San Andreas Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bolinas Lagoon, located on the California coast about 24 kilometers north of San Francisco's Golden Gate (Figure 1), sits astride the San Andreas Fault and waits to die, a victim of many of the same types of human interventions that negatively impact other coastlines of the world. It is now almost certain that additional human intervention is the only means

Donald D. Treadwell; Ronald M. Noble; Orville T. Magoon

180

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

181

Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

1987-05-01

182

Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to

David H. Ward; Carl J. Markon; David C. Douglas

1997-01-01

183

LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

184

IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON USING AN HYPERSPECTRAL phosphorus concentrations. A reflectance determination coefficient of 0.49 was obtained from the 467 to 529 phosphorus distribution map. In 1995 the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USCOE) developed the CH3D-WES and CE

Gilbes, Fernando

185

Variability of Organic Matter Processing in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of plant organic matter processing was studied experimentally in a shallow coastal lagoon (Tancada lagoon, average depth: 37 cm, area: 1.8 km2) in the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain). To determine the effect of hydrology and sediment characteristics on plant organic matter processing, leaves of Phragmites australis at the end of its vegetative cycle and whole plants of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, just abscised, were enclosed in litter bags. Two different mesh sizes (100 m and 2 mm) were used to study the effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition. The bags were placed in the water column and approximately 15 cm above the sediment at 6 different locations in the lagoon. The experiment was performed twice, in autumn-winter and spring-summer. The effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition rate was not significant in Tancada lagoon. Breakdown rates showed spatial differences only in spring-summer. In the autumn-winter experiment, the effect of strong wind masked the effects of environmental variables and hydrology on decomposition rate. In the spring-summer experiment, characterised by high stability of the water column, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in the water column and organic matter in the sediment were the main factors determining the variability of organic matter processing. A positive relationship was calculated between P. australis decomposition rate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in spring-summer (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). (

Menéndez, Margarita; Hernández, Oliver; Sanmartí, Neus; Comín, Francisco A.

2004-11-01

186

Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibi...

187

An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k–? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function

Binxin Wu; Zhenbin Chen

2011-01-01

188

ISOLATION OF SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES FROM SWINE WASTE LAGOONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lagoons on nine Mississippi hog farms were tested for the presence of lytic Salmonella-specific phages. Lytic phages are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Salmonella-killing phages were isolated using an enrichment method or directly from clarified filtered effluent. Enrichment samples were tre...

189

Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. To better understand this, more data is ne...

190

Evaluation of eutrophication in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria Formosa is a shallow mesotidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal, with natural biogeochemical cycles essentially regulated by tidal exchanges at the seawater boundaries and at the sediment interface. Existing data on nutrients in the water column and the sediment, together with chlorophyll a and oxygen saturation in the water column, are compared using different models for

A. Newton; J. d. Icely; M. Falcao; A. Nobre; J. p. Nunes; J. g. Ferreira; C. Vale

2003-01-01

191

Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.

2012-12-01

192

Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling ofN is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms that produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase. For denitrification, the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide can be catalyzed by two forms of nitrite reductases, and N,O can be reduced by nitrous oxide reductase encoded by the gene nosZ The objectives of this investigation were to (i) quantify the abundance of the amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes; (ii) evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on their abundances; and (iii) evaluate their abundance relative to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). Samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and collected from eight typical, commercial anaerobic, swine wastewater lagoons located in the Carolinas. The four genes assayed in this study were present in all eight lagoons. Their abundances relative to total bacterial populations were 0.04% (amoA), 1.33% (nirS), 5.29% (nirK), and 0.27% (nosZ). When compared with lagoon chemical characteristics, amoA and nirK correlated with several measured variables. Neither nirS nor nosZ correlated with any measured environmental variables. Although no gene measured in this study correlated with actual or potential DEA, nosZ copy numbers did correlate with the disparity between actual and potential DEA. Phylogenetic analysis ofnosZdid not reveal any correlations to DEA rates. As with other investigations, analyses of these genes provide useful insight while revealing the underlying greater complexity of N cycling within swine waste lagoons. PMID:21520768

Ducey, Thomas F; Shriner, Anthony D; Hunt, Patrick G

2011-01-01

193

Node weighted network upgrade problems  

SciTech Connect

Consider a network where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v can be upgraded at an expense of cost(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v by a fixed factor x, where 0 < x < 1. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a spanning tree in which edge is of delay at most a given value {delta}. The authors provide both hardness and approximation results for the problem. They show that the problem is NP-hard and cannot be approximated within any factor {beta} < ln n, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME(n{sup log log n}), where n is the number of nodes in the network. They then present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem. For the general case, the approximation algorithm comes within a factor of 2 ln n of the minimum upgrading cost. When the cost of upgrading each node is 1, they present an approximation algorithm with a performance guarantee of 4(2 + ln {Delta}), where {Delta} is the maximum node degree. Finally, they present a polynomial time algorithm for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, S.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1996-09-01

194

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

195

Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement.  

PubMed

This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO(3) and SiO(4) concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters when rainfall and river discharge was maximal in summer. Continuous year round discharge of sewage effluent resulted in high NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbour (VH) and its vicinity. In winter, spring and fall, the water column at all stations was moderately mixed by winds and tidal currents, and phytoplankton biomass was relatively low compared to summer. In summer, the mean surface phytoplankton chl biomass was generally > 9 microL(-1) in most areas as a result of thermohaline stratification, and high nutrients, light, and water temperature. In summer, the potential limiting nutrient is PO(4) in the most productive southern waters and it seldom decreased to limiting levels ( approximately 0.1 microM), suggesting that phytoplankton growth may be only episodically limiting. The mean bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) remained > 3.5 mg L(-1) at most stations, indicating that the eutrophication impact in HK waters was not as severe as expected for such a eutrophic area. After the implementation of chemically enhanced primary sewage treatment in 2001, water quality in VH improved as indicated by a significant decrease in NH(4) and PO(4) and an increase in bottom DO. In contrast, there were an increase in chl a and NO(3), and a significant decrease in bottom DO in southern waters in summer, suggesting that hypoxic events are most likely to occur in this region if phytoplankton biomass and oxygen consumption keep increasing and exceed the buffering capacity of HK waters maintained by monsoon winds, tidal mixing and zooplankton grazing. Therefore, future studies on the long-term changes in nutrient loading from PRE and HK sewage discharge will be crucial for developing future strategies of sewage management in HK waters. PMID:18514234

Ho, Alvin Y T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong; Yuan, Xiangcheng; He, Lei; Jiang, Yuelu; Lee, Joseph H W; Anderson, Donald M; Harrison, Paul J

2008-01-01

196

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of oral papillomas in black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. The water in this pond was chlorinated effluent from the sewage treatment plant. The presence...

197

APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration harmful organisms (plant, animal and human pathogens) in insufficiently composted materials · If C NOTE 6 PAGE 2 Applications of sewage sludges and composts Forestry Tree growth on nutrient

198

Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser

1993-01-01

199

Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station (Building 4330). Building retains its World War II construction materials and character. In the background at the extreme left is Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Sewage Pumping Station, Southwest of E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

200

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

201

Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.  

PubMed

During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents. PMID:23347968

Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M

2013-11-01

202

Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan.

Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

1981-07-20

203

Techno-economic and environmental assessment of sewage sludge wet oxidation.  

PubMed

Today, several technologies and management strategies are proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to minimise sludge production and contamination. In order to avoid a shifting of burdens between different areas, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. Wet oxidation (WO) is an alternative solution to incineration for recovering energy in sewage sludge while converting it to mostly inorganic residues. This paper deals with an experimentation carried out within the EU project "ROUTES". A mass balance was made for a WWTP (500,000 person equivalents) in which a WO stage for sludge minimisation was considered to be installed. Both bench- and full-scale test results were used. Design of treatment units and estimation of capital and operational costs were then performed. Subsequently, technical and economic aspects were evaluated by means of a detailed methodology which was developed within the ROUTES project. Finally, an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective was performed. The integrated assessment showed that for the specific upgrade considered in this study, WO technology, although requiring a certain increase of technical complexity at the WWTP, may contribute to environmental and economic advantages. The paper provides guidance in terms of which aspects need a more thorough evaluation in relation to the specific case in which an upgrade with WO is considered. PMID:25091166

Bertanza, Giorgio; Canato, Matteo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Salvetti, Roberta; Slavik, Edoardo; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-08-01

204

The D0 detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector.

Bross, A.D.

1995-02-01

205

The RHIC polarized source upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RHIC polarized H- ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam intensity will allow reduction of the longitudinal transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron-proton (ion) Collider eRHIC. The basic limitations on the high-intensity H- ion beam production in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapor jet ionizer cell were experimentally studied.

Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Podolyako, F.; Sorokin, I.; Vizgalov, I.; Klenov, V.; Zubets, V.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

2014-01-01

206

Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to increased hardness of the vitrificates and reduced leaching of some heavy metals. PMID:25242604

Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szo?tysek, Jolanta

2014-12-01

207

Argonne's atlas control system upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research, which focuses primarily on heavy-ion physics. The accelerator as well as its control system are evolutionary in nature, and consequently, continue to advance. In 1998 the most recent project to upgrade the ATLAS control system was completed. This paper briefly reviews the upgrade, and summarizes the configuration and features of the resulting control system.

Munson, F.; Quock, D.; Chapin, B.; Figueroa, J.

1999-09-27

208

Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be carefully monitored so that appropriate responses can be timely to mitigate the impacts from global change. References: Eisenreich, S.J. (2005). Climate Change and the European Water Dimension - A report to the European Water Directors. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Comission-Joint Research Centre. Ispra, Italy. 253pp. Kerr, R. (2008). Global warming throws some curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 322, 515. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., Miller, H. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Lloret, J., Marín, A., Marín-Guirao, L. (2008). Is coastal lagoon eutrophication likely to be aggravated by global climate change? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78, 403-412. Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T., Niazi, S. (2008). Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 77, 206-213.

Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

2009-04-01

209

Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.  

PubMed

The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

2014-10-21

210

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting.  

PubMed

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory scale experiments. Two approaches investigated in the study were: (1) evaluation of vermistabilization of PSS and CD mixtures after 15 weeks in terms of fertilizer quality of the products and; (2) growth and reproduction of Eisenia foetida up to 11 weeks in different vermireactors. In all the PSS and CD mixtures, a decrease in pH, TOC and C:N ratio, but increase in EC, TKN, TK and TP was recorded. The heavy metals' content in the vermicomposts was higher than initial mixtures. Maximum worm biomass was attained in 10% PSS+90% CD mixture while, the worm growth rate was highest in 30% PSS+70% CD feed mixture. It was inferred from the study that addition of 30-40% of PSS with CD had no adverse effect on the fertilizer value of the vermicompost as well as growth of Eisenia foetida. The results indicated that PSS could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed in appropriate ratio (30-40%) with cow dung. PMID:17950995

Gupta, Renuka; Garg, V K

2008-05-30

211

32 CFR 881.7 - Discharge upgrade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge upgrade. 881.7 Section 881.7...DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE MILITARY SERVICE AND DISCHARGE FOR CIVILIAN OR CONTRACTUAL GROUPS § 881.7 Discharge upgrade. If you are approved for...

2010-07-01

212

Automatic Software Upgrades for Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributedsystems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in asystem at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting thesystem for an ...

Ajmani, Sameer

2005-10-06

213

Automatic Software Upgrades for Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributed systems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in a system at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting the system for an ...

Ajmani, Sameer

2005-11-30

214

The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant

Rahzia Hendricks; Edmund John Pool

2012-01-01

215

The VLA Upgrade Project Memorandum #1  

E-print Network

the specifications for the VLA Upgrade Project, ffl to prepare the cost and manpower estimates, ffl to developThe VLA Upgrade Project Memorandum #1 Organization and Goals of the Project Rick Perley and Dick, the VLA Upgrade was formally organized as a project, with Rick Perley as the project scientist. His

Groppi, Christopher

216

Biorefineries for biofuel upgrading: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews the biofuel valorization facilities as well as the future importance of biorefineries. Biomass can be converted into useful biofuels and bio-chemicals via biomass upgrading and biorefinery technologies. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. Biomass upgrading processes include fractionation, liquefaction, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, fermentation, and gasification. Upgraded

M. Fatih Demirbas

2009-01-01

217

Medically-derived 131I in municipal sewage effluent.  

PubMed

This work presents (131)I (t(½) = 8.04 d) concentrations in sewage effluent from the Stony Brook Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), a small plant serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY, USA. The concentrations detected in sewage effluent ranged from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 227 ± 2 Bq L(-1). The primary source of (131)I is excreta from thyroid cancer inpatients treated at the Stony Brook University Medical Center. Based on several time series measurements following known inpatient treatments, the mean sewage half-life (T(s)) of iodine is 3 d in this plant. The T(s), analogous to a radioactive half-life, describes the time it takes for half of a wastewater component to be removed from a WPCP. Flow recycling, or activated sludge, used to maintain bacterial populations necessary for sewage treatment causes iodine to remain in this plant far longer than its hydraulic retention time. The experimental results suggest that most (131)I entering the Stony Brook WPCP leaves in sewage effluent, not in sewage sludge. Patient treatments can result in continuous discharges of (131)I to surface waters where it can be used as a tracer of sewage-derived material and to understand the behavior of (131)I in aquatic environments. PMID:22925394

Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence; Cochran, J Kirk

2012-11-01

218

Spatial and temporal dynamic of trophic relevant parameters in a subtropical coastal lagoon in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal lagoons are ecologically and economically important environments but a relative low number of studies were carried\\u000a out in subtropical and permanently closed coastal lagoons. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial dynamic\\u000a of trophic relevant water quality parameters in the small, deep and freshwater Peri coastal lagoon, South Brazil. During the\\u000a 19 sampled months (March\\/2008–September\\/2009) spatial

Mariana Coutinho Hennemann; Mauricio Mello Petrucio

219

Hydrology of Okarito Lagoon and the inferred effects of selective logging in Okarito Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Okarito Lagoon (43° 11?S, 170° 14?E) is a small (20 km) shore?parallel, predominantly subtidal estuary, deepest near the landward end, and linked to the sea by two subtidal channels incised through shallow subtidal and intertidal flats which occupy the southern third of the lagoon. Tides at sea vary from 2.1m (spring) to 1.2 m (neap), but in the lagoon the

J. M. Macpherson

1981-01-01

220

Recent evolution of fishery and land reclamation in Curonian and Lesina lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of fishery and land reclamation in Lesina (Italy) and Curonian (Lithuania\\/Russia) lagoons was analysed as an\\u000a example of recent trends in European coastal lagoons. Social and political changes were considered, addressing resource exploitation\\u000a and inherent impacts on ecosystems. In both lagoons, the mismanagement of the fish stock led to the depletion of fish resources\\u000a and to the decline

Paolo Breber; Ram?nas Povilanskas; Aušrin? Armaitien?

2008-01-01

221

Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

2014-09-01

222

Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon in sewage-treatment-plant effluent and domestic sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an attempt to better characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in several specific sources to Lake Kasumigaura, such as sewage-treatment-plant effluent (STPE), domestic sewage (DS) and forest stream (FS), we analyzed radiocarbon ( 14C) and stable carbon isotopic compositions ( 13C) of the DOCs. The measurements of 14C for DOC were performed by an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-TERRA) in Japan. The ? 14C and ? 13C values of the DOCs in several sources to Lake Kasumigaura, have low carbon isotopic values, ranging from -470‰ to -79‰ and from -27.9‰ to -24.2‰, respectively. These carbon isotopic values are substantially different from those of Lake Kasumigaura. These results imply different origins for the DOC in Lake Kasumigaura. The 14C and 13C analyses of DOC led to a useful classification for DOCs in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

Nara, Fumiko Watanabe; Imai, Akio; Matsushige, Kazuo; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Kawasaki, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yasuyuki

2010-04-01

223

Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site. PMID:25577474

Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

2015-02-15

224

Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons  

SciTech Connect

An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

1999-11-01

225

Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

1985-02-01

226

The role of freshwater inflow in lagoons, rivers, and bays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different freshwater inflow volumes on benthic communities and water column\\u000a dynamics in different estuary classes. Benthic and water column spatial dynamics were contrasted in lagoons (with no direct\\u000a inflow sources), tidal rivers that empty directly into the Gulf of Mexico, and bar-built bay systems (with direct inflow sources)\\u000a along

Terence A. Palmer; Paul A. Montagna; Jennifer Beseres Pollack; Richard D. Kalke; Hudson R. DeYoe

2011-01-01

227

Coastal lagoons and their evolution: A hydromorphological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a geoscience perspective, coastal lagoons are essentially ephemeral features which are part of a continuum of coastal environments. Their natural hydromorphological evolution is seldom if ever permitted to take place as a consequence of human action; either directly by engineering interventions, to maintain or create navigable inlets, or indirectly due to activities within their catchment areas. The hydromorphological impacts of historical, contemporary and proposed engineering activities in coastal lagoons around in the world are reviewed and from these a powerful exemplar is that of the Aveiro system in Portugal. Here, two centuries of channelization, jetty and breakwater construction and progressive dredging have transformed a then fluvially dominant system into one that is today tidally dominant. Both the tidal range and tidal prism have increased along with the extent of saline intrusion. The associated stresses imposed by increased tidal currents have, in turn, led to important changes in the sedimentary regime and to the loss of almost all seagrass species which were once abundant in the system. This, along with observations from other related case studies, raises important questions regarding the concept of lagoon ecosystem 'health' and the baseline or reference conditions to which it is assessed.

Duck, Robert W.; da Silva, José Figueiredo

2012-09-01

228

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

229

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

230

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

231

WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

232

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

233

Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

2001-05-01

234

Freshwater inflows and seasonal forcing strongly influence macrofaunal assemblages in Mediterranean coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons of the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) are part of the Ebro Delta Natural Park managed by regional government authorities. Coastal lagoons have persistently received freshwater inputs from the Ebro River from May to November that have altered their natural ecology and hydrological cycle. In this study, we evaluate the seasonal effect of contrasting salinity regimes (polyhaline in the Tancada lagoon, mesohaline in the Encanyissada and oligohaline in the Clot lagoon) on the composition, abundance, species richness, alpha diversity and biomass of benthic macrofauna communities, and we assess the relative contribution of local environmental variables to the observed patterns. Additional sampling was conducted in the largest lagoon (Encanyissada) in order to assess variability at lower spatial scale. At both spatial scales (i.e., among-lagoon and within-lagoon), species richness and diversity tended to increase at higher salinities, particularly in summer. At the assemblage level, significantly different groupings were also found among lagoons and among zones of the Encanyissada lagoon, with more distinctive differences also in summer. Environmental factors accounted for up to 56-60% of the variation in macrofaunal assemblages at both spatial scales, with salinity and temperature accounting for the largest contributions (approx. 14% and 10%, respectively), whereas biomass was mostly controlled by temperature and nutrients. Distinctive oxygen and organic matter levels across the lagoons were also associated with the freshwater influx and displayed significant contributions to observed patterns. Our study shows that the low salinity regime and/or other factors related to long-term inputs of freshwater shape the community of macrofauna within the lagoons, a central trophic resource for most of the local species of fish and aquatic birds. Restoration of these systems to their natural hydrological functioning without further inputs of freshwater and higher marine connectivity is suggested as the more appropriate management.

