Sample records for upgrading sewage lagoons

  1. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  2. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  3. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  4. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  5. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  6. Lagoon Seepage Testing Report for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory, Butte County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bridger Morrison

    2014-09-01

    J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) performed seepage tests on the CFA Wastewater Lagoons 1, 2, and 3 between August 26th and September 22nd, 2014. The lagoons were tested to satisfy the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16) that require all lagoons be tested at a frequency of every 10 years and the Compliance Activity CA-141-03 in the DEQ Wastewater Reuse Permit for the CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (LA-000141-03). The lagoons were tested to determine if the average seepage rates are less than 0.25 in/day, the maximum seepage rate allowed for lagoons built prior to April 15, 2007. The average seepage rates were estimated for each lagoon and are given in Table-ES1. The average seepage rates for Lagoons 1 and 2 are less than the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day. Lagoon 1 and 2 passed the seepage test and will not have to be tested again until the year 20241. However, the average seepage rate for Lagoon 3 appears to exceed the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day which means the potential source for the excessive leakage should be investigated further.

  7. Performance of duckweed-covered sewage lagoons—II. Nitrogen and phosphorus balance and plant productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Al-Nozaily; G Alaerts; S Veenstra

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were performed in a non-continuous batch reactor system with 0.8 to 41.2 l with domestic sewage exposed to constant light intensity, temperature and humidity. The contribution of duckweed (L. gibba) to N and P removal in duckweed-covered sewage lagoons (DSL) was studied at NH+4 concentration of 25–96 mg\\/l with 10, 30, 70 and 95 cm deep reactors, and liquid mixing

  8. Performance analysis of a full-scale duckweed-covered sewage lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Alaerts; Rahman Mahbubar; P. Kelderman

    1996-01-01

    A sewage lagoon for 2000–3000 capita (0.6 ha) has been operated successfully with a duckweed cover for over four years. The cover suppressed algal growth; the effluent turbidity was always below 12 Ntu. Because of inappropriate construction, one fifth of the inflow is lost by percolation and seepage during the dry season; during the wet season the loss is limited.

  9. Redistribution of sewage-nitrogen in estuarine food webs following sewage treatment upgrades.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Kylie A; Connolly, Rod M; Maxwell, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes were used to assess the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgrades on the utilisation of sewage-N by estuarine biota in Moreton Bay, Australia. We measured delta(15)N of filamentous algae, mangrove leaves and shore crabs at the Brisbane and Logan Rivers before and after scheduled WWTP upgrades, and at two reference rivers where WWTPs had been upgraded >4 years previously. The total N discharged into Brisbane River decreased by >80% after the upgrades had occurred, but N loads remained similar at Logan River despite the upgrade. In Brisbane River, delta(15)N values of algae and crabs decreased and were comparable to the reference rivers within 1-2 years but no changes occurred at Logan River. The delta(15)N of mangrove leaves remained elevated in all rivers, indicating that sewage-N remained a major source to mangroves either from residual WWTP discharges or from N accumulated in the sediments over many years. PMID:19138774

  10. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2014-07-15

    A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

  11. Environmental Assessment for the sewage lagoon system: Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1026), to evaluate the potential impacts of constructing a sanitary waste sewage lagoon system in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The proposed system would replace an existing septic system. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 USC 4321 et seq.). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  12. Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE/NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  14. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the;\\u000aNorth Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi])

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE/NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  17. Nitrogen Species in Soil, Sediment, and Ground Water at a Former Sewage-Treatment Wastewater Lagoon: Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.; Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The potential for contamination of ground water from remnant sewage sludge in re-graded sediments of a deconstructed sewage-treatment lagoon was evaluated. Ground-water levels were measured in temporary drive-point wells, and ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and other water-quality characteristics. Composite soil and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for organic carbon and nitrogen species. Multiple lines of evidence, including lack of appreciable organic matter in sediments of the former lagoon, agronomic analysis of nitrogen, the sequestration of nitrogen in the developing soils at the former lagoon, and likely occurrence of peat deposits within the aquifer material, suggest that the potential for substantial additions of nitrogen to ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon resulting from remnant sewage sludge not removed from the former lagoon are small. Concentrations of nitrogen species measured in ground-water samples were small and did not exceed the established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for nitrate (10 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of nitrate in ground-water samples were less than the laboratory reporting limit of 0.06 milligram per liter. Seventy to 90 percent of the total nitrogen present in ground water was in the ammonia form with a maximum concentration of 7.67 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of total nitrogen in ground water beneath the site, which is the sum of all forms of nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, ranged from 1.15 to 8.44 milligrams per liter. Thus, even if all forms of nitrogen measured in ground water were converted to nitrate, the combined mass would be less than the maximum contaminant level. Oxidation-reduction conditions in ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon were reducing. Given the abundant supply of ambient organic carbon in the subsurface and in ground water at the former lagoon, any nitrate that may leach from residual sludge and be transported to ground water with recharge is expected to be quickly denitrified or transformed to nitrite and ammonia under the strongly reducing geochemical conditions that are present. Concentrations of organic carbon, the primary constituent of sewage sludge, in sediments of the former sewage lagoon were less than 1 percent, indicating a near absence of organic matter. The amount of total nitrogen present in the sediments at the former sewage lagoon was only about 25 percent of the amount typically present in developed agricultural soils. The lack of substantial carbon and nitrogen in sediments of the former sewage lagoon indicates that surficial sediments of the former lagoon are essentially devoid of residual sewage sludge. The largest concentration of total nitrogen measured in soil samples from the former sewage lagoon (330 milligrams per kilogram) was used to calculate an estimate of the amount of nitrogen that might be leached from residual sewage sludge by recharge. During the first two years following deconstruction of the former sewage lagoon, the concentration of total nitrogen in recharge leachate might exceed 10 milligrams per liter but the recharge leachate would not likely result in substantial increases in the nitrate concentration in ground water to concentrations greater than the drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.

  18. Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Giesbrecht

    2014-05-01

    The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

  19. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  20. SEPARATION OF ALGAL CELLS FROM WASTEWATER LAGOON EFFLUENTS. VOLUME I. INTERMITTENT SAND FILTRATION TO UPGRADE WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOON EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A project to evaluate the performance characteristics of the intermittent sand filter for polishing lagoon effluents was conducted. Techniques described in the literature for summer and winter operation were applied to determine if filter effluents would consistently meet PL 92-5...

  1. Pollutant removal from municipal sewage lagoon effluents with a free-surface wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberley Cameron; Chandra Madramootoo; Anna Crolla; Christopher Kinsley

    2003-01-01

    This research project was initiated to refine the knowledge available on the treatment of rural municipal wastewater by constructed wetlands. To determine the treatment capacity of a constructed wetland system receiving municipal lagoon effluents, the wetland was monitored over one treatment season, from May 19 to November 3, 2000. The wetland system consisted of a three-cell free-surface wetland, phosphorus adsorption

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of Energy, NevadaOperations Office (DOE/NV) requests: CAU 404 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. NDEP provide a Notice of Completion to the DOE/NV.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

  4. Using nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta 15N) of macroalgae to determine the effectiveness of sewage upgrades: changes in the extent of sewage plumes over four years in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Simon D; Udy, James; Longstaff, Ben; Jones, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen loading to aquatic ecosystems from sewage is recognised worldwide as a growing problem. The use of nitrogen stable isotopes as a means of discerning sewage nitrogen in the environment has been used annually by the Ecosystem Health Monitoring Program in Moreton Bay (Australia) since 1997 when the technique was first developed. This ("sewage plume mapping") technique, which measures the delta(15)N isotopic signature of the red macroalga Catenella nipae after incubation in situ, has demonstrated a large reduction in the magnitude and spatial extent of sewage nitrogen within Moreton Bay over the past 5 years. This observed reduction coincides with considerable upgrades to the nitrogen removal efficacy at several sewage treatment plants within the region. This paper describes the observed changes and evaluates whether they can be attributed to the treatment upgrades. PMID:15757722

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE/Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Air port Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

  8. Coastal lagoons as a natural sewage treatment plant and their impact on the natural stable isotope signature in nitrate (d 15N, d 18O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, M.; Pastuszak, M.; Sitek, S.; Schulte, U.

    2003-04-01

    Eutrophication is one of the major threats to the Baltic Sea ecosystems and, therefore, various possibilities for nutrient removal scenarios are currently discussed. One approach considers a 50% decrease in nutrient inputs by all riparian countries, however, this would cost 380 Mio Euro/yr. Some countries already discharge highly treated sewage waters and any further reduction would be very costly, while other countries use only basic (mechanical) treatment procedures and further treatment could be done cost efficiently. One natural way that reduces nutrient loads and minimize inputs of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate is their transfer through coastal lagoons that act as a natural treatment plant. The residence time of river water is prolonged and that enables settlement of particles and bacterial removal of nitrate and ammonium. This study made it possible to investigate the effect the Szczecin Lagoon has on nutrient concentrations by comparing two stations - one located ca. 100 km upstream, and the other in the Swina Canal, the major outlet of the lagoon. Biweekly samples were taken at both stations. A drop in nitrate concentrations occasionally reached 90%, while the annual removal of nitrate amounted to 55%. The delta 15N and delta 18O data of nitrate were used to investigate the processes responsible for the drop in concentration. Surprisingly, the theoretical delta 15N values (calculated after Rayleigh equation) were negatively correlated with the measured ones, and delta 18O values were unusually high for the river nitrate. We therefore conclude that part of the nitrate was denitrified without fractionation as suggested by Brandes and Devol (1997). However, an additional nitrate source with low delta 15N and high delta 18O values might be also considered. For phosphate the removal was lower, reaching only 15% annually. It seems that the lagoon was more efficiently retaining nitrogen thus changing the N/P ratio of the outflowing water towards N-limitation.

  9. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  10. Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobay, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. (USGS)

  11. Distribution of anionic and nonionic surfactants in a sewage-impacted Mediterranean coastal lagoon: inputs and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; León, Víctor M

    2015-01-15

    In this work we have monitored the seasonal inputs, occurrence and distribution of the world's most widely used surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs, and alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs) in Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) and its main tributary (El Albujón) for the first time. Concentration of target compounds was determined in both surface waters and sediments after solid phase extraction and pressurized liquid extraction, respectively, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). There were significant differences in surfactant fluxes from El Albujón towards Mar Menor depending on the season and the day of the week, with maximum estimated annual inputs being detected for LAS (406 kg) and their metabolites, sulfophenyl carboxylic acids (482 kg). Average concentrations of surfactants in the lagoon were between 44 and 1665 ?g/kg in sediment, and between 0.3 and 63 ?g/L in water. These levels were significantly higher for samples collected near the shore than for those measured inside the lagoon itself. Overall, the occurrence and distribution of surfactants in the system could be explained due to a combination of different sources (surface and groundwater inputs, treated and untreated wastewater effluents, towns, ports, etc.) and simultaneous in-situ physicochemical and biological processes, with an special emphasis on degradation during warmer months. PMID:25046983

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  13. Macroinvertebrates associated with Chara in a tropical coastal lagoon (Imboassica lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves

    2001-01-01

    Imboassica lagoon is an urban coastal lagoon located in the municipality of Macaé (RJ), which has been exposed to a process of artificial eutrophication through the inflow of untreated sewage, as well as artificial openings of the sandbar that separates it from the ocean, provoking drastic modifications in this ecosystem. The sampling for the analysis of the community of macroinvertebrates

  14. PERFORMANCE AND UPGRADING OF WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings contain 18 papers discussing and describing the design, operation, performance, and upgrading of lagoon systems. Performance data for facultative and aerated lagoons collected at numerous sites throughout the USA are presented. Design criteria and the applicabilit...

  15. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  16. Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential

    E-print Network

    Vegas Vlarrúbia, Teresa

    Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential use as sewage conditions of a coastal mangrove lagoon in Venezuela which is completely isolated from the sea, lacking any is to relate some of the effects of disconnection, with the potential use of the mangrove as a sewage pond

  17. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2009-02-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons. This UR was established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and was based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This reevaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC to an administrative UR. Administrative URs differ from standard URs in that they do not require onsite postings (i.e., signs) or other physical barriers (e.g., fencing, monuments), and they do not require periodic inspections (see Section 6.2 of the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels [NNSA/NSO, 2006c]). This Administrative UR was based on a “Remote Work Sites” future land use scenario that was used to calculate the FAL. The administrative UR will protect workers from an exposure exceeding that used in the calculation of the FAL (i.e., 336 hours per year). Any proposed activity within these use restricted areas that would potentially cause an exposure exceeding this exposure limit would require approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at each site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at these sites that are unrelated to the FFACO URs such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at these sites.

  18. DISTRICT OF HOPE SEWAGE TREATMENT STUDY

    E-print Network

    OF SEPTIC TANK DISCHARGES 2.1 Existing Lagoon Facili@ 2.2 Septage Discharge 2.3 Waste Management Effluent A District of Hope, Waste Discharge Permit, No. PE04125 APPENDIX B February 10, 1993 Letter from MOE July 26 is included in Appendix A, 2.2 Septa~e Discharge The septage dump station was upgraded at the lagoon system

  19. Moxos' Lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Barba, Josep F.

    There has been a long-standing debate on the anthropogenic origin of Moxos' lagoons. In the late 1990s, an analysis of the orientation of a comprehensive and statistically significant number of lagoons showed that only human action could explain the peculiarities of their geometry and especially their orientation according to a main axis aligned to an azimuth of 50° and its complementary angle. Besides, the absence of distinctive geographical marks in the horizon strongly suggested an astronomical justification for such peculiar pattern. Thus, the lagoons could have been deliberately orientated in agreement with certain stellar positions which may have marked special moments of the local climatic or economic cycle, a fact which might be confirmed in ethno-historic references.

  20. FACULTATIVE LAGOON EFFLUENT POLISHING USING PHASE ISOLATION PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation into the performance of 'Phase Isolation' as a means of upgrading facultative lagoons was conducted at Clinton, Mississippi, using 2 facultative lagoons arranged in series followed by 2 isolation ponds used alternately for final polishing. The isolation ponds wer...

  1. ROCK FILTERS FOR REMOVAL OF ALGAE FROM LAGOON EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to show that rock filtration was an effective, low cost unit process for removing algae from lagoon effluents and correspondingly upgrading lagoon treatment. Sedimentation is the primary mechanism of algal removal within rock filter. The settling...

  2. Endocrine disrupting activities in sewage effluent and river water determined by chemical analysis and in vitro assay in the context of granular activated carbon upgrade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Grover; J. Balaam; S. Pacitto; J. W. Readman; S. White; J. L. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    As part of endocrine disruption in catchments (EDCAT) programme, this work aims to assess the temporal and spatial variations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in River Ray, before and after the commissioning of a full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant at a sewage treatment works (STW). Through spot and passive sampling from effluent and river sites, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities

  3. Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice

    SciTech Connect

    Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. (Department of Environmental Sciences, Venezia (Italy))

    1992-12-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  5. Endocrine disrupting activities in sewage effluent and river water determined by chemical analysis and in vitro assay in the context of granular activated carbon upgrade.

    PubMed

    Grover, D P; Balaam, J; Pacitto, S; Readman, J W; White, S; Zhou, J L

    2011-09-01

    As part of endocrine disruption in catchments (EDCAT) programme, this work aims to assess the temporal and spatial variations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in River Ray, before and after the commissioning of a full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant at a sewage treatment works (STW). Through spot and passive sampling from effluent and river sites, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were determined by chemical analysis and in vitro bio-assay. A correlation was found between chemical analyses of the most potent estrogens (estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) measurement, both showing clearly a reduction in estrogenic activity after the commissioning of the GAC plant at the STW. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of E1, E2 and EE2 had decreased from 3.5 ng L(-1), 3.1 ng L(-1) and 0.5 ng L(-1) to below their limit of detection (LOD), respectively, with a concentration reduction of at least 91%, 81% and 60%. Annual mean estrogenic activity measured by YES of spot samples varied from 1.9 ng L(-1) to 0.4 ng L(-1) E2 equivalent between 2006 and 2008 representing a 79% reduction. Similarly, anti-androgenic activity measured by yeast anti-androgen screen (anti-YAS) of spot samples was reduced from 148.8 to 22.4 ?g flutamide L(-1), or by 85%. YES and anti-YAS values were related to each other, suggesting co-existence of both types of activities from chemical mixtures in environmental samples. The findings confirm the effectiveness of a full-scale GAC in removing both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities from sewage effluent. PMID:21546050

  6. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  7. SOIL FILTRATION OF SEWAGE EFFLUENT OF A RURAL AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The treatment performance of irrigation using primary lagoon treated municipal sewage is compared to normal stream or ditch water irrigation when applied to mountain meadows and crops in a high altitude climate during summer months. The two irrigation waters are applied at differ...

  8. OVERLAND FLOW TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE AT EASLEY, SOUTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overland flow has been demonstrated to be a feasible method for treatment of either comminuted raw sewage or effluent from a facultative lagoon in piedmont South Carolina where mild winters prevail in a region of high rainfall. An overland flow system was operated for three years...

  9. Crustacean zooplankton in aerated wastewater treatment lagoons as a potential feedstock for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kring, Stefanie A; Xia, Xiaoyan; Powers, Susan E; Twiss, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton biomass productivity was estimated for two 64,000 m3 (1.7 ha) facultative aerated wastewater treatment lagoons to evaluate potential biodiesel production from zooplankton biomass. Lagoons were monitored bi-weekly during summer 2010. Lipid accumulated by crustacean zooplankton was considered the most efficient means by which to collect lipid produced by phytoplankton owing to the greater ease in the collection of these organisms (>0.153mm) compared with unicellular algae (size <0.06 mm). In terms of biomass, the cladoceran Daphnia and the copepod Cyclops were the dominant zooplankton in these hypereutrophic lagoons, while unicellular chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community. Secondary productivity of these lagoons (250 g of dry weight m(-2) yr(-1)) is comparable to the secondary productivity of other sewage lagoons. The potential biodiesel production for one lagoon was estimated to be 0.04 +/- 0.02 L m(-2) yr(-1), which results in a total of 1120 +/- 560 L from two lagoons. This study showed that there are organisms present in wastewater lagoons, besides algae, that can serve as a biofuel feedstock. Additionally, this research expands the current knowledge of facultative aerated wastewater lagoon ecology and waste stream-derived biofuel. Future research should include complete life cycle and economic analyses to determine if harvesting zooplankton from wastewater lagoons is a sustainable endeavour. PMID:24350451

  10. Indian River Lagoon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

    Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

  11. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) which reaches peak production during summer. Sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) can be found in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is restricted to Central America). MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  13. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  14. Brazil: Duck Lagoon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is ...

  15. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  16. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  17. Lagoon-sea exchanges, nutrient dynamics and water quality management of the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Alice; Mudge, Stephen M.

    2005-02-01

    Historical data from the Ria Formosa lagoon are classified according to the EEA 2001 guidelines to provide a frame of reference to evaluate the effect of management during the implementation of the environmental legislative Directives. Water samples from the Ria Formosa lagoon were significantly enriched in nitrogen (NH 4+ NO 2- and NO 3-) with respect to the adjacent coastal waters indicating that inputs from sewage, agricultural runoff and benthic fluxes were not fully assimilated within the lagoon. Tidal flushing was insufficient in the inner areas of the lagoon to remove or effectively dilute these inputs. Enrichment was most severe close to the urban centres of Faro and Olhão, as well as in the Gilão Estuary and the shallow extremities. Dissolved oxygen undersaturation (mean 75% during daylight hours) was associated with the area close to the sewage outlets of Faro. In the shallow west end of the lagoon during summer, dissolved oxygen supersaturation reached 140% during the day but fell to 50% at night. Classification using the EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is "poor" or "bad" with respect to phosphate concentrations for the majority of the year and "poor" in nitrogen contamination during the autumn rainy period. Due to the high overall nitrogen load in the lagoon, there is a net export to the coastal waters, especially during November and December, and phosphate only becomes limiting briefly during the spring bloom (April). Therefore, substantial phytoplankton populations may be supported year-round in the lagoon. The consequences of water quality deterioration in the Ria Formosa would negatively affect the lagoon as a regional resource, important for its ecological, economic and recreational value. The industries most affected would be tourism, fisheries and aquaculture. Management options include Urban Waste Water Treatment, dredging, artificial inlets, limits on urban development and changes in agricultural practices.

  18. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  19. Influence of sewage treatment and urbanization on selection of multiple resistance in fecal coliform populations.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J B; Elliott, G E; Smith, D W

    1983-01-01

    The fecal coliform populations found in the raw sewages and final sewage effluents of mechanical treatment plants, a long-term retention lagoon, shorter-term retention lagoons, a remote northern Canada river, and a heavily urbanized prairie river were examined for antibiotic resistance and the possession of R factors. It was determined that there was a decrease in the percentage of multiresistant fecal coliform populations in the mechanical sewage treatment plants and shorter-term retention lagoons; however, there was an increase in populations from the long-term retention lagoon. The percentage of the populations possessing transmissible R factors was constant in the mechanical treatment and shorter-term retention facilities; however, the ability to transmit was lost in 50% of the infective population of the long-term retention facility. A striking contrast was found between the populations of the remote northern Slave River and those of the urbanized Red River. Of the fecal coliforms in the Slave River, 7.1% were multiresistant, and only 0.79% possessed transmissible R factors. The Red River fecal coliform populations were 52.9% multiresistant, and 18.77% of the total population possessed transmissible R factors. The influence of urbanization and the type of sewage treatment have been shown to affect the selection and survival of multiresistant fecal coliforms and R+ fecal coliforms. Determination of other factors influencing the development and the survival of these populations is needed for rational wastewater management and water quality consideration. PMID:6614905

  20. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates. PMID:23404546

  1. Effects of composting process and fly ash amendment on phytotoxicity of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lau, S S; Fang, M; Wong, J W

    2001-02-01

    With the increasingly growing global production of sewage sludge, evaluation of its applicability in agriculture and land restoration is essential. This study assessed the potential effects of composting process and fly ash amendment on soil-ameliorating properties of sewage sludge. The metal availability and phytotoxicity of ash-amended sludge compost (AS, mature sewage sludge compost mixed with fresh lagoon ash) and sludge-ash co-compost (SA, co-composted mixture of sewage sludge and lagoon ash) were compared. The results of this work suggested that both composts favored the applicability of sewage sludge for land application by reducing Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn availability. The SA co-compost stimulated seed germination at ash amendment rates of < or = 10%, whereas various treatments of AS compost inhibited germination at an extract dilution of 50%. Amendment of lagoon ash before or after sludge composting increased electrical conductivity (EC) and volatilization of NH4-N, but lowered availability of PO4-P. Together with the results of phytotoxicity, an optimal ash amendment rate of 5% for AS and 10% for SA were most desirable. Alkaline amendment prior to sludge composting was recommended, because it could be more effective in reducing soluble and plant-available metal concentrations through the composting process. PMID:11243320

  2. Evaluation of the nutrient inputs to a coastal lagoon: the case of the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; T. S. Hopkins; M. Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    The Ria de Aveiro estuary-coastal lagoon system of northern Portugal is estimated to currently receive mean annual influxes of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) of c. 6118 t y-1 and 779 t y-1, respectively, from its influent rivers. In low summer flows the mean N and P fluxes decrease to c. 10% of the annual average. The sewage

  3. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 404) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404. Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench. Tonopah Test Range. Nevada, report number DOE\\/NV--187, September 1998. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September

  4. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING 304, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Plant & Tanks, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  5. Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

  6. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

    2013-02-15

    Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

  7. Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

  8. Sewage sludge combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Werther; T. Ogada

    1999-01-01

    In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

  9. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-05-27

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond for treated wastewater effluent for irrigation water, as needed. The two new lagoons would be li

  11. Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

  12. Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

  13. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

  14. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

  16. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

  17. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

  18. Swine lagoon biogas utilization system

    SciTech Connect

    Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M. [Carroll`s Foods of Va., Inc., Waverly, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF AERATED LAGOONS IN NORTHERN CLIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of cold climate aerated lagoons conducted by the Arctic Environmental Research Station, Fairbanks, Alaska are reported. Conclusions are based on these studies, observations of full scale aerated lagoons operating in Alaska and reports on lagoons in the northern tier of th...

