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1

SEWAGE LAGOON DESIGN USING WETLANDS AND OTHER UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES  

E-print Network

#12;L L llF L L L SEWAGE LAGOON DESIGN USING WETLANDS AND OTHER UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES TO ACHIEVE Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement Office 224 West Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. V7M 3H7 under the Fraser River Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. Environment Canada

2

Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1976-01-01

3

Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1975-01-01

4

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

5

Survey of Levels of Phthalate Ester Plasticizers in a Sewage Lagoon Effluent and a Receiving Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, samples from a sewage treatment lagoon and those from a receiving stream were analyzed for their phthalate\\u000a esters content. Knowledge of the distribution of ubiquitous phthalate esters in the sewage lagoon and the receiving stream\\u000a was necessary because of the reports of their subtle toxicity to aquatic biota and humans. Liquid–liquid extraction, Clean-up\\u000a experiment and High Performance

A. O. Ogunfowokan; N. Torto; A. A. Adenuga; E. K. Okoh

2006-01-01

6

Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

7

Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

8

Performance of duckweed-covered sewage lagoons—II. Nitrogen and phosphorus balance and plant productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale experiments were performed in a non-continuous batch reactor system with 0.8 to 41.2 l with domestic sewage exposed to constant light intensity, temperature and humidity. The contribution of duckweed (L. gibba) to N and P removal in duckweed-covered sewage lagoons (DSL) was studied at NH+4 concentration of 25–96 mg\\/l with 10, 30, 70 and 95 cm deep reactors, and liquid mixing

F Al-Nozaily; G Alaerts; S Veenstra

2000-01-01

9

Performance analysis of a full-scale duckweed-covered sewage lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sewage lagoon for 2000–3000 capita (0.6 ha) has been operated successfully with a duckweed cover for over four years. The cover suppressed algal growth; the effluent turbidity was always below 12 Ntu. Because of inappropriate construction, one fifth of the inflow is lost by percolation and seepage during the dry season; during the wet season the loss is limited.

G. J. Alaerts; Rahman Mahbubar; P. Kelderman

1996-01-01

10

Biodegradation of PCBs sorbed to sewage-sludge lagoon sediments in an aerobic digester  

SciTech Connect

Several congeners of a PCB mix, similar to Aroclor 1242, were biodegraded in laboratory and pilot scale aerobic digester, although the PCBs were sorbed to sewage sludge lagoon sediments. The acclimated open mixed microbial community present in the digesters originated from a sewage treatment facility. Up to 60 percent reduction of the total PCBs was achieved using solid detention times of 20 days. The mass of PCBs air stripped from the reactors was measured to be less than 2 percent of the total reduction. In batch reactors, the PCB mass stripped decreased, while the overall reduction increased when an active aerobic microbial community was added. In addition, a model was developed using literature values for the necessary coefficients which estimate the PCB stripping rate from anaerobic reactors.

Chantry, W.A. Jr.

1989-01-01

11

Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

1977-01-01

12

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

DOE /NV Operations Office

1999-05-01

13

Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

NONE

1997-07-01

14

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

USDOE /NV

1999-05-01

15

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU.

US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

1999-12-23

16

Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

17

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of Energy, NevadaOperations Office (DOE/NV) requests: CAU 404 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. NDEP provide a Notice of Completion to the DOE/NV.

Lynn Kidman

1998-09-01

18

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This document is an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV-582-Rev. 0. This addendum provides the requested documentation that supports the assertion that contamination above levels of concern does not exist in the abandoned sewer lines. This addendum summarizes the results of the manhole investigation conducted during March 2000. Results of the manhole investigation indicate that no changes to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report are necessary and all other sections of the document shall remain unchanged.

DOE /NV

2000-05-18

19

Sequencing batch reactor technology: the key to a BP refinery (Bulwer Island) upgraded environmental protection system--a low cost lagoon based retro-fit.  