Prado, Patricia; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

2014-06-01

235

On the applicability of the tidal prism - inlet area relationship to Northern Adriatic Sea lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidal prism-inlet area relationship, well-known as the "O'Brien-Jarrett-Marchi law", relates inlet cross-sectional area to its tidal prism (water volume flowing through the considered inlet during a characteristic tidal cycle), thus embodying the complex relation between the channel morphological characteristics and the related hydrodynamic features. Our work is mainly focused on the correct application of this relationship to the lagoons of the Northern Adriatic Sea, in order to analyse the applicability of the above recalled law to lagoons characterized by a dynamic behaviour, with non-negligible effects of tidal propagation. In particular, we integrate the dataset collected by Jarrett (1976) with the data concerning the Venice lagoon and the Delta Po lagoons. First, we investigate the modifications in tidal prism and inlet area induced by the most invasive anthropic interventions carried out within Venice lagoon during the last two centuries. To this purpose, we use a fully-coupled 2D finite element hydrodynamic model to analyse the hydrodynamic behaviour of five morphological configurations representative of the lagoon morphological evolution from 1811 to 2003. The analysis shows that the lagoons characterized by a quasi-static hydrodynamic behaviour, such as Delta Po lagoons and the more recent morphological configurations of Venice lagoon, are better described by the O'Brien-Jarrett-Marchi relationship when compared to the past morphological configurations of Venice lagoon, which are characterized by a dynamic behaviour. Finally, we compare the results obtained by analysing natural lagoons with those obtained by considering data collected within laboratory physical models, and critically discuss them on the basis of theoretical interpretations of the tidal prism-inlet area relationship recently proposed by several authors. This application highlights the need to compare data on the basis of a "modified tidal prism" which takes into account the "scale effects" characterizing physical models.

Stefanon, Luana; D'Alpaos, Andrea; D'Alpaos, Luigi

2013-04-01

236

MIPP Plastic Ball electronics upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade electronics design for Plastic Ball detector is described. The Plastic Ball detector was a part of several experiments in the past and its back portion (proposed to be used in MIPP) consists of 340 photomultipliers equipped with a sandwich scintillator. The scintillator sandwich has fast and slow signal component with decay times 10 ns and 1 {micro}s respectively. The upgraded MIPP experiment will collect up to 12,000 events during each 4 second spill and read them out in {approx}50 seconds between spills. The MIPP data acquisition system will employ deadtime-less concept successfully implemented in Muon Electronics of Dzero experiment at Fermilab. An 8-channel prototype design of the Plastic Ball Front End (PBFE) implementing these requirements is discussed. Details of the schematic design, simulation and prototype test results are discussed.

Baldin, Boris; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

237

Tevatron beam position monitor upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980's, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

Wolbers, Stephen; Banerjee, B.; Barker, B.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Bowden, M.; Cancelo, G.; Forster, B.; Duerling, G.; Haynes, B.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Mahlum, R.; Martens, M.; Mengel, M.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Pham, T.; Piccoli, L.; Steimel, J.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

238

DA?NE Upgrade Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DAPhiNE Phi-factory at INFN-LNF has been upgraded in the second half of 2007 with the scope of testing a recently proposed scheme of crab waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, fabricated and installed to realize the new configuration. The ring injection systems have been also modified with the installation of new stripline fast

David Alesini; Maria Enrica Biagini; Caterina Biscari; Roberto Boni; Manuela Boscolo; Fabio Bossi; Bruno Buonomo; Alberto Clozza; Giovanni Delle Monache; Theo Demma; Enrico Di Pasquale; Giampiero Di Pirro; Alessandro Drago; Alessandro Gallo; Andrea Ghigo; Susanna Guiducci; Carlo Ligi; Fabio Marcellini; Giovanni Mazzitelli; Catia Milardi; Fabrizio Murtas; Luigi Pellegrino; Miro Preger; Lina Quintieri; Pantaleo Raimondi; Ruggero Ricci; Ugo Rotundo; Claudio Sanelli; Mario Serio; Francesco Sgamma; Bruno Spataro; Alessandro Stecchi; Angelo Stella; Sandro Tomassini; Cristina Vaccarezza; Mikhail Zobov; Ivan Koop; Evgeny Levichev; Pavel Piminov; Dmitry Shatilov; Victor Smaluk; Simona Bettoni; Marco Schioppa; Paolo Valente; Kazuhito Ohmi; Nicolas Arnaud; Dominique Breton; Patrick Roudeau; Achille Stocchi; Alessandro Variola; Benoit Francis Viaud; Marco Esposito; Eugenio Paoloni; Paolo Branchini

2008-01-01

239

RHIC and its upgrade programmes.  

SciTech Connect

As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species. After a brief review of the achieved performance the presentation will give an overview of the plans, challenges and status of machine upgrades, that range from a new heavy ion pre-injector and beam cooling at 100 GeV to a high luminosity electron-ion collider.

Roser,T.

2008-06-23

240

Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae

2009-01-01

241

Monitoring sewage sludge using heterotrophic nitrogen fixing microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was studied using free-living N2-fixing bacteria in two types of soil amended with six types of municipal sewage sludges and cow and pig manures, respectively. Sludge and manure treatments were as follows: no addition, Swedish recommended rates of 5 t dry wt ha?1, twice the standard rate of addition (2RR), and 10 times the standard rate (10RR). The

A. M. Mårtensson; L. Torstensson

1996-01-01

242

Effects of various pretreatments on biohydrogen production from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant is a kind of biomass which contains many organics, mainly carbohydrates and\\u000a proteins. Four pretreatments, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment, thermal pretreatment and ultrasonic pretreatment,\\u000a were used to enhance biohydrogen production from sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the four pretreatments\\u000a could all increase the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sludge and

BenYi Xiao; JunXin Liu

2009-01-01

243

Long term trends in sewage abatement and water quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary  

SciTech Connect

Long-term trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of 70 years of sewage abatement and treatment in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary near New York City (NYC). Regional construction of wastewater treatment plants since the 1920`s has reduced discharges of untreated sewage into the estuary from approximately 47 M{sup 3}/S in 1936 to less than 0.1 M{sup 3}/S by 1994. From at least 1922 through the early 1960s, average summer DO percent saturation in the Hudson River varied between 35--50% in surface waters and 25--40% in bottom waters. Beginning in the late 1970s, DO concentrations increased through the 1980s and especially into the 1990s, coinciding with the secondary treatment upgrade of the 7.4 M3/s North River plant in the spring of 1991. Average summer percent saturation in the early 1 990s exceeded 80% in surface waters and 60% in bottom waters. In addition, summer DO minima increased from less than 1.5 mg/L in the early 1970s, to greater than 3.0 mg/L in the 1990s, and the duration of hypoxia during summer months has been reduced. While this general trend has been observed throughout the estuary, some areas have displayed recent declines in DO, possibly due to increasing eutrophication. Total coliforms also display strong decreasing trends from the 1960s into the 1990s, with declines attributed to plant construction and expansion, and improved operation of the sewer system. Metal loadings have also decreased significantly. Signs of improved ecosystem quality include reopened beaches and shellfish beds, re-infestation of woodpilings by marine wood-borers, and the resurgence of wading birds in several areas of the estuary.

Brosnan, T.M.; O`Shea, M.L. [New York City Dept. of Environmental Protection, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

244

Water Quality Trends in a Coastal Lagoon Impacted by Nonpoint Source Pollution after Implementation of Protective Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality data from two different monitoring periods are used to evaluate the trophic state and effectiveness of various\\u000a protective measures on the restoration of a eutrophic, coastal Mediterranean lagoon. Main protective measures included elimination\\u000a of municipal\\/industrial raw wastewater discharges in the rivers outflowing to the lagoon, sediment\\/erosion control practices\\u000a in the lagoon’s drainage basin (i.e., construction of sediment\\/debris dams

Georgios D. Gikas; Trisevgeni Yiannakopoulou; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis

2006-01-01

245

Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill  

SciTech Connect

Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. (Ocean Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

246

Evidence of North Africa?s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

247

Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

248

Microbiological quality of effluents from anaerobic swine manure lagoons in Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Confined swine feeding operations in Mississippi and most of the southeastern USA routinely flush manure from pits beneath confinement barns into open anaerobic storage lagoons. Lagoon effluent is reused for pit flushing and eventually land applied as fertilizer for grass hay. The fertilizer quali...

249

MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS AT WASTE TREATMENT LAGOON-ATMOSPHERIC INTERFACE  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS AT WASTE TREATMENT LAGOON-ATMOSPHERIC INTERFACE of ammonia are approximately 75 Tg N/yr (1 Tg = 1012g). The major global source is excreta from domestic in North Carolina (NC). Proteins and nitrogen rich compounds in the lagoon are converted to ammonia

Aneja, Viney P.

250

REMOVAL OF ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY WASTE LAGOONS BY FERRATE (VI): OXIDATION/COAGULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferrate (VI)is used as a means of breaking down and/or removing steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE), to minimize the amount of SE entering groundwater/watersheds. Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for EC (estrogenic content) and assayed using High Performance Liquid Chrom...

251

Evaluation of the utility of water quality based indicators of estuarine lagoon condition in NSW, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental indicators must have a predictable relationship with stressors to be of value in ecological assessments. We evaluated the information provided by commonly implemented monitoring indicators as a means of assessing of the level of ecological impact experienced by coastal lagoons in New South Wales, Australia. Existing data for environmental variables in coastal lagoons were correlated with independent estimates of

Peter Scanes; Geoff Coade; Maria Doherty; Ross Hill

2007-01-01

252

Ecological implications of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of Burullus Lagoon of Nile Delta, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Ni) from three short sediment cores collected from Burullus lagoon of the Nile delta, Egypt. 210Pb and 137Cs measurement is applied to understand sedimentation rate and related chronology. Remarkably low isotopic activities and intensive bioturbation in the lagoonal sediments rendered age

Zhongyuan Chen; Alaa Salem; Zhuang Xu; Weiguo Zhang

2010-01-01

253

GEOTEXTILE FILTRATION PERFORMANCE FOR LAGOON SLUDGES AND LIQUID ANIMAL MANURES DEWATERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance and control of liquid levels in anaerobic lagoons and storage ponds is enhanced by pretreatment with liquid-solid separation or periodic removal of accumulated sludges. Until local disposal or nutrient recycling options become available, sludges can be contained, dewatered, and stored using geotextile filtration. A geotextile filtration testing method termed a hanging-bag test was used to treat dairy lagoon sludge,

K. B. Cantrell; J. P. Chastain; K. P. Moore

254

Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

255

ABATEMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING POLYMER-ENHANCED SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of solid-liquid separation of liquid swine manure on ammonia emissions from lagoons. This determination was done at full-scale in two contiguous swine production units that had similar animal production management. One of these units was maintained as a control using the anaerobic lagoon treatment method. In the second production unit, solids were

A. A. Szögi; M. B. Vanotti

256

Nitrification and Denitrification Communities Associated with a Semi-Permeable Swine Waste Lagoon Biocover  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emission from swine waste lagoons presents a serious environmental challenge to pork producers. Semi-permeable swine waste lagoon biocovers have been developed to serve as a physical barrier and as an attachment site for biofilm development, but microbial analysis of the biocover technology...

257

Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons by Circulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: To determine if circulation of diary wastewater induces the growth of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Methods and Results: Two dairy wastewater lagoons that were similar in size, geographic location, number and type of cattle loading the lagoons were chosen. The only obvious diffe...

258

Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genetic Variation across Calving Lagoons in Eastern North Pacific Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification

S. ELIZABETH ALTER; S ERGIO FLORES RAMIREZ; S ERGIO NIGENDA; J ORGE URBAN RAMIREZ; L ORENZO ROJAS BRACHO; STEPHEN R. PALUMBI

2008-01-01

259

Responses of coastal lagoon plant communities to different forms of nutrient enrichment—a mesocosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out an enrichment experiment to quantify the effects of different forms of nutrients on the plant communities characteristic of lagoons common along the north east coast of the USA. ‘Lagoon’ mesocosms were enriched with phosphate alone, nitrate alone, nitrate plus phosphate, or ammonium plus phosphate. Nitrogen and phosphorus were added at loadings of 8200 ?mol m?2 day?1 and

D. I. Taylor; S. W. Nixon; S. L. Granger; B. A. Buckley; J. P. McMahon; H.-J. Lin

1995-01-01

260

Nickel bioaccumulation in bivalves from the New Caledonia1 lagoon: Seawater and food exposure2  

E-print Network

Caledonian lagoon is submitted to intense heavy metal input from land-based Ni22 mining. Therefore, the use- 1 - 1 Nickel bioaccumulation in bivalves from the New Caledonia1 lagoon: Seawater and food programmes of the metal contamination. The24 tropical oysters Isognomon isognomon and Malleus regula

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

THE DIET OF THE CURLEW SANDPIPER AT LANGEBAAN LAGOON, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puttick, G. M. 1978. The diet of the Curlew Sandpiper at Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Ostrich 49:158-167.Nereid worms (mainly Ceratonereis erythraensis) and the hydrobiid gastropod Assiminea globulus were the most important prey items throughout the year for Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea feeding at Langebaan Lagoon. Other important items were the amphipod Urothoe grimaldi, the crabs Hymenosoma orbiculare and Cleistostoma edwardsii

Gillian M. Puttick

1978-01-01

262

Late-Summer Abundance and Distribution of Marine Birds in Kasegaluk Lagoon, Chukchi Sea, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas drilling programs in the Alaska Chukchi Sea were carried out on leases offshore from Kasegaluk Lagoon in 1989-91, and further exploration and development activities in this area are likely in future years. We conducted aerial surveys between late July and early September 1989-91 to determine the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Kasegaluk Lagoon area.

STEPHEN R. JOHNSON; DAVID A. WIGGINS; PETER F. WAINWRIGHT

263

Seagrasses and sediment response to changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary-coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that, for more than a century, has increased steadily, partly because of dredging over the last 50 years. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of up to 3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; J. B. Catarino

2004-01-01

264

MARINE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF YAP LAGOON UNIVERSITY OF GUAM MARINE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MARINE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF YAP LAGOON Edited by Roy T. Tsu · UNIVERSITY OF GUAM MARINE LABORATORY of Yap, drawn by Leonor Lange-Moore. #12;MARINE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF YAP LAGOON Edi ted by ROY T. TSUDA to Office of Planning and Statistics Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands University of Guam Marine

Mcilwain, Jenny

265

A multidisciplinary study of the immediate effects of mechanical clam harvesting in the Venice Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pranovi F., Da Ponte F., Raicevich S., and Giovanardi O., 2004. A multidisciplinary study of the immediate effects of mechanical clam harvesting in the Venice Lagoon. e ICES Journal of Marine Science 61: 43e52. In the Venice Lagoon, clam (Tapes philippinarum) harvesting is carried out mainly by means of a gear locally called ''rusca'', developed by local fishermen. The rusca

F. Pranovi; F. Da Ponte; S. Raicevich; O. Giovanardi

2004-01-01

266

REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING ALTERNATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. To meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on ...

267

Methane and ammonia emissions from New Mexico dairy lagoons in summer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gaseous emissions of concern from commercial dairy operations include methane and ammonia. Dairy wastewater lagoons are sources of emission for both these gases. We quantified emissions of methane and ammonia from a lagoon system at a commercial open lot dairy in eastern New Mexico using open path l...

268

Morphological equilibrium of short channels dissecting the tidal flats of coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium bed profile of tidal channels dissecting the tidal flats of coastal lagoons is studied within a rational one-dimensional framework. A general analytical solution is obtained which expresses the bed profile in terms of a modified longitudinal coordinate, accounting implicitly for channel convergence and adjacent shoals. For values of the relevant parameters typical of costal lagoons, inertia and friction

Marco Toffolon; Stefano Lanzoni

2010-01-01

269

Removal of Estrogenic Compounds in Dairy Waste Lagoons by Ferrate (VI): Oxidation/Coagulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferrate(VI) was used to break down and/or remove steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE). Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for estrogenic content (EC) and assayed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Effects of varying...

270

A summary of preliminary studies of sedimentation and hydrology in Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating sedimentary and hydrologic conditions in Bolinas Lagoon, a 1,100-acre lagoon 15 miles northwest of San Francisco. The program began in May 1967 and will continue into 1970. Only the study results analyzed before June 1968 are summarized in the report. Two series of measurements of suspended-sediment load and water discharge in the lagoon inlet showed that much of the suspended sediment is sand and that the average velocity was as much as 4.7 feet per second. Littoral drift near the inlet was generally toward the inlet, whereas farther from the inlet the pattern is irregular. Circulation velocities in the lagoon decrease rapidly away from the inlet, but probably remain high enough to erode bottom sediment along the channels. In most of the lagoon median size of bottom sediment was fine sand. Sediment was derived chiefly from Monterey Shale.

Ritter, John R.

1970-01-01

271

The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.  

PubMed

Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication. PMID:19703693

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2009-12-01

272

Winter-summer nutrient composition linkage to algae-produced toxins in shellfish at a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current work examines the linkage of pronounced winter-summer fluctuations on the nutrient composition with phytoplankton assemblages and mussel toxicity produced by the presence of toxic dinoflagellates. The work was performed at the Óbidos lagoon, a coastal eutrophic ecosystem that is permanently connected to an area characterized by frequent upwelling episodes. The lagoon and adjoining coastal area exhibit recurrent incidents of diarrhetic and paralytic shellfish poisoning. The conclusions are based on: (1) inorganic and organic nutrients at five sites of the lower, middle and upper Óbidos lagoon, and inorganic nutrients at two sites of the adjacent coastal area; biannual campaigns were performed in winter and summer between 2006 and 2010; (2) phytoplankton assemblages at three sites of the lagoon (located at lower and upper areas) in winter and summer of 2009; (3) algae-derived toxicity of wild mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area, on a 1-2 week time scale, over 2006 and 2009. Nutrient molar ratios in Óbidos lagoon contrast between winter and summer. The lower median ratios DIN:P (31 and 0.8) and Si:P (11 and 3.3) in summer reflect the excess of phosphate. Excess was mainly attributed to phosphorus regeneration in sediments of the upper lagoon with accentuated symptoms of eutrophication. Dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus were also higher in summer, particularly in this area. No significant winter-summer differences were recorded for nutrient ratios in the adjacent coastal area. Phytoplankton assemblages pointed to a winter-summer contrast characterized by a shift of non-siliceous-based phytoplankton to diatoms. The toxic dinoflagellate species (Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinophysis cf. acuminata and Dinophysis acuta), presumably imported from the adjacent coast following upwelling episodes in summer, were observed in the lower lagoon. In summer of the two surveyed years, toxins produced by dinoflagellates occurred in mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area. However, mussel toxicity in the lagoon exceeded values of the coastal area suggesting that high cell density of toxic dinoflagellates resulted from favourable nutrient conditions. We conclude that connectivity between eutrophic lagoons and upwelling systems stimulates the increase of toxic algae and consequently enhancing shellfish toxicity.