  20. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  1. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

  2. Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Jennerjahn, Tim C; Khrycheva, Polina; Sivatharshan, Yoganathan; Yuwono, Edy; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Segara Anakan, a mangrove-fringed coastal lagoon in Indonesia, has a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates and is increasingly affected by human activities. We found > 50 organic contaminants in water, sediment and macrobenthic invertebrates from the lagoon most of which were polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Composition of PACs pointed to petrogenic contamination in the eastern lagoon. PACs mainly consisted of alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oil than parent PAHs. Highest total PAC concentration in sediment was above reported toxicity thresholds for aquatic invertebrates. Other identified compounds derived from municipal sewage and also included novel contaminants like triphenylphosphine oxide. Numbers of stored contaminants varied between species which is probably related to differences in microhabitat and feeding mode. Most contaminants were detected in Telescopium telescopium and Polymesoda erosa. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the risk potential of alkylated PAHs, which has hardly been addressed previously. PMID:21414637

  3. Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed. PMID:7621796

  4. Geomorphological evolution and environmental reclamation of Fusaro Lagoon (Campania Province, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Pippo, Tommaso; Donadio, Carlo; Grottola, Doriana; Pennetta, Micla

    2004-04-01

    Analysis of morphological, geological and environmental characteristics of the Fusaro Lagoon has shown the present degraded condition of the lagoon and the perilagoon area. The lagoon developed during the mid-Holocene within a wide marine bay confined between the coastal volcanic structures of Mt. Cuma to the north and Torregaveta to the south in the western part of the Phlegrean Fields. Subsequently, the bay was gradually filled with pyroclastic materials from phlegrean eruptive vents and sediments carried by the rivers Volturno and Clanis, thus, creating an open lagoon. It then evolved into a partially closed lagoon due to the formation of a continuous littoral spit during the late Holocene, probably wider than the present-day one and surrounded by marshlands. Finally, the total closure of the lagoon took place in the Graeco-Roman period, following the stabilization of the dune ridge, and it assumed a shape similar to present-day one only towards the end of the 18th century. Between the Roman period and 1941, three lagoon channels were opened in order to avoid the frequent environmental crises which continue to affect, although for different reasons, this salt-water basin. The basin has been exploited for more than 2000 years not only for mollusc culture and pisciculture, but also for the maceration of hemp and flax. In the 1980s, in order to reduce the effects of the environmental crises, dredging of the lagoon bottom has been carried out, altering the hydrogeological equilibrium and that of the ecosystem. Over the past 30 years, the supply of raw sewage of domestic, agricultural and industrial origin has ensured the presence of a high concentration of pollutants, including heavy metals. On the basis of the data obtained and in order to restore this sensitive transitional environment, eco-compatible interventions are proposed which aim at morphological and hydrologic resettlement, abatement of pollutants on the bottom of the basin, reintroduction of endemic molluscs, together with monitoring the quality of sediments and both sea-lagoon waters and groundwater. PMID:14749109

  5. Upgraded UKIRT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G. Hawarden; Nicholas P. Rees; Charles P. Cavedoni; Timothy C. Chuter; Antonio C. Chrysostomou; Donald G. Pettie; Richard J. Bennett; Eli Ettedgui-Atad; John W. Harris; Brian Mack; Eckhart Pitz; Andreas Glindemann; Stefan Hippler; Ralf-Rainer Rohloff; Karl Wagner

    1998-01-01

    The 3.8 m UK Infrared Telescope has been the focus of a program of upgrades intended to deliver images which are as close as possible to the diffraction limit at (lambda) equals 2.2 micrometers (FWHM equals 0.'12). This program is almost complete and many benefits are being seen. A high-bandwidth tip-tilt secondary mirror driven by a Fast Guider sampling at

  6. INDIAN RIVER LAGOON IR, 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the Indian River Lagoon Program's last implementation review, the NEP through the local sponsorship of the St. Johns River Water Management District, has seen a three-fold increase in implementation funding from $6.7 million in 1999, to $21.3 million in FY 2003. This fundin...

  7. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  8. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  9. TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

  10. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXISTING LAGOONS, PETERBOROUGH, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although wastewater treatment lagoons are used extensively, little operational data is currently available for evaluating the performance capabilities of lagoons. This report presents data gathered during a one-year period of monitoring the lagoon system at Peterborough, New Hamp...

  11. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  12. Polarization in the Lagoon nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccall, Marshall L.; Richer, Michael G.; Visvanathan, N.

    1990-01-01

    A V-band polarimetric survey of stars associated with the Lagoon nebula was conducted. The data were combined with existing photometric and spectroscopic observations in order to investigate the alignment of magnetic field lines with identifiable symmetry axes and to evaluate the nature of dust in the immediate vicinity. Although stars are not in general highly polarized, electric vectors align with the minor axis of the Lagoon nebula, perpendicular to the major axis of the spatial distribution of massive stars. The observations indicate that the collapse of the molecular cloud progenitor was inhibited along directions perpendicular to magnetic field lines. Considering the low polarization efficiency and the high ratio of total to selective extinction, smaller grains of intranebular dust appear to have been destroyed.

  13. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  14. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Sewer System Upgrade Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposed Sewer System Upgrade Project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The proposed action would include activities conducted at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and the Containment Test Facility at the Test Area North at INEL. The proposed action would consist of replacing or remodeling the existing sewage treatment plants at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and Containment Test Facility. Also, a new sewage testing laboratory would be constructed at the Central Facilities Area. Finally, the proposed action would include replacing, repairing, and/or adding sewer lines in areas where needed.

  15. A Case Study in Coastal Transport and Sewage Treatment Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudaback, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Huntington Beach, California, is a popular surfing beach near Los Angeles. In July, 1999, the State of California instituted new beach cleanliness standards: beaches should be closed when bacterial concentrations exceed a certain amount. The beach promptly closed for two months. Local environmentalists blamed a nearby sewage outfall, prompting several million dollars worth of studies. How would you figure out whether the outfall was to blame, and what would you do about it?" From this starting point, my undergraduates work through the scientific, regulatory and policy issues involved in a decision about upgrading a coastal sewage outfall. They learn to interpret complex scientific data, discuss the role of science in policy and also reflect on their own priorities and decision-making processes. I will give a brief summary of my teaching methods, and provide CDs with HTML-based educational resources.

  16. Sewage treatment works odour measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gostelow; S. A. Parsons

    Public concern over odours from sewage treatment works is increasing. More people are being exposed to odours, due to development around existing works or the construction of new works. Raised awareness of both the environment and individual rights has meant people are now more likely to complain. Odour abatement and control is a major issue for sewage works operators. To

  17. THE PALAEARCTIC WADER POPULATION OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Pringle; J. Cooper

    1975-01-01

    Pringle, J. S. & Cooper, J. 1975. The Palaearctic wader population of Langebaan Lagoon. Ostrich 46:213-218.Monthly counts of Palaearctic waders were made at high tide in three areas of Langebaan Lagoon, southwestern Cape, during 1973 and 1974. A total of sixteen species was observed. The five commonest species, in order of abundance, were Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Grey Plover Squalarola

  18. INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PUBLIC PARTICIPATION INITIATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of public involvement within the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program (IRLNEP) was to develop the public consensus necessary to ensure long-term support for, and implementation of, the Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan (CCMP). Consens...

  19. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  20. Aerated Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This student manual contains the textual material for a unit which focuses on the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. Topic areas discussed include: (1) characteristics of completely mixed aerated lagoons; (2) facultative aerated lagoons; (3) aerated oxidation ponds; (4) effects of temperature on aerated lagoons; (5)…

  1. Land application of sewage sludge in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Jian Wang

    1997-01-01

    Land application of sewage sludge in China is thoroughly reviewed. Operation of sewage sludge disposal is usually expensive and\\/or easy to contaminate the environment. In China, most sewage sludge has not been treated and disposed of properly, resulting in environmental pollution and potential exposure to humans. In the near future, sewage sludge production in China will increase rapidly together with

  2. NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Upgrade Project Execution Plan Revision 1 October 6, 2011 Submitted by: R. Strykowsky NSTX Upgrade Project Manager _____________________________ M. Williams Associate Director, PPPL

  3. NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Upgrade Project Execution Plan Revision 3 October 12, 2012 Administrative Change Submitted by: ______________________________ R. Strykowsky NSTX Upgrade Project Manager Anthony Indelicato

  4. Movement of lagoon-liquor constituents below four animal-waste lagoons.

    PubMed

    DeSutter, Tom M; Pierzynski, Gary M; Ham, Jay M

    2005-01-01

    Movement of liquor constituents from animal-waste lagoons has the potential to degrade ground water quality. The depth of movement and concentrations of lagoon-liquor constituents in the soil underlying three cattle (Bos taurus)-waste retention lagoons and one swine (Sus scrofa)-waste lagoon were determined. Samples were taken by using a direct-push coring machine, dissected by depth, and analyzed for total N, organic C, CaCO3, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), texture, and extractable NO3, NH(4), P, Cl, Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Ammonium N concentrations were greatest in the upper 0.5 m of soil under all four lagoons with concentrations ranging from 94 to 1139 mg kg(-1). Organic N was determined to make up between 39 and 74% of the total N beneath all lagoons. The swine lagoon had 2.4 kg N m(-2) in the underlying soil whereas the cattle lagoon with highest quantity of N had 1.2 kg N m(-2) in the underlying soil. Although N concentrations decreased with depth, N was greater than expected background levels at the bottom of some cores, indicating that the sampling efforts did not reach the bottom of the N plume. Nitrate N concentrations were generally less than 5 mg kg(-1) immediately below the lagoon floor. In the uppermost 0.5 m of soil underlying the swine and three cattle lagoons, NH4+ occupied 44% and between 1 and 22% of the soil cation exchange sites, respectively. The depth of movement of N under these lagoons, as much as 4 m, may pose remediation difficulties at lagoon closure. PMID:15942042

  5. 1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

  6. Residence times in a hypersaline lagoon: Using salinity as a tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, Stephen M.; Icely, John D.; Newton, Alice

    2008-04-01

    Generally the waters of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal have a short residence time, in the order of 0.5 days (Tett, P., Gilpin, L., Svendsen, H., Erlandsson, C.P., Larsson, U., Kratzer, S., Fouilland, E., Janzen, C., Lee, J., Grenz, C., Newton, A., Ferreira, J.G., Fernandes, T., Scory, S., 2003. Eutrophication and some European waters of restricted exchange. Continental Shelf Research 23, 1635-1671). This estimation is based on the measurements of currents and the modelling of water exchange at the outlets to the ocean. However, observations of the temperature and salinity in the inner channels imply that residence time is greater in these regions of the lagoon. To resolve this apparent contradiction, spatial measurements of the temperature and salinity were made with a meter for conductivity, temperature and depth along the principal channels of the western portion of the lagoon, with a sampling frequency of two per second. Evaporation rates of 5.4 mm day -1 were measured in a salt extraction pond adjacent to the lagoon and used to determine the residence time through salinity differences with the incoming seawater. In June 2004, the water flooding in from the ocean had an average salinity of 36.07 which contrasted with a maximum of 37.82 at mid ebb on a spring tide, corresponding to a residence time of >7 days; the mean residence time was 2.4 days. As the tide flooded into the channels, the existing water was advected back into the lagoon. Although there was a small amount of mixing with water from another inlet, the water body from the inner lagoon essentially remained distinct with respect to temperature and salinity characteristics. The residence time of the water was further prolonged at the junction between the main channels, where distinct boundaries were observed between the different water masses. As the water ebbed out, the shallow Western Channel was essentially isolated from the rest of the outer lagoon, and the water from this channel was forced down the Ramalhete Channel, from where it was unable to exit the lagoon in one tidal cycle due to the extensive path length of ˜14 km to the sea. Although the overall exchange rate of water is short in the outer lagoon, this study emphasizes that management models should take into account additional complexities that might arise from the much longer exchange rates of the inner lagoon. For example, the principal sewage discharge for the urban area of Faro is into the section of the Ramalhete Channel where efficient flushing is impeded by the relatively high residence times of the water body in this channel. The implementation of the techniques used for this study are a quick and relatively cost effective approach to testing assumptions about water quality and exchange in shallow coastal systems.

  7. Compression and Creep of Venice Lagoon Sands

    E-print Network

    Sanzeni, Alex

    A laboratory test program was conducted to evaluate the one-dimensional (1D) compression and creep properties of intact sand (and silty-sand) samples from a deep borehole at the Malamocco Inlet to the Venice Lagoon. The ...

  8. Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Singh; M. Agrawal

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge, also referred as biosolids, is a byproduct of sewage treatment processes. Land application of sewage sludge is one of the important disposal alternatives. Characteristics of sewage sludge depend upon the quality of sewage and type of treatment processes followed. Being rich in organic and inorganic plant nutrients, sewage sludge may substitute for fertilizer, but availability of potential toxic

  9. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  10. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  11. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  12. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  13. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...

  14. Hydrographic measurements in Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. A.; Hodgkins, R.; Björnsson, H.; Ólaffson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Jökulsárlón lagoon is an enclosed lake bordering the retreating Breidamerkurjökull glacier which flows down from the Vatnajökull ice cap. As the glacier calves most of the ice it releases decays within the lake and the addition of the stored fresh water modifies the water local properties. The lake itself is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean through a narrow channel only ~80 m wide, and all tidal and residual flows in and out of the lake are through this channel. In April 2012 (early spring) we conducted four hydrographic sections from a small boat to determine the early season hydrographic structure of the lake. We conducted two hydrographic sections from the entrance of the channel to sea across the lagoon to the Breidamerkurjökull glacier, one across the centre of the lagoon, and one along, and close to the glacier face. Four months of time series hydrographic data from the channel show that the oceanic tidal pulse into the lagoon is short in duration. The water that enters the lagoon is warm and saline enough to descend rapidly to the greatest depths within the lagoon. With our CTD measurements we have mapped the properties of water across the lake. These reveal the pathway of the Atlantic derived water towards the ice face. The warmest water measured within the lagoon was just below the surface and only adjacent to the glacier face. Whilst this warm water was created from solar input, its location and concentration reveal the complex density driven circulation patterns close to the ice face. Calculated oceanic driven melt rates from the ice face show enhanced oceanographic melting in this near surface layer which contributes to the more substantial deeper melting.

  15. Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals in soil at a long-standing sewage farm.

    PubMed

    Li, P J; Stagnitti, F; Xiong, X; Peterson, J

    2009-02-01

    Australia's oldest sewage farm in Werribee, Victoria is a significant public asset with more than 110 years of history and it now treats half of Melbourne's municipal sewage. Currently three parallel methods, i.e. lagoon, land filtration and grass filtration were used to treat raw sewage from Melbourne. The land filtration area is soil-pasture-cattle complex system and it operates on 3,633 ha of permanent pastures for livestock grazing. The land filtration area by intermittent irrigation of sewage occurs during the months of high evaporation from October to April. The monitoring study was aimed to find out the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals in the soil at land filtration area in the long standing sewage farm. The monitoring results show that the temporal distribution patterns of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn follow the exponential regression equations in soil layer 0-20 cm and the linear equations in soil layer 20-40 cm respectively. The accumulated concentrations of heavy metals in the soils are high enough for the land to be considered contaminated. The exponential trend of heavy metal of soil in land filtration area should be controlled immediately by soil remediation or by change of treatment process of flow configuration. PMID:18288581

  16. TLRS-3 system upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichinger, Richard; Cheng, Grace; Crawford, William; Cresswell, Don; Crooks, Henry A.; Donovan, Howard; Edge, David R.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Heinick, J. Michael

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the upgrades to the Transportable Laser Ranging Systems serial number three (TLRS-3), and the impact that these upgrades will have on the TLRS-3 performance in the field. The four major areas of system upgrades are the HP-380 computer, the Optical Attenuation Mechanism (OAM), the upgraded spatial, spectral and temporal filtering for improved daylight ranging capability, and the software upgrade to enable the system to track the Etalon satellites. The TLRS-3 was returned to the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) in December 1991 for system upgrades in preparation of the TOPEX/POSEIDON campaign scheduled to begin in the summer of 1992. Many system upgrades were incorporated into the system while interleaving planned facility maintenance making TLRS-3 a more versatile and more dependable laser ranging system. The TLRS-3 was initially baselined with the MOBLAS-7 via simultaneous satellite ranging on the LAGEOS, Ajisai, Starlette, and ERS-I satellites. During the upgrades and following completion of the system upgrades intercomparisons with the MOBLAS-7 were made to verify the integrity and accuracy of the system changes. Several other groups of personnel participated in the TLRS-3 upgrade and they are: the Survey Section, the Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory, the Architectural and Engineering Services Department, the Precision Timing Section, and the station personnel at TLRS-3 and MOBLAS-7.

  17. The fate of Mediterranean lagoons under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Bellafiore, Debora; Bajo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    A numerical model (SHYFEM) has been applied to 10 Mediterranean lagoons and a comparison study between the lagoons has been carried out. The lagoons are the lagoons of Venice, Marano-Grado, Varano and Lesina in the Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, and the lagoons of Ganzirri and Faro in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain and the Nador lagoon in Morocco. These lagoons give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. The lagoons range from a leaky type of lagoons to a choked type. The number of inlets ranges from just one in the Nador lagoon to 6 in the case of the Marano-Grado lagoons. Tidal range is from nano-tidal to micro-tidal. The depth ranges from an average depth of 1 m to up to 40 meters. The model is a finite element model, especially suited to shallow water basins with complicated geometric and morphologic variations. The model can compute the basic hydrodynamics, dispersion of tracers, temperature and salinity evolution, sediment transport and ecological parameters. Building on an earlier study that focused on the classification of Mediterranean lagoons based on hydrodynamics, exchange rates and renewal time, this study is concerned with the changes in physical parameters under climate change. Data from IPCC has been used to simulate the changes in renewal time, salinity and temperature of all lagoons, with respect to the control simulation. Whenever possible downscaled data for the Mediterranean basin have been used. Sea level rise scenarios are taken from the last IPCC report. The model has been applied in its 3D version and the chosen setup allows a comparison between results in the different lagoons. Results indicate that the differences of renewal time between all studied lagoons become smaller. This means that leaky lagoons become less leaky and choked lagoons less choked. What concerns temperature and salinity, changes occurring in the sea are amplified inside lagoons. All lagoons show an increase of temperature higher than the one found outside in the sea. Salinity changes are also enhanced. This study shows how numerical modeling can be a useful tool to study the hydrodynamic changes forecasted to happen in transitional water bodies like lagoons.

  18. Sewage sludge gasification: First studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    Wastewater treatment installations produce a large quantity of sewage sludge, the disposal and treatment of which causes several problems because of its volume, its toxic organic constituents and the heavy metals that it contains. Certain methods of treatment and disposal do exist, but they are not entirely satisfactory. Moreover, it is important to develop a technology for the adequate treatment of sewage sludge in order to reduce the environmental problem and the costs of treatment. It can be assumed that gasification is a suitable technology because it reduces the waste volume, destroys the toxic organic compounds and fixes the heavy metals in the resultant solid. In order to gain knowledge of the processes occurring in the gasifier, the results obtained in experiments on the thermal decomposition of sewage sludge at different heating rates are shown.

  19. On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for conventional on-site systems. Introduction Inadequate disposal of residential sewage creates prob- lems,000 Virginia households rely on on-site methods for sewage disposal. About 700,000 of these homes use. Inadequate sewage disposal, due to failing or nonexistent on-site treatment, is a problem in many Vir- ginia

  20. Arsenic pollution in Patos Lagoon estuarine sediments, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolai Mirlean; Vlad E Andrus; Paulo Baisch; Gilberto Griep; Maria R Casartelli

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic distribution in sediments of the Mirim–Patos lagoonal system is investigated. Deposits of fresh water Mirim Lagoon and those of the fresh water part of the Patos Lagoon contain 2.5 and 7.7 mgkg?1, respectively, on average of total arsenic. In contrast, estuarine sediments of the Patos Lagoon are evidently contaminated by arsenic in high concentrations (up to 50 mgkg?1), and

  1. Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

  2. DECAY OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER LAGOONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogenic activity of wastewater held in municipal lagoons was monitored over an ~ three month period, using the MCF-7 cell line in a modified E-screen. One lagoon was emptied and refilled with fresh wastewater effluent over a one month period to reach levels equivalent to a second lagoon that had...

  3. Accuracy of lagoon gas emissions using an inverse dispersion method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions. These include those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish ...

  4. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. ach lagoon was filled with 7.56 m3 of anaerob...

  5. Inverse-dispersion technique for assessing lagoon gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions, such as those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish equilib...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE-SOIL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils....