PubMed

BP Refinery (Bulwer Island) Ltd (BP) located on the eastern Australian coast is currently undergoing a major expansion as a part of the Queensland Clean Fuels Project. The associated wastewater treatment plant upgrade will provide a better quality of treated effluent than is currently possible with the existing infrastructure, and which will be of a sufficiently high standard to meet not only the requirements of imposed environmental legislation but also BP's environmental objectives. A number of challenges were faced when considering the upgrade, particularly; cost constraints and limited plot space, highly variable wastewater, toxicity issues, and limited hydraulic head. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) Technology was chosen for the lagoon upgrade based on the following; SBR technology allowed a retro-fit of the existing earthen lagoon without the need for any additional substantial concrete structures, a dual lagoon system allowed partial treatment of wastewaters during construction, SBRs give substantial process flexibility, SBRs have the ability to easily modify process parameters without any physical modifications, and significant cost benefits. This paper presents the background to this application, an outline of laboratory studies carried out on the wastewater and details the full scale design issues and methods for providing a cost effective, efficient treatment system using the existing lagoon system. PMID:11381925

Hudson, N; Doyle, J; Lant, P; Roach, N; de Bruyn, B; Staib, C

2001-01-01

20

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

D. S. Tobiason

2000-09-01

21

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

K. B. Campbell

2001-06-01

22

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

2000-04-20

23

Macroinvertebrates associated with Chara in a tropical coastal lagoon (Imboassica lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imboassica lagoon is an urban coastal lagoon located in the municipality of Macaé (RJ), which has been exposed to a process of artificial eutrophication through the inflow of untreated sewage, as well as artificial openings of the sandbar that separates it from the ocean, provoking drastic modifications in this ecosystem. The sampling for the analysis of the community of macroinvertebrates

Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves

2001-01-01

24

300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

NONE

1995-05-01

25

Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of hermaphrodite fish in the lagoons of sewage treatment works led us to hypothesize that sewage effluent might contain a substance, or substances, estrogenic to fish. to test this hypothesis, we placed cages containing rainbow trout in the effluent from sewage-treatment works, and one to three weeks later measured the vitellogenin concentration in the plasma of the fish.

C. E. Purdom; P. A. Hardiman; V. V. J. Bye; N. C. Eno; C. R. Tyler; J. P. Sumpter

1994-01-01

26

Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons. This UR was established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and was based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This reevaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC to an administrative UR. Administrative URs differ from standard URs in that they do not require onsite postings (i.e., signs) or other physical barriers (e.g., fencing, monuments), and they do not require periodic inspections (see Section 6.2 of the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels [NNSA/NSO, 2006c]). This Administrative UR was based on a “Remote Work Sites” future land use scenario that was used to calculate the FAL. The administrative UR will protect workers from an exposure exceeding that used in the calculation of the FAL (i.e., 336 hours per year). Any proposed activity within these use restricted areas that would potentially cause an exposure exceeding this exposure limit would require approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at each site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at these sites that are unrelated to the FFACO URs such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at these sites.

Lynn Kidman

2009-02-01

27

ROCK FILTERS FOR REMOVAL OF ALGAE FROM LAGOON EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to show that rock filtration was an effective, low cost unit process for removing algae from lagoon effluents and correspondingly upgrading lagoon treatment. Sedimentation is the primary mechanism of algal removal within rock filter. The settling...

28

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

1984-01-01

29

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

30

OVERLAND FLOW TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE AT EASLEY, SOUTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Overland flow has been demonstrated to be a feasible method for treatment of either comminuted raw sewage or effluent from a facultative lagoon in piedmont South Carolina where mild winters prevail in a region of high rainfall. An overland flow system was operated for three years...