Pereira, Patrícia; Botelho, Maria João; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Moita, Maria Teresa; Gonçalves, Célia

2012-10-01

273

Algal fossils from a late precambrian, hypersaline lagoon.  

PubMed

Organically preserved algal microfossils from the Ringwood evaporite deposit in the Gillen Member of the Bitter Springs Formation (late Precambrian of central Australia) are of small size, low diversity, and probable prokaryotic affinities. These rather primitive characteristics appear to reflect the stressful conditions that prevailed in a periodically stagnant, hypersaline lagoon. This assemblage (especially in comparison with the much more diverse assemblages preserved in the Loves Creek Member of the same formation) illustrates the potential utility of Proterozoic microbiotas for basin analysis and local stratigraphic correlation and demonstrates the need to base evolutionary considerations and Precambrian intercontinental biostratigraphy on biotas that inhabited less restricted environments. PMID:17790847

Oehler, D Z; Oehler, J H; Stewart, A J

1979-07-27

274

Organocopper complexes during roxarsone degradation in wastewater lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Organoarsenical-containing animal feeds that promote growth and resistance to parasites are mostly excreted unchanged, ending\\u000a up in nearby wastewater storage lagoons. Earlier work documented the partial transformation of organoarsenicals, such as,\\u000a 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) to the more toxic inorganic arsenate [As(V)] and 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic\\u000a acid (3-AHPAA). Unidentified roxarsone metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass

Syam S. Andra; Konstantinos C. Makris; Shahida Quazi; Dibyendu Sarkar; Rupali Datta; Stephan B. H. Bach

2010-01-01

275

Enhanced compositing of radiation disinfected sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on isothermal composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge and liquid chromatography of water extracts of the products were carried out. The optimum temperature and pH were around 50 °C and 7-8, respectively. The repeated use of products as seeds increased the rate of CO 2 evolution. The rate reached a maximum within 10 hours and decreased rapidly, and the CO 2 evolution ceased after about 3 days. The conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide attained to about 40% for the repeated use of products as seeds at the optimum conditions. As long as seeds in available were used, no remarkable difference was found in the composting of unirradiated and irradiated sludges. The composting process using radiation, however, can be carried out at the optimum conditions and is expected to shorten the composting period, because it is not necessary to keep fermentation temperature higher to reduce pathogen in sludge. Liquid chromatographic studies of the products showed that low molecular components decreased and higher molecular ones increased with fermentation. An index expressing the degree of reduction of easily decomposable organics was presented. The index also showed that the optimum temperature for fermentation was 50 °C, and that the easily decomposable organics disappeared above 30% of the conversion of organic carbon.

Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.

276

VISIR upgrade overview and status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As AQUARIUS detector array (Raytheon) which has been carefully characterized in ESO's IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a user-defined constraint on water vapour. During the commissioning in 2012 it was found that the on-sky sensitivity of the AQUARIUS detector was significantly below expectations and that VISIR was not ready to go back to science operations. Extensive testing of the detector arrays in the laboratory and on-sky enabled us to diagnose the cause for the shortcoming of the detector as excess low frequency noise (ELFN). It is inherent to the design chosen for this detector and can't be remedied by changing the detector set-up. Since this is a form of correlated noise its impact can be limited by modulating the scene recorded by the detector. We have studied several mitigation options and found that faster chopping using the secondary mirror (M2) of the VLT offers the most promising way forward. Faster M2 chopping has been tested and is scheduled for implementation before the end of 2014 after which we plan to re-commission VISIR. In addition an upgrade of the IT infrastructure related to VISIR is planned in order to support burst-mode operations. The upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing close to background limited performance for diffraction-limited observations at an 8-m telescope. It will offer synergy with facilities such as ALMA, JWST, VLTI and SOFIA, while a wealth of targets is available from survey work (e.g. VISTA, WISE). In addition it will bring confirmation of the technical readiness and scientific value of several aspects of potential mid-IR instrumentation at Extremely Large Telescopes.

Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans-Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Di Lieto, Nicola; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Duhoux, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Heikamp, Stephanie; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Sandrock, Stefan; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Valdes, Guillermo; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli

2014-07-01

277

The Upgraded D0 detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

2005-07-01

278

The CDF silicon detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here.

Azzi, P.

1998-04-01

279

Relationship between benthic foraminiferal assemblages and environmental factors in atoll lagoons of the central Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminiferal assemblages were studied in ten atoll lagoons in the central Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia, in order to determine which environmental factors influence their distribution. Among geomorphological conditions, the degree of aperture has a major influence on lagoonal communities. Cluster and factor analyses reveal a clear contrast between the foraminiferal associations located in the peripheral and central areas of the lagoons, showing the effect of the vicinity of coral reef, and a limited post-mortem transport of species from the periphery toward the center of the lagoons. The rarity of planktonic species indicates limited penetration of the lagoon by planktonic forms, including planktonic stages of benthic colonizers. Colonization of these remote lagoons, even those with a high degree of aperture, may thus require long periods. Therefore, the Holocene transgression that flooded the deeper lagoons before the shallower ones, allowing a longer colonization period, may have contributed to the higher species richness of foraminifera within them.

Bicchi, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Pagès, J.

2002-09-01

280

Chironomid midge sensitization in sewage workers: case study  

PubMed Central

Non-biting chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) may cause sensitization and allergic reactions in humans and have recently been identified as a potential health problem in Swedish municipal sewage treatment plants. To investigate, on a pilot scale, the allergenic potential of chironomids in sewage workers, all workers (n = 8) at a sewage treatment plant and local controls (n = 16) completed a symptom questionnaire, underwent measurement of the fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air, spirometry, and provided serum samples for the determination of atopy status and the prevalence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against Chironomus thummi (Chi t) using a commercial fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA). Three sewage workers (38%) but no controls (0%) were FEIA positive for C. thummi-specific IgE antibodies (P < 0.05). No other health-related findings were significantly different between the groups. The study suggested that occupational exposure to Chironomids may cause sensitization with circulating IgE-antibodies in sewage workers. PMID:23734859

SELDÉN, AI; CALO, A; MÖLLEBY, G; HULTGREN, O

2013-01-01

281

76 FR 78253 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safe and sanitary removal and treatment of sewage from all vessels are...safe and sanitary removal and treatment of sewage from all vessels are...holding tank, to a municipal wastewater treatment plant or to an on-site...

2011-12-16

282

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2012-01-01

283

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2013-01-01

284

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2011-01-01

285

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters...Operations § 159.309 Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater....

2010-07-01

286

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters... § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

2010-07-01

287

Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

288

40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4775...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...

2014-07-01

289

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g.,...

2011-07-01

290

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

... This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g.,...

2014-07-01

291

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g.,...

2012-07-01

292

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... This subpart exempts combustion units that incinerate sewage sludge and are not located at a wastewater treatment facility designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g.,...

2013-07-01

293

40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4775...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...

2011-07-01

294

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

2010-01-01

295

Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

2010-11-29

296

SND data acquisition system upgrade  

E-print Network

The data acquisition (DAQ) system of the SND detector successfully operated during four data-taking seasons (2010-2013) at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000. Currently the collider is shut down for planned reconstruction, which is expected to increase the VEPP-2000 luminosity and data flow from the SND detector electronics by up to 10 times. Since current DAQ system implementation (electronics and computer part) does not have enough reserve for selection of events in the new environment without compromising quality, there arose the need for the system upgrade. Here we report on the major SND data acquisition system upgrade which includes developing new electronics for digitization and data transfer, complete redesign of the data network, increasing of the DAQ computer farm processing capacity and making the event building process concurrent. These measures will allow us to collect data flow from the most congested detector subsystems in parallel in contrast to the current situation. We would like to discuss also the possibility to implement full software trigger solution in the future.

A. G. Bogdanchikov; V. P. Druzhinin; A. A. Korol; S. V. Koshuba; A. I. Tekutiev; Yu. V. Usov

2014-04-02

297

SND data acquisition system upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data acquisition (DAQ) system of the SND detector successfully operated during four data-taking seasons (2010-2013) at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000. Currently the collider is shut down for planned reconstruction, which is expected to increase the VEPP-2000 luminosity and data flow from the SND detector electronics by up to 10 times. Since current DAQ system implementation (electronics and computer part) does not have enough reserve for selection of events in the new environment without compromising quality, there arose the need for the system upgrade. Here we report on the major SND data acquisition system upgrade which includes developing new electronics for digitization and data transfer, complete redesign of the data network, increasing of the DAQ computer farm processing capacity and making the event building process concurrent. These measures will allow us to collect data flow from the most congested detector subsystems in parallel in contrast to the current situation. We would like to discuss also the possibility to implement full software trigger solution in the future.

Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Tekutiev, A. I.; Usov, Yu V.

2014-06-01

298

Successional pattern of phytoplankton (>55 microm) in Lekki lagoon, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lagoons are dominant features along large stretches of the West Africa coast. These freshwater environments are very valuable areas where phytoplankton constitute the basis of aquatic food webs. In order to know the effects of environmental variables on phytoplankton, a study of the successional pattern of phytoplankton in Lekki lagoon was carried out monthly for two years (June 2003-May 2005). Phytoplankton samples were collected from 12 stations using a plankton net of 55 microm mesh, and samples preserved in 4% unbuffered formalin. Besides, surface water samples were taken for physico-chemical analysis. For each year, the seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton followed different patterns. Phytoplankton abundance was higher during the dry season (November-April) for the two annual cycles. The diatoms (Aulacoseira granulata and A. granulata var angustissima) and blue green algaes, Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia tennuissima and Trichodesmium lacustre showed this trend by being the abundant species in some of these months. For the rainy season, the green alga Mougeotia sp. dominated. The replacement of one form by another throughout seasonal cycles was probably controlled by the changes in environmental variables such as rainfall, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. PMID:22458215

Adesalu, Taofikat Abosede; Nwankwo, Dike Ikegwu

2012-03-01

299

Vibrio Trends in the Ecology of the Venice Lagoon  

PubMed Central

Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization. PMID:24487545

Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

2014-01-01

300

Metals in tissues of fish from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the metal concentrations in muscle, liver, gonad, and gill of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758), and keeled mullet (Liza carinata Valenciennes, 1836) from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean region. So, the levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in tissues of specimens from the lagoon were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Concentrations of metals in muscles of the examined species ranged from 0.10 to 0.47 mg kg(-1) for cadmium, 0.10 to 0.43 mg kg(-1) for cobalt, 0.17 to 0.72 mg kg(-1) for chromium, 0.62 to 1.03 mg kg(-1) for copper, 28.9 to 52.3 mg kg(-1) for iron, 0.75 to 0.96 mg kg(-1) for manganese, 0.11 to 0.57 mg kg(-1) for nickel, 0.19 to 0.47 mg kg(-1) for lead, and 6.01 to 13.9 mg kg(-1) for zinc, respectively. Additionally, metal concentrations in muscles of fish were assessed for human uses according to provisional tolerable weekly intake and provisional tolerable daily intake. PMID:19680760

Türkmen, Aysun; Türkmen, Mustafa; Tepe, Yalçin; Cekiç, Mustafa

2010-09-01

301

Functional ecological patterns and the effect of anthropogenic disturbances on a recently restored Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Needs for a sustainable restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a detailed case study on the lessons learned after a restoration process of a natural ecosystem, which can be considered as an ecological experiment. Senillar de Moraira is a brackish water small coastal lagoon located in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. It is separated from the sea by a sand bar and a beach, and is regularly fed by groundwater. Mostly due to the strong anthropogenic pressure this lagoon was degraded, and a restoration process, consisting mostly on the rebuilt of hydrogeomorphological features, was accomplished about a decade ago. After the restoration project, ecological monitoring was performed to reveal the recovery of the ecological integrity of the ecosystem, mainly focusing on the restoration of ecological processes and biological communities. Biological communities, rates of autotrophic (primary production) and heterotrophic (respiration) processes, sediment inputs and wash-out, and other ecological features were monitored during one and half year, two years after the restoration works finished, and the ecological patterns of the current functioning of this ecosystem were determined in order to suggest management strategies for its conservation. The maintenance of most anthropogenic pressures hardly allows the sustainability of natural processes to preserve the ecological health of the ecosystem. According to our results, the success of the restoration process is strongly compromised by the maintenance of most pressures, and subsidies are needed to allow the preservation of a somewhat natural condition of the ecosystem. Though many typical species and functional groups and processes re-established after the restoration, a progressive degradation was observed, especially reflected in the decline of submerged macrophytes that are essential to the maintenance of the ecological health of the system. The decline of these macrophytes was caused by a combination of impacts and risks that were not totally removed when restoration works were accomplished, namely the risk of occasional sewage inputs, increased salinity by groundwater overexploitation, enhanced siltation caused by deforestation in the catchment, and increased pressure of exotic species. This also resulted in a change of the functioning of the lagoon, from the dominance of autotrophic processes driven by macrophytes, to that of heterotrophic processes mediated by increased organic matter and inorganic nutrient inputs, and to the dominance of phytoplanktonic primary production, as revealed by the statistical analyses of the obtained data. This offers the lesson that attempts for ecological restoration without removing the causes of degradation result in the lack of self-sustainability of ecosystem functioning and drive to a perennial need for maintenance measures.

Camacho, Antonio; Peinado, Raquel; Santamans, Anna C.; Picazo, Antonio

2012-12-01

302

Annual characterisation of four Mediterranean coastal lagoons subjected to intense human activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study the annual variability of the physico-chemical parameters of four coastal lagoons subjected to intense human activity was characterised. The trophic state indices (TSI) of Carlson (1977) and the water quality index TRIX of Vollenweider et al. (1998) were tested and compared with the water quality categories proposed by the European Environmental Agency (2009). All the parameters were sampled monthly from May 2004 to July 2005. There were important differences in the annual variability of the physico-chemical parameters between the lagoons, reflecting the importance of human-induced pressures and the heterogeneity of these environments. The lagoons were in a eutrophic/hypereutrophic state most of the year. Trophic state indices classified the lagoons in a bad or poor trophic state most of the year, and they were not able to discriminate the effect of secondary variables such as freshwater releases, ground waters fluxes or water renewal. Nitrogen was the limiting factor in the lagoon with a higher exchange rate with the sea, while phosphorous was the limiting factor in the other lagoons, due to the high nitrogen external loads and the poor water renewal. The need for developing indices specifically designed for coastal lagoons in order to asses their trophic state is discussed.

Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Rieradevall, Maria; Farrés-Corell, Roser; Newton, Alice

2012-12-01

303

Performance of the upgraded Orroral laser ranging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics discussed include the following: upgrade arrangements, system prior to 1991, elements of the upgrade, laser performance, timing system performance, pass productivity, system precision, system accuracy, telescope pointing and future upgrades and extensions.

Luck, John M.

1993-01-01

304

Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.  

PubMed

The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

2012-04-01

305

MAST-Upgrade Advancing compact fusion sources  

E-print Network

machine to include the Super-X divertor design, an innovative plasma exhaust system that, if successful fusion concept pioneered at Culham and since developed around the world. Now a major machine upgrade has will bring expertise and equipment to enhance MAST-Upgrade. In return, we will provide a machine uniquely

306

The deuterium inventory in ASDEX Upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deuterium inventory in ASDEX Upgrade was determined by quantitative ion beam analysis techniques and SIMS for different discharge campaigns between the years 2002 and 2005. ASDEX Upgrade was a carbon dominated machine during this phase. Full poloidal sections of the lower and upper divertor tile surfaces, limiter tiles, gaps between divertor tiles, gaps between inner heat shield tiles and

M. Mayer; V. Rohde; G. Ramos; E. Vainonen-Ahlgren; J. Likonen; A. Herrmann; R. Neu

2007-01-01

307

Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan  

SciTech Connect

This SARP Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A performance agreement has been assigned, beginning in FY 1997, to update, revise, and/or cancel 20 percent of the existing onsite SARPS, so that 100 percent are reviewed and within current standards by the completion of the Project Hanford Management Contract (five-year period).

Kelly, D.L.

1998-03-12

308

Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

1995-12-31

309

Current state of sewage treatment in China.  

PubMed

The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. PMID:25189479

Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

2014-12-01

310

Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

Higgins, A.J.

1984-06-01

311

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

E-print Network

; Methanobacteriales; naphthalene; PAH; sewage sludge; thermodynamic Introduction In Europe, treatment of wastewater for treatment in EU, followed by spreading on land, which accounted for 37% of the sewage sludge produced will diminish the use of artificial fertilizer. Sewage sludge is usually treated in wastewater treatment plants

312

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

313

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

314

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

315

Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1993-01-01

316

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost?effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

317

Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood damage, but still easily mapped from aerial photos. These features suggest that Isla Angel de la Guarda experienced Quaternary uplift similar in scale to many other gulf islands on which marine terraces are preserved. Closed lagoons around the Gulf of California represent a stable oligotrophic ecosystem affected by extreme aridity and hypersalinity, punctuated episodically by the injection of floodwater from tropical storms. The taxonomic and geographic ranges of microbial communities throughout the larger region remain to be explored.

Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

2012-07-01

318

Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.  

PubMed

Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1976-10-01

319

Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.  

PubMed Central

Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

1976-01-01

320

Salmonellosis in wild birds feeding at sewage treatment works.  

PubMed Central

Between June 1976 and August 1977 faeces were collected from 599 wild British birds caught during ringing operations at two sewage treatment works in south-east England. Samples were incubated with selenite-F broth to detect the presence of Salmonella. Salm. anatum was isolated from one bird, a Dunnock Prunella modularis an incidence of 0.17% of the total birds examined and 3.23% of the Dunnocks. Comparisons are drawn with previously reported studies and it is suggested that sewage treatment works play little part in the transmission of Salmonella infections to wild birds feeding there. PMID:690424

Plant, C. W.