  7. The D0 Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we describe the approved DO Upgrade detector, and its physics capabilities. The DO Upgrade is under construction and will run during the next Fermilab collider running period in early 1999 (Run II). The upgrade is designed to work at the higher luminosities and shorter bunch spacings expected during this run. The major elements of t he upgrade are: a new tracking system with a silicon tracker, scintillating fiber tracker, a 2T solenoid, and a central preshower detector; new calorimeter electronics; new muon trigger and tracking detectors with new muon system electronics; a forward preshower detector; new trigger electronics and DAQ improvements to handle the higher rates.

  8. Do human activities affect the picoplankton structure of the Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)?

    PubMed

    Bouvy, Marc; Dupuy, Christine; Pagano, Marc; Barani, Aude; Charpy, Loic

    2012-01-01

    The spatial variations of the picoplankton (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms) in the Ahe atoll lagoon were studied in May and October 2008 to assess whether they were affected by human activities along the atoll. Spatial patterns were studied using 10 sampling stations chosen according to the location of the anthropogenic activities (pearl farming, harbor). Experiments were also carried out to determine whether bacterial growth, with or without predators, was limited by inorganic (N and P) substrates. The results showed that heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance was superior to the photoautotrophic organisms, especially in May. Significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in May after 24 h incubation with +P and +N (but not in October). All samples complied with the quality levels for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) defined by the European Union and there was no evidence that human sewage had any impact on picoplankton over the whole atoll. PMID:22306310

  9. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and environmental managers that eutrophication has had dramatic impacts on the coastal ecosystems, particularly at the Egyptian and Tunisian sites. PMID:21830712

  10. A simple tool for the assessment of water quality in polluted lagoon systems: A case study for Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Ümit Taner; Beyza Üstün; Ay?en Erdinçler

    2011-01-01

    Lagoon systems have particular ecological, morphological and hydrodynamic characteristics and act like transitional zones between inland and open waters. The aim of this study is to develop a Lagoon Water Quality Index (L-WQI) for environmental control of polluted lagoon systems by focusing on primary problems such as increasing stress on aquatic biota, eutrophication and organic pollution. The indicators used in

  11. Distribution of mercury in adult penaeid shrimps from Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoon (SE Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; García-Rosales, S B; Páez-Osuna, F

    2004-12-01

    The Altata-Ensenada del Pabellon lagoon system is located in the central part of Sinaloa state, NW Mexico. The major sources of pollution are represented by the waste effluents from the intensive agriculture and the urban sewage from the cities of Culiacán (population of 750000) and Navolato (population of 50000). In this lagoon system diverse penaeid shrimps occur; the crystal shrimp Farfantepenaeus brevirostris, the brown shrimp F. californiensis, the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, the white shrimp L. vannamei and the Pacific seabob Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. With the purpose of knowing distribution and relative concentrations of Hg in the main tissues of penaeid shrimps, levels of Hg in five species from Altata-Enesenada del Pabellón lagoon on the SE Gulf of California were determined. Analysis were carried out by reducing mercury compounds after acid digestion reduction with SnCl(2) and detection by cold vapour atomic absorption. In general, hepatopancreas was the tissue where Hg was mostly accumulated, followed by muscle and exoskeleton. The sequence of Hg concentrations in the five species studied here for every tissue was: hepatopancreas L. vannamei>F. californiensis>L. stylirostris>F. brevirostris>X. kroyeri; muscle L. stylirostris>F. brevirostris>L. vannamei>F. californiensis=X. kroyeri and exoskeleton F. brevirostris>F. californiensis>L. vannamei>L. stylirostris>X. kroyeri. PMID:15519411

  12. Integrated measures for preservation, restoration and improvement of the environmental conditions of the Lagoon Olho d'Agua basin.

    PubMed

    Florencio, L; Kato, M T; de Lima, E S

    2001-06-01

    The Lagoon Olho d'Agua in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil has received increasing environmental concern due to significant stress from pollution in the catchment. The existing environmental problems are the result of great pressure from a broad range of human activities, especially in the last 10 years. Serious pollution exists mainly from some industrial and urban activities, which increased intensively after the eighties. There is a strong social and economical pressure for housing and construction near the lagoon, due to the available land nearby beaches and estuarine zone, and recently by growing tourism activities. Uncontrolled land use by low-income communities and the pressure for construction by developers have led to landfilling and to deterioration of water quality in the lagoon catchment. Improvement of the environmental conditions in the catchment needs integrated measures. Guidelines and some specific actions involving several institutions have been established and refer to sanitation and urban infrastructure as the main priorities. A main target is the construction of low-cost sewage system with smaller and decentralised treatment plants. PMID:11485222

  13. NSLS control system upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.

    1995-12-31

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans.

  14. Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger Lagoon. To address this data gap we collected sediment samples during a February 2013 field campaign. One set of sediment samples is from the bottom of the lagoon along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline and another set is from an approximately 1 m depth profile on the lagoon side of the sand berm (depth of the groundwater table at the time of collection). These samples are being analyzed for HgT, MMHg, and total organic carbon (TOC) and will provide a first glimpse into the distribution of mercury species and organic carbon in sediments from the Younger Lagoon Reserve. We will also collect and analyze sediment samples from another lagoon site with comparable watershed characteristics.

  15. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent publications of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and high levels of potential surficial oxygen transfer indicated that large amounts of nitrogen may be removed via denitrification in anaerobic lagoons. If this denitrification is occurring via classical denitrification, the denitrification...

  16. NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    #12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record/schedule baseline updates #12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan ii ..............................................................................................................................1 1.2.1 DOE-approved project documents

  17. NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    #12;#12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan ii Table of Contents 1 ..............................................................................................................................1 1.2.1 DOE-approved project documents

  18. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs to sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Castelao, Renato Menezes; Del Rosso, Clarissa; Fillmann, Gilberto; Zamboni, Ademilson Josemar

    2005-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, is an area of environmental interest not only because of tourism, but also because of the presence of the second major port of Brazil, with the related industrial and shipping activities. Thus, potential hydrocarbon pollution was examined in this study. Sediment samples were collected at 10 sites in the estuary, extracted, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS for composition and concentration of the following organic geochemical markers: normal and isoprenoid alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 1.1 to 129.6 microg g(-1) for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 17.8 to 4510.6 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 3.2 to 1601.9 ng g(-1) for LABs, and from 37.7 to 11,779.9 ng g(-1) for PAHs. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from planktonic inputs due to a usual development of blooms in the estuary. Terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at sites located far from Rio Grande City and subject to stronger currents. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons are related to combustion/pyrolysis processes of fossil fuel, release of unburned oil products and domestic/industrial waste outfalls. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). The overall concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons revealed moderate to high hydrocarbon pollution in the study area. PMID:15607781

  19. Comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Y; Wu, D

    2015-07-01

    Bio-oils were produced from pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a horizontal tubular furnace under the anoxic or anaerobic conditions, by varying operating parameters and moisture content (MC) of the feedstock. Physicochemical properties of the obtained bio-oil (such as density, acid value, kinematical viscosity, high heating value and flash point) were analysed and compared with Chinese fuel standards. Tend, RT and ? were found critical to control the yield and physico-chemical properties of bio-oil products. The relative importance of various parameters such as Tend, RT, ? and MC was determined and the optimum values for the lowest kinematic viscosity and acid value and the highest yield of the bio-oil were achieved using the orthogonal matrix method. The parameters 550°C, 45?min, 5°C?min(-1) and MC of 10% were found effective in producing the bio-oils with most of the desirable physico-chemical properties and yield. Benefit analysis was conducted to further optimize the operating parameters, considering pyrolysis treatment, comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products and final disposal of sewage sludge; the results showed the best economy of the pyrolysis parameters 450°C, 75?min, 3°C?min(-1) and MC of 10%. The char obtained under this condition may serve as a microporous liquid adsorbent, while the bio-oil may serve as a low grade fuel oil after upgrading it with conventional fuel oil and deacidification. Pyrolysis products may become economically competitive in addition to being environment friendly. PMID:25609547

  20. Wetland vegetation in Manzala lagoon, Nile Delta coast, Egypt: Rapid responses of pollen to altered nile hydrology and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Stanley, J.-D.; Horton, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    The pollen record in a sediment core from Manzala lagoon on the Nile delta coastal margin of Egypt, deposited from ca. AD 1860 to 1990, indicates rapid coastal wetland vegetation responses to two primary periods of human activity. These are associated with artificially altered Nile hydrologic regimes in proximal areas and distal sectors located to ???1200 km south of Manzala. Freshwater wetland plants that were dominant, such as Typha and Phragmites, decreased rapidly, whereas in the early 1900s, brackish water wetland species (e.g., Amaranthaceae) increased. This change occurred after closure of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902. The second major modification in the pollen record occurred in the early 1970s, after Aswan High Dam closure from 1965 to 1970, when Typha pollen abundance increased rapidly. Massive population growth occurred along the Nile during the 130 years represented by the core section. During this time, the total volume of lagoon water decreased because of conversion of wetland areas to agricultural land, and input of organic-rich sediment, sewage (municipal, agricultural, industrial), and fertilizer in Manzala lagoon increased markedly. Although the wetland plant community has continued to respond to increasingly intensified and varied human-induced pressures in proximal sectors, the two most marked changes in Manzala pollen best correlate with distal events (i.e., closure of the two dams at Aswan). The study also shows that the two major vegetation changes in Manzala lagoon each occurred less than 10 years after closure upriver of the Low and High dams that markedly altered the Nile regime from Upper Egypt to the coast. ?? 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  1. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  2. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Sewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Siegen, Universität

    Research Institute for Water and Environment Section Sewage and Waste Technologies EFFICIENT practical for ecological and economical evaluation of waste treatment, disposal and recycling · Identification, evaluationSewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering Section Sewage and Waste Technologies

  4. The LHCb Muon Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardini, A.

    2014-02-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently working on the upgrade of the experiment to allow, after 2019, an efficient data collection while running at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The upgrade will allow 40 MHz detector readout, and events will be selected by means of a very flexible software-based trigger. The muon system will be upgraded in two phases. In the first phase, the off-detector readout electronics will be redesigned to allow complete event readout at 40 MHz. Also, part of the channel logical-ORs, used to reduce the total readout channel count, will be removed to reduce dead time in critical regions. In a second phase, higher-granularity detectors will replace the ones installed in highly irradiated regions, to guarantee efficient muon system performances in the upgrade data taking conditions.

  5. Optics upgrade for switchyard

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

  6. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenendahl, S. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; The D0 Collaboration

    1994-01-01

    In order to maximize the physics potential of the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider complex, both the accelerator system and the two large collider detectors are undergoing major upgrades during the remainder of this decade. For the D0 detector, the upgrade focuses on implementation of an integrated magnetic tracker in the central region of the detector, accompanied by those modifications to other parts of the apparatus necessary to cope with the increase in interaction rate provided by the collider.

  7. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  8. Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-04-01

    Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

  9. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  11. REGROWTH OF SALMONELLAE IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to investigate the regrowth of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge. Though composting effectively stabilizes and disinfects sewage sludges, the decrease in salmonellae may be only temporary, since this pathogen can survive and grow without a human or ani...

  12. Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

  13. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  14. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  15. ATLAS IBL Pixel Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rosa, A.; Atlas Ibl Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The upgrade for ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards super-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel detector will consist of the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (LHC phase-I upgrade). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reducing the pixel size and of the material budget. Three different promising sensor technologies (planar-Si, 3D-Si and diamond) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the project with particular emphasis on the pixel module is presented in this paper.

  16. NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    #12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan i Record 10/12/2012 Update to WBS Level 2 Threshold (top of page 20), Change DOE Federal Project Director and Deputy Federal Project Director. Various OBS changes. #12;NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX

  17. In Situ Measurements of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obtaining data on the concentrations of malodorous compounds contained in waste lagoons is essential if the factors affecting their emission are to be described. We monitored selected compounds in a 0.4 ha lagoon that received waste from approximately 2000 sows. Phenol, p-cresol, m-cresol, p-ethyl...

  18. Characterization of Salmonella bacteriophages isolated from swine lagoon effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Salmonella bacteriophages originally isolated from swine lagoon effluent were further characterized. Their differences and similarities to known phages and to each other and their potential for biocontrol of Salmonella were assessed. In host inoculation spot tests the lagoon phages produced s...

  19. CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

  20. The Lagoon of Venice: geological setting, evolution and land subsidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Brambati; Laura Carbognin; Tullio Quaia; Pietro Teatini; Luigi Tosi

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with the geological setting, history and subsidence of the Venetian Plain. Major attention is paid to the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphic sequence in the Lagoon of Venice, in relation to its origin that dates back to 6-7 kyr BP. Geological land subsidence, which played an important role in the origin and the evolution of the lagoon, and anthropogenic subsidence,

  1. Environmental enhancement of swine lagoons through influent treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. Failure of these lagoons during tropical storms in North Carolina along with major public environmental concerns led to a permanent state moratorium of construction of new anaerobic lag...

  2. Case Study: Promoting the Stability of the bidos Lagoon Inlet

    E-print Network

    Case Study: Promoting the Stability of the �bidos Lagoon Inlet André B. Fortunato1 and Anabela Oliveira2 Abstract: The stabilization of tidal inlets by jetties interrupts the littoral drift and has inlet the �bidos Lagoon, Portugal and minimize maintenance dredging, while avoiding the disadvantages

  3. EVALUATION OF A TREATMENT LAGOON FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a two year study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 143 MG facultative lagoon for treating combined sewer overflow and polishing secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent. The lagoon performance was evaluated for changes in the deg...

  4. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

  5. SWINE MANURE AND LAGOON EFFLUENT APPLIED TO FESCUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine manure and swine lagoon effluent to tall fescue were evaluated for four years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9 in. X 9 in. plots by weekly sprinkler irrigations during the growing season while swine manure...

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

  7. Teacher from the Black Lagoon & Other Story Books

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Teacher from the Black Lagoon & Other Story Books Dear Teacher: We have created the following study the Black Lagoon & other Story Books as meaningful as possible. For many, it will be their first time to the performers and the rest of the audience. This performance highlights seven favorite children's stories

  8. Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

  9. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  10. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  11. The upgrade of GEO600

    E-print Network

    Harald Lück; Christopf Affeldt; Jerome Degallaix; Andreas Freise; Hartmut Grote; Martin Hewitson; Stefan Hild; Jonathan Leong; Mirko Prijatelj; Kenneth A. Strain; Benno Willke; Holger Wittel; Karsten Danzmann

    2010-04-02

    The German / British gravitational wave detector GEO 600 is in the process of being upgraded. The upgrading process of GEO 600, called GEO-HF, will concentrate on the improvement of the sensitivity for high frequency signals and the demonstration of advanced technologies. In the years 2009 to 2011 the detector will undergo a series of upgrade steps, which are described in this paper.

  12. Tevatron detector upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

  13. The upgraded DØ detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

    2006-01-01

    The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

  14. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  15. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  16. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  17. ISIS upgrades David Findlay

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    ISIS upgrades David Findlay Head, Accelerator Division ISIS Department Rutherford Appleton Laboratory / STFC Proton Accelerators for Science and Innovation, 12­14 January 2012, FNAL #12;2 ISIS World for research in the physical and life sciences National and international community of >2000 scientists -- ISIS

  18. Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Ornela Beltrame; Silvia G. De Marco; Jorge E. Marcovecchio

    2009-01-01

    Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the

  19. Fisheries in coastal lagoons: An assumed but poorly researched aspect of the ecology and functioning of coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción

    2012-09-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered to be among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Many of them support important fisheries, and some of them maintain intensive and extensive aquacultural exploitations. Their particular features, such as shallowness, relative isolation and protection from the sea, and the presence of boundaries with strong physical and ecological gradients help explain this high productivity. Despite the fact that coastal lagoons are among the most studied ecosystems in the world, our knowledge on fisheries in coastal lagoons or why some lagoons capable of maintaining profitable fisheries seem inadequate for intensive aquaculture remains limited. Scarce, too, is our knowledge of the characteristics of target species, their exploitation status, and the ecological processes that are affected by fisheries or that influence them, including the impact of human activities or climatic change. Here, we review present day knowledge on lagoon fisheries and analyse gaps in the science, stressing the need for adequate management of these important resources.

  20. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  1. Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  2. Nutrient composition of Kansas swine lagoons and hoop barn manure.

    PubMed

    DeRoucheys, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Murphy, J P

    2002-08-01

    A total of 312 samples in two experiments were analyzed to determine mean nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons and hoop barns in Kansas. First, in a retrospective study (Exp. 1), we obtained 41 sample analyses from the Kansas Department of Agriculture of sow, nursery, wean-to-finish, finish, and farrow-to-finish operations in 1999. The average total N concentration was 899 ppm (SD = 584 ppm), while the total P concentration was 163 ppm (SD = 241 ppm). In an attempt to reduce the variation, we conducted a prospective experiment standardizing collection procedure, laboratory techniques, phase of production, and season of year to more accurately determine the nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons in Kansas. In Exp. 2, we used 236 lagoon and 35 hoop barn manure samples taken in 2000 from Kansas swine operations to determine the impacts of production phase and season of the year on nutrient concentration. The different operations with swine lagoons were: 1) sow; 2) nursery; 3) wean-to-finish; 4) finish; and 5) farrow-to-finish, with a total of 9, 8, 7, 10, and 8 lagoons sampled from each phase of production, respectively. The total N and P concentrations from lagoons were 1,402 and 204 ppm, respectively, averaged over all samples. Concentrations of total N were higher in wean-to-finish and finishing lagoons (P < 0.05) compared with sow and farrow-to-finish lagoons. Lagoon analyses also revealed that N concentrations decreased (linear, P < 0.05) during the summer and fall compared with winter and early spring. The concentration of P was greater (P < 0.05) for wean-to-finish compared with farrow-to-finish lagoons. Phosphorus concentrations for all lagoons increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) from February until June, but then declined steady throughout the remainder of the year. Average total N and P in hoop barns were 8,678 and 4,364 ppm, respectively. No seasonal changes in N and P concentrations were observed in manure from hoop barns. Season and type of production phase affect the nutrient content of Kansas swine lagoons, and producers will benefit from obtaining individual analyses from their lagoons when developing nutrient management plans rather than utilizing published reference values. PMID:12211372

  3. Effect of biodegradation on the consolidation properties of a dewatered municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2008-01-01

    The effect of biodegradation on the consolidation characteristics of an anaerobically digested, dewatered municipal sewage sludge was studied. Maintained-load oedometer consolidation tests that included measurement of the pore fluid pressure response were conducted on moderately degraded sludge material and saturated bulk samples that had been stored under static conditions and allowed to anaerobically biodegrade further (simulating what would happen in an actual sewage sludge monofill or lagoon condition). Strongly degraded sludge material was produced after a storage period of 13 years at ambient temperatures of 5-15 degrees C, with the total volatile solids reducing from initially 70% to 55%. The sludge materials were highly compressible, although impermeable for practical purposes. Primary consolidation generally occurred very slowly, which was attributed to the microstructure of the solid phase, the composition and viscosity of the pore fluid, ongoing biodegradation and the high organic contents. The coefficient of primary consolidation values decreased from initially about 0.35m2/yr to 0.003-0.03m2/yr with increasing effective stress (sigmav'=3-100kPa). Initially, the strongly degraded sludge material was slightly more permeable, although both the moderately and strongly degraded materials became impermeable for practical purposes (k=10(-9)-10(-12)m/s) below about 650% and 450% water contents, respectively. Secondary compression became more dominant with increasing effective stress with a mean secondary compression index (Calphae) value of 0.9 measured for both the moderately and strongly degraded materials. PMID:17936608

  4. CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

  5. Hypertrophic lagoon management by sediment disturbance.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Mauro; Birardi, Francesca; Calzolai, Roberto; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Marcone, Francesco; Nocciolini, Stefano; Roffilli, Rugiada; Sgroi, Sergio; Solari, Duccio

    2010-01-01

    Experimental control of eutrophication in a small coastal lagoon was attempted by means of sediment disturbance. A specially designed boat was used to resuspend the top 3 cm of sediment by a jets of air-water directed towards the bottom. This disturbance was carried out for 3 months in each of two areas with a surface area of 24 and 20 hectares respectively. In a total of 80 stations in these two areas and in two undisturbed areas of 16 and 20 ha, organic matter, porosity, density and redox potential were monitored in sediment bimonthly and free sulphides were monitored in water close to the bottom. Before, during and after disturbance, the impact of daily sediment resuspension on the water column was monitored monthly, as ammonium nitrogen (N-NH4), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. In the whole lagoon, sediment texture was determined at the start and at the end of the experiment in 120 stations, and seaweed (mainly Chaetomorpha linum and Lophosiphonia subadunca) and seagrass (Ruppia cirrhosa) biomasses were estimated in 42 stations every month. The results showed a stable organic matter content in disturbed areas and an increase in undisturbed areas, as well as an increase in seaweed in areas distant from disturbed areas. No significant effect of sediment resuspension on water column N-NH4, SRP, DO or pH was found. PMID:20303539

  6. Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

    2011-01-01

    Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

  7. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  8. Detection of Giardia in sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    McHarry, M J

    1984-05-01

    Giardia sp. cysts were found at levels of 4,000-450,000/378,500 liters (100,000 gallons) in sewage effluents from three of seven sewage treatment plants in Sangamon County, Illinois, in June, July, and August 1981. Effluent from the positive plants is discharged into Lake Springfield (the present source of the city of Springfield's water supply) or the Sangamon River. PMID:6470993

  9. The Ultimate Upgrade Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Computers, as everyone knows, seems to get cheaper every day. Many users find that they can now buy twice the computer for half the money they spent a few years ago. A brand new computer, however, may not be the only answer for users wishing for better performance or simply a level playing field, as prices for computer components have kept pace with whole computers. This new report from PC Magazine Online is designed to help users decide if and how to upgrade their present hardware to get a few more years out of their original investment. The report is composed of three main sections (Core Components, Multimedia, and Internet and I/O Connections), each of which analyzes the merits and prices of various upgrades, and offers tips and instructions for installation.

  10. The LHCb Upgrade

    E-print Network

    Federico Alessio

    2013-10-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux involving beauty and charm quarks produced at the LHC. The operation and the results obtained from the data collected in 2010 and 2011 demonstrate that the detector is robust and functioning very well. However, the limit of 1 fb^-1 of data per nominal year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. We therefore plan for an upgraded spectrometer by 2018 with a 40 MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system that will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency specially in the hadronic channels. Here we present the LHCb detector upgrade plans, based on the Letter of Intent and Framework Technical Design Report.