31

Pollution indicator species of macrobenthos in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history differences and effects of physicochemical changes on macrobenthos of coastal lagoons were studied for 2 yr'at one site in the sewage-polluted, moderately enriched Sykes Creek and a comparison site in the less-polluted Banana River, Florida, USA. Monthly and bi-monthly quantitative sediment samples for faunal analyses were taken from the natural substratum, and recolonization of defaunated sediments set out

Raymond E. Grizzle

1984-01-01

32

Comparative study of wastewater lagoon with and without water hyacinth  

SciTech Connect

A facultative sewage lagoon completely covered with water hyacinths had significant improvement in effluent quality. BOD 5 and total suspended solids (TSS) were 23 and b mg/L respectively. Without water hyacinths, the effluent BOD5 and TSS were 52 and 77 mg/L, respectively. The effluent total organic C concentration was reduced from 72 to 40 mg/L with water hyacinth coverage.

McDonald, R.C.; Wolverton, B.C.

1980-01-01

33

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

1991-01-01

34

Sewage Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

1987-01-01

35

Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in differents environments in Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon - RJ/Brazil.  

PubMed

The accelerated urbanisation without a planning, brought several environmental problems to Rio de Janeiro coastal zone, especially in areas such as Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, which receives a great amount of untreated sewage every day. To assess the nature, potentially sources and extent of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon, sediments from the surrounding streets, from the entrance of the main canal that drains to the lagoon and from the bottom of the lagoon were collected and analysed by a modified selective extraction procedure in order to study the geochemical partitioning and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb in these three compartments. The present study verified an increase in the Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the north of the Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon. Despite the different levels of oxidation between the sediments accumulated in the streets and in the bottom of the lagoon, the geochemical partitioning of the heavy metals did not show any pattern of variation for the metals, except for the element Cu. No concentrations were found in the soluble phase of samples collected in the surfacial sediments of the lagoon, suggesting no bioavailability of heavy metals. PMID:21670872

Fonseca, Estefan M; Baptista Neto, José A; Fernandez, Marcos A; McAlister, John; Smith, Bernard

2011-06-01

36

Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.  

PubMed

Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates. PMID:23404546

Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

2013-09-01

37

Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

NONE

1995-03-01

38

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.  

PubMed

Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

2013-02-15

39

Ecosystem metabolism and carbon fluxes of a tidally-dominated coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism and carbon flux in the western sector of the highly dynamic coastal lagoon Ria Formosa (south Portugal) were\\u000a assessed to elucidate the relative importance of the contribution of the main communities, the treated sewage inputs from\\u000a the adjacent city of Faro, and the exchange with the adjacent coastal waters to the ecosystem metabolism. The results depict\\u000a the Ria

Rui Santos; João Silva; Ana Alexandre; Nuria Navarro; Cristina Barrón; Carlos M. Duarte

2004-01-01

40

HYPUF Upgrade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes efforts accomplished to upgrade the public domain stress wave response code, HYPUF. The elastic-viscoplastic, Maxwell dispersion and Bade geometric dispersion material response models were implemented in HYPUF. Numerous errors in the...

D. L. Johnson

1990-01-01

41

Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond for treated wastewater effluent for irrigation water, as needed. The two new lagoons would be li

N /A

1999-05-27

42

CONNECTICUT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of sewage treatment plants in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes the locations of sewage treatment plants, but not their discharge locations to surface or groundater. The National Pollution Discharge Elimintation Discharge Syste...

43

Sewage sludge combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

J. Werther; T. Ogada

1999-01-01

44

Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

1992-01-01

45

Deep Inside the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is one of the brightest galactic HII regions. While 9 Sgr (O4) and the adjoining OB cluster NGC 6530 have been well studied, the low-mass population has been difficult to identify. Based on the number of optically visible OB stars, we predict that a deep ACIS-I exposure of the Lagoon nebula region will reveal >1500 X-ray

Marc Gagne

2002-01-01

46

Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

2003-01-01

47

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2010-07-01

48

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2013-07-01

49

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2012-07-01

50

33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon Pond Bridge, mile 0.0 in Tisbury, Massachusetts, shall operate as follows: (a) The draw...