1978-01-01

321

Constructed Landscaping Combination Constructed Wetlands System Used for Sewage Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a combinant landscape constructed wetland for sewage treatment based on landscape plants in this study. The results are summerized as follows: the system uses model as: A(biological pretreatment pond)-B(biochemistry pond)- C(subsurface flow wetland)-D(surface flow wetland)-E(the third level vertical-flow wetland)-F(second-level vertical-flow wetland) -G(landscape surface flow wetland)-H(biology pond), this combination craft sewage treatment is performed effectively, and the system outcome

Chen Yong-hua; Wu Xiao-fu; Chen Ming-li; Yao Jing; Li Ke-lin; Wang Zhong-cheng; Lei Dian

2010-01-01

322

Disinfection of sewage wastewater and sludge by electron treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of machine-accelerated electrons to disinfect sewage waterwaste and sludge is discussed. The method is shown to be practical and energy-efficient for the broad spectrum disinfection of pathogenic organisms in municipal wastewaters and sludge removed from them. Studies of biological, chemical and physical effects are reported. Electron treatment is suggested as an alternative to chlorination of municipal liquid wastes after electron treatment to provide disinfection. Disposal of sewage sludge is recommended as an agricultural resource by subsurface land injection, or as a nutrient for fish populations by widespread ocean dispersal.

Trump, J. G.; Merrill, E. W.; Wright, K. A.

323

Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

2006-07-01

324

CDF level 2 trigger upgrade  

SciTech Connect

We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

2006-01-01

325

Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year�¢����s average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

Kara Berst; Maria Howeth

2010-06-01

326

Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the southern section of the bay with surficial sediments presently composed of up to 35 weight% non-carbonate. Cores recovered from sites on the western side of the bay provide a stratigraphic record of this history of bauxite contamination across water depths from 5 to 25 m. The bauxite-influenced upper sediment horizons are clearly visible in each core from the distinctive red-brown colouration of the sediment. These sediments are composed of approximately 10% non-carbonate (bauxite) and have Fe contents of around 2-3000 ?g/g (up to 7000 ?g/g). The thickness of this upper bauxite-contaminated sequence increases down transect (approximately 18 cm in the shallowest core, to around 47 cm in the deepest core), and in each core overlies a sequence of 'clean' lagoon carbonates. These typically are poorly sorted carbonate sands with variable amounts of coral rubble. Down-core data on CaCO 3 and Fe content provide a chemical record of decreasing sediment contamination with depth, with the lower 'clean' carbonates composed of only around 2% non-carbonate and <700 ?g/g Fe. Down-core sediment-constituent data also indicate significant changes in sediment production at the shallowest sites. At depths of 5 and 10 m, sediment assemblages have shifted from diverse assemblages of coral, mollusc, Amphiroa and Halimeda in the clean lagoon sands, to assemblages dominated by Halimeda and Amphiroa within the surficial sediments. At the deeper sites, no major down-core shifts in sediment constituents occur. These sites thus record a rather complex history of changes in sediment composition and chemistry. Clear shifts in chemistry and stratigraphy occur in all the cores and reflect progressive bauxite contamination in the near-surface horizons. These inputs, however, do not appear to have directly affected carbonate production, since the major constituent changes appear to be a response to more regional declines in coral community and reef status.

Perry, Christopher T.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Machent, Philip G.

2006-03-01

327

Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

Zheng, Jianhong

328

Effects of Climate Change on Microbial Community Structure and Function in the Antarctic Glacier Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the dramatic effects of global warming is the retreat of glaciers. This phenomenon has intensified in the last two decades. Postglacial areas are quickly colonised by various groups of organisms. Auto- and heterotrophic microorganisms play an especially vital role in these processes. They thrive in shallow glacial lagoons which often form in front of retreating glaciers. These reservoirs are characterised by high dynamics of physicochemical parameters, including: salinity, temperature and concentrations of organic compounds and nutrients. The conducted microbiological studies have revealed rich structural and functional diversity of bacteria occurring in the ecosystem of Ecology Lagoon situated on King George Island. Bacteria found on the surface of algae and stones in the shore zone of the lagoon showed particularly intense metabolic activity. A molecular analysis has indicated that unique taxonomic groups of bacteria occur in the ecosystem of Ecology Lagoon.

?wi?tecki, Aleksander; Górniak, Dorota; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek; Borsuk, Piotr; ?muda-Baranowska, Magdalena; Grzesiak, Jakub

2010-01-01

329

Use of Shallow Lagoon Habitats by Nekton of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared nekton use of prominent habitat types within a lagoonal system of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). These habitat types were defined by combinations of structure (cover type) and location (distance from shore) as: Spartina edge (...

330

Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

331

ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

332

The contribution of benthic macrofauna to the nutrient filter in coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Human activities in coastal areas have increased the occurrence of eutrophication events, especially in vulnerable ecosystems such as coastal lagoons. Although we have a general knowledge of the consequences of eutrophication in these ecosystems, some efforts need to be made to understand biotic feedbacks that could modify the response of the environment to nutrient enrichment. The plant-mediated 'coastal filter' is one of the main factors that determine lagoonal efficiency in processing excess nutrients. In this context, the present paper examined the relative contribution of benthic macrofauna to the 'coastal filter' of a Mediterranean lagoon. The analysis of macrofaunal assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon led to a clear differentiation between shallow areas of net nutrient recycling and exportation and deeper areas of net retention. These differences enhance nutrient removal from the water column, thus increasing the ecosystem's resistance to eutrophication. PMID:21967864

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2011-12-01

333

Wind Induced Resuspension in a Shallow Tropical Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow environments, particle resuspension can induce large ecological effects. Under some certain conditions of fetch, wind velocity, bathymetry and bed roughness, resuspension is generated by wind induced waves. During December 1991, a shallow station (1 m depth) in the north shore of a tropical lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire) was investigated in order to study the impact of wind induced resuspension on the ecosystem. In this area, Austral Trade winds are dominant almost all year long, and their velocity shows a marked diel pattern. During the survey, three sequences were distinguished: a period of Austral Trade winds (with possible resuspension), a period of Boreal Trade winds (no wind induced waves at the station) and a period of transitional Trade winds. Only Austral Trade winds with a speed >3 m s -1 allowed particle resuspension. For chlorophyll, mineral seston and ammonia, significantly higher values were noted during the windy sequences. Conductivity and water colour varied in relation to tides. Granulometric and mineralogical analyses showed that only the 0-3 cm superficial level of the sediment was involved in resuspension. This process induced several effects: (1) an increase of suspended matter concentration in the water and thus a light attenuation due to a higher turbidity, (2) a distribution in the whole water column of nutrients from the pore water, (3) a modification of the sediment granulometric characteristics and (4) an increase in the food available for planktonic filter feeders since algal cells were periodically resuspended in the whole water column. Wind induced resuspension occurred in 10% of the Ebrié lagoon. In this area, the daily alternate of resuspension-sedimentation sequence is then a major factor controlling the productivity of a system which is potentially highly productive (high nutrient load, favourable climatic conditions) yet characterized by high turbidity. These observations can be generalized to comparable systems in the tropical area.

Arfi, R.; Guiral, D.; Bouvy, M.

1993-06-01

334

LHCb PID Upgrade Technical Design Report  

E-print Network

The LHCb upgrade will take place in the second long shutdown of the LHC, currently scheduled to begin in 2018. The upgrade will enable the experiment to run at luminosities of $2 \\times 10^{33}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ and will read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a exible software-based trigger. All sub-detectors of LHCb will be re-designed to comply with these new operating conditions. This Technical Design Report presents the upgrade plans of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system, the calorimeter system and the muon system, which together provide the particle identication capabilities of the experiment.

LHCb Collaboration

2013-01-01

335

Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

Trageser, Katherine H.

2011-01-01

336

Heavy metals in water, sediment and tissues of Liza saliens from Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon, Portugal.  

PubMed

Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon is an ecosystem of great ecological importance that is located on the northwest coast of Portugal and has been degraded as a result of industrial and anthropogenic activities. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were measured in water, sediment and in tissues (liver and muscle) of Liza saliens, which is the dominant fish from the lagoon. Comparisons between metal concentrations in water and sediments were made with those in tissues of fish caught at the lagoon. Metals in water were quantified predominantly bound to particulate and equalled or exceeded the limit of chronic reference values. Metal concentrations in sediments varied among sampled sites. The relative order of concentrations was "Zn > Cu approximately Pb > Cr" the same pattern observed for metals in water. Metals in fish tissues showed higher concentrations in liver (262 mg CuxKg(-1) and 89 mg ZnxKg(-1)) than in muscle (<3 mg CuxKg(-1) and 26 mg ZnxKg(-1)), while Pb and Cr were not detected. These results suggest that Cu and Zn are the metals of major concern in the lagoon. Mullet detritivorous feeding habits, bioaccumulation pattern and the high sediment metals concentrations relative to the water suggest that sediments can be the most important source of contamination in this ecosystem. The positive relationship found between Cu in liver and fish length demonstrates that time of exposure is a crucial factor in bioaccumulation. Condition indices (K and HSI) in mullets from the lagoon were higher compared to mullets from sea, suggesting abnormal condition in the lagoon population. We conclude that metals chronic exposure in the lagoon can impose considerable fish stress. The results also show that the lagoon is an area of environmental concern. PMID:17447151

Fernandes, C; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A; Cabral, D; Salgado, M A

2008-01-01

337

A geochemical analytical approach for the evaluation of heavy metal distribution in lagoon sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim, and Scope  Italian lagoon environments are of great importance due either to their frequency and distribution along the coasts or to\\u000a their management. Agriculture, urban and industrial activities in lagoon catchments can be sources of heavy metal (HM) pollution\\u000a by direct waste dumping, atmospheric deposition of fumes or, simply, as a consequence of a lack of natural water recharge.

Renata Pacifico; Paola Adamo; Carlo Cremisini; Fabio Spaziani; Luciano Ferrara

2007-01-01

338

Ecological risk assessment of pesticide residues in coastal lagoons of Nicaragua.  

PubMed

A detailed investigation on the contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorous pesticides of the coastal lagoon system of Chinandega district, Nicaragua, allowed the identification of contaminant sources and lagoon areas currently more contaminated. The discharge of rivers into the lagoons is the main transport pathway of pesticide residues; whereas atmospheric depositions are likely to be the main pathway for the introduction of PCBs into the lagoons. Analysis of water samples indicates widespread contamination with soluble organophosphorous compounds, such as dichlorvos, up to 410 ng L(-1), diazinon, up to 150 ng L(-1), and chlorpyrifos, up to 83 ng L(-1). Analyses of suspended matter for low solubility organochlorine (OC) compounds revealed very high concentrations of toxaphene, up to 17,450 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), total DDTs up to 478 ng g(-1), Aroclor 1254, up to 119 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations for other compounds. Lagoon sediments contain high concentrations also of toxaphene, from 7.9 to 6,900 ng g(-1) (dw), and DDTs, from 1.5 to 321 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane and other residues. Concentrations of OCs in soft tissues of clams are statistically correlated with the concentrations of the same compounds in bottom sediments, indicating that sediments are a source of contaminants to biota. In some areas of the lagoon system, concentration of residues in sediments are far above recommended threshold guideline values for protection of aquatic life, and may cause acute and chronic toxic effects on more sensitive aquatic species. Despite the ban on the use of toxaphene and DDT, residues of these compounds are still entering the lagoons due to erosion of, and leaching from, agriculture soils in the region. Measures for protection of the lagoon ecosystem are discussed. PMID:12400931

Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; Tolosa, Immaculada; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Lacayo, Martha; Cruz, Adela

2002-10-01

339

A Trophic Model of a Sandy Barrier Lagoon at Chiku in Southwestern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the ECOPATH 3.0 software system, a balanced trophic model of a sandy barrier lagoon with intensive fishery activities at Chiku in tropical Taiwan was constructed. The lagoon model comprised 13 compartments. Trophic levels of the compartments varied from 1·0 for primary producers and detritus to 3·6 for piscivorous fish. Hanging-cultured oysters accounted for 39% of the harvestable fishery biomass

H.-J Lin; K.-T. Shao; S.-R. Kuo; H.-L. Hsieh; S.-L. Wong; I.-M Chen; W.-T. Lo; J.-J Hung

1999-01-01

340

Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance (tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA) were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These

J. C. Chee-Sanford; R. I. Aminov; I. J. Krapac; N. Garrigues-Jeanjean; R. I. Mackie

2001-01-01

341

PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

342

Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

343

Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FLOOR PLANS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

344

Isolation of Candida albicans from freshwater and sewage.  

PubMed Central

The isolation and identification of Candida albicans from polluted aquatic environments were facilitated by the inclusion of a selective medium and a differential screening medium to detect the reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. C. albicans occurred commonly in low numbers in sewage influents, rivers, and streams. PMID:7013713

Cook, W L; Schlitzer, R L

1981-01-01

345

The Effects of Sewage on a Lake Champlain Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens Brook wetland is presently receiving partially treated sewage from the City of St. Albans, Vermont. The water quality in St. Albans Bay is deteriorating. There is conflicting evidence for the theory that wetlands act as a nutrient sink or as a biotic nutrient filter. This research is an investigation into the productivity and trophic food chain relationships of Stevens

Larry N. Schwartz; Gerhard K. Gruendling

1985-01-01

346

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH LIVING IN CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of the oral papillomas on black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. Ames-test mutagenicity of a pond-water concentrate indicated the presence of a chemical c...

347

Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes contain P, but also heavy metals. P in the ashes exhibits low bioavailability, a disadvantage in farming. Therefore, in a second thermochemical step, P is transferred into mineral phases available for plants, and heavy metals are removed as well. The thermochemical treatment was investigated in a laboratory-scale rotary furnace by treating seven different sewage sludge ashes under systematic variation of operational parameters. Heavy metal removal and the increase of the P-bioavailability were the focus of the investigation. The present experimental study shows that these objectives have been achieved with the proposed process. The P-bioavailability was significantly increased due to the formation of new mineral phases such as chlorapatite, farringtonite and stanfieldite during thermochemical treatment. PMID:19036571

Adam, C; Peplinski, B; Michaelis, M; Kley, G; Simon, F-G

2009-03-01

348

Influence of sewage and pharmaceuticals on soil microbial function.  

PubMed

Although sewage effluent application to land is a common approach to recycle water and provide nutrients to plants, bioactive pharmaceuticals contained in sewage may change soil quality by affecting soil microbial communities. Establishing causal effects, however, is difficult, because trace levels of pharmaceuticals are confounded with other effluent constituents. Therefore, two originally similar soil microbial communities, one irrigated in situ with sewage effluent for 12 years and another nonirrigated, were exposed to high levels of acetaminophen, aspirin, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, and tetracycline. The objectives of the current study were to determine the influence of high levels of pharmaceuticals on several soil microbial properties, the effect that prolonged effluent irrigation with ambient levels of pharmaceuticals had on soil microbial function, and how this effect would change in response to pharmaceutical exposure. Several pharmaceuticals, at high exposure levels, imposed stress on the soil microbial community as judged by increased CO(2) respiration, decreased biomass carbon, and altered substrate utilization affinities. Prolonged effluent irrigation, which altered the genetic fingerprint of the microbial community, also mitigated the response that exposure to pharmaceuticals had on the microbial community and enabled degradation of the antimicrobial salicylic acid after aspirin exposure. In conclusion, prolonged irrigation with sewage effluent containing pharmaceuticals at ambient levels influenced the microbial community so that they were able to better cope with sudden exposure to high levels of pharmaceuticals. PMID:21312249

Gielen, Gerty J H P; Clinton, Peter W; Van den Heuvel, Michael R; Kimberley, Mark O; Greenfield, Laurie G

2011-05-01

349

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

350

Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.  

PubMed

Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic. PMID:24938297

Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

2014-06-17

351

Biological Aspects of Metal Waste Reclamation With Sewage Sludge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Smelter waste deposits pose an environmental threat worldwide. Sewage sludges are potentialy useful in reclamation of such sites. Biological aspects of revegetation of Zn and Pb smelter wastelands are discussed in a paper. The goal of the studies was to asses to what extent sludge treatment would...

352

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

353

Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff  

E-print Network

321 14 Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff using recovered ochre K © 2004 IWA Publishing. Phosphorus in Environmental Technology: Principles and Applications. Edited by Eugenia Valsami-Jones. ISBN: 1 84339 001 9 #12;322 Phosphorus removal technologies from water and waste

Heal, Kate

354

PRELIMINARY RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PATHOGENS IN LANDFILLED MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology and accompanying model, SLDGFILL (sludge monofill), have been developed to assess the risk to human health posed by parasites, bacteria and viruses in municipal sewage sludge disposed of in sludge-only landfills (monofills). he following information is required for ...

355

Wildlife health implications of sewage disposal in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.

Friend, M.

1985-01-01

356

RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

357

EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

358

Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for

Nimit Nipattummakul; Islam I. Ahmed; Somrat Kerdsuwan; Ashwani K. Gupta

2010-01-01

359

Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Mugil cephalus from seven coastal lagoons of NW Mexico.  

PubMed

The increasing order of the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tissues of Mugil cephalus of seven coastal lagoons of Sinaloa State (NW Mexico) was liver > gills > muscle, while for Pb it was gills > muscle ? liver. There were no differences between the mean concentrations of Cd and Pb of the three tissues determined in the samples of the seven lagoons and, although there were some significant differences, there was no indication of a latitude-related trend in the distribution of Cu and Zn: the Cu content of the muscle tended to be higher in the northern than in the southern lagoons, although in the case of the gills the highest and lowest mean values indicated an opposite trend, with the highest and lowest values in one southern and one northern lagoon. In the case of the liver, there were no differences and no indication of a regional trend. There were no differences in the mean Zn contents of muscle and gills; in the case of the liver, one of the lagoons of the central part of the state had a significantly higher value than one of the southern lagoons and all the rest had similar values. In addition, there was no clear indication of season-related differences in any of the three tissues. According to our results, the metal contents of the muscle of this species are not of concern for human health, since the allowable ingestion would be in the order of 0.9 kg/day. PMID:21210210

Frías-Espericueta, Martin G; Osuna-López, J Isidro; Jiménez-Vega, Martha A; Castillo-Bueso, Daniel; Muy-Rangel, Maria D; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; López-López, Gabriel; Izaguirre-Fierro, Gildardo; Voltolina, Domenico

2011-11-01

360

Rates of sediment supply and sea-level rise in a large coastal lagoon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laguna Madre, Texas, is 3-7 km wide and more than 190 km long, making it one of the longest lagoons in the world. The lagoon encompasses diverse geologic and climatic regions and it is an efficient sediment trap that accumulates clastic sediments from upland, interior, and oceanic sources. The semi-arid climate and frequent tropical cyclones historically have been responsible for the greatest volume of sediment influx. On an average annual basis, eolian transport, tidal exchange, storm washover, mainland runoff, interior shore erosion, and authigenic mineral production introduce approximately one million m3 of sediments into the lagoon. Analyses of these sediment transport mechanisms and associated line sources and point sources of sediment provide a basis for: (1) estimating the long-term average annual sediment supply to a large lagoon; (2) calculating the average net sedimentation rate; (3) comparing introduced sediment volumes and associated aggradation rates with observed relative sea-level change; and (4) predicting future conditions of the lagoon. This comparison indicates that the historical average annual accumulation rate in Laguna Madre (<1 mm/yr) is substantially less than the historical rate of relative sea-level rise (~4 mm/yr). Lagoon submergence coupled with erosion of the western shore indicates that Laguna Madre is being submerged slowly and migrating westward rather than filling, as some have suggested.