  11. A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over the next 2 decades.

  12. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tuts, P.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P{sub T} physics using precision measurements of e`s, {mu}`s, jets, and missing E{sub T}. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5{mu}s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P{sub T} physics menu, but also the low P{sub T} physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

  13. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tuts, P.M. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.)

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P[sub T] physics using precision measurements of e's, [mu]'s, jets, and missing E[sub T]. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10[sup 31] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1], and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5[mu]s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10[sup 32] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1] and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P[sub T] physics menu, but also the low P[sub T] physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

  14. Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

  15. Management of coastal lagoons under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Peter M.

    2012-09-01

    Global climate change is a reality that is rendering the concept of 'background conditions' meaningless. We can no longer attempt to maintain the environmental status quo. What we can do is to attempt to maintain ecosystem services despite climate-driven environmental change. There is a pressing need for proactive management that purposefully changes ecosystems to maintain ecosystem services before uncontrolled, detrimental changes occur. Such management would go beyond the bounds of current management efforts and could include, for example, introduction of species, bioengineering, and physical engineering. I suggest that this approach be applied first to coastal lagoons as they are clearly defined geographic areas where this approach can, hopefully, be demonstrated such that it can be applied more widely - when it is accepted, which unfortunately will most probably not occur until the adverse impacts of global climate change become much more apparent.

  16. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

  17. Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron-reducing bacteria seemed to contribute to methylation and Hg-resistant bacteria increased in importance in the reductive demethylation of MeHg. The high rates of MeHg demethylation in lagoon sediments may diminish the accumulation of MeHg.

  18. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  19. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  20. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  1. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  2. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects [3] are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes [1] This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects. [2] Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later. [3] Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D

  3. Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

  4. Closure of Lagoons and Earthen Manure Storage Structures

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Walker, Jerry

    2002-09-12

    from municipal and indus- trial wastewater lagoons and holding ponds. These dredges typically comprise a floating barge and a variable-depth pump- ing head to remove sludge from the bot- tom of the structure (Fig. 2 and 3). The power units can... be located on either the barge or the embankment, as with hydraulically operated pumping heads. Because the sludge is removed without agitation, or dilution, you can remove a higher concentration of solids from the lagoon, thus reducing transportation costs...

  5. The LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2013-11-01

    With the demonstration that LHCb can successfully perform forward precision measurements with event pileup, the operation and trigger strategy evolved significantly during the LHC Run 1 allowing LHCb to collect over 3fb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8TeV. Increased bandwidth opened the door for LHCb to extend the physics program. The additional statistics and well managed systematic effects together with the stable trigger and data taking conditions have led to a very large number of world-class measurements and dominance in heavy flavour physics [1], in addition to a reputation of an excellent forward general purpose detector at the LHC. Long Shutdown (LS) 1 (2013-2014) will allow LHCb to fully explore the large statistics collected and prepare LHCb for Run 2 (2015 - 2017). However, even after an additional expected integrated luminosity of 5-6 fb-1 in Run 2, many of the LHCb precision measurements will remain limited by statistics, and some exploratory physics modes will not even be accessible yet. With the need for reconstructing the event topology in order to efficiently trigger on the beauty and the charm hadrons decays, the current 1 MHz readout limit is the main bottle neck to run at higher luminosity and with higher trigger efficiencies. LHCb will therefore undergo a major upgrade in LS 2 ( 2018 - 2019) aimed at collecting an order of magnitude more data by 2028. The upgrade consists of a full readout at the LHC bunch crossing rate ( 40 MHz) with the ultimate flexibility of only a software trigger. In order to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 2x1033cm-2s-1, several sub-detector upgrades are also underway to cope with the higher occupancies and radiation dose.

  6. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  7. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  8. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  9. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  10. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  11. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing...receive human sewage consisting of fecal matter, urine, and toilet paper in a ratio of four urinations to one defecation...

  12. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  13. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from...

  14. The upgraded DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; De, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; DeMaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.

    2006-09-01

    The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

  15. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  16. Influence of Groundwater Seepage on Water Quality and Ecological Health of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Southern Portugal (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, A. Y.; Newton, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater seepage from coastal aquifers has recently been recognized as an overlooked major source of nutrients (N, P) and contaminants to the coastal environment (Biddanda et al., 2009; Fear, Paerl and Braddy, 2007; Kluge et al., 2007; Kroeger and Charette, 2008). Nutrient and contaminants concentrations in groundwater are often much higher than those in river water, compensating for the lower flux of groundwater relative to the lagoon surface water. The Ria Formosa is a coastal lagoon located in the south of Portugal (Algarve, Faro) and surrounded by an intensely farmed area. We hypothesize that water quality and ecological health of the Ria Formosa environments are influenced by past and on-going contamination of terrestrial groundwaters with nutrients from fertilizer, sewage and industry. According to Leote, Ibanhez and Rocha (2005) estimated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the lagoon to be 3.6 m3 day-1 per linear meter of coastline with freshwater contributions (per volume) ranging from 10% to 50%. SGD as an important nutrient source to the Ria Formosa, estimating annual loads of 36.2 mol (0.507 kg) of Nitrogen, 1.1 mol (0.034 kg) of Phosphorus and 18.6 mol (0.522 kg) of Silicon per meter of coastline. Based on these results, it was suggested that SGD is a potential contributor to the observed nutrification status of the Ria Formosa lagoon. We are testing the following two hypotheses: (1) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of inorganic nutrients in groundwater will be characterized by higher density of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) distribution, and higher chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site; (2) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of contaminants in groundwater will be characterized by lower AIS dispersal and colonization, and lower chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site. By processing data and performing interdisciplinary study of groundwater seepage, concentration of contaminants and distribution of AIS in the Ria Formosa, we achieved an easily-measured set of indicators (Lauritsen, Mozley and White, 1985) that can be implementing in the future to gauge changes in the Ria Formosa ecosystem.

  17. Meeting the Upgrading Challenge: DYNAMIC WORKFORCES

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    and Practice Programs include: Workforce Development and Global Value Chains, Mobilizing SME InvestmentMeeting the Upgrading Challenge: DYNAMIC WORKFORCES FOR DIVERSIFIED ECONOMIES Gary Gereffi Karina;Meeting the Upgrading Challenge: Dynamic Workforces for Diversified Economies "Skills for Upgrading

  18. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  19. The LHCb Upgrade

    E-print Network

    Paula Collins; on behalf of the LHCb collaboration

    2011-08-05

    The LHCb detector at the LHC has shown a very successful initial operation and it is expected that the experiment will accumulate an integrated luminosity in proton-proton collisions of around 1 fb-1 in 2011. The data already collected are being used to pursue the experiment's primary physics goal that is the search for New Physics via the measurement of CP asymmetries and rare decays in the b and c sector. The LHC is already capable of delivering higher luminosity than is currently used at LHCb, and an LHCb upgrade is planned for 2018 which will allow the detector to exploit higher luminosity running, and at the same time to enhance the trigger efficiencies, particularly in the hadronic decay modes. This upgrade will allow the experiment to accumulate an integrated luminosity of more than 50 fb-1 over the following decade, and acquire enormous samples of b and c hadron decays to allow for more precise measurements and a deeper exploration of the flavour sector. In addition, the flexibility of the new proposed trigger together with the unique angular coverage of the LHCb experiment opens up possibilities for interesting discoveries beyond the flavour sector, and will allow LHCb to focus on the physics channels which will be of most interest in the light of the discoveries of the coming decade.

  20. Bioluminescent method in studying the complex effect of sewage components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devard I. Stom; Tatyana A. Geel; Alla E. Balayan; Galina I. Shachova; Aleksandr M. Kuznetsov; Svetlana E. Medvedeva

    1992-01-01

    The inhibition of bacterial luminescence has been used in testing industrial enterprises sewage. The toxicity of the sewage is less than the total toxicity of separate components due to neutralization of quinone products of polyphenol oxidation in the reactions with the other phenol components of sewage. Toxicity increase is due to their influence on the cell membrane. Studies of cell

  1. Skill Upgrading, Incorporated. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skill Upgrading, Inc., Baltimore, MD.

    As in two other projects in Cleveland and Newark, New Jersey, this project was set up in Baltimore to provide technical assistance in designing ways to meet in-plant skills needs by upgrading job skills on entry workers through High Intensity Training (HIT). Skill Upgrading, Inc. was established in Maryland to provide training and manpower…

  2. Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

    2014-04-01

    A comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

  3. Nutrient inputs to a Lagoon through submarine groundwater discharge: The case of Laoye Lagoon, Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tao; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Zhang, Guosen; Su, Ni; Zhang, Jing

    2013-02-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with inputs of nutrients in certain regions may play a significant role in controlling water quality in the coastal regions. In this paper, we have determined four naturally occurring radium isotope (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) activities and nutrient concentrations in surface water, coastal groundwater and river water in the mixing zone of Laoye Lagoon to estimate the fluxes of SGD by several models. The activities of the four radium isotopes of ground water were considerably greater than those in surface water samples. Using a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio (AR) model, we estimated the average lagoon water age to be 3.2 days, which was comparable with the flushing time of 4.0 days. Based on the excess radium isotopes and the water age of the lagoon, the estimated fluxes of SGD (in 106 m3/d) ranged from 2.64 to 5.32 with an average of 4.11. Moreover, we used Si balance to evaluate the flux of SGD (4.8 × 106 m3/d) which was close to the result calculated by radium. The SGD-derived nutrient fluxes (in mol/d) were DIN = 1.7 × 105, PO43 - = 5.2 × 102, and SiO3 = 5.3 × 104. Furthermore, we applied the biogeochemical budget approach using SiO3 as a tracer to evaluate the impact of SGD. The differences between the results estimated by radium and SiO3 may indicate different pathways for the input of nutrients.

  4. Upgrading the ATLAS control system

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, F.H.; Ferraretto, M.

    1993-09-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators are tools used in the research of nuclear and atomic physics. The ATLAS facility at the Argonne National Laboratory is one such tool. The ATLAS control system serves as the primary operator interface to the accelerator. A project to upgrade the control system is presently in progress. Since this is an upgrade project and not a new installation, it was imperative that the development work proceed without interference to normal operations. An additional criteria for the development work was that the writing of additional ``in-house`` software should be kept to a minimum. This paper briefly describes the control system being upgraded, and explains some of the reasons for the decision to upgrade the control system. Design considerations and goals for the new system are described, and the present status of the upgrade is discussed.

  5. Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

    2013-05-01

    Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

  6. Unsafe Sewage Sludge or Beneficial Biosolids?: Liability, Planning, and Management Issues Regarding the Land Application of Sewage Treatment Residuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Goldfarb; Uta Krogmann; Christopher Hopkins

    1999-01-01

    Commentators have identified fear of liability as a major deterrent to the widespread land application of sewage sludge. Liability issues regarding land application include not only legal liability, but also market liability as a result of negative public perceptions of the land application of sewage sludge. Under current law, municipal sewage treatment facilities, landowners, farmers, and even lenders are potentially

  7. Characterization and lytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Ananthi; Ananthasubramanian, M.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage were tested against P. fluorescens isolates of soil and sewage. The phages were characterized as to host range, morphology, structural proteins and genome fingerprint. Of the seven phages isolated, one was found to be abundant in sewage (5.9×107 pfu/mL), having broad host range, and distinct protein and DNA profile when compared to the other six phages. DNA restriction and protein profiles of the phages and their morphology indicate the diversity in the sewage environment. None of the isolates from the rhizosphere regions of various cultivated soils were susceptible to phages isolated from sewage. PMID:24031839

  8. Upgrade isobutane to isobutylene

    SciTech Connect

    Monfils, J.L.; Barendregt, S.; Kapur, A.; Woerde, H.M. (Kinetics Technology International B.V., Zoetermeer (NL))

    1992-02-01

    Light hydrocarbon gases such as propane and butanes can be thermally cracked into olefins in the presence of steam. This paper reports that when isobutane is cracked as such, significant yields of isobutylene and propylene are formed. KTI's Butacracking process makes use of the capacity to upgrade isobutanes into isobutylene. This component in turn can be converted into various valuable derivatives, including gasoline blending components, such as MTBE, ETBE and alkylates. KTI claims the process is the only process capable of providing MTBE as well as propylene in significant quantities to cover each other in times of temporary weakness of either one. Such a process may be used to produce lower-emission, clean fuels.

  9. NIRSS Upgrades: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Politovich, Marcia K.

    2007-01-01

    This year we were able to further the NIRSS program by re-writing the data ingest and display code from LabVIEW to C++ and Java. This was leveraged by a University of Colorado Computer Science Department Senior Project. The upgrade made the display more portable and upgradeable. Comparisons with research aircraft flights conducted during AIRS-2 were also done and demonstrate reasonable skill in determining cloud altitudes and liquid water distribution. Improvements can still be made to the cloud and liquid logic. The icing hazard index was not evaluated here since that represents work in progress and needs to be made compatible with the new CIP-Severity algorithm. CIP is the Current Icing Potential product that uses a combination decision tree/fuzzy logic algorithm to combine numerical weather model output with operational sensor data (NEXRAD, GOES, METARs and voice pilot reports) to produce an hourly icing diagnosis across the CONUS. The new severity algorithm seeks to diagnose liquid water production through rising, cooling air, and depletion by ice processes. The information used by CIP is very different from that ingested by NIRSS but some common ground does exist. Additionally, the role of NIRSS and the information it both needs and provides needs to be determined in context of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS). The Weather Integrated Products Team has a plan for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) to take place in 2012. NIRSS is not explicitly a part of that IOC but should be considered as a follow-on as part of the development path to a 2025 full capability.

  10. Quantification of Water, Salt and Nutrient Exchange Processes at the Mouth of A mediterranean Coastal Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios K. Sylaios; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis; Christos Akratos; Kiriaki Haralambidou

    2006-01-01

    Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing

  11. Variability of Anaerobic Animal Waste Lagoon deltaN Source Signatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadayappan Mariappan; Mary E. Exner; Glen E. Martin; Roy F. Spalding

    2009-01-01

    High ammonium-N concentrations derived from animal wastes stored and partially treated in earthen anaerobic lagoons at confined feeding facilities can seep to groundwater. ?N-NH4 values from +2.0 to +59.1‰ in 13 lagoons complicate identification of lagoon seepage as well as land-applied lagoon effluent in ground and surface waters. The spectrum of ?N values requires site-specific isotope characterization of the potential

  12. Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Ham; T. M. DeSutter

    2001-01-01

    Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm\\/day to 2.4 mm\\/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm\\/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N),

  13. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  14. Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Alvarez-Vázquez; A. Mart??nez; C. Rodr??guez; M. E. Vázquez-Méndez

    2001-01-01

    The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in

  15. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

  16. FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

  17. COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

  18. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  19. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  20. Water recovery from sewage using forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Cornelissen, Emile R; Harmsen, Danny J H; Post, Jan W; Lampi, Keith; Ramaekers, Hans; Rietveld, Luuk C; Roest, Kees

    2011-01-01

    This research is part of the Sewer Mining project aimed at developing a new technological concept by extracting water from sewage by means of forward osmosis (FO). FO, in combination with a reconcentration system, e.g. reverse osmosis (RO) is used to recover high-quality water. Furthermore, the subsequent concentrated sewage (containing an inherent energy content) can be converted into a renewable energy (RE) source (i.e. biogas). The effectiveness of FO membranes in the recovery of water from sewage has been evaluated. Stable FO water flux values (>4.3 LMH) were obtained with primary effluent (screened, not treated) used as the feed solution. Fouling of the membrane was also induced and further investigated. Accumulated fouling was found to be apparent, but not irreversible. Sewer Mining could lead to a more economical and sustainable treatment of wastewater, facilitating the extraction of water and energy from sewage and changing the way it is perceived: not as waste, but as a resource. PMID:22179641

  1. Application of fuzzy controls in sewage treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Lu Zhu; Hui-Qiong Deng; Shuai Wang

    2010-01-01

    For the shortages of the traditional flow program control and time program control in the process of sewage treatment, this paper adopts a Fuzzy programming method based on PLC. The PLC and its general I\\/O module are involved in forming the Module Controller in hardware. We use the DO and the sludge reflux ratio as the main control parameters, and

  2. Energy minimization at Metro Denver Sewage District

    SciTech Connect

    Korbitz, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Metro Denver Sewage District energy minimization includes adjustment of treatment operations to maximize use of high purity oxygen treatment with 31 percent reduction in electric power and replacement of sludge incineration with land disposal at 23 percent energy reduction. Future sludge utilization as fertilizer and minor energy reduction efforts in areas of illumination, heating and employee transportation offer additional benefits.

  3. Thermal processing of sewage sludge – II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie Houdková; Jaroslav Borá?; Vladimír Ucekaj; Thomas Elsäßer; Petr Stehlík

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on heat and economic aspects of selected sludge management options. Sewage sludge produced by waste water cleaning process is biodegradable material with growing production. This paper compares three alternative technologies of sludge management where sludge is used to produce energy. Alternative 1 considers anaerobic digestion of mixed raw sludge with subsequent cogeneration of obtained biogas. Alternative

  4. VALORATION ADDITION DRY SLUDGE SEWAGE IN CONCRETE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yagüe; S. Valls; E. Vázquez

    The great amount of dry sewage sludge that is generated and the need to stabilize, solidify and, whenever possible, reuse it has led us to attempt the application of new approaches to its treatment. The search for recycling alternatives for this dry sludge has given rise to the possibility of their use addition in concrete with Portland cement. Portland cement

  5. Heavy Metals Precipitation in Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Maya Marchioretto; Harry Bruning; Wim Rulkens

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal?polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another advantage is the application of the sludge as soil improver. The

  6. ACTINOMYCETES OF SEWAGE-TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In some activated sludge sewage treatment plants a thick foam rich in Nocardia may be formed at the surface of the secondary aeration and settling tanks. It had previously been observed that the supernatant from anaerobic digesters contained suspended solids which were toxic for ...

  7. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Jury; Stuart J. Khan; Tony Vancov; Richard M. Stuetz; Nicholas J. Ashbolt

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread speculation that sewage treatment plants (STPs) and aquatic environments in general may be breeding grounds for antibiotic resistant bacteria. We examine the question of whether low concentrations of antibiotics in STPs can provide or contribute to a selective pressure facilitating the acquisition or proliferation of antibiotic resistance among bacteria in the receiving environment. Examination of available literature

  8. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  9. NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California ACRES: 28.3 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSORS: City of Long Beach Friends of Colorado Lagoon PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Colorado Lagoon is a 28 of visitors from communities within and surrounding the City of Long Beach, California. There are over 700

  10. Remediation of Ammonium-Contaminated Abandoned Animal Waste Lagoon Soil: Physical Properties and Growth of Barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Liphadzi; M. B. Kirkham; K. R. Mankin

    2002-01-01

    Remediation of the soil beneath closed animal waste lagoons is an important issue, particularly for lagoons in environmentally sensitive regions. Few studies address the possibility of using plants to remediate these soils. The objectives of this research were to determine whether barley (Hor-deum vulgare L.), a salt-tolerant crop, would grow in lagoon soil and to determine the effect of plant

  11. Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markes E. Johnson; Jorge Ledesma-Vázquez; David H. Backus; Maria R. González

    Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of

  12. SOIL CHEMISTRY AFTER FIFTEEN YEARS INTENSIVE APPLICATIONS OF SWINE LAGOON EFFLUENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine-feeding operations generate large quantities of waste on individual farms and in warmer climates it is typically flushed into anaerobic lagoons to facilitate digestion. To prevent lagoon overflow, swine effluent is applied to pastures and hayfields in close proximity to the lagoon fro...

  13. Lagoon of Venice ecosystem: Seasonal dynamics and environmental guidance with uncertainty analyses and error subspace

    E-print Network

    Leonard, John J.

    Lagoon of Venice ecosystem: Seasonal dynamics and environmental guidance with uncertainty analyses the seasonal ecosystem dynamics of the Lagoon of Venice and provide guidance on the monitoring and management stochastic ecosystem modeling components are developed to represent prior uncertainties in the Lagoon

  14. ECOLOGY OF THE MAYAN CICHLID, CICHLASOMA UROPHTHALMUS GÜNTHER, IN THE ALVARADO LAGOONAL SYSTEM, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Chávez-López; Mark S. Peterson; Nancy J. Brown-Peterson; Ana Adalia Morales-Gómez; Jonathan Franco-López

    2005-01-01

    The Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, has a wide distribution in southeastern Mexico where it inhabits rivers and coastal lagoons. In the Alvarado lagoonal system, Veracruz, it is distributed towards the north in Camaronera Lagoon. The Mayan cichlid shows an affinity for oligohaline to mesohaline sites with submerged vegetation well-oxygenated, deep, and transparent water. The major abundance and biomass of this

  15. Anthropogenic changes and ecosystem monitoring in the Honjo Area of Nakaumi Lagoon, Southwest Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Seto; D. L. Dettman; K. Kurata; K. Yamaguchi; T. Irizuki; M. Saito; H. Takata

    2008-01-01

    Nakaumi Lagoon is a coastal brackish water lake formed by the Yumigahama peninsula in Shimane and Tottori Prefectures, Southwest Japan. In 1981 the Honjo Area, approximately the northern quarter of Nakaumi Lagoon, was almost completely isolated by the Moriyama and O-misaki Dikes constructed by the Nakaumi Reclamation and Desalination Project. A connection remained with Nakaumi Lagoon via one channel in

  16. Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons

    E-print Network

    Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons Emmanuel Charles-Dominique ABSTRACT: Catch efficiencies of two commonly used fishing gears. in Ivory Coast lagoons, purse seine fisheries are well developed in Ivory Coast lagoons, yielding from 10,000 to 20,000 tons of commercially

  17. Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Yunes; P. S. Salomon; A. Matthiensen; K. A. Beattie; S. L. Raggett; G. A. Codd

    1996-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon is the largest lagoonal system in South America. Its waters are formed by a huge drainage basin (201,600 km2) situated in the most industrialized areas of the Southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. On its margins more than 3 million inhabitants live in several cities and towns. The lagoon waters are used for leisure, drinking, industry,

  18. Sewage outflow impact and temporal variation of butyltins in an intermittent French River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahinian, Nanée.; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Brunel, Victor; Aubert, Gabriel; Saarbach, Bruno; Tournoud, Marie-George; Perrin, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    Organotins (OTs) are anthropogenic molecules used in many industrial applications for their thermoresistant and biocidal properties. Because of their toxicity and widespread use these molecules are on the EU water directive's list of prioritary substances. Organotins are prone to adsorption, can bond easily to particulate matter and "migrate" from the water column unto the sediments where their half-life can extend to a few decades. Recent surveys in various EU countries have indicated the presence of OTs in surface and sewage waters. The objective of this work is to study the temporal evolution of butyl, octyl and phenyl tins in contrasted flow conditions, in the sediments and water column of an intermittent river reach located to the right of an extensive sewage treatment plant (STP). The study zone is a reach of the Vène river located in southern France. The Vène is a major tributary of the Thau lagoon which is an important shellfish farming site and thus very vulnerable to OT contamination. Butyltin, trace metal and DOC concentrations were measured on water and sediment samples collected during two consecutive and contrasted hydrological years. The input and output of the STW was sampled in order to assess its impact on butyltin degradation and transformation. The results revealed the presence of butyltins at concentrations exceeding the EU and French pollution limits regularly. Very low concentrations of phenyltins were found in the water samples thus indicating that there is little use of OTs based pesticides in the area. The OTs concentrations were systematically higher during the wetter year, probably because of higher and more frequent wash off contribution to the reach and minimal dilution along the rivercourse. By contrast, the STW's impact in terms of OTs flux is more important during dry periods when there is less dilution in the river. Although the STW's outflows contained less OTs than the inputs, its efficiency in terms of OTs degradation could not be quantified from the available data as no information was available on the OTs concentrations in the deposited sediments of the lagoons. Future efforts will concentrate on a thorough analysis of OTs degradation within the STW.

  19. The RHIC polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

  20. NSLS control system upgrade status

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Y.; Flannigan, J.; Sathe, S.; Keane, J.; Krinsky, S.

    1993-07-01

    The NSLS control system initially installed in 1978 has undergone several modifications but the basic system architecture remained relatively unchanged. The need for faster response, increased reliability and better diagnostics made the control system upgrade a priority. Since the NSLS runs continuously, major changes to the control system are difficult. The upgrade plan had to allow continuous incremental changes to the control system without having any detrimental effect on operations. The plan had to provide for immediate improvement in a few key areas, such as data access rates, and be complete in a short time. At present, most accelerator operations utilize the upgraded control system.

  1. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  2. Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 ? M in 1987 to 2.7 ? M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

  3. ISIS Project Upgrade Campus Community

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    ISIS Project Upgrade Campus Community Page Navigation Page | 1 Page navigation has changed in the ISIS Application. This document provides you with the new location of all your key Campus Community the Navigation Pagelets": ISIS.UML..EDU #12;

  4. Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, M.C. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States); CDF Collaboration

    1998-04-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking.

  5. Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.

    PubMed

    Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2012-01-01

    Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide. PMID:23109583

  6. Sediment biogeochemical differences in two pristine Mediterranean coastal lagoons (in Italy) characterized by different phanerogam dominance-A comparative approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. SIGNORINI; G. MASSINI; G. MIGLIORE; M. TOSONI; C. VARRONE; G. IZZO

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate functional differences in two Italian coastal lagoons (Caprolace and Fogliano, Tyrrhenian Sea) characterized by the dominance of two different seagrass species: Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in the Caprolace lagoon and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande in the Fogliano lagoon. 2. A monitoring system was set up in both lagoons in order to (i)

  7. User and Performance Impacts from Franklin Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yun (Helen)

    2009-05-10

    The NERSC flagship computer Cray XT4 system"Franklin" has gone through three major upgrades: quad core upgrade, CLE 2.1 upgrade, and IO upgrade, during the past year. In this paper, we will discuss the various aspects of the user impacts such as user access, user environment, and user issues etc from these upgrades. The performance impacts on the kernel benchmarks and selected application benchmarks will also be presented.

  8. Influence of CDOM and particle composition on ocean color of the Eastern New Caledonia Lagoon during the CALIOPE cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Tedetti, Marc; Martias, Chloe; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doxaran, David; Lantoine, Francois; Rodier, Martine; Favareto, Luciane; Kampel, Milton; Goutx, Madeleine; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Ocean color of tropical lagoons is dependent on bathymetry and bottom type, as well as input of coastal living and mineral particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The New Caledonia lagoon lies in the Southwestern Tropical Pacific around 21° 30'S and 166° 30'E, with a great marine biodiversity in UNESCO Heritage coral reefs, benthic sea grass, and benthic communities. They are largely connected to the open ocean in the southern and eastern parts, but only by narrow passes in the southwest part. The trophic state is linked to spatial variations in flushing times. High run offs due to rain carrying abundant chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particle loads may greatly impact the functioning of ecosystems while rivers and sewage effluents may induce localized impacts. Two oceanographic cruises (CALIOPE 1 in 2011 and CALIOPE 2 in 2014) were carried out off the Eastern Coast of New Caledonia during a calm dry period and during high winds, respectively. Multi- and hyper-spectral marine reflectance was measured with a SIMBADA instrument and a TRIOS radiometer system, together with inherent optical properties (total and CDOM absorption coefficients with a PSICAM, in situ absorption and scattering with an AC9, backscattering with a Hydroscat-6). Fluorescence of CDOM (EEM/PARAFAC) was measured on collected 0.2 ?m filtered samples. In 2014, Satlantic and FieldSpec hyper-spectral radiometers were available for in-water profiling of upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance and above-water reflectance measurements, respectively. Inherent and apparent optical data from the two cruises are compared and used to estimate ocean color algorithms performance and evaluate a Linear Matrix Inversion method, providing tools for remote sensing on this highly under-sampled coastal region of New Caledonia.

  9. Altair performance and upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; White, John; Ball, Jesse; Trujillo, Chad

    2014-07-01

    Altair is the facility single conjugate AO system for Gemini North. Although it has been in operation for more than 10 years (and upgraded to LGS in 2007), Altair's performance is degraded by three main issues: vibrations of the telescope and instrument support structure, spatial aliasing on centroid offsets from the M2 support structure print-through on the optical surface and static non-common path aberrations. Monte-Carlo simulations can reproduce the behavior of Altair when including these three effects and they are roughly of the same order of magnitude. Solutions or mitigations are being investigated to overcome these nefarious effects and restore Altair's performance to its nominal level. A simplex algorithm as well as a phase diversity approach are being investigated to measure and correct for static aberrations. A high accuracy phase map of the M2 print-through has been obtained and is being used to calibrate and/or filter centroids affected by aliasing. A new real time computer is under consideration, to be able to handle more advanced controllers, especially notch filters to combat vibrations. In this paper we will report on the various simulations and on-sky results of this rejuvenation of one of Gemini's workhorse instruments.

  10. The STAR tracking upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, F.

    2008-05-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC studies the new state of matter produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions and the spin structure of the nucleon in collisions of polarized protons. In order to improve the capabilities for heavy flavor measurements and the reconstruction of charged vector bosons an upgrade of the tracking system both in the central and the forward region is pursued. The challenging environments of high track multiplicity in heavy ion collisions and of high luminosity in polarized proton collisions require the use of new technologies. The proposed inner tracking system, optimized for heavy flavor identification, is using active pixel sensors close to the collision point and silicon strip technology further outward. Charge sign determination for electrons and positrons from the decay of W bosons will be provide by 6 large-area triple GEM disks currently under development. A prototype of the active pixel detectors has been tested in the STAR experiment, and an extensive beam test of triple GEM detectors using GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch of Plymouth, MA has been done at Fermilab.

  11. MAST Upgrade - Construction Status

    E-print Network

    Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

  12. Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarretta, A.; Pillon, S.; Molinaroli, E.; Guerzoni, S.; Fontolan, G.

    2010-05-01

    A comparison of 1927, 1970 and 2002 bathymetric surveys in the Lagoon of Venice was used to reconstruct historical changes in sedimentation. A detailed GIS-based analysis of the charts revealed the timing and pattern of geomorphic changes and allowed calculation of sediment deposition and erosion for the entire lagoon and each of its four sub-basins: Treporti, Lido, Malamocco and Chioggia. Two main developments are discernible from comparative observation of the areal distribution of the main elevation ranges: the diminution in area of the saltmarshes, which decreased by more than 50%, from 68 km 2 in 1927 to 32 km 2 in 2002, and the progressive deepening of the lagoon, with a huge increase in the area of subtidal flats (between -0.75 and -2.00 m depth), from 88 to 206 km 2 during the same period. Generally, the lagoon showed a clear-cut change in the most frequent depths (modal depth) from a value of -0.62 m in 1927 to -0.88 m in 2002. The deepening of the lagoon affected mostly the lagoonal sub-basins south of the town of Venice, where modal depth increased from -0.65 to -1.12 m in Lido, from -0.64 to -1.75 m in Malamocco and from -0.39 to -0.88 m in Chioggia. Large changes in lagoonal morphology were caused by human-induced subsidence, the dredging of navigation channels between 1927 and 1970, and intense natural erosion enhanced by sediment re-suspension due to Manila clam fishing between 1970 and 2002. There was a net loss of about 110 Mm 3 of sediment from the lagoon, most of which (73 Mm 3, ca.70%) was in the earlier period. A significant amount was lost by dredging and direct disposal outside the system, either on land or at sea, and there was a net loss of 39 Mm 3 from the lagoon to the sea through the inlets, at an annual rate of 0.5 Mm 3. Comparison of erosion rates in the two periods revealed an alarming acceleration, from a net sediment loss of 0.3 Mm 3 yr -1 in the period 1927-1970 to 0.8 Mm 3 yr -1 in 1970-2002. Deterioration caused a shift from a highly differentiated lagoon morphology in the 1930s to a sediment-starved and subsidence-dominated structure in the 1970s, and from there to the high-energy and more open (bay-like) lagoon of today. The results demonstrate the potential application of GIS to reconstruct the recent chronology of sediment distribution and to improve the understanding of the geomorphic processes shaping the seafloor, whilst providing an insight into the possible impacts of environmental changes induced by natural and anthropogenic forcing.

  13. Anthropogenic disturbance and spatial heterogeneity of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages in coastal lagoons: the study case of Pialassa Baiona (northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, Massimo; Casselli, Chiara; Abbiati, Marco

    2011-03-01

    The distribution patterns of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages at different spatial scales and in relation to natural and anthropogenic disturbance gradients were investigated in the Pialassa Baiona, a eutrophic and polluted brackish coastal lagoon located along the Italian coast of the northern Adriatic Sea. This coastal lagoon shows a complex physiography with several shallow water ponds and channels separated by discontinuous artificial embankments. Environmental variables and macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages showed higher heterogeneity at small spatial scale (i.e. within channels and ponds). Distinction between channels and ponds is only weakly supported by the distribution patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. Depth was the major factor in structuring benthic communities within ponds, while species distributions along the channels were strongly correlated with the anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Anthropogenic disturbance mainly affected species richness, which was inversely correlated with the organic carbon contents in the sediments and the water surface temperature, which is affected by the input of cooling water from two thermal power plants. Some opportunistic species, like the polychaetes Streblospio shrubsolii and Capitella capitata, were more abundant in the southern polluted areas. In particular, the abundance of S. shrubsolii significantly increased with organic carbon contents in the sediments and water surface temperature, while C. capitata was more abundant in the warmed sites and close to sewages. Conversely, the abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum was inversely related to organic carbon contents.

  14. Is There Sewage in My Sample?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

  15. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D. (ed.)

    1982-12-01

    A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

  16. Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m?2 specimen area d?1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m?2 lagoon area d?1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems. PMID:24367570

  17. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-04-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  18. Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A.; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y.; Giménez-Casalduero, F.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J. L.; Dauvin, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the species showed high sensitivity, particularly species such as Bathyporeia borgi, Perioculodes longimanus and Autonoe spiniventris, whereas other species appeared to be more tolerant to the sewage input, such as Ampelisca brevicornis. These different responses could be related to burrowing behaviour, with fossorial species being more sensitive and domicolous species being less affected. Benthic amphipods, which live in direct contact with sediment, are widely used for bioassay and numerous species are usually employed in ecotoxicology tests for diverse contaminants. In order to consider amphipods for monitoring and biodiversity programmes, it is important to establish the degree of sensitivity of each species to different sources of pollution.

  19. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  20. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  1. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  2. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  3. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  4. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  5. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...

  6. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  7. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  8. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  9. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  10. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503...applied to the land, placed on a surface disposal site, or fired in a sewage sludge...

  11. A combined wind wavetidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy

    E-print Network

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    A combined wind wave­tidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy L. Carniello and A. Defina Department of Hydraulic, Maritime, Environmental and Geotechnics Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy S, Environmental and Geotechnics Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy Received 30 August 2004; revised 8

  12. A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

    This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

  13. Antifungal defenses of seagrasses from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff Ross; Melany P. Puglisi; Valerie J. Paul

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal chemical defenses and physiological responses of five seagrasses collected from nearshore seagrass beds from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, against a panel of co-occurring marine fungi isolated from nearby coastal communities. Whole plant tissues from Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme prevented overgrowth by three of the seven fungi used in this study. Organic extracts

  14. Aerated Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) describes the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. In addition, special troubleshooting and maintenance problems are discussed. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of slides used…

  15. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  16. Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. To better understand this, more data is ne...

  17. A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water column sampler was needed to study stratification of nutrients and bacteria in a swine manure lagoon. Conventional samplers yielded shallow samples near the bank or required a boat. These limitations prompted development of a new sampler to collect at multiple depths with minimal disturbanc...

  18. Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

  19. Land Application of Poultry Lagoon Effluent L. J. Aldrich1

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    directly related to effluent nutrient levels and background soil concentrations. Nitrate and potassium. M. Sweeten4 Member Fellow Abstract Excess levels of plant nutrients are being applied to soils when public. Repeated applications of lagoon effluent can cause high levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P

  20. Characterization of lagoon gases by an electronic nose

    E-print Network

    Woodcock, Jane Catherine

    1997-01-01

    in the decomposition of livestock wastes, the need for accurate and reliable devices for field monitoring of emissions exists. Studies were undertaken into the use of an array of chemical gas sensors for the detection and characterization of lagoon biogas. The sensors...

  1. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from a waste lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost-effective approach was used to investigate the relationship between emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O and energy fluxes from a swine waste lagoon. Energy fluxes were calculated using the Penman method. The energy fluxes showed a diurnal pattern as expected of such flux...

  2. Montane lakes (lagoons) of the New England Tablelands Bioregion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy M. Bell; John T. Hunter; J. Haworth

    The vegetation of montane lagoons of the New England Tablelands Bioregion, New South Wales is examined using flexible UPGMA analysis of frequency scores on all vascular plant taxa, charophytes and one liverworts. Seven communities are described- 1. Hydrocotyle tripartita - Isotoma fluviatilis - Ranunculus inundatus - Lilaeopsis polyantha herbfield 2. Eleocharis sphacelata - Potamogeton tricarinatus sedgeland 3. Eleocharis sphacelata -

  3. Tidal Inlet and Lagoon on the San Andreas Fault

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald D. Treadwell; Ronald M. Noble; Orville T. Magoon

    Bolinas Lagoon, located on the California coast about 24 kilometers north of San Francisco's Golden Gate (Figure 1), sits astride the San Andreas Fault and waits to die, a victim of many of the same types of human interventions that negatively impact other coastlines of the world. It is now almost certain that additional human intervention is the only means

  4. REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM TREATED ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can eliminate environmental problems associated with anaerobic lagoons. These technologies must be able to capture nutrients, kill pathogens and reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors. To meet these needs, a full-scale wastewater treatment plan...

  5. IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    ) this study demonstrates the application of total phosphorus possible spectral indexes to monitor its contentIDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON USING AN HYPERSPECTRAL phosphorus concentrations. A reflectance determination coefficient of 0.49 was obtained from the 467 to 529

  6. Fate of estradiol and testosterone in anaerobic lagoon digestors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale lagoon digestors were constructed, and the fate of 14C-labelled 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (Test) were monitored for 42 d anaerobically under biological and sterile conditions. Hormone levels decreased in the liquid layer and increased in the sludge with time. At 42 d, 16-2...

  7. LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

  8. Decline of Ulva growth in the lagoon of Venice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriano Sfriso; Antonio Marcomini

    1996-01-01

    Causes and effects of the remarkable regression of the macroalga Ulva rigida C. Ag. in the central part of the Venice lagoon since 1990 are reported. Climatic changes triggered the progressive reduction of Ulva coverage and production (?80% in 1993; ?95% in 1995) until its almost complete disappearance in 1996. Grazers, especially Gammaridae, controlled 70% of the current biomass production,

  9. WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

  10. ISOLATION OF SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES FROM SWINE WASTE LAGOONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lagoons on nine Mississippi hog farms were tested for the presence of lytic Salmonella-specific phages. Lytic phages are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Salmonella-killing phages were isolated using an enrichment method or directly from clarified filtered effluent. Enrichment samples were tre...

  11. Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibi...

  12. Fuzzy prediction of the algal blooms in the Orbetello lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Marsili-libelli

    2004-01-01

    The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,

  13. ENTERIC VIRUS REMOVAL IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT LAGOON SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indigenous enteric virus removal from raw wastewater was examined in facultative and partially aerated treatment lagoon systems at paired sites in the southwest, southeast, and north central regions of the U.S. The virus samples were concentrated from large wastewater volume usin...

  14. In Situ Monitoring of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An apparatus for the in situ quantification of malodorous compounds from animal wastewater was developed that employed a submersible magnetic stir plate and stir bar sorbtive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bars. Prior to deployment of the apparatus in a hog waste lagoon, experime...

  15. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  16. Node weighted network upgrade problems

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, S.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1996-09-01

    Consider a network where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v can be upgraded at an expense of cost(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v by a fixed factor x, where 0 < x < 1. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a spanning tree in which edge is of delay at most a given value {delta}. The authors provide both hardness and approximation results for the problem. They show that the problem is NP-hard and cannot be approximated within any factor {beta} < ln n, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME(n{sup log log n}), where n is the number of nodes in the network. They then present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem. For the general case, the approximation algorithm comes within a factor of 2 ln n of the minimum upgrading cost. When the cost of upgrading each node is 1, they present an approximation algorithm with a performance guarantee of 4(2 + ln {Delta}), where {Delta} is the maximum node degree. Finally, they present a polynomial time algorithm for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

  17. Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction

    SciTech Connect

    Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-07-20

    This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan.

  18. Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

  19. Impact of a river flash flood on microbial carbon and nitrogen production in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilland, E.; Trottet, A.; Bancon-Montigny, C.; Bouvy, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Gonzalez, J.-L.; Hatey, E.; Mas, S.; Mostajir, B.; Nouguier, J.; Pecqueur, D.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Rodier, C.; Roques, C.; Salles, C.; Tournoud, M.-G.; Vidussi, F.

    2012-11-01

    Over half of the total nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading was discharged from the Vène River into the Thau Lagoon waters within the first five days of what was considered to be the autumn flash flood period. Such loads represented about 8% and 3% of the yearly averaged total nitrogen and phosphorus load in Thau Lagoon, respectively. Although this event affected >20% of the total lagoon volume, river trace metal loads contributed apparently only weakly to the increase in labile trace metal concentrations in the lagoon surface waters. Differences between theoretical dilution values and observed values were also noticed for phosphate, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC losses (10-50%) mainly through flocculation, together with the substantial increases in some metallic contaminants such as Zn (from 6 to >30 ?g L-1) observed during the flash flood in saline lagoon waters, may have limited the carbon production of bacterial communities. The potential osmotic shock and the increase in turbidity may mainly explain the low phytoplankton C turnover rates (average of 0.02 h-1) measured in brackish waters (<30) during periods of heavy flood discharge. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: NO3 + NH4) enrichment measured 12 days after the flash flood event in saline lagoon surface waters (from 22 to 143 ?g N L-1) led to a substantial increase in phytoplanktonic C production and associated DIN uptake rates (from 2.6 to 7.0 ?g C L-1 h-1 and from 0.5 to 1.1 ?g N L-1 h-1, respectively). Subsequent accumulation in particulate organic carbon and nitrogen was not observed in the area studied during and after the flash flood period, averaging 549 ± 50 ?g C L-1 and 168 ± 9 ?g N L-1, respectively. This suggests that most of locally produced microbial production was rapidly filtered by oysters contributing to about 13% of the yearly exploited production in the lagoon and/or exported through sedimentation.

  20. The RHIC polarized source upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Podolyako, F.; Sorokin, I.; Vizgalov, I.; Klenov, V.; Zubets, V.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The RHIC polarized H- ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam intensity will allow reduction of the longitudinal transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron-proton (ion) Collider eRHIC. The basic limitations on the high-intensity H- ion beam production in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapor jet ionizer cell were experimentally studied.

  1. The upgraded MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tescaro, D.

    2014-12-01

    The MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes underwent a major upgrade in 2011 and 2012. A new 1039-pixel camera and a larger area digital trigger system were installed in MAGIC-I, making it essentially identical to the newer MAGIC-II telescope. The readout systems of both telescopes were also upgraded, with fully programmable receiver boards and DRS4-chip-based digitization systems. The upgrade eased the operation and maintenance of the telescopes and also improved significantly their performance. The system has now an integral sensitivity as good as 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux (for E > 400 GeV), with an effective analysis threshold at 70 GeV. This allows MAGIC to secure one of the leading roles among the current major ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for the next 5-10 years.

  2. Future evolution of a tidal inlet due to changes in wave climate, Sea level and lagoon morphology (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneau, Nicolas; Fortunato, André B.; Dodet, Guillaume; Freire, Paula; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Tidal inlets are extremely dynamic, as a result of an often delicate balance between the effects of tides, waves and other forcings. Since the morphology of these inlets can affect navigation, water quality and ecosystem dynamics, there is a clear need to anticipate their evolution in order to promote adequate management decisions. Over decadal time scales, the position and size of tidal inlets are expected to evolve with the conditions that affect them, for instance as a result of climate change. A process-based morphodynamic modeling system is validated and used to analyze the effects of sea level rise, an expected shift in the wave direction and the reduction of the upper lagoon surface area by sedimentation on a small tidal inlet (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal). A new approach to define yearly wave regimes is first developed, which includes a seasonal behavior, random inter-annual variability and the possibility to extrapolate trends. Once validated, this approach is used to produce yearly time series of wave spectra for the present and for the end of the 21st century, considering the local rotation trends computed using hindcast results for the past 57 years. Predictions of the mean sea level for 2100 are based on previous studies, while the bathymetry of the upper lagoon for the same year is obtained by extrapolation of past trends. Results show, and data confirm, that the Óbidos lagoon inlet has three stable configurations, largely determined by the inter-annual variations in the wave characteristics. Both sea level rise and the reduction of the lagoon surface area will promote the accretion of the inlet. In contrast, the predicted rotation of the wave regime, within foreseeable limits, will have a negligible impact on the inlet morphology.