Morton, R.A.; Ward, G.H.; White, W.A.

2000-01-01

361

Strontium isotopic-paleontological method as a high-resolution paleosalinity tool for lagoonal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined strontium isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) and paleontological method is newly applied to a modern lagoon in Egypt's Nile River delta to test its applicability as a paleosalinity proxy. Analyses of 22 surficial samples collected throughout the lagoon include 81 Sr isotopic analyses of mollusks, foraminifera, ostracods, barnacles, bryozoans, serpulid worm tubes, pore water, and gypsum crystals. Two salinity groups are distinguished in each sample: a lower salinity group (˜1 ppt) mixed with a higher salinity group (˜3 10 ppt) that, respectively, are interpreted as the modern biocoenosis and an older relict fauna. The relict fauna denotes higher salinity conditions in the lagoon prior to closure of the Aswan High Dam (1964), and the modern fauna records freshening of the lagoon. Recent decreased salinity is a response to regulated Nile River flow and increased discharge into Manzala of fresh water via canals and drains. Quantification of this short-term salinity change holds promise for study of modern lagoons in other world settings, and may provide paleoclimatic information for older lagoon sequences in the Nile River delta and the geologic record.

Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Stanley, Daniel Jean; Patterson, R. Timothy

1998-11-01

362

Water quality of Mediterranean coastal plains: conservation implications from the Akyatan Lagoon, Turkey.  

PubMed

The water quality of the Akyatan Lagoon was characterized using hydrochemical methodology. The lagoon is located on the Mediterranean coast and is the largest wetland ecosystem in Turkey. In addition, the lagoon is classified as a hyper-salinity wetland. Water samples were collected monthly between December 2007 and November 2008. Eleven stations within the lagoon were determined, and triplicate grab samples were obtained from each station to characterize water quality as follows: T °C, pH, total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and main anions, including chloride (Cl(-)), nitrates (NO3 (-)), and sulfate (SO4 (2-)). Results from selected stations indicated varying TDS, EC, salinity, and Cl(-) concentrations, from 20,892 to 175,824 mg/L, from 35.7 to 99.6 mS/cm, from 22.3 to 71.0 ppt, and from 14,819 to 44,198 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Data indicated that the spatial distribution of water quality parameters was significantly affected by freshwater input via the constructed drainage channels which collect water from a catchment area and discharge water into the lagoon as a point source, thus preventing drainage water to reach the lagoon as a nonpoint source. PMID:25079087

Demir Yetis, Aysegul; Selek, Zeliha; Seckin, Galip; Davutluoglu, Orkun I

2014-11-01

363

Late Holocene sedimentation in a high Arctic coastal setting: Simpson Lagoon and Colville Delta, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic coastal environments near major river outfalls, like Simpson Lagoon, Alaska and the adjacent Colville River Delta, potentially contain high-resolution sediment records useful in elucidating late Holocene Arctic sediment transport pathways and coupled terrestrial-ocean evidence of paleoclimate variability. This study utilizes a multi-tracer geochronology approach (137Cs, 239,240Pu, and 14C) tailored for high-latitude environments to determine the age models for cores collected from Simpson Lagoon, and to date seismic boundaries in shallow acoustic reflection data (CHIRP) to examine late Holocene infill patterns. Modern (~100 y) sediment accumulation rates range from <0.02 to 0.46±0.04 cm y-1, with a primary depocenter in western Simpson Lagoon adjacent to the Colville Delta and a secondary depocenter in eastern Simpson Lagoon. CHIRP reflectors, age-constrained by 14C analysis, reveal rapid late Holocene (0-3500 y BP) transgression consistent with high modern shoreline retreat rates. The western depocenter contains >5 m of late Holocene interbedded sediments, likely derived primarily from the Colville River, with onset of accumulation occurring prior to ~3500 y BP. A paleo-high in central Simpson Lagoon, separating the two depocenters, was subaerially exposed prior to ~600 y BP. The millimeters-per-year sedimentation rates across the lagoon, coupled with the undisturbed, interbedded sediment record, indicate that these settings hold great potential to develop new Arctic paleoenvironmental records.

Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Allison, Mead A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Marcantonio, Franco; Goff, John A.

2014-02-01

364

Living in a coastal lagoon environment: photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms of key marine macroalgae.  

PubMed

The physiological status of Cystoseira compressa, Padina pavonica and Palisada tenerrima was studied by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment content, stoichiometry (C:N), accumulation of UV photoprotectors and antioxidant activity; comparing their photosynthetic response in a coastal lagoon (Mar Menor) and in Mediterranean coastal waters. In general, the specimens reached their highest ETRmax in spring in the Lagoon, but in summer in the Mediterranean, coinciding with their maximum biomass peak. The species exhibited a dynamic photoinhibition. Except C. compressa, they showed a lower decrease in Fv/Fm and higher recovery rates in the Mediterranean populations when exposed to high irradiance. The higher salinity and temperature of the lagoon could impair the photoprotection mechanisms. The acclimation to lagoon environments is species-specific and involves complex regulatory mechanisms. The results underline the importance of N in repair, avoidance, quenching and scavenging mechanisms. In general, Lagoon specimens showed higher pigment concentration. Although xanthophylls play important photo-protective and antioxidant roles, the observed trend is more likely to be explained by the higher temperatures reached in the lagoon compared to Mediterranean. Therefore the studied photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms can be effective not only for high irradiance, but also for higher temperatures in a climate change scenario, but are highly dependent on nutrient availability. PMID:25164017

García-Sánchez, Marta; Korbee, Nathalie; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Marcos, Concepción; Figueroa, Félix L; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

2014-10-01

365

Development of a Web-Based, Emissions Reduction Calculator for Storm Water/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation  

E-print Network

of the retrofit measures to city-wide, wastewater distributions. In come cities the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same system. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater... the storm water and sewage mix are discharged untreated into rivers or the sewage backs up into streets and basements. In addition, storm water treated in the sewage treatment plant causes unnecessary energy use. Therefore separating the storm water...

Liu, Z.; Haberl, J. S.; Brumbelow, K.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.

2006-01-01

366

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in selected sewage sludge in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Levels of seven major perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed for the first time in sludge from wastewater treatment plants from Nigeria. Measurements were performed using an analytical methodology using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS). The method detection limit and method quantification limit was 3pg/g and 9.5pg/g for both analytes (PFCAs and PFSAs) respectively. Typical recoveries ranged from 50% to 104% for spiked mass labeled internal standards of 1ng (absolute value) to 1g of sample. All sludge samples taken from industrial, domestic and hospital wastewater treatment plants contained measurable levels of PFASs. Levels of the quantified perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates concentrations ranged from 10 to 597 and 14 to 540pg/g, respectively. The concentrations were therefore lower compared to sewage sludge samples reported in other regions in the world. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with carbon chain having ?8 fluorinated carbons were detected in the analyzed sewage sludge samples at higher levels compared to carboxylates with <8 fluorinated carbon chain. The measured concentrations indicate that no PFAS point source for the 10 investigated sewage treatment plants existed. Furthermore the low levels in the four municipal sewage treatment plants in Lagos is a first indication that even in an African megacity like Lagos the PFASs release from households are low until now. The highest PFOS level was found in a hospital sewage sludge (539.6pg/g) possibly indicating (minor) release from medical equipment where some are known to contain PFOS. The PFASs in waste water sludge from a brewery warrant further investigations. PMID:23648329

Sindiku, Omotayo; Orata, Francis; Weber, Roland; Osibanjo, Oladele

2013-07-01

367

Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents, and waters  

PubMed Central

All sewage and water treatment processes remove or destroy viruses. Some treatment methods are better than others, but none is likely to remove all of the viruses present in sewage or in raw water. Primary settling of solids probably removes a great many of the viruses in sewage because viruses are largely associated with the solids. Long storage of effluents or water is destructive to viruses. Activated sludge is the best biological method for removing viruses from sewage. Trickling filters and oxidation ponds are erratic, the latter probably because of short-circuiting. Coagulation with metal ions is the most effective single treatment method for removing viruses from sewage and from raw waters, according to laboratory studies at least. Lime is the best coagulant for these purposes in the rapidly virucidal high pH range. Polyelectrolytes also can sediment viruses. Rapid filtration through clean sand does not remove viruses, but filtration of coagulated effluents does, probably because the layering floc itself adsorbs viruses. Clays and carbon adsorb viruses to some extent, but the process is not efficient. Ultimately, disinfection should help to produce virus-free waters for drinking and virus-free effluents for discharge into waters with which man may come into contact. Because disinfection is not a simple matter, disinfectants must be selected according to need. Effluents and waters containing solids can probably be disinfected only by heat or by penetrating radiation, waters discharged into streams should not be disinfected with anything that will injure or kill aquatic life (unless the toxic products can be neutralized), and drinking-waters should carry a disinfecting residue. PMID:4607010

Berg, Gerald

1973-01-01

368

Salt Enrichment of Municipal Sewage: New Prevention Approaches in Israel  

PubMed

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the water-softening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCl solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery. PMID:8661617

Weber; Avnimelech; Juanico

1996-07-01

369

Get a winning Oracle upgrade session using the quarterback approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upgrades, upgrades... too much customer down time. Find out how we shrunk our production upgrade schedule 40% from our estimate of 10 days 12 hours to 6 days 2 hours using the quarterback approach. So your upgrade is not that complex, come anyway. This approach is scalable to any size project and will be extremely valuable.

Anderson, G.

2002-01-01

370

Capacity upgrade in WDM submarine cable system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity upgrade from 20 Gbit\\/s to 160 Gbit\\/s in a WDM submarine cable system has been designed based on the experimental study of the dependency of the repeater output power and the number of wavelength

Eiichi Shibano; Hidenori Taga; Toshio Kawazawa; Koji Goto

1999-01-01

371

Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP(Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to up grade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported. Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system ''on line'' while still saving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided.

Munson, F. H.

1998-11-30

372

RECOVERY ACT: TAPOCO PROJECT: CHEOAH UPGRADE  

SciTech Connect

Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

Paul Tran; 293 Highway 740; Baden, NC 28009

2013-02-28

373

The upgrade of the LHCb Vertex Locator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment is set for a significant upgrade, which will be ready for Run 3 of the LHC in 2020. This upgrade will allow LHCb to run at a significantly higher instantaneous luminosity and collect an integrated luminosity of 50fb?1 by the end of Run 4. In this process the Vertex Locator (VELO) detector will be upgraded to a pixel-based silicon detector. The upgraded VELO will improve upon the current detector by being closer to the beams and having lower material modules with microchannel cooling and a thinner RF-foil. Simulations have shown that it will maintain its excellent performance, even after the radiation damage caused by collecting an integrated luminosity of 50fb?1.

Bird, T.

2014-12-01

374

The upgraded scheme of Hefei Light Source  

SciTech Connect

To enhance the performance of Hefei Light Source, which was designed and constructed two decades ago, an upgrade project would be carried out in the near future. The detail upgrade scheme was described in this paper. Firstly, the magnet lattice of storage ring should be reconstructed with 4 DBA cells, whose advantages are lower beam emittance and more straight section available for insertion devices. Secondly, the beam diagnostics, main power supply, transverse and longitudinal multi-bunch feedback, beam control and manipulation system would be upgrade to improve the beam orbit stability. Finally, the injection system of storage ring and injector, which is composed of electron linac and beam transfer line, would be updated in order to assure smooth beam accumulation process under new low emittance lattice. With above improvement, it is hopeful to increase the brilliance of Hefei Light Source by two orders approximately. After three-year upgrade project, the performance of HLS would meet the demands of advanced SR users.

Li Weimin; Xu Hongliang; Wang Lin; Feng Guangyao; Zhang Shancai; Hao Hao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory of University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China)

2010-06-23

375

Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in semi-enclosed reef lagoons of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton biomass and primary production rates within semi-enclosed reef lagoons of the central Great Barrier Reef were compared with adjacent shelf waters. Chlorophyll concentrations and surface primary production rates were usually higher in lagoons although seasonal differences were only significant during the summer. Nitrate concentrations were higher in lagoons than in shelf waters year-round. Nano- (10–20 µm size fraction), however,

Miles J. Furnas; Alan W. Mitchell; Malvern Gilmartin; Noelia Revelante

1990-01-01

376

Package warehouse upgrades and regulations  

SciTech Connect

Many regulations have been written by states and the EPA about bulk chemical storage since its introduction in the late 1970`s. However, until this year the National Fire Protection Association, through their NFPA guidelines, and the Uniform Fire Code have been the only significant work written concerning package ag chemical storage. These codes have been adopted by many states and are enforced at the local (city) level on both US coasts and larger cities around the midwest and south. Several catastrophic fires at package locations during the last few years have resulted in discussions by regulators and industry to provide not only insurance and guidance but also regulations to retailers and distributors in order to upgrade facilities to reduce the risk of large spills and fires. The Midwest Ag Chemical Association began the task of providing guidance regarding package warehouses three years ago and after twelve months of input from EPA, suppliers and retail dealers, has published the Fundamental Principles of Agricultural Chemical Storage in August of 1993.

Hester, J.F.

1994-12-31

377

The software upgrade of NICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NICS (the Near Infrared Camera Spectrometer) is a cooled near-infrared camera-spectrometer that has been developed in the late 90's at the INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory for the Ø3.5 m "Telescopio Nazionale Galileo" (TNG) at the La Palma Observatory. The instrument has been operating for regular scientific observations since the beginning of 2001. During the 2001-2007 period it has been used in about 410 nights yielding data which contributed to the production of 60 refereed papers which collected a total of more than 800 citations. At the age of 8 years, NICS is still among the most efficient and versatile infrared instruments existing worldwide. To improve its observational efficiency, we have designed and we are currently developing new control software and GUI interfaces. The former has been devised to optimize the low level tasks (in particular the motors controls), the latter to simplify the communications between the observer and the instrument. We give here a short description of NICS software upgrade.

Rossetti, Emanuel; Guido, Vincenzo; Oliva, Ernesto

2008-08-01

378

Page 1 of 17 NSTX Upgrade Project  

E-print Network

INFORMATION Project Title: NSTX Upgrade Project at PPPL Total Project Cost (TPC) Range: $74.7M to $92.9M CD-0 Range 2.1 Total Project Cost Range The preliminary total project cost (TPC) range is $74.7M - $92.9M. 2Page 1 of 17 NSTX Upgrade Project Acquisition Strategy April 5, 2010 #12;Page 2 of 17 Change Log

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

379

BNL ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.

MALONE,R.; BEN-ZVI,I.; WANG,X.; YAKIMENKO,V.

2001-06-18

380

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade Piping Loads on Cleanroom Roof  

SciTech Connect

The proposed piping layout for the DO upgrade will run along the south wall of DAB. The cryogenic service pipe runs above the upper and lower cleanroom roofs and will need to be supported by the roofs beams. Calculations were done to determine the stresses in the I-beams created by the existing and additional loads due to the upgrade. Refer to drawing no. 3823.115-ME-317283 for drawings of the piping layout. Figure 1 shows the 'plan view' portion of this drawing. The weight of the individual lines were calculated in figure 2 assuming a pipe density of O.28 lbm/in{sup 3} for stainless steel (0.12% C) and a fluid density (assuming LN2 at 1 atm) of 0.03 lbm/in{sup 3}. The weights of the corrugated steel flooring, assembly hall feed cans, support beams, and roof hatch were also included in the analysis. These loads are calculated on pgs. 5-6. A floor load of 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} was also added in order to maintain the existing floor load limit in addition to the added piping loads. Measurements of the dimensions of the I-beams determined that the nominal sizes of the beams were W8 x 21 for the lower roof and W14 x 26 for the upper roof. Pipe lengths were determined from the drawing for each of the lines on pgs. 1-2 of the calculations (refer to all piping by line numbers according to figure 2). A total weight was calculated for lines 3-9 along the south wall and lines 1-2 running along the north wall of the lower cleanroom roof. To simplify the calculations these weights were assumed to be evenly distributed on the 5 I-beam supports of the lower cleanroom roof 2.5 feet in from the south wall. The stress analysis was done using FrameMac, a 2-D finite element program for the Macintosh. Beam 3 was not included in the analysis because it is structurally equivalent to beam 1. The program outputted maximum values for shear stress, bending stress, shear force, and moments in each of the beams analyzed. These values were then compared to the allowable stresses as per the specifications and codes stated in the AISC: Manual of Steel Construction. The stresses on the roof beams needed to be determined in a number of different places. The first was in the beam itself which included the flange and web sections. The second place was at the ends of the beams where the flanges were removed to make the perpendicular connections to the other beams on the lower roof. The final point was the framed beam connection which included the bolt analysis. FrameMac calculated stresses only for the beams which included the sections where the flanges were removed to make the end connections. To analyze the connections, the allowable bending and shear stresses were solved for allowable shear and moments. This was done because FrameMac does not have the capability to analyze the dimensions for the bolts and angles used in the connections were known and the program outputted values for reaction forces and moments at the ends of the beams. Multiplying the allowable shear stress for the bolts and angle connections by their respective areas gave the allowable shear force. The allowable moment for the angle connection was calculated by multiplying the section modulus of the angle by the allowable bending stress. These allowable loads are calculated on pgs. 7-8. The allowable and maximum calculated stresses by FrameMac are summarized in a table. In conclusion, the cleanroom roofs will be able to safely support the weight of the upgrade cryogenic piping, feed cans, corrugated flooring and a 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} floor load with the addition of diagonal braces at the ends of beams 1,2,3,4, and 8. The location and size of these diagonal braces are shown in fig. 4. Also, the piping supports and feed cans will all need to be placed directly above the I-beam supports. These supports will consist of unistrut structures that will be detailed and specified separate to this analysis. The output and input data from FrameMac and the drawings used in the analysis follow the calculation pages.

Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

1995-08-28

381

Temporal Variability of Carbon and Nutrient Budgets from a Tropical Lagoon in Chiku, Southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical processes and budgets of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from the semi-enclosed Chiku Lagoon were constructed through periodic observations and modelling. During the investigation, samples were mostly collected bimonthly, and hydrochemical properties, inorganic and organic nutrients (DIN, DON, DIP, DOP, Dsi (dissolved silica)) and organic carbon (DOC, POC) from waters associated with the lagoon were measured. The water exchange time of Chiku Lagoon ranges from 1·0 d (June 1997) to 8·5 d (January 1997) with an annual mean of 5·0 d. The residence time of nutrients varies with water exchange time, and is about 2-5 d longer than the water exchange time. Terrestrial inputs and lagoon distributions of nutrients varied in time and space based on the time scale of sampling. Thus, carbon and nutrient budgets were prepared for each sampling period and then combined to form annual budgets, which differed significantly from those modelled from annual means of various parameters. The annual removal of terrestrial nutrient inputs to the lagoon system is 69·4, 47·0, 27·7 and 42·0%, respectively, for DIN, DON, DIP and DOP. Consequently, the nonconservative flux of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (?DIP) from the lagoon is around -0·1 mole m -2 yr -1, that is equivalent to an internal organic carbon sink of 11 mol C m -2 yr -1. This organic carbon budget indicates that the lagoon is an autotrophic system where photosynthesis exceeds respiration ( p-r> 0). This carbon sink is one of largest reported from world's lagoons, and its large size may result from the abundant nutrients in the lagoon. However, although the Chiku Lagoon is estimated to remove 4·7 mol C m -2 yr -1 carbonate through oyster calcification, it emits an equivalent amount of CO 2 into the system. Despite net nitrogen fixation being observed during some periods, denitrification exceeds nitrogen fixation throughout the period of observation [( nfix-denit)=-1·4 mole N m -2 yr -1].

Hung, J.-J.; Kuo, F.

2002-05-01

382

LabVIEW Upgrade Notes Version 8.2  

E-print Network

LabVIEW Upgrade Notes Version 8.2 These upgrade notes describe the process of upgrading LabVIEW. If you are upgrading from LabVIEW 7.1 or earlier to LabVIEW 8.2, refer to the LabVIEW 8.0 Upgrade Notes for information about the enhancements, changes, and added features in LabVIEW 8.0. National Instruments

Kleinfeld, David

383

The distribution of salinity and main forcing effects in the Berre lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from previous studies in lagoons and well mixed estuaries indicate that salt transport is primarily in response to advection associated with freshwater outflow, tidal diffusion, and to shear effects arising from spatial correlations of vertical and especially transverse deviations in salinity and current speed (Smith, 1994). Therefore, the inflow of fresh and salt water into coastal lagoons is an important factor influencing the structure and function of lagoonal ecosystems worldwide (Lirman et al., 2007). The predominance of marine or freshwater inflow leads to the different ecosystems. Among several lagoons located along the Mediterranean shore of France, the Berre lagoon has been under intense anthropogenic pressure for several decades (Delpy et al., 2012). Moreover, the salinity level of the Berre lagoon was varying dramatically from the 19th century up to now. In this work, a special attention is focused on the salinity variation in the Berre lagoon due to the three dominant abiotic forcing mechanisms, i.e., incoming sea tide, runoff from a hydropower and a strong wind. Four different model scenarios were considered in order to examine the impact of each forcing mechanism or combined effects, i.e. : (a) tide only, (b) runoff only, (c) combined tide and runoff, and (d) an N-NW wind, tide and runoff together. Numerical modeling and interpretation of numerical results are based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D. It is found that the strongest negative impact is related to the huge hydropower runoffs, inducing the desalinization of the surface and subsurface waters not only in the centre of the lagoon, but also in the entire water column in the coastal seagrass recolonization zones. In the absence of wind, the huge inputs of freshwater from the hydropower lead to a haline stratification and thus, to anoxic conditions, making most of the lagoon unproductive. On the contrary, strong winds play a positive role on the salinity level of the Berre lagoon by destroying rapidly (in a few hours) the vertical stratification, thereby reducing the risk of anoxia. The results from these model scenarios are useful to further understand the ecosystem of the Berre lagoon and to help the designers of seagrass restoration program. References Delpy F., Pagano M., Blanchot J., Carlotti F., Thibault-Botha D. : Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64 (9) : 1921-32, 2012. Lirman D., Serafy J.E. : Documenting Everglades restoration impacts on Biscayne Bay's shallowest benthic habitats. First Annual Report. CERP Monitoring and Assessment Plan Component : Activity Number 3.2.3.3. Miami, FL, 2008. Smith N.P. : Water, salt and heat balance of coastal lagoons. In B. Kjerfve (ed.), Coastal Lagoon Processes. (pp. 69-101). Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1994.

Roux, Bernard; Alekseenko, Elena; Chen, Paul Gang; Kharif, Christian; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique

2014-05-01

384

Assessment of an Enterovirus Sewage Surveillance System by Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Sewage Isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Collected August 1994 to December 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (EVs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical EV cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an EV surveillance system. The study was carried out from August 1994 to December 2002. Monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were

Gerald Sedmak; David Bina; Jeffrey MacDonald

2003-01-01

385

PSL Icing Facility Upgrade Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) was recently upgraded to perform engine inlet ice crystal testing in an altitude environment. The system installed 10 spray bars in the inlet plenum for ice crystal generation using 222 spray nozzles. As an altitude test chamber, the PSL is capable of simulating icing events at altitude in a groundtest facility. The system was designed to operate at altitudes from 4,000 to 40,000 ft at Mach numbers up to 0.8M and inlet total temperatures from -60 to +15 degF. This paper and presentation will be part of a series of presentations on PSL Icing and will cover the development of the icing capability through design, developmental testing, installation, initial calibration, and validation engine testing. Information will be presented on the design criteria and process, spray bar developmental testing at Cox and Co., system capabilities, and initial calibration and engine validation test. The PSL icing system was designed to provide NASA and the icing community with a facility that could be used for research studies of engine icing by duplicating in-flight events in a controlled ground-test facility. With the system and the altitude chamber we can produce flight conditions and cloud environments to simulate those encountered in flight. The icing system can be controlled to set various cloud uniformities, droplet median volumetric diameter (MVD), and icing water content (IWC) through a wide variety of conditions. The PSL chamber can set altitudes, Mach numbers, and temperatures of interest to the icing community and also has the instrumentation capability of measuring engine performance during icing testing. PSL last year completed the calibration and initial engine validation of the facility utilizing a Honeywell ALF502-R5 engine and has duplicated in-flight roll back conditions experienced during flight testing. This paper will summarize the modifications and buildup of the facility to accomplish these tests.

Griffin, Thomas A.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Lizanich, Paul J.

2014-01-01

386

IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.

NONE

1995-04-01

387

New Caledonia surface lagoon chlorophyll modeling as coastal reef area health indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major part of the New Caledonia (NC) lagoon was classified as UNESCO Natural Site of Humanity Patrimony. Indeed, 22 175 km2 of tropical coral lagoon area exhibit high biodiversity. The NC lagoon is semi enclosed and connected to the Coral Sea through a barrier reef segmented by narrow passes. The environment is oligotrophic, due to important flush during trade winds events, and bathymetry is highly variable. In order to predict eutrophication events, we used an extension of a 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model recently developed on NC south western lagoon. The model is based on the Nitrogen and Carbon cycles, relating the variable stoechiometry of the elements in each biological compartment. The ecological model was developed to include an explicit description of the microbial loop. The resulting coupled model, forced by tide, wind, light, temperature and freshwater inputs, was used to calculate phytoplankton biomass, bacterial production, dissolved organic matter concentrations and nutrient recycling. Here we present results issued from the 3D coupled model ECO3M_LAGOON (biogeochemical, LOPB-IRD) and MARS3D (regional physical model, IFREMER-IRD) describing spatial and temporal interactions between water motion and biology, on larger domain including reef barrier and water exchanges through ocean-lagoon interface. To validate physical processes in the lagoon we used in situ data collected during field cruise (ValHyBio 2008, La Niña episode). Surface chlorophyll concentrations are compared with water color data from ValHyBio cruise and satellite data (MODIS/MERIS) corrected from bathymetry effects.

Fuchs, R.; Pinazo, C.; Douillet, P.; Dupouy, C.; Faure, V.; Mangin, A.

2010-10-01

388

Primary production dynamics in a pristine groundwater influenced coastal lagoon of the Yucatan Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dzilam lagoon is a shallow (0.6 m mean depth) ecosystem with 9.4 km 2 surface area, located in the north coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, and connected to the Gulf of Mexico through a permanent inlet. Freshwater input is possible through numerous sinkholes distributed throughout the lagoon, which also represent a continuous source of nitrate and silicate. The low anthropogenic influence has maintained a pristine condition in Dzilam lagoon, manifested in a spatial heterogeneity of water quality and primary production strongly related to the environmental fluctuations. To determine the annual variability of primary production and identify the factors controlling it, 12 monthly samplings were undertaken at six stations, from September 1998 to August 1999. Thus, physical-chemical parameters, inorganic nutrients concentrations, chlorophyll- a, phytoplankton production and seagrass biomass were measured. The water residence time in Dzilam lagoon is higher during dry season due to the significant evaporation rate, and shorter in rainy season because of increase in precipitation and volume of groundwater discharge. The multivariate analysis results suggest that the salinity gradient, changes in aquatic vegetation biomass, and the remineralized nutrients in sediments constitute key processes depicting the water quality and net primary production in Dzilam lagoon. Furthermore, the biogeochemical benthic processes, combined with a longer stay of phytoplankton cells within the lagoon, enhanced primary production in the water column during dry season, as opposite as rainy period, when the inferior water residence time yielded lower production values. The seagrasses ( Halodule wrightii and Ruppia maritima) showed the highest biomass (110.5 g dw/m 2/d) in dry season, while the lowest recordings were observed during cold fronts, with a salient belowground contribution (rhizomes and roots). Seagrasses and phytoplankton participation to the total primary production in Dzilam lagoon were seasonally alternated, yielding a high primary productivity along the annual cycle. Despite of this complementary arrangement, the submerged aquatic vegetation displayed an overall higher contribution during the year (65%) relate to phytoplankton.

Medina-Gómez, Israel; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.

2006-06-01

389

Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a tsunami which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific Ocean. A description of the tsunami within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-ocean atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical model simulations in the deep ocean. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep ocean tsunami signal simulated by two numerical models, suggesting that the tsunami amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, tsunami oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or modelled in the deep ocean. The tsunami energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the tsunami behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The propagation of the tsunami across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the tsunami on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.

Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony

2014-12-01

390

Hydrologic characteristics of lagoons at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during an October 1974 tidal cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow and water-quality changes were studied during a period of intense rainfall in the San Juan Lagoon system. The study covered a 25-hour period beginning 0900 hours 22 October, 1974. Precipitation during the study period averaged 70 millimeters. Sampling stations were located at Boca de Cangrejos, the main ocean outlet; Canal Pinones between Laguna de Pinones and Laguna La Torrecilla; Canal Suarez between Laguna San Jose, connects to Laguna La Torrecilla; and Cano de Martin Pena between Laguna San Jose and Bahia de San Juan. In addition water-elevation recording gages were installed at each lagoon. Water samples from the canal stations were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and suspended sediment. Specific-conductance measurements were used with the chemical data to estimate the runoff contributions of nutrients. Runoff into the lagoon, system during the study period was about 2.8 million cubic meters, or about 70 percent of the average precipitation. The runoff contributed chemical loadings to the lagoons of 95,000 kilograms total-organic carbon; 2,700 kilograms of total phosphorus; and 10,000 kilograms of total Khjeldhal nitrogen. A comparison with a prior study during which there was no significant rain, show that dry-period loadings are less than 10 percent of the wet-period loadings. At the end of the study period the system had not reached equilibrium, and the lagoons retained 80 percent of the water inflows from 50 to 90 percent of the chemical loads. Nearly 95 percent of the water outflows occurred at the Boca de Cangrejos sea outlet. The three lagoons and interconnecting canals form a very complex hydraulic system that is difficult to study using traditional techniques. A model of the system will facilitate management to improve the quality of water in the lagoons.

Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Ellis, S.R.

1983-01-01

391

The Unare lagoon - A recent example of sequence stratigraphic control in reservoir patterns  

SciTech Connect

The Unare lagoon constitutes a barred coastal lagoon formed during the Holocene transgression on a moderate wave energy, microtidal coast. An extensive surface sampling and core drill program has been carried out in the lagoon in order to develop a reservoir sedimentology and sequence stratigraphic model applicable to similar subsurface deposits. During the rapid Halocene sea level rise, more than 70 m of fluvial and delta plain sediments have aggraded behind the landward stepping coastal barrier. These sediments are truncated seaward by a transgressive wave ravinement surface, and are capped by widespread lagoonal muds which accumulated between 8300 and 7250 yBP. These muds constitute the Holocene Maximum Flooding Surface which preceded the onset of the post Holocene stillstand (c. 500[approximately] yBP), probably as a result of the high rate of sediment supply and the confined nature of the lagoon which acted as an efficient sediment trap. During the post Holocene stillstand, a fluvial-dominated delta has prograded across the lagoon and attained the coastal barrier. This delta constitutes a Highstand Systems Tract. The major reservoir sands comprise distributary channel meanderbelts and the transgressive barrier. The channels form sand ribbons 5-7 m thick, and up to 2 km wide. The barrier and shoreface sands forms a strike-elongate deposits less than 5 m thick, up to 150-600 m wide, and 5-10 km long. The lagoonal facies of the Maximum Flooding Surface form a good reservoir seal overlying the aggrading transgressive fluvial and delta plain sands and muds.

Bejarano, C. (Corpoven, S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

392

Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0.01 respectively and corresponding unsettled ratios were 1.8 ± 0.5, 30.77 ± 6.8 and 0.04 ± 0 respectively. Thus, treatability by the 3-stage BNR system appears highly feasible for nitrogen and is likely to be complex for phosphorous. Fractionation of COD, TP and TN is recommended to appropriately advise further steps to optimise the plant operations.

Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

393

Evaluation of modified clay coagulant for sewage treatment.  

PubMed

The use of modified clays as coagulants for sewage treatment was investigated in this study. The raw clays were montmorillonites K10 and KSF, and were modified by polymeric Al or Fe and/or Al/Fe mixing polymeric species. The comparative performance of modified clays and aluminium sulphate and ferric sulphate were evaluated in terms of the removal of turbidity, suspended solids, UV(254)-abs, colour, and total and soluble CODs. The results demonstrated that after being modified with mixing polymeric Al/Fe species, two montmorillonite clays possess greater properties to remove the particles (as suspended solids) and organic pollutants (as COD and UV(254)-abs) from the sewage and to enhance the particle settling rate significantly. PMID:15120564

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Pearce, Pete

2004-07-01

394

Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population  

SciTech Connect

Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1986-12-01

395

The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark  

SciTech Connect

In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

2005-07-01

396

[Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].  

PubMed

Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco State, and it also constitutes the more complete reference on the detailed size composition of a set of dominant species in a coastal lagoon in the central Mexican Pacific. PMID:24912349

González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

2014-03-01

397

Evaluation of modified clay coagulant for sewage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of modified clays as coagulants for sewage treatment was investigated in this study. The raw clays were montmorillonites K10 and KSF, and were modified by polymeric Al or Fe and\\/or Al\\/Fe mixing polymeric species. The comparative performance of modified clays and aluminium sulphate and ferric sulphate were evaluated in terms of the removal of turbidity, suspended solids, UV254-abs,

Jia-Qian Jiang; Zhiqiang Zeng; Pete Pearce

2004-01-01

398

Application of dried sewage sludge as phenol biosorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determine the potential application of dried sewage sludge as a biosorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solution. Results showed that biosorption capacity was strongly influenced by the pH of the aqueous solution with an observed maximum phenol removal at pH around 6–8. Biosorption capacity increased when initial phenol concentration was increased to 110mg\\/L

Usarat Thawornchaisit; Kesinee Pakulanon

2007-01-01

399

Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

2014-05-01

400

IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

2004-10-05

401

Treatment of Sewage by Electroflotation: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out on the decontamination of domestic sewage effluent by electroflotation in a homemade pilot scale reactor. Different values of current density, conductivity and effluent flow rate were tested to determine the most suitable operating parameters of the system. Applying a current density of 14.18 A m, adding 0.5 g L of NaCl, and using a flow rate of

Joel A. Palomino-Romero; Giancarlo R. Salazar-Banda; Maria Olímpia de O. Rezende

2012-01-01

402

Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik

1995-09-30

403

Distribution and levels of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and sixteen sewage sludge samples from 22 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were analysed for brominated flame retardants. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range n.d.–450 ng\\/g wet weight, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) varied between n.d. and 220 ng\\/g wet weight, 2,4,6-tribromophenol was in the range n.d.–0.9 ng\\/g wet weight and polybrominated biphenyls were not detected (except

Karin Öberg; Kristofer Warman; Tomas Öberg

2002-01-01

404

Selenium biomethylation products from soil and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Inorganic selenium compounds are converted to volatile methylated species (dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenone or methyl methylselenite) by microorganisms in sewage sludge and soil. In the absence of added selenium, no volatile selenium compounds were detected. All samples were evaluated without the addition of nutrients and in the presence of air or nitrogen. The methylation process may be an important step in the detoxification process for microorganisms exposed to high concentrations of selenium. PMID:17744562

Reamer, D C; Zoller, W H

1980-05-01

405

The upgrade of the CMS trigger system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHC accelerator at CERN in Geneva is being upgraded to increase its energy and luminosity, which requires that the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector and its trigger system are also upgraded to make full use of higher collision rates. The trigger upgrade will proceed in several stages. At present the hardware-based Level-1 trigger is being upgraded to improve the resolution and thus allow for efficient data taking at higher collision rates while keeping the present Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz. The new system will be running in parallel to the existing Level-1 trigger for commissioning in 2015, when LHC starts running again, and will take over the full trigger functionality in 2016. A fundamental change in the trigger is planned for the time when the CMS silicon tracker is replaced in 2022. While at present the tracker does not send data to the Level-1 trigger and is only read out when a positive Level-1 trigger decision is received, the new tracker will be integrated into the Level-1 trigger. For that second upgrade stage, a significant increase of the Level-1 trigger rate by a factor of up to ten is planned.

Jeitler, M.; CMS Collaboration

2014-08-01

406

Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems  

SciTech Connect

One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

Pertl, A., E-mail: andreas.pertl@boku.ac.a [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria); Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G. [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

2010-01-15

407

Improving spanning trees by upgrading nodes  

SciTech Connect

We study budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. A general problem in this setting is the following. We are given an edge weighted graph G = (V, E) where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has the best performance with respect to some measure. We consider the problem under two measures, namely, the weight of a minimum spanning tree and the bottleneck weight of a minimum bottleneck spanning tree. We present approximation and hardness results for the problem. Our results are tight to within constant factors. We also show that these approximation algorithms can be used to construct good approximation algorithms for the dual versions of the problems where there is a budget constraint on the upgrading cost and the objectives are minimum weight spanning tree and minimum bottleneck weight spanning tree respectively.

Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science] [and others

1997-01-16

408

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) power, by installing 2 × 8 internal magnetic perturbation coils, and by improving the ion cyclotron range of frequency compatibility with the tungsten wall. With the perturbation coils, reliable suppression of large type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) could be demonstrated in a wide operational window, which opens up above a critical plasma pedestal density. The pellet fuelling efficiency was observed to increase which gives access to H-mode discharges with peaked density profiles at line densities clearly exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit. Owing to the increased ECRH power of 4 MW, H-mode discharges could be studied in regimes with dominant electron heating and low plasma rotation velocities, i.e. under conditions particularly relevant for ITER. The ion-pressure gradient and the neoclassical radial electric field emerge as key parameters for the transition. Using the total simultaneously available heating power of 23 MW, high performance discharges have been carried out where feed-back controlled radiative cooling in the core and the divertor allowed the divertor peak power loads to be maintained below 5 MW m-2. Under attached divertor conditions, a multi-device scaling expression for the power-decay length was obtained which is independent of major radius and decreases with magnetic field resulting in a decay length of 1 mm for ITER. At higher densities and under partially detached conditions, however, a broadening of the decay length is observed. In discharges with density ramps up to the density limit, the divertor plasma shows a complex behaviour with a localized high-density region in the inner divertor before the outer divertor detaches. Turbulent transport is studied in the core and the scrape-off layer (SOL). Discharges over a wide parameter range exhibit a close link between core momentum and density transport. Consistent with gyro-kinetic calculations, the density gradient at half plasma radius determines the momentum transport through residual stress and thus the central toroidal rotation. In the SOL a close comparison of probe data with a gyro-fluid code showed excellent agreement and points to the dominance of drift waves. Intermittent structures from ELMs and from turbulence are shown to have high ion temperatures even at large distances outside the separatrix.

Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Äkäslompolo, S.; Amdor, C.; Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bardin, S.; Barrera Orte, L.; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottereau, C.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Brochard, T.; Brüdgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Casson, F. J.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I. G. J.; Coenen, J. W.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Curran, D.; da Silva, F.; de Marné, P.; D'Inca, R.; Douai, D.; Drube, R.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Fünfgelder, H.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gál, K.; García Muñoz, M.; Geiger, B.; Giannone, L.; Görler, T.; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; Härtl, T.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Höhnle, H.; Hölzl, M.; Hopf, C.; Houben, A.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kantor, M.; Käsemann, C.-P.; Kallenbach, A.; Kálvin, S.; Kantor, M.; Kappatou, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kasparek, W.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H.-J.; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kubic, M.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Lazaros, A.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lindig, S.; Lisgo, S.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Maraschek, M.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuwirth, D.; Nocente, M.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Plöckl, B.; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polozhiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Püschel, M. J.; Pütterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reimold, F.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Rooij, G. v.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Santos, J.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sommer, F.; Stäbler, A.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Tala, T.; Tardini, G.; Teschke, M.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Tsalas, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Varela, P.; Veres, G.; Vicente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Viola, B.; Vorpahl, C.; Wachowski, M.; Wagner, D.; Wauters, T.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Würsching, E.; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

2013-10-01

409

Late-Quaternary paleoenvironmental evolution of Lesina lagoon (southern Italy) from subsurface data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated sedimentological and micropaleontological (foraminifers and ostracods) analyses of two 55 m long borehole cores (S3 and S4) drilled in the subsurface of Lesina lagoon (Gargano promontory—Italy) has yielded a facies distribution characteristic of alluvial, coastal and shallow-marine sediments. Stratigraphic correlation between the two cores, based on strong similarity in facies distribution and AMS radiocarbon dates, indicates a Late Pleistocene to Holocene age of the sedimentary succession. Two main depositional sequences were deposited during the last 60-ky. These sequences display poor preservation of lowstand deposits and record two major transgressive pulses and subsequent sea-level highstands. The older sequence, unconformably overlying a pedogenized alluvial unit, consists of paralic and marine units (dated by AMS radiocarbon at about 45-50,000 years BP) that represent the landward migration of a barrier-lagoon system. These units are separated by a ravinement surface (RS1). Above these tansgressive deposits, highstand deposition is characterised by progradation of the coastal sediments. The younger sequence, overlying an unconformity of tectonic origin, is a 10 m-thick sedimentary body, consisting of fluvial channel sediments overlain by transgressive-regressive deposits of Holocene age. A ravinement surface (RS2), truncating the transgressive (lagoonal and back-barrier) deposits in core S4, indicates shoreface retreat and landward migration of the barrier/lagoon system. The overlying beach, lagoon and alluvial deposits are the result of mid-Holocene highstand sedimentation and coastal progradation.

Ricci Lucchi, Marianna; Fiorini, Flavia; Luisa Colalongo, Maria; Vittorio Curzi, Pietro

2006-01-01

410

Modelling ocean-lagoon interaction during upwelling processes in the South West of New Caledonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2005, wind-driven 'sporadic' coastal upwelling events have been identified off the southwestern reef of New Caledonia. Several studies have described the main physical processes and induced surface patterns using 1D and 3D modelling, as well as in situ measurements. Previous models were applied at the mesoscale without taking into account the lagoon. Using a recently developed 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model that considers the complex ocean-lagoon interface, we aim to understand better the impact of the upwelling on the lagoon. The model was found to be in good agreement with measured data reported in previous publications about two upwelling events. However, in general, levels of surface chlorophyll-a were overestimated by the model in the upwelling area when compared to ocean colour data and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the discrepancy. We then tracked rich upwelled water using a forward Lagrangian transport analysis. Upwelled waters from the upper nutricline were found to be able to reach the South West lagoon. An anti-cyclonic eddy was detected near the upwelling area, potentially responsible, in part, for the rich water intrusions into the lagoon.

Fuchs, R.; Pinazo, C.; Douillet, P.; Fraysse, M.; Grenz, C.; Mangin, A.; Dupouy, C.

2013-12-01

411

Spatial Variation in Development of Epibenthic Assemblages in a Coastal Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal patterns in colonization of epibenthic assemblages were measured in a coastal lagoon on the west coast of Italy using recruitment panels. It was proposed that if the ecological processes influencing development of assemblages were homogeneous within the lagoon, then there should be no differences in mean cover of colonists nor in spatial patterns of variance in abundance in different areas of the lagoon. In contrast, heterogeneity in ecological processes affecting development would be revealed by spatial variability in colonization. To test these hypotheses, two sticks each with five replicate panels were placed 3-5 m apart in each of two sites 30-100 m apart in each of three locations 500-100 m apart; the experiment was repeated three times between April and December 1999, using new sites at each location each time. The results revealed considerable spatial variation in the structure of developing assemblages across locations. There were significant Location or Time×Location effects in the mean abundance of common taxa, such as Enteromorpha intestinalis , Ulva rigida, Cladophora spp., bryozoans and serpulids. Patterns in spatial variation differed among locations for these organisms. Collectively, the results supported a model of spatial heterogeneity in intensity of processes influencing patterns of recruitment and development of epibenthic assemblages in the Lagoon of Orbetello. The implications of these results for management of environmental problems in complex, variable habitats such as coastal lagoons, are discussed.

Benedetti-Cecchi, L.; Rindi, F.; Bertocci, I.; Bulleri, F.; Cinelli, F.

2001-05-01

412

Tidal asymmetry in a coastal lagoon subject to a mixed tidal regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal asymmetry is a key factor in the geomorphology of many coastal lagoons. Whilst tidal asymmetry in semi-diurnal tidal regimes has been extensively studied, its occurrence in mixed tidal regimes is less well understood, and has a number of unique causes and characteristics. Tidal phase duration analysis and least squares harmonic analysis have been used to study the temporal and spatial nature of asymmetry in both offshore and coastal lagoon tides at the Murray Mouth in south-eastern Australia. GIS analysis of bathymetric survey data has been used to study the roles of lagoon bathymetry on tidal distortion. Tidal asymmetry in the Murray Mouth coastal lagoon results from frequency relationships between major astronomical driving tides as well as bathymetry-induced tidal transformations. The frequency difference between the K 1 and S 2 tides produces an important 6-monthly ebb/flood-dominant asymmetry cycle in the incoming oceanic tides, whilst phase relationships between the K 1 and K 2 tides contribute to persistent asymmetry. The use of standard relationships between the M 2 and M 4 tides as asymmetry indicators is shown to be invalid for this mixed tidal regime. In this shallow, microtidal system, the impacts of bathymetry on tidal asymmetry within the lagoon are profound, with inlet and channel configurations identified as the most important controlling factors. The results of this study may inform the strategic management of tidal inlets in mixed tidal regimes, such as the Murray Mouth, that are subject to intermittent or long-term constriction.

Jewell, Sarah A.; Walker, David J.; Fortunato, André B.

2012-02-01

413

Comprehensive Assessment of Hormones, Phytoestrogens, and Estrogenic Activity in an Anaerobic Swine Waste Lagoon  

PubMed Central

In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally toward total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer. PMID:24144340

2013-01-01

414

Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 10³ MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 10³ MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 10³ MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard. PMID:23770313

Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

2013-10-01

415

Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard. PMID:23770313

Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R.; Monfort, Patrick

2014-01-01

416

Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally towards total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer.

Yost, Erin E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meissner, Benjamin M.; Williams, Mike; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W.

2013-01-01

417

Use of shallow water habitats by fish assemblages in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates the different uses and the functional roles of shallow habitats for fish fauna in the Venice Lagoon, by applying the functional guilds approach. Temporal (seasons) and spatial (location) changes within the lagoon show different habitat uses by fish assemblages, not influenced by local factors. Unvegetated mud habitats (salt marsh creeks and sub-tidal mud flats) and sparsely vegetated (seagrass) habitats show a common nursery role, especially for marine migrant fishes; but, contrary to other similar areas elsewhere shallow seagrass beds in the Venice Lagoon do not have a primary nursery role. This latter habitat has a more important role as a spawning ground for a resident, highly specialized component of the fish community. The habitat uses and their role to fish fauna illustrate the balance between predation risk and foraging profitability, as major factors structuring the fish assemblages. Spatial effects at a larger scale also highlight general characteristics of the fish assemblages in the Venice Lagoon. These indicate differences between the Northern sub-basin and the other two lagoon sub-basins, due to differences in the hydrodynamic regime, habitats distribution, and contributions from land and sea.

Franco, Anita; Franzoi, Piero; Malavasi, Stefano; Riccato, Federico; Torricelli, Patrizia; Mainardi, Danilo

2006-01-01

418

Development of an odorant emission model for sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

In the field of odour assessment, much attention has been paid to the measurement of odour concentration. Whilst the concentration of an odour at a receptor is a useful indicator of annoyance, the concentration at the source tells only half the story. The emission rate - the product of odour concentration and air flow rate - is required to appreciate the significance of odour sources. Knowledge of emission rates allows odour sources to be ranked in terms of significance and facilitates appropriate selection and design of odour control units. The emission rate is also a key input for atmospheric dispersion models. Given the increasing importance of odour to sewage treatment works operators, there is a clear need for predictive methods for odour emission rates. Theory suggests that the emission of odorants from sewage to air is controlled by mass transfer resistances in both the gas and liquid phase. These are in turn controlled by odorant and emission source characteristics. The required odorant characteristics are largely known, and mass transfer from many different types of emission sources have been studied. Sewage treatment processes can be described by one or more of six characteristic emission sources, these being quiescent surfaces, channels, weirs and drop structures, diffused aeration, surface aeration and flow over media. This paper describes the development of odorant mass transfer models for these characteristic emission types. The models have been applied in the form of spreadsheet models to the prediction of H2S emissions and the results compared with commercial VOC emission models. PMID:11762460

Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Cobb, J

2001-01-01

419

Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: gaod@igsnrr.ac.c [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)

2010-10-15

420

Potentials of using nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Due to the depletion of mineral phosphorus resources there is an increasing demand for efficient phosphorus recovery technologies. In this study the potential of nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from pre-treated sewage sludge is investigated. The efficiency of three commercial nanofiltration membranes (Desal 5DK, NP030; MPF34) was tested using model solutions. Desal 5DK showed the best selectivity for phosphorus. A pH of lower than 1.5 was found to be most suitable. Desal 5DK was used on four different sewage sludge ash eluates and on one sewage sludge. In these experiments it was shown that a separation of phosphorus from undesired components such as heavy metals was possible with significant variations in the efficiency for the different ash and sludge types. Additionally the achievable product recovery was investigated with model solutions. A product recovery of 57.1% was attained for pH 1 and 41.4% for pH 1.5. PMID:18401142

Niewersch, C; Koh, C N; Wintgens, T; Melin, T; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

2008-01-01

421

Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

2012-01-01

422

KINETIC AND BIODEGRADABILITY ASSAY OF ACCLIMATED ANAEROBIC MICROBES DIGESTING PRIMARY SLUDGE IN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanitary sewer systems and sewage treatment plants have been under construction aggressively in Taiwan. Interceptive sewer systems are popular in municipal areas to collect the wastewater from the existing sewage channels. The collected primary sludge (PS) attains special characteristics in the sewage treatment plant. The low volatile suspended solids\\/suspended solids ratio of only 0.4 to 0.5 is attributed to the

Sheng-Shung Cheng; Akiyoshi Ohashi; Horisawa Kotaro; Yu-Min Tien; Keng-Hao Yang

423

The upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of ALICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALICE has devised a comprehensive upgrade strategy to enhance its physics capabilities and to exploit the LHC running conditions after the second long shutdown of the LHC scheduled in 2018-2019. Within this upgrade programme, the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) forms an important part. The upgraded ITS will have a barrel geometry consisting of seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with high granularity, which would fulfil the material budget, readout and radiation hardness requirements for the upgrade. In this contribution, an overview of the upgraded ITS, its technology and performance studies are presented.

Siddhanta, Sabyasachi

2014-11-01

424

The Impact of Sewage Discharge in a Marine Embayment: A Stable Isotope Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope analyses, ? 13C and ? 15N, of sewage tolerant benthic invertebrates seaward of a sewage effluent discharged in a marine embayment, the Firth of Forth, East Scotland, suggest that the polychaete worm Nereis virens is a suitable species for identifying biological assimilation of sewage derived organic matter. The sewage isotopic signal is not strongly recorded in the sediment due to the combined action of tidal movement, wind-induced wave action and benthic invertebrate grazing of particulate matter on the sea-bed. ? 13C of the plankton is significantly different from the effluent, but ? 15N is not which precludes its use as a trace.

Waldron, S.; Tatner, P.; Jack, I.; Arnott, C.

2001-01-01

425

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

Not Available

1992-10-01

426

Aquatic birds as bioindicators of trophic changes and ecosystem deterioration in the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mar Menor is the largest coastal lagoon in the Western Mediterranean and it is an important site for wintering and breeding waterfowl. During recent decades several hydrological and land-use changes in the watershed have increasingly threatened the conservation of the lagoon due to the development of urban areas, tourism and agriculture. A dynamic system model has been developed at

Julia Martínez Fernández; Miguel Angel Esteve Selma; Francisco Robledano Aymerich; María Teresa Pardo Sáez; María Francisca Carreño Fructuoso

2005-01-01

427

Socio-economic appraisal of fishing community in Pulicat lagoon, south east coast of India: case study.  

PubMed

Assessment of socio-economic issues of fishing community is an important aspect in framing a strategy for the preservation of eco-systems which leads to sustainable lagoon management. The present investigation analyses the current potential socio-economic status of the fishing community of Pulicat lagoon, the second largest lagoon in India. The socio-economic indicators considered in the study include demography, economic aspects, social aspects and occupation details. The relevant details were collected from 300 fisher folk family by conducting field survey through a well prepared questionnaire in the villages around Pulicat lagoon. The data analysis was done using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) to assess the adequacy and precision of the collected data. The important and encouraging socio-economic indicators identified from the field survey for effective lagoon management includes significant presence of younger generation in the region; affinity and self-belongingness of fisher folk towards the lake; better economic status and moderate education level; appreciable fishing income and affinity towards fishing profession. It is emphasized to motivate the fisher folk to improve their work attitude for betterment in economic status. The pertinent lagoon issues, comprising seasonal variation, local fishing issues, pollution from industries, water intake to thermal power plant which directly or indirectly affects the socio-economic status of fishing community, also need much emphasis while proposing sustainable lagoon management system. The information and observation from this study will be very helpful in formulating management policies on the conservation of the Pulicat lagoon ecosystem. PMID:25151720

Devi, V Vandhana; Krishnaveni, M

2012-10-01

428

Biodiversity of submerged aquatic vegetation in Lake Worth Cove, a protected region of Lake Worth Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Worth Lagoon is an urban estuary and the primary estuarine water body in Palm Beach County, Florida. It has been estimated that over 87% of the natural shoreline vegetation has been disturbed in some way – in many cases replaced by seawalls, bulkheads, or subject to dredging or development. A portion of northern Lake Worth Lagoon is protected, located

Thomas C. Chesnes; Scott Duncan; Kathryn Swick; Charles Jabaly

2011-01-01

429

Feeding Habits of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins Assessed Using Stable Isotope and Fatty Acid Signature Analysis  

E-print Network

Feeding Habits of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose Dolphins Assessed Using Stable Isotope and Fatty, isotopic signatures, and fatty acid signatures of bottlenose dolphins and their presumed prey in the Indian River Lagoon system of Florida, with the ultimate goal of interpreting bottlenose dolphin feeding habits

430

Mytilus galloprovincialis as bioindicator in embryotoxicity testing to evaluate sediment quality in the lagoon of Venice (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using Mytilus galloprovincialis from natural populations of the lagoon of Venice in toxicity bioassays based on embryo development, according to international standard methods, was investigated. In order to valuate this method for the lagoon, iterative steps including evaluation of reproducibility, sensitivity and discriminatory capacity towards some pure substances and environmental samples were performed. Evaluation of sensitivity towards

Volpi Ghirardini Annamaria; Losso Chiara; Arizzi Novelli Alessandra; Baugrave Alvise; Edouard His; Ghetti Pier Francesco

2005-01-01

431

Oyster ( Crassostrea virginica ) as indicator of heavy metal pollution in some lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The littoral lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico have been investigated to determine the amount of heavy metal pollution. Some lagoons have been contaminated by liquid wastes mainly originating from sugar refining and petrochemical industries, as well as petroleum exploitation and refining. Since mollusks concentrate trace elements, determination of levels of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

Irma Rosas; Armando Báez; Raúl Belmont

1983-01-01

432

Temporal flux and spatial dynamics of nutrients, fecal indicators, and zoonotic pathogens in anaerobic swine manure lagoon water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure management in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the Mid-South US involves anaerobic lagoons. Lagoon effluent is used to irrigate and fertilize crops. Nutrients and bacteria in effluent have been sporadically characterized, but annual temporal changes...