  3. Circulation and suspended sediment transport in a coral reef lagoon: the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Ouillon, S; Douillet, P; Lefebvre, J P; Le Gendre, R; Jouon, A; Bonneton, P; Fernandez, J M; Chevillon, C; Magand, O; Lefèvre, J; Le Hir, P; Laganier, R; Dumas, F; Marchesiello, P; Bel Madani, A; Andréfouët, S; Panché, J Y; Fichez, R

    2010-01-01

    The south-west lagoon of New Caledonia is a wide semi-open coral reef lagoon bounded by an intertidal barrier reef and bisected by numerous deep inlets. This paper synthesizes findings from the 2000-2008 French National Program EC2CO-PNEC relative to the circulation and the transport of suspended particles in this lagoon. Numerical model development (hydrodynamic, fine suspended sediment transport, wind-wave, small-scale atmospheric circulation) allowed the determination of circulation patterns in the lagoon and the charting of residence time, the later of which has been recently used in a series of ecological studies. Topical studies based on field measurements permitted the parameterisation of wave set-up induced by the swell breaking on the reef barrier and the validation of a wind-wave model in a fetch-limited environment. The analysis of spatial and temporal variability of suspended matter concentration over short and long time-scales, the measurement of grain size distribution and the density of suspended matter (1.27 kg l(-1)), and the estimation of erodibility of heterogeneous (sand/mud, terrigenous/biogenic) soft bottoms was also conducted. Aggregates were shown to be more abundant near or around reefs and a possible biological influence on this aggregation is discussed. Optical measurements enabled the quantification of suspended matter either in situ (monochromatic measurements) or remotely (surface spectral measurements and satellite observations) and provided indirect calibration and validation of a suspended sediment transport model. The processes that warrant further investigation in order to improve our knowledge of circulation and suspended sediment transport in the New Caledonia lagoon as well as in other coral reef areas are discussed, as are the relevance and reliability of the numerical models for this endeavour. PMID:20637477

  4. Physics Potential of JLab Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2004-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the Jefferson Lab energy to 12 GeV will greatly expand capability of the facility to make profound contributions to the study of the nuclear and nucleon structure, and the strong interaction. In particular, it will allow direct exploration of the quark-gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei, and of quark confinement. The physics potential is illustrated with selected examples. The instrumentation under design to carry out the research program is also presented. The plan for an upgrade beyond 12 GeV is briefly discussed.

  5. Argonne's atlas control system upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, F.; Quock, D.; Chapin, B.; Figueroa, J.

    1999-09-27

    The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research, which focuses primarily on heavy-ion physics. The accelerator as well as its control system are evolutionary in nature, and consequently, continue to advance. In 1998 the most recent project to upgrade the ATLAS control system was completed. This paper briefly reviews the upgrade, and summarizes the configuration and features of the resulting control system.

  6. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alvin Y T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong; Yuan, Xiangcheng; He, Lei; Jiang, Yuelu; Lee, Joseph H W; Anderson, Donald M; Harrison, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO(3) and SiO(4) concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters when rainfall and river discharge was maximal in summer. Continuous year round discharge of sewage effluent resulted in high NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbour (VH) and its vicinity. In winter, spring and fall, the water column at all stations was moderately mixed by winds and tidal currents, and phytoplankton biomass was relatively low compared to summer. In summer, the mean surface phytoplankton chl biomass was generally > 9 microL(-1) in most areas as a result of thermohaline stratification, and high nutrients, light, and water temperature. In summer, the potential limiting nutrient is PO(4) in the most productive southern waters and it seldom decreased to limiting levels ( approximately 0.1 microM), suggesting that phytoplankton growth may be only episodically limiting. The mean bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) remained > 3.5 mg L(-1) at most stations, indicating that the eutrophication impact in HK waters was not as severe as expected for such a eutrophic area. After the implementation of chemically enhanced primary sewage treatment in 2001, water quality in VH improved as indicated by a significant decrease in NH(4) and PO(4) and an increase in bottom DO. In contrast, there were an increase in chl a and NO(3), and a significant decrease in bottom DO in southern waters in summer, suggesting that hypoxic events are most likely to occur in this region if phytoplankton biomass and oxygen consumption keep increasing and exceed the buffering capacity of HK waters maintained by monsoon winds, tidal mixing and zooplankton grazing. Therefore, future studies on the long-term changes in nutrient loading from PRE and HK sewage discharge will be crucial for developing future strategies of sewage management in HK waters. PMID:18514234

  7. Automatic software upgrades for distributed systems

    E-print Network

    Ajmani, Sameer, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributed systems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in a system at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting the system for an ...

  8. Automatic Software Upgrades for Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Ajmani, Sameer

    2005-10-06

    Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributedsystems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in asystem at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting thesystem for an ...

  9. Automatic Software Upgrades for Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Ajmani, Sameer

    2005-11-30

    Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributed systems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in a system at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting the system for an ...

  10. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in water and sediment of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida - 1977 to 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C.; Johnson, R.S.; Bricker, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the Indian River lagoon between Vero Beach, Indian River County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT and 0.5 ppB PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppB to 0.63 ppM Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppB to 0.081 ppM sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations than did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the Indian River Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce.

  11. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

  12. FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

  13. Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff

    E-print Network

    Heal, Kate

    321 14 Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff using recovered ochre K, for instance,Younger et al., 2002). Typically, this ochre is stockpiled pending use or disposal. Although sewage effluent and agricultural runoff. Phosphorus pollution from point and diffuse sources is a serious

  14. Gille-STPA 35 1 Sewage on San Diego Beaches

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    from Tijuana across the border to IB and ultimately straight into the Pacific Ocean. As mayor of IB in his political career. A big source of beach pollution is sewage. Tijuana is estimated to generate 50 treatment standards, so that San Diego could dump less seriously treated sewage into the ocean. Then he

  15. CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was initiated to determine the cause of oral papillomas in black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. The water in this pond was chlorinated effluent from the sewage treatment plant. The presence...

  16. APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6

    E-print Network

    APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration harmful organisms (plant, animal and human pathogens) in insufficiently composted materials · If C NOTE 6 PAGE 2 Applications of sewage sludges and composts Forestry Tree growth on nutrient

  17. A new approach for detecting and mapping sewage impacts.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, S D; O'Donohue, M J; Dennison, W C; Loneragan, N R; Thomas, M

    2001-02-01

    Increased nitrogen loading has been implicated in eutrophication occurrences worldwide. Much of this loading is attributable to the growing human population along the world's coastlines. A significant component of this nitrogen input is from sewage effluent, and delineation of the distribution and biological impact of sewage-derived nitrogen is becoming increasingly important. Here, we show a technique that identifies the source, extent and fate of biologically available sewage nitrogen in coastal marine ecosystems. This method is based on the uptake of sewage nitrogen by marine plants and subsequent analysis of the sewage signature (elevated delta 15N) in plant tissues. Spatial analysis is used to create maps of delta 15N and establish coefficient of variation estimates of the mapped values. We show elevated delta 15N levels in marine plants near sewage outfalls in Moreton Bay, Australia, a semi-enclosed bay receiving multiple sewage inputs. These maps of sewage nitrogen distribution are being used to direct nutrient reduction strategies in the region and will assist in monitoring the effectiveness of environmental protection measures. PMID:11381886

  18. Chemical composition of sewage-grown Spirulina platensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; P. S. Misra

    1982-01-01

    Summary Spirulina platensis has been grown in an outdoor pilot production unit, with an exposed surface area of 450 m2, on a medium consisting of raw domestic sewage supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and nitrate or urea fertilizer. The chemical composition and yield of the biomass grown on sewage-nitrate was comparable to that grown on synthetic medium. The protein content was

  19. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

  20. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Heberer

    2002-01-01

    In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are

  1. Sewage sludge land application program in West Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Skousen; C. Clinger

    2009-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge can be used as a fertilizer for crops but may also introduce undesirable metals into the food chain, especially when used on acid minesoils. In this study, sewage sludge from Morgantown, WV was surface applied to two acid minesoils and a neutral undisturbed soil to evaluate sludge application rates on forage production, nutrient loadings, and on heavy

  2. Effects of sewage sludge application method on corn production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Cripps; S. K. Winfree; J. L. Reagan

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of land application of municipal sewage sludge to agricultural land in Upper Cumberland Region of the Tennessee valley. Treatments included single and annual applications of sewage sludge both surface applied and injected into the soil. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effects of different land application methods of

  3. Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station (Building 4330). Building retains its World War II construction materials and character. In the background at the extreme left is Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Sewage Pumping Station, Southwest of E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser

    1993-01-01

    Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

  5. NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan Appendix 1 - WBS Dictionary 25 Appendix 1 - NSTX Upgrade Project Work Breakdown Structure This Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) organizes and defines the scope of the NSTX Upgrade using the WBS as established by the original NSTX project and modified

  6. ATLAS Upgrade Week 1 November 11, 2009

    E-print Network

    Gan, K. K.

    ATLAS Upgrade Week 1 November 11, 2009 Proposal to Develop On-Detector Array-based Optical Link A. Maettig Universität Wuppertal K.K. Gan A. Pellegrino, T. Sluijk NIKHEF (LHCb) #12;ATLAS Upgrade Week 2;ATLAS Upgrade Week 3 Introduction VCSEL and PIN are available in three forms: single channel or 4

  7. ATLAS Upgrade for sLHC Motivation

    E-print Network

    ATLAS Upgrade for sLHC · Motivation · LHC Upgrades · ATLAS Upgrade/schedule · R&D Variety · Russian Institutes involvement · Conclusions A.Cheplakov JINR, Dubna (on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration) Many thanks to ATLAS colleagues for the useful information - N.Hessey, A.Loginov, A.Romaniouk, P

  8. Old PCs: Upgrade or Abandon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    Examines the practical realities of upgrading Intel personal computers in libraries, considering budgets and technical personnel availability. Highlights include adding RAM; putting in faster processor chips, including clock multipliers; new hard disks; CD-ROM speed; motherboards and interface cards; cost limits and economic factors; and…

  9. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szo?tysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to increased hardness of the vitrificates and reduced leaching of some heavy metals. PMID:25242604

  10. Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

    2014-09-01

    Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Sewage-Borne Pathogens and Detection of Sewage Markers in an Urban Stream in Caracas, Venezuela?

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, W. Q.; Querales, L.; Sulbaran, Y. F.; Rodriguez-Diaz, J.; Caraballo, L.; Pujol, F. H.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular characterization of two sewage-borne pathogens identified hepatitis A virus (HAV) subgenotype IA and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B as predominant genotypes circulating in an urban area of Venezuela. This study reveals epidemiological features of human pathogens of worldwide distribution and the efficacy of molecular methods for accurate assessment of sewage pollution. PMID:20097824

  12. Factors structuring temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities in a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Patrícia; Pereira, Fábio; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Gaspar, Miguel B

    2011-03-01

    The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the effects of the organic loadings into the lagoon may be reflected until this area. This transitional feature was corroborated by biological data, with macrobenthic assemblages displaying characteristics of down- and upstream areas. Macrobenthic abundance peaked in winter, which was associated with a higher nutrient availability (mainly ammonium) and the proliferation of green macroalgae in mid-lower and inner lagoon areas. However, massive macroalgae growth resulted in a sharp decrease of macrobenthic diversity and abundance in spring, particularly where the higher amounts of decaying algae were detected. Higher dissimilarities between assemblages were detected during winter (and spring, for trophic composition), while in summer, differences were highly attenuated. The least contaminated area (close to the sea inlet) experienced smaller temporal variations for environmental variables, as well as the lowest temporal biological variability. This area was dominated by carnivores, which were related with increased salinity. Deposit-feeders were numerically dominant in the lagoon, being generally spread within organically enriched sandy and muddy areas. The high concentration of chlorophyll a and suspended particulate matter in water was reflected in the abundance of deposit-feeders/suspension-feeders, taking benefit of the high primary productivity. On the other hand, deposit-feeders/herbivores responded to the decay of macroalgae mats in the sediment. Biological associations varied with the biological data used (taxonomic versus trophic group composition; abundance versus biomass), highlighting the relevance of the combination of different data analysis' approaches. In general, BIOENV analysis indicated total phosphorus, biomass of Ulva, metals and organic carbon and nitrogen as being significantly influencing benthic patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies in ecological behaviours of some taxa were also detected in the present study stressing the need for additional studies on the relationships between macrobenthic communities and environmental variables. Implications of the present results for monitoring studies are discussed. PMID:21236484

  13. Cycling of Geotube® Solids from Dairy Lagoons Through Turfgrass Sod

    E-print Network

    Schnell, R.; Tahboub, M.; Vietor, D.; Munster, C.; Provin, T.; Mukhtar, S.

    Life Research C. Munster, Texas AgriLife Research T. Provin, Texas AgriLife Extension Service S. Mukhtar, Texas AgriLife Extension Service Funded by the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board under CWA Section 319, EPA TSSWCB Project # 03... been established for water treatment applications. Geotube ? solids ? particulate matter collected from wastewater pumped from lagoon into semi- permeable fibrous sock. Lysimeter ? Container in which the volume of soil used to grow plants...

  14. Coastal lagoons: “transitional ecosystems” between transitional and coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Concepción Marcos; Isabel María Pérez-Ruzafa; María Pérez-Marcos

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a well differentiated typology of water bodies on the basis of scientific\\u000a and biological criteria. For coastal waters, such criteria have long been established, while for transitional waters they\\u000a are still under discussion. One of the difficulties when applying the WFD to coastal lagoons is to include them in only one\\u000a of these

  15. Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

    1985-02-01

    The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

  16. Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

    1999-11-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

  17. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

  18. Crustacean fish parasites from Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yuniar, Asri T; Palm, Harry W; Walter, Thorsten

    2007-05-01

    The present study is the first investigation on ectoparasites of commercial important fish from Segara Anakan, a brackish water lagoon located at the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. Eight economically important marine fish species (Mugil cephalus, Siganus javus, Scatophagus argus, Caranx sexfasciatus, Lutjanus johnii, Eleutheronema tetradactylum, Johnius coitor, and Epinephelus coioides) were examined for crustacean parasites. Prevalence and intensity data for each parasite species are given, together with an analysis of the origin and possible transmission pathways. A highly divers copepod fauna consisting of 23 different species and two isopods was found. All fish species were at least infested with two copepod species, with the exception of L. johnii, S. argus, and M. cephalus. With seven and six species, respectively, they harboured the most species-rich ectoparasite fauna. The copepods Ergasilus sp. 3 and Caligus acanthopagri on S. argus showed the highest prevalence (78.6) and intensity [17.8 (1-233) and 5.3 (1-22)] of infestation. The recorded parasite fauna is represented by marine, brackish water, and probably also freshwater components. The brackish water environment of Segara Anakan does not prevent disease outbreaks due to parasitic copepods by preventing pathogenic marine or freshwater species to enter the lagoon. This might cause fish health problems if the Segara Anakan Lagoon would be developed for finfish mariculture in future. PMID:17219222

  19. Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

    2015-02-15

    A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site. PMID:25577474

  20. Optimising the preparation of activated carbon from digested sewage sludge and coconut husk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to dispose of sewage sludge as well as to produce a low-cost adsorbent for pollutant removal. This research work aimed to optimise the condition for activated carbon preparation from anaerobically digested sewage sludge with the additive coconut husk. The sewage sludge sample was mixed with the additive coconut husk.

  1. Study of Performance of Heat Pump Usage in Sewage Treatment and Fouling Impact on System

    E-print Network

    Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Ma, Z.; Na, W.

    2006-01-01

    A heat pump using disposed sewage as a heat source to heat raw sewage is presented to solve the problem that sewage temperature is low in sewage biologic treatment in cold region. According to the status of one medicine factory in Harbin, China...

  2. The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

    2014-10-01

    The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (?77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed. PMID:24862981

  3. Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

    2013-04-01

    To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  4. Tevatron beam position monitor upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; Banerjee, B.; Barker, B.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Bowden, M.; Cancelo, G.; Forster, B.; Duerling, G.; Haynes, B.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Mahlum, R.; Martens, M.; Mengel, M.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Pham, T.; Piccoli, L.; Steimel, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980's, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

  5. MIPP Plastic Ball electronics upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, Boris; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    An upgrade electronics design for Plastic Ball detector is described. The Plastic Ball detector was a part of several experiments in the past and its back portion (proposed to be used in MIPP) consists of 340 photomultipliers equipped with a sandwich scintillator. The scintillator sandwich has fast and slow signal component with decay times 10 ns and 1 {micro}s respectively. The upgraded MIPP experiment will collect up to 12,000 events during each 4 second spill and read them out in {approx}50 seconds between spills. The MIPP data acquisition system will employ deadtime-less concept successfully implemented in Muon Electronics of Dzero experiment at Fermilab. An 8-channel prototype design of the Plastic Ball Front End (PBFE) implementing these requirements is discussed. Details of the schematic design, simulation and prototype test results are discussed.

  6. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  7. Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

    2001-05-01

    Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

  8. Freshwater inflows and seasonal forcing strongly influence macrofaunal assemblages in Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Patricia; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

    2014-06-01

    Coastal lagoons of the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) are part of the Ebro Delta Natural Park managed by regional government authorities. Coastal lagoons have persistently received freshwater inputs from the Ebro River from May to November that have altered their natural ecology and hydrological cycle. In this study, we evaluate the seasonal effect of contrasting salinity regimes (polyhaline in the Tancada lagoon, mesohaline in the Encanyissada and oligohaline in the Clot lagoon) on the composition, abundance, species richness, alpha diversity and biomass of benthic macrofauna communities, and we assess the relative contribution of local environmental variables to the observed patterns. Additional sampling was conducted in the largest lagoon (Encanyissada) in order to assess variability at lower spatial scale. At both spatial scales (i.e., among-lagoon and within-lagoon), species richness and diversity tended to increase at higher salinities, particularly in summer. At the assemblage level, significantly different groupings were also found among lagoons and among zones of the Encanyissada lagoon, with more distinctive differences also in summer. Environmental factors accounted for up to 56-60% of the variation in macrofaunal assemblages at both spatial scales, with salinity and temperature accounting for the largest contributions (approx. 14% and 10%, respectively), whereas biomass was mostly controlled by temperature and nutrients. Distinctive oxygen and organic matter levels across the lagoons were also associated with the freshwater influx and displayed significant contributions to observed patterns. Our study shows that the low salinity regime and/or other factors related to long-term inputs of freshwater shape the community of macrofauna within the lagoons, a central trophic resource for most of the local species of fish and aquatic birds. Restoration of these systems to their natural hydrological functioning without further inputs of freshwater and higher marine connectivity is suggested as the more appropriate management.

  9. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kallenbach; J. Adamek; L. Aho-Mantila; S. Äkäslompolo; C. Angioni; C. V. Atanasiu; M. Balden; K. Behler; E. Belonohy; A. Bergmann; M. Bernert; R. Bilato; V. Bobkov; J. Boom; A. Bottino; F. Braun; M. Brüdgam; A. Buhler; A. Burckhart; A. Chankin; I. G. J. Classen; G. D. Conway; D. P. Coster; P. de Marné; R. D'Inca; R. Drube; R. Dux; T. Eich; N. Endstrasser; K. Engelhardt; B. Esposito; E. Fable; H.-U. Fahrbach; L. Fattorini; R. Fischer; A. Flaws; H. Fünfgelder; J. C. Fuchs; K. Gál; M. García Muñoz; B. Geiger; M. Gemisic Adamov; L. Giannone; C. Giroud; T. Görler; S. da Graca; H. Greuner; O. Gruber; A. Gude; S. Günter; G. Haas; A. H. Hakola; D. Hangan; T. Happel; T. Hauff; B. Heinemann; A. Herrmann; N. Hicks; J. Hobirk; H. Höhnle; M. Hölzl; C. Hopf; L. Horton; M. Huart; V. Igochine; C. Ionita; A. Janzer; F. Jenko; C.-P. Käsemann; S. Kálvin; O. Kardaun; M. Kaufmann; A. Kirk; H.-J. Klingshirn; M. Kocan; G. Kocsis; H. Kollotzek; C. Konz; R. Koslowski; K. Krieger; T. Kurki-Suonio; B. Kurzan; K. Lackner; P. T. Lang; P. Lauber; M. Laux; F. Leipold; F. Leuterer; A. Lohs; N. C. Luhmann Jr.; T. Lunt; A. Lyssoivan; H. Maier; C. Maggi; K. Mank; M.-E. Manso; M. Maraschek; P. Martin; M. Mayer; P. J. McCarthy; R. McDermott; H. Meister; L. Menchero; F. Meo; P. Merkel; R. Merkel; V. Mertens; F. Merz; A. Mlynek; F. Monaco; H. W. Müller; M. Münich; H. Murmann; G. Neu; R. Neu; B. Nold; J.-M. Noterdaeme; H. K. Park; G. Pautasso; G. Pereverzev; Y. Podoba; F. Pompon; E. Poli; K. Polochiy; S. Potzel; M. Prechtl; M. J. Püschel; T. Pütterich; S. K. Rathgeber; G. Raupp; M. Reich; B. Reiter; T. Ribeiro; R. Riedl; V. Rohde; J. Roth; M. Rott; F. Ryter; W. Sandmann; J. Santos; K. Sassenberg; P. Sauter; A. Scarabosio; G. Schall; K. Schmid; P. A. Schneider; W. Schneider; G. Schramm; R. Schrittwieser; J. Schweinzer; B. Scott; M. Sempf; F. Serra; M. Sertoli; M. Siccinio; A. Sigalov; A. Silva; A. C. C. Sips; F. Sommer; A. Stäbler; J. Stober; B. Streibl; E. Strumberger; K. Sugiyama; W. Suttrop; T. Szepesi; G. Tardini; C. Tichmann; D. Told; W. Treutterer; L. Urso; P. Varela; J. Vincente; N. Vianello; T. Vierle; E. Viezzer; C. Vorpahl; D. Wagner; A. Weller; R. Wenninger; B. Wieland; C. Wigger; M. Willensdorfer; M. Wischmeier; E. Wolfrum; E. Würsching; D. Yadikin; Q. Yu; I. Zammuto; D. Zasche; T. Zehetbauer; Y. Zhang; M. Zilker; H. Zohm

    2011-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the re-availability of all flywheel-generators allowed high-power operation with up to 20 MW heating power

  10. RHIC and its upgrade programmes.

    SciTech Connect

    Roser,T.

    2008-06-23

    As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species. After a brief review of the achieved performance the presentation will give an overview of the plans, challenges and status of machine upgrades, that range from a new heavy ion pre-injector and beam cooling at 100 GeV to a high luminosity electron-ion collider.

  11. Import Competition and Quality Upgrading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Amiti; Amit K. Khandelwal

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the factors that influence a country's transition from the production of low-quality to high-quality products since the production of high-quality goods is often viewed as a pre-condition for export success and, ultimately, for economic development. In this paper, we provide the first evidence that countries' import tariffs affect the rate at which they upgrade the

  12. Garbage + sewage water + coal = electricity. [Lakeland, Fla. 364MW unit cooled by sewage-water effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesnett

    1979-01-01

    Lakeland, Florida is building a power-generating unit that will burn 80% Kentucky high-sulfur coal and 20% garbage and will be cooled by sewage water effluent. The plant was designed when a proposed new oil-fired unit was rejected in the mid-1970s, although additional capacity was anticipated to keep pace with the area's population and development growth. A coal\\/garbage fuel mixture has

  13. RIPS upgrade and physics programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hideki; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Asahi, Koichiro

    2009-10-01

    The upgrade of RIPS has been proposed in the phase-II program of RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) project. In this upgrade, the former fragment separator RIPS will be equipped with a new beam line that delivers beams of 115A-MeV heavy io ns extracted from the IRC cyclotron by skipping the final acceleration of SRC. This beam energy is high enough to produce radioactive isotope beams (RIBs) via the projectile-fragmentation reaction. Thus, compared with RIBs produced in the present AVF-RRC acceleration scheme, their production yield are drastically increased by this upgrade, especially in the mass region heavier than Kr. Remarkably, RIPS further enhances research opportunities on spin-related subjects such as nuclear structure studies through electromagnetic nuclear moments: it has been revealed that RIBs produced at this energy can be spin-oriented independently of their atomic and chemical properties. Also, the research subjects include not only nuclear moments but also material science by means, e.g., of the ?-NMR, ?-PAD, ?-PAC, laser, and in-beam M"ossbauer methods, because RIBs of this energy allow for a scheme to implant them into sample materials with limited thickness and thus stopped-RI type experiments will be conveniently carried out.

  14. Partitioning, bioavailability and origin of heavy metals from the Nador Lagoon sediments (Morocco) as a basis for their management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. González; E. Águila; E. Galán

    2007-01-01

    Nador Lagoon sediments show low trace element concentrations, and, in relation to the lagoon geochemical baseline, only some\\u000a anomalies for As, Cd, Cu and Pb in the NW of the lagoon deserve to be outstanding. The distribution of major, minor and trace\\u000a elements in the lagoon allows a breakdown in four zones. Between “Beni Ensar” and “Atelouane” (zone A), a quite

  15. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  16. Evidence of North Africa?s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

  17. Human impacts and the status of water quality in the Bundala RAMSAR wetland lagoon system in Southern Sri Lanka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Piyankarage; A. P. Mallawatantri; Y. Matsuno; K. A. S. Pathiratne

    2004-01-01

    The brackish coastal wetlands in the Bundala National Park, the only RAMSAR site of southern Sri Lanka, are an important waterfowl habitat and economic zone. Bundala Lagoon, one of the three key lagoons of the Bundala wetlands, remains largely intact and relatively pristine, but the other two interconnected lagoons, namely, Embilikala and Malala, are impacted by drainage from 25.6 km2

  18. Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

  19. Seasonal variation in heat fluxes, predicted emissions of malodorants, and wastewater quality of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of p-cresol above a wastewater lagoon were modeled from February through June based on equations developed in a previous study. Using this model, in which p-cresol concentrations were calculated based on lagoon evaporation and net available radiation at the lagoon surface, predic...

  20. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected. PMID:21972239

  1. Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons by Circulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine if circulation of diary wastewater induces the growth of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Methods and Results: Two dairy wastewater lagoons that were similar in size, geographic location, number and type of cattle loading the lagoons were chosen. The only obvious diffe...

  2. Effects of the Sand Bar Breaching on Typha domingensis (PERS.) in a Tropical Coastal Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anderson M. dos Santos; André M. Amado; Murilo Minello; Vinicius F. Farjalla; Francisco A. Esteves

    2006-01-01

    Coastal lagoons are usually subjected to several kinds of human impacts, especially eutrophication. The breaching of the sand bar, which separates the lagoon from the ocean, by human action, is a common process used to decrease the negative effects of eutrophication. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of the artificial sand bar breaching on the populations

  3. Microbiological quality of effluents from anaerobic swine manure lagoons in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine feeding operations in Mississippi and most of the southeastern USA routinely flush manure from pits beneath confinement barns into open anaerobic storage lagoons. Lagoon effluent is reused for pit flushing and eventually land applied as fertilizer for grass hay. The fertilizer quali...

  4. Wind-Driven Surficial Oxygen Transfer and Dinitrogen Gas Emission from Treatment Lagoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Ro; P. G. Hunt; M. E. Poach

    2006-01-01

    Surficial oxygen transfer plays an important role, when analyzing the complex biochemical and physical processes responsible for ammonia and dinitrogen gas emission in animal waste treatment lagoons. This paper analyzes if currently known nitrogen biochemical pathways can explain the enigmatic dinitrogen gas emissions recently observed from the treatment lagoons, based on the amount of wind-driven oxygen that can be transferred

  5. SURFACE GAS EMISSIONS, CONSUMPTION, AND BUBBLE-TRANSPORT IN SWINE LAGOONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown the production of significant amounts of benign nitrogen gas (N2) in anaerobic swine lagoons. The gas is found in bubbles collected below the lagoon surface. Contamination of these bubbles by N2 from the atmosphere cannot be excluded. Therefore, a model was developed with t...

  6. Sludge reduction and water quality improvement in anaerobic lagoons through influent pre-treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons may require cleanup and closure measures in the future. In practice, liquid and sludge need to be removed by pumping, usually at great expense of energy, and land applied ...

  7. Microbialites in a modern lagoonal environment: nature and distribution, Tikehau atoll (French Polynesia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sprachta; G. Camoin; S. Golubic; Th. Le Campion

    2001-01-01

    Microbialites, including stromatolitic structures, gelatinous masses and mats develop in Tikehau lagoon (Tuamotu, French Polynesia), on the flanks and slopes of numerous pinnacles and ‘motu’ islets between 0 and 25 m deep, on coral colonies, algal tufts or on lagoonal sediments. Individual stromatolitic structures consist of hemispherical domes and are produced by monospecific populations of filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to three

  8. Nitrification and Denitrification Communities Associated with a Semi-Permeable Swine Waste Lagoon Biocover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission from swine waste lagoons presents a serious environmental challenge to pork producers. Semi-permeable swine waste lagoon biocovers have been developed to serve as a physical barrier and as an attachment site for biofilm development, but microbial analysis of the biocover technology...

  9. ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    and treatment structures. In a lagoon, organic waste is diluted with water and bacteria decompose the organic storage volumes for further treatment of volatile solids, total livestock waste, runoff, precipitationL ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage

  10. Using floating vegetation to remove nutrients from an anaerobic swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing in the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  11. Removal of Estrogenic Compounds in Dairy Waste Lagoons by Ferrate (VI): Oxidation/Coagulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrate(VI) was used to break down and/or remove steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE). Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for estrogenic content (EC) and assayed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Effects of varying...

  12. Plant growth and elemental uptake by floating vegetation on a single stage swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing on the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2008 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  13. LONG TERM IMPACT OF SWINE LAGOON WASTEWATER ON SHALLOW GROUNDWATER NITROGEN LEVELS IN VEGETATED BUFFER SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An eight-year study was conducted to determine the impact of swine lagoon wastewater on shallow groundwater in vegetated buffer systems. Replicated 30 X 4 m plots were established at the interface of a pasture and riparian forest in 1993. Wastewater from the third lagoon of the University of Georg...

  14. THE DIET OF THE CURLEW SANDPIPER AT LANGEBAAN LAGOON, SOUTH AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian M. Puttick

    1978-01-01

    Puttick, G. M. 1978. The diet of the Curlew Sandpiper at Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Ostrich 49:158-167.Nereid worms (mainly Ceratonereis erythraensis) and the hydrobiid gastropod Assiminea globulus were the most important prey items throughout the year for Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea feeding at Langebaan Lagoon. Other important items were the amphipod Urothoe grimaldi, the crabs Hymenosoma orbiculare and Cleistostoma edwardsii

  15. REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING ALTERNATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. To meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on ...

  16. Use of geotextile tubes with chemical amendments to dewater dairy lagoon solids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Worley; T. M. Bass; P. F. Vendrell

    2008-01-01

    Three geo-textile filtration tubes were used to dewater lagoon solids from a first stage dairy lagoon using chemical amendments (aluminum sulfate and a polymer) to enhance the separation process. This experiment had previously been done without chemical amendment. The chemical amendments speeded the dewatering process so that filling could be accomplished sooner, and also increased the removal rate of nutrients,

  17. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  18. Metal pollution loading, Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt: Implications for aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Siegel; M. L. Slaboda; D. J. Stanley

    1994-01-01

    High cultural enrichment factors are found for Hg (13×), Pb (22.1×), and other potentially toxic metals (e.g., Sn, Zn, Cu, Ag) in the upper 20 cm of sediment cores from the southeastern Ginka subbasin of Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt. Cores from other areas of the lagoon show little metal loading. Metal loading followed the closure of the Aswan High

  19. Late-Summer Abundance and Distribution of Marine Birds in Kasegaluk Lagoon, Chukchi Sea, Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN R. JOHNSON; DAVID A. WIGGINS; PETER F. WAINWRIGHT

    Oil and gas drilling programs in the Alaska Chukchi Sea were carried out on leases offshore from Kasegaluk Lagoon in 1989-91, and further exploration and development activities in this area are likely in future years. We conducted aerial surveys between late July and early September 1989-91 to determine the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Kasegaluk Lagoon area.

  20. Consequences of human-mediated marine intrusions on the zooplankton community of a temperate coastal lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian C Duggan; Michelle A White

    2010-01-01

    Barrier bars separating lagoons from oceans are frequently breached as a management tool to prevent flooding of terrestrial ecosystems. The effects of such human-mediated openings on zooplankton have been investigated only in one tropical system. We investigated the temperate Waituna Lagoon, New Zealand, over a 2-year period when the barrier bar was ‘artificially’ breached on three occasions. Increases in salinity

  1. Measuring gas emissions from animal waste lagoons with an inverse-dispersion technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques due to non-ideal conditions such as trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and short fetch to establish equilibrated microclimate conditions within the water bo...

  2. REMOVAL OF ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY WASTE LAGOONS BY FERRATE (VI): OXIDATION/COAGULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrate (VI)is used as a means of breaking down and/or removing steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE), to minimize the amount of SE entering groundwater/watersheds. Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for EC (estrogenic content) and assayed using High Performance Liquid Chrom...

  3. Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution by Steve Ress UNL Water livestock waste lagoons may not be significant contributors to groundwater pollution. "This is particularly of Nebraskans drink groundwater," said research hydrochemist Roy Spalding, director of UNL's Water Sciences

  4. Long term trends in sewage abatement and water quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, T.M.; O`Shea, M.L. [New York City Dept. of Environmental Protection, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Long-term trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of 70 years of sewage abatement and treatment in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary near New York City (NYC). Regional construction of wastewater treatment plants since the 1920`s has reduced discharges of untreated sewage into the estuary from approximately 47 M{sup 3}/S in 1936 to less than 0.1 M{sup 3}/S by 1994. From at least 1922 through the early 1960s, average summer DO percent saturation in the Hudson River varied between 35--50% in surface waters and 25--40% in bottom waters. Beginning in the late 1970s, DO concentrations increased through the 1980s and especially into the 1990s, coinciding with the secondary treatment upgrade of the 7.4 M3/s North River plant in the spring of 1991. Average summer percent saturation in the early 1 990s exceeded 80% in surface waters and 60% in bottom waters. In addition, summer DO minima increased from less than 1.5 mg/L in the early 1970s, to greater than 3.0 mg/L in the 1990s, and the duration of hypoxia during summer months has been reduced. While this general trend has been observed throughout the estuary, some areas have displayed recent declines in DO, possibly due to increasing eutrophication. Total coliforms also display strong decreasing trends from the 1960s into the 1990s, with declines attributed to plant construction and expansion, and improved operation of the sewer system. Metal loadings have also decreased significantly. Signs of improved ecosystem quality include reopened beaches and shellfish beds, re-infestation of woodpilings by marine wood-borers, and the resurgence of wading birds in several areas of the estuary.

  5. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

  6. IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

  7. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives.

  8. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  9. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  11. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  12. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  13. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  14. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  15. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  16. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  17. The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication. PMID:19703693

  18. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

  19. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

  20. Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

    2007-05-01

    On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different environmental factors acting upon the shell assemblages. These results suggest that tsunamigenic shell deposits can be identified based on their taphonomic characteristics when compared to beach and storm deposits in the same setting. Our data indicates that the following diagnostic taphonomic characteristics may indicate a tsunamigenic deposit: 1) presence/absence of articulated bivalves, 2) increased percentage of fragmented valves, 3) increased percentage of angular fragments, and 4) the large number of offshore bivalves in the lagoon. This study highlights the potential benefits and opportunity for using bivalve taphonomy as a useful indicator of paleotsunami deposits, particularly in protected coastal embayments in arid regions where stratified deposits might not readily preserve. This technique holds potential, as shell deposits are easy to identify in the field by non-experts, is very low cost, and analysis uses simple, easily applicable and recognizable taphonomic characteristics. Furthermore, this proxy can be used for risk assessment purposes in coastal areas with a seismic history but lacking a paleotsunami record. Further testing of this hypothesis should be conducted along the Omani coastline, particularly in the lagoons along the Eastern promontory. Key Words: tsunami, taphonomy, Oman, bivalve

  1. Physics prospects with the upgraded CDF detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hylen, J.; CDF Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    The CDF detector is being extensively upgraded for Fermilab Tevatron Run II, which is scheduled to begin in 1999. This talk describes the planned detector upgrades. The power of the upgraded detector is illustrated by showing the expected precision of several physics measurements that will be made with the Run II data: the top mass, the W mass, BR(t{yields}Wb), and the CP violation parameters sin(2{alpha}) and sin(2{beta}).

  2. Nitrate depuration of secondary sewage effluents in mangrove sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge E. Corredor; Julio M. Morell

    1994-01-01

    The sewage treatment plant (STP) at La Parguera, on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico, discharges an average of 228,000 dm3 of secondary sewage effluents per day into percolation ponds located at the landward margin of the coastal mangrove fringe.\\u000a Effluents flowing from the STP percolation ponds to the adjacent mangrove fringe typically exhibited nitrate levels between\\u000a 0.2 mM and

  3. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Higgins

    1984-01-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids\\/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were

  4. Bioeconomic assessment of a poultry sewage and tilapia aquaculture system

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Robert Gordon

    1978-01-01

    BIOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF A POULTRY SEWAGE AND TILAPIA AQUACULTURE SYSTEM A Thesis by ROBERT GORDON ANDERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics BIOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF A POULTRY SEWAGE AND TILAPIA AQUACULTURE SYSTEM A Thesis by ROBERT GORDON ANDERSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of C it e (Hea of Department...

  5. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5?(H)- and 5?(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17?(H),21?(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  6. Rhodoliths and coralliths of Muri Lagoon, Rarotonga, Cook Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoffin, Terence P.; Stoddart, David R.; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Woodroffe, Colin

    1985-09-01

    Free-living massive and branching spheroidal growths (about 5 cm diameter) of calcareous red algae (rhodoliths) and corals (coralliths) occur in abundance on the sea bed of shallow Muri Lagoon on Rarotonga's reef flat. The rhodoliths are composed of one or more species of Neogoniolithon, Lithophyllum, Tenarea, and Porolithon; the coralliths are Pavona varians (Verrill) and Porites lutea (Milne-Edwards and Haime). Muri Lagoon is the only area on Rarotonga's reef flat that is sheltered by reef islands from ocean waves. The tidal currents, which are predominantly unidirectional in Muri Lagoon, are concentrated by the reef islands into channels through which sand and gravel sediment is regularly transported. However, these prevailing currents do not normally roll the rhodoliths and coralliths. The results of field experiments on the pick-up velocity of the various types of spheroidal structure, combined with observations on growth histories of massive coralliths as revealed by the non-concentric nature of skeletal density banding, indicate that the rhodoliths and coralliths may remain static for periods up to several months yet maintain a complete envelope of living tissue. This downward survival may depend on the strong currents. Not only is the water flushing through the upper millimetre or so of the sediment substrate, but it is also capable of moving the sand and gravel grains which laterally support the rhodoliths and coralliths so that no one point of a spheroidal structure is in direct contact with the substrate for a fatal length of time. Massive rhodoliths have a high preservation potential as discrete spheroidal structures; in contrast, branching rhodoliths and coralliths are prone to fragmentation, and massive coralliths grow into stable microatolls. We conclude that a similar assemblage of rhodoliths, coralliths and microatolls in the fossil record may be indicative of the former existence of contemporary reef flat islands.

  7. EPIC Computer Upgrade - Duration: 6:38.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

  8. MMCR Upgrades: Present Status and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, Kevin B.; Koontz, Annette S.; Moran, Kenneth P.; Clark, K. A.; Chander, C.; Miller, Mark A.; Johnson, Karen L.

    2004-12-07

    In September 2003, the Southern Great Plains (SGP) millimeter wave cloud radar (MMCR) was upgraded to a new digital signal processor that significantly increases the temporal resolution and the processing capability of the MMCR. The Barrow MMCR upgrade will be completed in early 2004. We will discuss the hardware and software C40 upgrade to the MMCRs at SGP and Barrow and the plans for upgrades at the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. Increased temporal resolution, new modes, and new file formats will be demonstrated. We are now collecting spectral data 24/7 and we will discuss how to obtain these large datasets.

  9. [National survey of urban sewage reuse in China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas. PMID:23323420

  10. Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. (Ocean Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

  11. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  12. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Finger, Gert; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lagadec, Eric; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Moerchen, Margaret; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Silber, Armin; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli; Yegorova, Irina

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As Aquarius detector array (Raytheon) which has demonstrated very good performance (sensitivity, stability) in the laboratory IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a userdefined constraint on water vapour. Improved pipelines based on the ESO Reflex concept will provide better support to astronomers. The upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing background limited performance for diffraction-limited observations at an 8-m telescope. It will offer synergy with facilities such as ALMA, JWST, VLTI and SOFIA, while a wealth of targets is available from survey work (e.g. VISTA, WISE). In addition it will bring confirmation of the technical readiness and scientific value of several aspects of potential mid-IR instrumentation at Extremely Large Telescopes. The intervention on VISIR and installation of hardware has been completed in July and commissioning will take place during July and August. VISIR is scheduled to be available to the users starting Oct 2012.

  13. The Upgraded D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  14. The Upgraded D0 Detector

    E-print Network

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

    2005-01-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  15. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans-Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Di Lieto, Nicola; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Duhoux, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Heikamp, Stephanie; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Sandrock, Stefan; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Valdes, Guillermo; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As AQUARIUS detector array (Raytheon) which has been carefully characterized in ESO's IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a user-defined constraint on water vapour. During the commissioning in 2012 it was found that the on-sky sensitivity of the AQUARIUS detector was significantly below expectations and that VISIR was not ready to go back to science operations. Extensive testing of the detector arrays in the laboratory and on-sky enabled us to diagnose the cause for the shortcoming of the detector as excess low frequency noise (ELFN). It is inherent to the design chosen for this detector and can't be remedied by changing the detector set-up. Since this is a form of correlated noise its impact can be limited by modulating the scene recorded by the detector. We have studied several mitigation options and found that faster chopping using the secondary mirror (M2) of the VLT offers the most promising way forward. Faster M2 chopping has been tested and is scheduled for implementation before the end of 2014 after which we plan to re-commission VISIR. In addition an upgrade of the IT infrastructure related to VISIR is planned in order to support burst-mode operations. The upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing close to background limited performance for diffraction-limited observations at an 8-m telescope. It will offer synergy with facilities such as ALMA, JWST, VLTI and SOFIA, while a wealth of targets is available from survey work (e.g. VISTA, WISE). In addition it will bring confirmation of the technical readiness and scientific value of several aspects of potential mid-IR instrumentation at Extremely Large Telescopes.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix...

  1. Performance of the upgraded Orroral laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luck, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: upgrade arrangements, system prior to 1991, elements of the upgrade, laser performance, timing system performance, pass productivity, system precision, system accuracy, telescope pointing and future upgrades and extensions.

  2. SND data acquisition system upgrade

    E-print Network

    A. G. Bogdanchikov; V. P. Druzhinin; A. A. Korol; S. V. Koshuba; A. I. Tekutiev; Yu. V. Usov

    2014-04-02

    The data acquisition (DAQ) system of the SND detector successfully operated during four data-taking seasons (2010-2013) at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000. Currently the collider is shut down for planned reconstruction, which is expected to increase the VEPP-2000 luminosity and data flow from the SND detector electronics by up to 10 times. Since current DAQ system implementation (electronics and computer part) does not have enough reserve for selection of events in the new environment without compromising quality, there arose the need for the system upgrade. Here we report on the major SND data acquisition system upgrade which includes developing new electronics for digitization and data transfer, complete redesign of the data network, increasing of the DAQ computer farm processing capacity and making the event building process concurrent. These measures will allow us to collect data flow from the most congested detector subsystems in parallel in contrast to the current situation. We would like to discuss also the possibility to implement full software trigger solution in the future.