433

Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.  

PubMed

Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts. PMID:16678400

Kilbane, John J

2006-06-01

434

MAVIS III -- A Windows 95/NT Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

MAVIS (Modeling and Analysis of Explosive Valve Interactions) is a computer program that simulates operation of explosively actuated valve. MAVIS was originally written in Fortran in the mid 1970`s and was primarily run on the Sandia Vax computers in use through the early 1990`s. During the mid to late 1980`s MAVIS was upgraded to include the effects of plastic deformation and it became MAVIS II. When the Vax computers were retired, the Gas Transfer System (GTS) Development Department ported the code to the Macintosh and PC platforms, where it ran as a simple console application. All graphical output was lost during these ports. GTS code developers recently completed an upgrade that provides a Windows 95/NT MAVIS application and restores all of the original graphical output. This upgrade is called MAVIS III version 1.0. This report serves both as a user`s manual for MAVIS III v 1.0 and as a general software development reference.

Hardwick, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). GTS Engineering Dept.

1997-12-01

435

Upgrade of the Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring (AVM) project gathers data on the transmission of light through the atmosphere. These data are measured and collected at autonomous observatories using stellar photometric techniques. The information gathered is used to build statistical models that assess the quality of future space-to-ground optical communication links. The first of the three currently running AVM observatories became operational in 1994. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is upgrading all three observatories. The upgrade includes new Charge Coupled Device (CCD) imagers, Windows NT-based computers and new control software. The new CCDs improve the following: near IR performance, daylight photometry, pixel field-of-view, intensity resolution and signal-to-noise ratios. Employing these new CCDs requires upgrading the CPU, operating system and control software. Together these changes improve the quality of future data obtained and processed by the AVM system.

Erickson, David M.; Tsiang, Donald H.; Jeganathan, Muthu

1999-04-01

436

Benthic flux measurements of Hg species in a northern Adriatic lagoon environment (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the "MIRACLE" project, the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-water interface was studied in the field in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea). Seasonal investigations were conducted at selected experimental sites, where Manila Clams (Tapes philippinarum) were previously seeded. Measurements were performed seasonally during three campaigns, using two benthic chambers, one transparent and one dark, to evaluate the effect of light on Hg cycling. Total dissolved Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) species were considered. Diurnal benthic fluxes were found to significantly exceed the diffusive fluxes at all stations. The assessment of the annual recycling of Hg species from sediments to the water column showed that up to 99% of MeHg is recycled annually to the water column, while Hg recycling ranges from 30 to 60%. MeHg poses the higher risk for potential bioaccumulation in clams, but it is partially mitigated by Hg reduction, which seems to be an important process leading to evasion losses of Hg from these environments. Estimated benthic fluxes suggest that Hg recycling at the sediment-water interface is more active in the Grado sector. Hence, based on the estimated release of MeHg from sediments, it is suggested that the western sector seems to be more suitable for clam farming and the extension of rearing activities.

Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Horvat, Milena; Žižek, Suzana; Fajon, Vesna

2012-11-01

437

Seasonal and temporal dynamics of macrophytic assemblages and abiotic parameters of coastal lagoons in Western Greece (Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are considered naturally stressed systems that experience frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations and they are usually considered as physically controlled ecosystems. Coastal lagoons of Western Greece are representative of four different lagoon types covering a wide range of physiographical and hydrological characteristics. The seasonal differences in the physico-chemical parameters monitored from 2005 to 2007 were reduced in lagoon types (II and III) which characterized by better seawater communication when compared with the chocked lagoon types (Type I and IV). The latter types showed lower salinity values and high nutrient concentrations especially during the wet period. The macrophytic assemblages of coastal lagoons are typically dominated by few genera with great environmental plasticity and salinity competition, among other structuring abiotic variables. The implementation of DCA analysis revealed five distinct macrophytic assemblages in which dominant species were the angiosperms Zostera noltii, Ruppia cirrhosa, Cymodocea nodosa, Potamogeton pectinatus, the charophytes Lamprothamnium papulosum and Chara hispida f. corfuensis, as well as species preferring more marine conditions such as Acanthophora nayadiformis and Cystoseira barbata. The lagoon type IV differs from all other distinguished lagoon types due to the dominance of the species Potamogeton pectinatus and the charophyte Chara hispida f. corfuensis. Regarding the macrophytic assemblages and the univariate variables, important differences were recorded between lagoon types. Chocked lagoons showed low number of species and Shannon diversity index comparing with restricted lagoon types (Types II and III). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that transparency, pH, nitrates, alkalinity and Chl-a could affect the values of the above variables. A decline of angiosperms was referred on a worldwide scale and recorded also in coastal lagoons of Western Greece. A gradual loss of Zostera noltii was recorded during the monitoring period in lagoon type I. The important salinity alterations caused the replacement of the species by the angiosperm Ruppia cirrhosa. The angiosperms Ruppia cirrhosa and Cymodocea nodosa were the dominant species showing their higher average abundance during the dry period. The results of the current research could provide a general framework for the protection and management strategy of coastal lagoons.

Christia, Chrysoula; Papastergiadou, Eva

2014-05-01

438

Amount and type of derelict gear from the declining black pearl oyster aquaculture in Ahe atoll lagoon, French Polynesia.  

PubMed

Pearl oyster aquaculture is a major activity in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. After the economic decline that characterized the last decade, concerns recently rose about discarded installations and materials that supported aquaculture practices and by facilities abandoned after they had to close their activities. In May 2013, a first inventory of the type and amount of pearl farms derelict gear (PFDG) was achieved on 47 sites in Ahe lagoon. Surveys were conducted within and outside the boundaries of aquaculture concessions. Twenty types of PFDG littered the lagoon floor and the water column. The most impacted areas were near abandoned grafting houses with up to nine types of PFDG. Forty-five percent of the sites were impacted, including outside concessions. While management authorities are fully aware of the problem, this first assessment is a wake-up call to stimulate the cleaning of lagoons, enhance awareness among farmers, and identify potential ecological consequences on lagoon ecosystems. PMID:24759510

Andréfouët, Serge; Thomas, Yoann; Lo, Cedrik

2014-06-15

439

The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)

2003-01-01

440

The LANSCE RICE Control System Upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960’s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proofof- principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

Oothoudt, Michael; Bjorklund, Eric; Burns, Mary; Carr, Gary; Faucett, John; Hayden, David; Lusk, Matthew; Merl, Robert; Potter, Jerry; Reynolds, Jerome; Romero, Dolores

2003-04-24

441

Updated sensitivity projections for the LHCb Upgrade  

E-print Network

The upgrade of the LHCb detector will extend dramatically the physics reach of the experiment, by allowing it to run at higher luminosity with increased trigger efficiency for a wide range of channels. In this note, the sensitivity that can be reached for a subset of key flavour physics observables is updated, compared to the LHCb Upgrade Framework Technical Design Report, based on the latest information from analyses of data collected during the LHC Run 1 and for the expected evolution of the trigger efficiency.

Gerson, Tim

2013-01-01

442

Energy Upgrade of the Siam Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

The energy upgrade of the storage ring is part of the plans to develop x-ray production capability of the Siam Photon Source. Simulations have been carried out. The bending magnet power supply has been replaced. Energy of the injected 1 GeV beam from the injector is then ramped up 20% in the storage ring. Studies for modification of bending magnet poles have been done to evaluate possibility of further increasing the beam energy to 1.4 GeV in the future. Studies of the energy upgrade plan and details of energy ramping process, together with beam measurements are presented.

Rugmai, S.; Rujirawat, S. [National Synchrotron Research Center, P.O. Box 93, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang Distrct, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Hoyes, G. G.; Prawanta, S.; Kwankasem, A.; Siriwattanapitoon, S.; Suradet, N.; Pimol, P.; Junthong, N.; Boonsuya, S.; Janpuang, P.; Prawatsri, P.; Klysubun, P. [National Synchrotron Research Center, P.O. Box 93, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand)

2007-01-19

443

Physical and chemical control of the phytoplankton of Ahe lagoon, French Polynesia.  

PubMed

The environmental characteristics of Ahe deep lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia) were studied over 3 years with the aim of explaining the spatial and temporal variability of the natural food available for pearl oysters with a special focus on phytoplankton biomass and global photosynthesis/respiration ratio of the lagoon. Chlorophyll averaged 0.34±0.01 ?g L(-1) and our findings did not confirm increased phytoplankton biomass in deep lagoonal waters. Phytoplankton production appears to be limited firstly by nitrogen and respiratory processes overpass photosynthetic processes at least in the north-eastern edge of the atoll. Grazing by pearl oysters in culture seems to decrease the POC concentration but not the phytoplankton biomass. Oysters graze mainly on non chlorophyllian particles. PMID:22260845

Charpy, Loïc; Rodier, Martine; Fournier, Jonathan; Langlade, Marie-José; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila

2012-01-01

444

Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to document the presence of the fungal granulomatous skin disease lacaziosis in stranded Indian River Lagoon (IRL) bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). From 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2007, stranded dolphins from the northern part of the IRL were thoroughly examined, and appropriate tissue samples were collected. The intralesional fungal agent (Lacazia loboi) was identified histologically in three bottlenose dolphins. Histologically, lacaziosis has been previously documented in IRL dolphins inhabiting the southern portion of the lagoon. Our findings suggest that the disease occurs throughout the lagoon. Enhanced monitoring of the prevalence of lacaziosis in dolphins throughout the IRL is needed to assess changes in population health. PMID:19617500

Durden, Wendy Noke; St Leger, Judy; Stolen, Megan; Mazza, Teresa; Londono, Catalina

2009-07-01

445

Enhanced stabilization of digested sludge during long-term storage in anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to study changes in anaerobically stored digested sludge under different lengths of storage time to evaluate the quality of final product biosolids. The analyses of collected data suggest the organic matter degradation occurrence in the anaerobic environment of the lagoon approximately within the first year. After that, the degradation becomes very slow, which is likely caused by unfavorable environmental conditions. The performance of lagoon aging of digested sludge was also compared to the performance of lagoon aging of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge. It was concluded that both of these processes result in biosolids of comparative quality and that the former provides more economical solution to biosolids handling by eliminating the need for mechanical dewatering. PMID:24851324

Lukicheva, Irina; Pagilla, Krishna; Tian, Guanglong; Cox, Albert; Granato, Thomas

2014-04-01

446

Hydrogeochemistry Of A Modern Dolomite-Forming Lagoon System, Cabo Frio-RJ, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypersaline, dolomite-forming lagoons near Cabo Frio, Brazil, and associated ground- and surface waters were sampled in a comparative sediment and fluid geochemical (solutes, stable isotopes) investigation. Although microbial mediation via sulfate reducers has been invoked to explain dolomite formation in these lagoons, we showed that dolomites are associated with sulfide oxidation (Moreira et al., 2004). Sulfide oxidation is thought to promote dolomite formation by causing undersaturation for competing carbonate phases such as Mg-calcite. Herein, we consider the larger hydrogeologic and temporal setting to further elucidate hydrogeochemical and geochemical constraints on rates and mechanisms of dolomite formation in the two lagoons. The lagoons, Brejo do Espinho (BE) and Lagoa Vermelha (LV), are shallow marginal marine systems flanked by quartz sand dunes separating them from Atlantic open seawater to the south and from Araruama lagoon, a large, hypersaline water body, to the north. In both lagoons, about 1 m of high Mg-calcite and dolomite mud has accumulated over the last 5,000 years on an underlying aquifer composed of highly permeable, quartz-rich coquinas. BE has a proximal relation to recharge from Araruama lagoon, while LV is more closely associated with meteoric recharge from lacustrine and riverine systems. BE is shallower, at 0.5 m water depth, than LV (2 m), permitting BE waters to remain oxic. Oxygen isotope values and chloride mass balances of pore waters and of fluids sampled from shallow ground water wells identify the different water and solute sources the lagoons. BE overlying brines and pore waters appear to be produced by evapoconcentration of Araruama source brines and meteoric precipitation. In contrast, LV derives from evapoconcentrated seawater mixed with regional lake and ground water sources. We envision a scenario in which dense, Mg-SO4-rich brines from Araruama migrate along a permeable flowpath in limited contact with the atmosphere. These fluids undergo progressive sulfate reduction, then are drawn up by capillary forces to the shallow BE lagoonal system, where sulfide is oxidized. Thus, the locus of dolomite formation at BE appears to occupy the interface between discharging sulfide-rich fluids and the thin layer of oxygen-rich overlying brine. In contrast, sulfide oxidation is not an important process in the LV lagoonal-sediment system. XRD profiles and sediment chemistry indicate that BE sediments indeed contain a significantly higher percentage dolomite than those of LV. Sr systematics support this conclusion and place the lagoonal dolomites in the context of carbonates throughout the rock record. The Sr contents of BE carbonates decrease markedly in the most dolomite-rich intervals, approaching a value of 800 ppm, the high end of expected values for dolomite (Land, 1980). LV carbonates fluctuate in Sr value from 2000-3000 ppm, values more typical of high Mg-calcite. Some precipitation of dolomite has occurred in both lagoons, however, reflected by increasing pore water Sr with depth as Mg-calcite is replaced by dolomite. Recent work documenting changes in the elemental compositions of the oceans, including Ca, Mg, CO3, and SO4, raises the potential for significant variation in marine saturation states for carbonate minerals and in carbon-sulfur cycling through time. Our model may provide clues to the relationship between marine elemental composition and varying rates of dolomitization over the geologic record.

Moreira, N. F.; Walter, L. M.

2004-12-01

447

Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading.  

PubMed

A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema and hydrogenotrophic genus Methanoculleus in the liquid, which indicated that H2 were converted to methane by both direct (hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) and indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) pathways in the liquid. However, the aceticlasitic genus Methanosaeta was dominant for archaea in the biofilm on the HFM, which indicated indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) H2 conversion pathway on the biofilm. PMID:23941705

Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang; Zhou, Qi; Angelidaki, Irini

2013-10-01

448

Measurements and modeling of atmospheric flux of ammonia from an anaerobic dairy waste lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions are not well understood in the US due to a lack of measurement data from the main emission sources. This paper describes concentration measurements downwind of an anaerobic dairy waste lagoon using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), tracer ratio flux experiments and the testing of two mechanistic emission models. The tracer ratio method involves releasing a measured flux of a tracer gas upwind of the lagoon and measuring the concentration downwind along with the DOAS NH3 measurement. The flux is calculated by ratioing the tracer flux and concentration with the NH3 concentration and taking into account the differences in area and dispersion over the area source. Measured fluxes from the tracer experiments ranged from 0.11gm-2h-1 at an air temperature of 11C to 0.54gm-2h-1 at an air temperature of 27C. The NH3 emission models were based upon the temperature-dependent biological activity, the partitioning of NH3 and NH4+ in solution, and the partitioning of NH3 between the gas and liquid phases. The theoretical mechanistic model and the empirical mechanistic model had normalized mean errors of 120% and 21%, respectively, when compared to measurements. Emissions were most sensitive to changes in lagoon pH. Annual emissions were 55kgNH3cow-1yr-1 from all lagoons, estimated excretion is 180kgNcow-1yr-1. Using literature lagoon design criteria to estimate lagoon size resulted in an underestimation of emissions of -29%.

Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Neger, Manjit; Filipy, Jenny; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

449

How will shallow coastal lagoons respond to climate change? A modelling investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal shallow lagoons are important ecosystems in terms of their high ecological relevance. They act as buffers of the land-sea interface, providing valuable ecosystem services such as nutrient recycling, decomposition of organic matter and removal of pollutants. Lagoons are regions of restricted exchange, subject to anthropogenic pressures that result in problems such as eutrophication. Because they are shallow, submerged primary producers play a prominent role in lagoon system metabolism. Furthermore, coastal lagoons are particularly vulnerable to global climate change and may act as 'sentinel systems'. Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons. Recent observations and studies have shown that a global climate change, especially the warming of the climate system and the sea level rise is unequivocal (IPCC, 2007). Therefore, the dCSTT-MPB model, which deals with nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations in the water column and within the sediments, was used to explore a range of scenarios that aimed at representing these changes. The tendency of the light limitation due to the sea level rise is the potential degradation of the microphytobenthos community. This reduction would lead to stronger nitrogen fluxes from pore water to the water column, increasing significantly the nitrogen concentrations. No increase in the phytoplankton community was found because it is mainly influenced by the resuspension of microphytobenthos. High nitrogen concentration may be the first indication of an eutrophication event. Nonetheless, nitrogen may be exported to the sea and cause problems in the adjacent coastal waters. The increase in temperature did not lead to significant differences.

Brito, Ana C.; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa F.

2012-10-01

450

Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and associated taxa were distributed throughout the spectrum of sites surveyed. Implications for the identification and conservation of saline lagoons are discussed.

Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

2005-12-01

451

Bacterial and archaeal phylogenetic diversity associated with swine sludge from an anaerobic treatment lagoon.  

PubMed

Over the last decades, the demand for pork products has increased significantly, along with concern about suitable waste management. Anaerobic-lagoon fermentation for swine-sludge stabilization is a good strategy, although little is known about the microbial communities in the lagoons. Here, we employed a cloning- and sequencing-based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize and quantify the prokaryotic community composition in a swine-waste-sludge anaerobic lagoon (SAL). DNA sequence analysis revealed that the SAL library harbored 15 bacterial phyla: Bacteroidetes, Cloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Synergystetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Verrucomicrobia and candidates division OP5, OP8, WWE1, KSB1, WS6. The SAL library was generally dominated by carbohydrate-oxidizing bacteria. The archaeal sequences were related to the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota phyla. Crenarchaeota predominated in the library, demonstrating that it is not restricted to high-temperature environments, being also responsible for ammonium oxidation in the anaerobic lagoon. Euryarchaeota sequences were associated with the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacterial cells was at least three orders of magnitude higher than the number of archaeal cells in the SAL. The identified prokaryotic diversity was ecologically significant, particularly the archaeal community of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which was responsible for methane production in the anaerobic lagoon. This study provided insight into the archaeal involvement in the overall oxidation of organic matter and the production of methane. Therefore, the treatment of swine waste in the sludge anaerobic lagoon could represent a potential inoculum for the start-up of municipal solid-waste digesters. PMID:22828793

Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Pereira, Zelina L; Sanz, José L; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

2012-11-01

452