  3. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

    2010-11-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  4. Vibrio Trends in the Ecology of the Venice Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization. PMID:24487545

  5. NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan 6 PPPL Laboratory Director S.Prager Deputy Director.Gentile Centerstack Dsgn & Fab J. Chrzanowski NSTX Upgrade Project Manager R. Strykowsky Deputy and Construction Manager E. Perry Project Controls S. Langish NSTXCenterstack Manager L. Dudek NSTXNeutral Beam Manager T

  6. NSTXpool Computer Upgrade December 9, 2010

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NSTXpool Computer Upgrade WP #1685 Bill Davis December 9, 2010 #12;Work Scope Upgrade Operating System, Application Software, and Programs that run on NSTX computers using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. nstxpool computers + nstxops nstxWindowsPC (Control Room Display Wall) Big Blue cluster for EFIT Selected

  7. SKILLS FOR UPGRADING: Workforce Development and Global

    E-print Network

    Ferrari, Silvia

    Development Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber and Gary Gereffi 132 5. The Tourism Global Value ChainSKILLS FOR UPGRADING: Workforce Development and Global Value Chains in Developing Countries Gary Gereffi Karina Fernandez-Stark Phil Psilos NOVEMBER 2011 #12;Skills for Upgrading: Workforce Development

  8. JET neutral beam power upgrade Introduction

    E-print Network

    shutdown project · Hydraulic,vacuumcompatibilityandpower loading commissioning of the enhanced NB systemJET neutral beam power upgrade Introduction A tokamak is a complex assembly, a system of systems the challenging requirements that fusion demands. The neutral beam heating system and its upgrade for the JET

  9. Functional ecological patterns and the effect of anthropogenic disturbances on a recently restored Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Needs for a sustainable restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Antonio; Peinado, Raquel; Santamans, Anna C.; Picazo, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    We present here a detailed case study on the lessons learned after a restoration process of a natural ecosystem, which can be considered as an ecological experiment. Senillar de Moraira is a brackish water small coastal lagoon located in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. It is separated from the sea by a sand bar and a beach, and is regularly fed by groundwater. Mostly due to the strong anthropogenic pressure this lagoon was degraded, and a restoration process, consisting mostly on the rebuilt of hydrogeomorphological features, was accomplished about a decade ago. After the restoration project, ecological monitoring was performed to reveal the recovery of the ecological integrity of the ecosystem, mainly focusing on the restoration of ecological processes and biological communities. Biological communities, rates of autotrophic (primary production) and heterotrophic (respiration) processes, sediment inputs and wash-out, and other ecological features were monitored during one and half year, two years after the restoration works finished, and the ecological patterns of the current functioning of this ecosystem were determined in order to suggest management strategies for its conservation. The maintenance of most anthropogenic pressures hardly allows the sustainability of natural processes to preserve the ecological health of the ecosystem. According to our results, the success of the restoration process is strongly compromised by the maintenance of most pressures, and subsidies are needed to allow the preservation of a somewhat natural condition of the ecosystem. Though many typical species and functional groups and processes re-established after the restoration, a progressive degradation was observed, especially reflected in the decline of submerged macrophytes that are essential to the maintenance of the ecological health of the system. The decline of these macrophytes was caused by a combination of impacts and risks that were not totally removed when restoration works were accomplished, namely the risk of occasional sewage inputs, increased salinity by groundwater overexploitation, enhanced siltation caused by deforestation in the catchment, and increased pressure of exotic species. This also resulted in a change of the functioning of the lagoon, from the dominance of autotrophic processes driven by macrophytes, to that of heterotrophic processes mediated by increased organic matter and inorganic nutrient inputs, and to the dominance of phytoplanktonic primary production, as revealed by the statistical analyses of the obtained data. This offers the lesson that attempts for ecological restoration without removing the causes of degradation result in the lack of self-sustainability of ecosystem functioning and drive to a perennial need for maintenance measures.

  10. Hindcasting of nutrient loadings from its catchment on a highly valuable coastal lagoon: the example of the Fleet, Dorset, UK, 1866–2004

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Geraint J; O'Sullivan, Patrick E; Brassley, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Background Nutrient loadings from its catchment upon The Fleet, a highly valuable coastal lagoon in Southern England, were hindcast for the period AD 1866–2004, using a catchment model, export coefficients, and historical data on land use changes, livestock numbers, and human population. Agriculture was the main nutrient source throughout, other inputs representing minor contributions. Permanent pasture was historically the main land use, with temporary grassland and cereals increasing during the mid-20th century. Sheep, the main 19th century livestock, were replaced by cattle during the 1930s. Results Total nitrogen loadings rose from ca 41 t yr-1 during the late 19th century to 49–54 t yr-1 for the mid-20th, increasing to 98 t yr-1 by 1986. Current values are ca 77 t yr-1. Total phosphorus loads increased from ca 0.75 t yr-1 for the late 19th century to ca 1.6 t yr-1 for the mid-20th, reached ca 2.2 t yr-1 in 1986, and are now ca 1.5 t yr-1. Loadings rose most rapidly between 1946 and 1988, owing to increased use of inorganic fertilisers, and rising sheep and cattle numbers. Livestock were the main nutrient source throughout, but inputs from inorganic fertilisers increased after 1946, peaking in 1986. Sewage treatment works and other sources contribute little nitrogen, but ca 35% of total phosphorus. Abbotsbury Swannery, an ancient Mute Swan community, provides ca 0.5% of total nitrogen, and ca 5% of total phosphorus inputs. Conclusion The Fleet has been grossly overloaded with nitrogen since 1866, climaxing during the 1980s. Total phosphorus inputs lay below 'permissible' limits until the 1980s, exceeding them in inner, less tidal parts of the lagoon, during the 1940s. Loadings on Abbotsbury Bay exceeded 'permissible' limits by the 1860s, becoming 'dangerous' during the mid-20th century. Phosphorus stripping at point sources will not significantly reduce loadings to all parts of the lagoon. Installation of 5 m buffer strips throughout the catchment and shoreline will marginally affect nitrogen loadings, but will reduce phosphorus inputs to the West Fleet below 'permissible' limits. Only a combination of measures will significantly affect Abbotsbury Bay, where, without effluent diversion, loadings will remain beyond 'permissible'. PMID:17196108

  11. The role of connectivity and hydrodynamic conditions in the configuration of ichthyoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Quispe, Jhoni I.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ghezzo, Michol; De Pascalis, Francesca; Marcos, Concepción

    2014-05-01

    Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons are constituted by species with different gilds and life stories including estuarine residents but also a high percentage of marine stragglers and marine migrants. Previous studies showed that different ichthyoplancton assemblages can be identified inside a lagoon, depending on hydrological conditions, but at the same time a high spatial and temporal variability haven observed. The proposed models to explain lagoon assemblages configuration based on probabilities of colonization from the open sea involves an important stochastic component and introduces some randomness that could lead to that high spatial and temporal variability at short and long-term scales. In this work we analyze the relationship between ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon and the adjacent open sea in the framework of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon and connectivity between sampling stations using hydrodynamic models. The results, show a complex interaction between the different factors that lead to a highly variable system with high accumulated richness and diversity of species, and a large proportion of occasional visitors and stragglers suggesting that the mechanisms of competitive lottery can play an important role in the maintenance of communities of coastal lagoons , where environmental variability occurs in a system with strong differences in colonization rates and connectivity, not only with the open sea, but also between locations within the lagoon.

  12. Annual characterisation of four Mediterranean coastal lagoons subjected to intense human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Rieradevall, Maria; Farrés-Corell, Roser; Newton, Alice

    2012-12-01

    In the present study the annual variability of the physico-chemical parameters of four coastal lagoons subjected to intense human activity was characterised. The trophic state indices (TSI) of Carlson (1977) and the water quality index TRIX of Vollenweider et al. (1998) were tested and compared with the water quality categories proposed by the European Environmental Agency (2009). All the parameters were sampled monthly from May 2004 to July 2005. There were important differences in the annual variability of the physico-chemical parameters between the lagoons, reflecting the importance of human-induced pressures and the heterogeneity of these environments. The lagoons were in a eutrophic/hypereutrophic state most of the year. Trophic state indices classified the lagoons in a bad or poor trophic state most of the year, and they were not able to discriminate the effect of secondary variables such as freshwater releases, ground waters fluxes or water renewal. Nitrogen was the limiting factor in the lagoon with a higher exchange rate with the sea, while phosphorous was the limiting factor in the other lagoons, due to the high nitrogen external loads and the poor water renewal. The need for developing indices specifically designed for coastal lagoons in order to asses their trophic state is discussed.

  13. The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

  14. Biotests for environmental quality assessment of composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kapanen, Anu; Vikman, Minna; Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Virta, Marko; Itävaara, Merja

    2013-06-01

    The quality of sewage sludge-based products, such as composts and growth media, is affected by the contamination of sewage sludge with, potentially, hundreds of different substances. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve the reliable environmental quality assessment of sewage sludge-based products solely based on chemical analysis. In the present work, we demonstrate the use of the kinetic luminescent bacteria test (ISO 21338) to evaluate acute toxicity and the Vitotox™ test to monitor genotoxicity of sewage sludge and composted sewages sludge. In addition, endocrine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity was studied using yeast-cell-based assays. The relative contribution of industrial waste water treated at the Waste Water Treatment Plants led to elevated concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in sewage sludge. The effect of elevated amounts of organic contaminants could also be identified with biotests able to demonstrate higher acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and potential for endocrine-disruptive properties. Additional extraction steps in kinetic luminescent bacteria test with DMSO and hexane increased the level of toxicity detected. Composting in a pilot-scale efficiently reduced the amounts of linear alkylbenzensulphonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE/NPs) and PAH with relative removal efficiencies of 84%, 61% and 56%. In addition, decrease in acute toxicity, genotoxicity and endocrorine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity during composting could be detected. However, the biotests did have limitations in accessing the ecotoxicity of test media rich with organic matter, such as sewage sludge and compost, and effects of sample characteristics on biotest organisms must be acknowledged. The compost matrix itself, however, which contained a high amount of nutrients, bark, and peat, reduced the sensitivity of the genotoxicity tests and yeast bioreporter assays. PMID:23540356

  15. Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, F.H. (Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

    1999-04-01

    In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP (Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to upgrade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported (1). Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system [open quotes]on line[close quotes] while still serving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, F. H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1999-04-26

    In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP (Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to upgrade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported (1). Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system 'on line' while still serving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided.

  17. Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

    2012-07-01

    Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood damage, but still easily mapped from aerial photos. These features suggest that Isla Angel de la Guarda experienced Quaternary uplift similar in scale to many other gulf islands on which marine terraces are preserved. Closed lagoons around the Gulf of California represent a stable oligotrophic ecosystem affected by extreme aridity and hypersalinity, punctuated episodically by the injection of floodwater from tropical storms. The taxonomic and geographic ranges of microbial communities throughout the larger region remain to be explored.

  18. Evaluation of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Di-Song; Stabnikova, Olena; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2005-09-30

    The presence of heavy metals is one of the main obstacles for agricultural use of million tonnes of dewatered sewage sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. Electrokinetic (EK) treatment can be applied to remove heavy metals from sludge. The aim of this study was to increase the efficiency of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from dewatered sewage sludge. EK experiments were carried out with and without pH adjustment in cathode chamber of acidified sewage sludge. The selective sequential extraction (SSE) was used to determine the fractionation of heavy metals in sewage sludge. The mobility of heavy metals in sludge significantly increased after its acidification at pH 2.7 and followed the order: Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Cr, Pb. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals in the experiment with acidified sewage sludge and pH adjustment at cathode chamber at 2.0 were: 95% for Zn, 96% for Cu, 90% for Ni, 68% for Cr, 31% for As and 19% for Pb. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Pb after EK treatment were below the United States Environmental Protection Agency limits for biosolids applied to agricultural land, forest, public contact sites or reclamation sites. PMID:15994006

  19. Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

    2014-06-01

    Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

  20. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating pump-out...facilities; (j) A reliable disposal method consisting of: (1...2) Proof of a contract with a sewage disposal contractor; and (k) A...

  5. Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)

    E-print Network

    Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-10-30

    In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms...

  6. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  7. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

  8. Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

  9. Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this task was to upgrade to the existing severe weather database by adding observations from the 2010 warm season, update the verification dataset with results from the 2010 warm season, use statistical logistic regression analysis on the database and develop a new forecast tool. The AMU analyzed 7 stability parameters that showed the possibility of providing guidance in forecasting severe weather, calculated verification statistics for the Total Threat Score (TTS), and calculated warm season verification statistics for the 2010 season. The AMU also performed statistical logistic regression analysis on the 22-year severe weather database. The results indicated that the logistic regression equation did not show an increase in skill over the previously developed TTS. The equation showed less accuracy than TTS at predicting severe weather, little ability to distinguish between severe and non-severe weather days, and worse standard categorical accuracy measures and skill scores over TTS.

  10. Five-megajoule homopolar upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bullion, T.M.; Zowarka, R.C.; Aanstoos, T.A.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The five-megajoule homopolar generator (5-MJ HPG) designed and built in 1974 by the Center for Eelctromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) was the result of an engineering feasibility study that examined alternate means of pulsed energy storage for controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments. The machine proved very reliable and useful in a variety of applications, notably pulsed resistance welding, and was modified in 1978 to improve its flexibility and ease of maintenance. CEM-UT is now completing a major upgrading of this HPG to a hydraulically motored, 10-MJ, 47-V, 1.02-MA device capable of welding large-section, high-carbon railroad rail. This report considers the design and fabrication of the new rotor, shaft, brush mechanisms, field coil, making switch, busbar system, and control system, as well as the addition of the 31-MPa (4500 psi) hydraulic motoring system. Future applications of the 10-MJ HPG are also discussed.

  11. Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

    2012-04-01

    The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

  12. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Kara Berst; Maria Howeth

    2010-06-01

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year�¢����s average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  13. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. PMID:25189479

  14. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  15. Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1988-07-01

    Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

  16. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  18. SEWAGE DISPOSAL ON AGRICULTURAL SOILS: CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. VOLUME I. CHEMICAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The city of San Angelo, Texas, has used sewage effluent which has undergone primary treatment for irrigation of the same 259-hectare sewage farm since 1958. The impact of 18 years of sewage effluent irrigation on the soil and water quality was studied from 1975 to 1977. The volum...

  19. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...processing, or final disposal of— (A) Wastewater...treatment; or (B) Sewage sludge removed...processing, or final disposal of septage (without...1), such as sewage disinfection property...processing, or final disposal of the wastewater...1362, is not a sewage facility....

  20. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...processing, or final disposal of— (A) Wastewater...treatment; or (B) Sewage sludge removed...processing, or final disposal of septage (without...1), such as sewage disinfection property...processing, or final disposal of the wastewater...1362, is not a sewage facility....

  1. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...processing, or final disposal of— (A) Wastewater...treatment; or (B) Sewage sludge removed...processing, or final disposal of septage (without...1), such as sewage disinfection property...processing, or final disposal of the wastewater...1362, is not a sewage facility....

  2. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  3. Field assessment of numerical impacts of coastal sewage disposal on fish larvae relative to natural variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Gray

    1997-01-01

    Sewage disposal in aquatic environments can have significant impacts on assemblages of organisms. There have been few field investigations on effects of sewage disposal on fish larvae. Data on abundances of larvae, current velocities and the size and shape of sewage plumes from point-source shoreline outfalls off Sydney (Australia) indicated that alongshore currents could transport large numbers of fish larvae

  4. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost?effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  5. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...processing, or final disposal of— (A) Wastewater...treatment; or (B) Sewage sludge removed...processing, or final disposal of septage (without...1), such as sewage disinfection property...processing, or final disposal of the wastewater...1362, is not a sewage facility....

  6. Comparison of phosphorus availability with application of sewage sludge, sludge compost, and manure compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang Wen; Thomas E. Bates; R. Paul Voroney; Julien P. Winter; Mike P. Schellenbert

    1997-01-01

    The objectives were to determine if phosphorus (P) from different organic wastes differs in availability to crops. Four materials: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS); irradiated sewage sludge (DISS); irradiated and composted sewage sludge (DICSS); and composted livestock manure (CLM) were applied for two years at five rates (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 Mg#lbha#lbyr) with four replicates. Uptake of P was

  7. Influence of bulking agents on speciation of heavy metals during sewage sludge composting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Liu; Ya-tong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The major limitation of soil application of sewage sludge compost is the total heavy metal contents and their bioavailability and mobility. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mature compost as a bulking agent on reduction the mobility and bioavailability of Zn, Cu , Pb and Cr during the sewage sludge composting process. The three composting processes: sewage

  8. Short Research Note Recovery of the seagrass Zostera marina in a disturbed Mediterranean lagoon

    E-print Network

    Boudouresque, Charles F.

    ; Mars, 1966). From 1966, the diversion of the Durance river towards the Saint-Chamas hydroelectric power of freshwater from a hydroelectric plant led to the desalination and stratification of the lagoon. Following

  9. Ferric hydroxide and ferric hydroxysulfate precipitation by bacteria in an acid mine drainage lagoon

    E-print Network

    Konhauser, Kurt

    Ferric hydroxide and ferric hydroxysulfate precipitation by bacteria in an acid mine drainage communities growing in an acid mine drainage lagoon sediment has confirmed that microorganisms were also: Ferrihydrite; Ferric hydroxysulfate; Bacteria; Biomineralization; Acid mine drainage Contents 1. Introduction

  10. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  11. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  12. The distribution of heavy metals in the Sidi Moussa lagoon sediments (Atlantic Moroccan Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maanan, M.; Zourarah, B.; Carruesco, C.; Aajjane, A.; Naud, J.

    2004-06-01

    The superficial and cored sediments of the Sidi Moussa lagoon (Atlantic Moroccan coast) have been analysed in order to determine their main characteristics and their heavy metals contents. Two groups of metals can be distinguished: Al, Fe and Cu whose distribution is mainly governed by the intra-lagoonal dynamics. These contents are near of those of the natural geochemical background noise that underlines their natural origin. Zn, Cr and Ni have relatively more elevated contents than the natural geochemical background noise indicating human-made pollution. The geo-accumulation indicator shows that the Sidi Moussa lagoon is moderately polluted. The totality of results in this context compared to the standard values suggested by the Agency of Protection of the Environment of United States [Journal of Great Lakes Research 11 (1985) 353] leads to the conclusion that the sediments of Sidi Moussa lagoon would rank as 'slightly polluted' for, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni.

  13. Use of Shallow Lagoon Habitats by Nekton of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared nekton use of prominent habitat types within a lagoonal system of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). These habitat types were defined by combinations of structure (cover type) and location (distance from shore) as: Spartina edge (...

  14. Star Inner and Forward Tracking Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, Gerrit

    2006-04-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is planning a major tracking upgrade to prepare for the expected higher luminosity running of RHIC. This tracking upgrade will also enhance physics capabilities such as W physics with polarized proton beams and heavy flavor physics with heavy ion and polarized proton beams. The proposed upgrade will consist of a central barrel part and a forward disk part. Both barrel and disk parts will make extensive use of silicon strip sensors and Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. In addition active pixel sensors will provide micro-vertexing close to the interaction point. The design of these new STAR detectors will be discussed.

  15. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  16. Presence and destruction of tubercle bacilli in sewage*

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, K. Erik

    1954-01-01

    The author examined the sewage from 5 towns with tuberculosis sanatoria and from one institution for the care of the feeble-minded, which had a tuberculosis ward, for the presence of tubercle bacilli. The 6 effluents were treated in biological-purification plants and average samples taken. These were centrifuged, and the sediment treated for 1 hour at 37°C with 4% NaOH before inoculation into guinea-pigs. Tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in the influent to all the plants and in the digested sludge of all those operating on sewage where the ratio of infective patients to all persons connected with the plant was up to 1:600. Experiments with cultivated tubercle bacilli showed that centrifuging of sewage resulted in only an insignificant loss of bacilli, but that NaOH treatment caused a loss of over 99%. After consideration of the risk of infection to both man and cattle from the sewage of tuberculosis institutions, the author reports on his own studies on the killing of tubercle bacilli in sewage. It took about 11½-15 months before tubercle bacilli could no longer be demonstrated in sludge that had been kept on the drying beds. The addition of 10 mg of chlorine per litre of biologically purified effluent from an activated-sludge plant was found effectively to destroy tubercle bacilli. Disinfection of sludge was also carried out with 0.5% lysol and 0.1%-0.2% formol; 3.1% copper sulfate proved ineffective. The author concludes that the disinfection of sewage from tuberculosis institutions presents no special difficulties, but that work on this subject in different countries should be co-ordinated in an effort to improve plant and reduce costs. PMID:13160757

  17. Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1976-01-01

    Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

  18. Morphometric assessment of intermittently open/closed coastal lagoons in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, P. E.; Tomlinson, R. B.; Thom, B. G.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides a framework for the assessment of the natural sensitivity of coastal lagoons to anthropogenic and other external inputs. The assessment framework is based on analysis and consideration of morphometric characteristics, and is demonstrated in this paper using eight example intermittently open coastal lagoons from New South Wales, Australia. The framework presented extends to a rudimentary classification of the eight example coastal lagoons, relative to the other 70 or so intermittently open coastal lagoons in NSW, which can be used to provide an indication of the relative importance of these lagoons with respect to future management, such as remediation or conservation. Morphometry describes the physical geographic characteristics of waterways such as coastal lagoons. Morphometric parameters are relatively easy to determine, as they essentially describe the physical and topographic features of waterways. Morphometry therefore provides a simple means to define the natural sensitivity, or vulnerability, of individual systems to external loads and other artificial (primarily anthropogenic) modifications. Morphometric parameters, such as waterway area, waterway volume, waterway shape and the proportion of time that the entrance is either open or closed to the ocean, have been used to define three separate factors that each measures one aspect of the natural sensitivity, or vulnerability, of a coastal lagoon to external loads and other inputs. The first factor (called the Evacuation Factor) is a measure of how efficiently a coastal lagoon can remove pollutants and other inputs through tidal flushing (i.e. the tidal flushing efficiency). The second factor (called the Dilution Factor) is a measure of the relative difference between the input loads from the catchment and the resident volume of the coastal lagoon. The third factor (called the Assimilation Factor) is a measure of the water level variability in a coastal lagoon, which can subsequently influence the extent and diversity of biological processes and their capacity to assimilate or accommodate external inputs. The morphometric-based assessment and classification framework presented in this paper could be applied to any country that contains a series of similar coastal lagoons that have intermittent connections to the ocean and which requires a relative assessment for prioritisation of future management and planning.

  19. Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

    2011-10-01

    Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 ?g g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 ?g g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural "barrier" for the potential risk of Hg transfer to the aquatic trophic chain.

  20. Neural network-based light attenuation model for monitoring seagrass population in the Indian river lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamad T. Musavi; Habtom W. Ressom; S. Srirangam; Padma Natarajan; R. W. Virnstein; L. J. Morris; W. Tweedale

    2007-01-01

    Seagrasses have been considered one of the most critical marine habitat types of coastal and estuarine ecosystems such as\\u000a the Indian River Lagoon. They are an important part of biological productivity, nutrient cycling, habitat stabilization and\\u000a species diversity and are the primary focus of restoration efforts in the Indian River Lagoon. The areal extent of seagrasses\\u000a has declined within segments