2011-07-01

51

Swine lagoon biogas utilization system  

SciTech Connect

A project was conceived to design and build a system to recover methane from pig manure with covered anaerobic lagoon technology. Covered lagoon technology lends itself both to new lagoon construction and to retrofit designs on existing anaerobic lagoons. A two cell passive in-ground digester/lagoon system was designed for a 600 sow feeder pig farm. The digester was covered with a flexible fabric cover made of 30 mil XR-5. The biogas has 1,100 ppm hydrogen sulfide. For the first month of operation 473 cubic feet of biogas per hour has been recovered from the digester 24 hours per day. At this gas flow the engine turns an induction generator to produce 17.1 KW per hour. A little over 80% of the farm`s electrical needs are generated with methane from swine manure. On an annual basis there will be 150,000 KWh of electricity produced from 4.3 million cubic feet of biogas.

Gettier, S.W.; Roberts, M. [Carroll`s Foods of Va., Inc., Waverly, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

52

PERFORMANCE OF AERATED LAGOONS IN NORTHERN CLIMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies of cold climate aerated lagoons conducted by the Arctic Environmental Research Station, Fairbanks, Alaska are reported. Conclusions are based on these studies, observations of full scale aerated lagoons operating in Alaska and reports on lagoons in the northern tier of th...

53

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON IR, 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the Indian River Lagoon Program's last implementation review, the NEP through the local sponsorship of the St. Johns River Water Management District, has seen a three-fold increase in implementation funding from $6.7 million in 1999, to $21.3 million in FY 2003. This fundin...

54

The Lagoon Nebula M8  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is a well known H h region in the constellation of Sagittarius. It is one of the most studied objects in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and has been examined at all wavelengths from the radio to the gamma ray region. This study will concentrate on the optical region using CCD images taken through filters centered at

Anthony Williams

1997-01-01

55

Bellechester, Minnesota, USA, lagoon collapses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bellechester, Minnesota, is a small community of approximately 155 residents located on the county line between Goodhue and Wabasha counties in southeast Minnesota's karst region. Bellechester is served by a 21-year-old wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) consisting of three waste-stabilization ponds. On 28 April 1992 six sinkholes were discovered to have drained cell 2 of the WWTF resulting in the loss of approximately 8.7×106 1 of partially treated effluent and about 600 m3 of soil into previously undetected subsurface voids of unknown dimensions. In the week following the collapse, approximately 200 water wells located within a 5-km radius of the WWTF were sampled in an after-the-fact, emergency sampling program. Twelve samples with elevated fecal coliform levels, 18 samples with nitrate-nitrogen greater than the 10 mg/1 standard, and no samples with elevated chlorides were found. However, the elevated levels could not be unambiguously attributed to the WWTF collapse. This is the third WWTF to fail by sinkhole collapse in southeast Minnesota since 1974. All three collapsed lagoons have been located in similar geomorphic and stratigraphic settings. However, at least two lagoons have collapsed in the adjacent area in northeast Iowa, and these lagoons are located at different stratigraphic positions. Twenty-two WWTFs constructed in southeast Minnesota's karst region in the last 25 years have been identified as subject to potential sinkhole collapse. An unknown but significant number of manure storage lagoons, flood control structures, etc., have also been constructed in the karst region and are at risk. Public agencies are beginning to develop plans to deal with the risk associated with existing and future waste lagoons in this environment. The critical hydrogeologic parameters that can be used to prioritize the risk of collapse at existing facilities include: (1) the lithology of the first bedrock beneath each lagoon, (2) the thickness of surficial materials between the lagoon and the bedrock surface, (3) the presence and construction of liners (seepage rate), and (4) the proximity to existing sinkholes.

Alexander, E. C.; Broberg, J. S.; Kehren, A. R.; Graziani, M. M.; Turri, W. L.

1993-12-01

56

Evaluation of the anthropogenic influx of metallic pollutants into the Oualidia lagoon, Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies on the impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal water quality have been carried out in the last three decades, focusing mainly on urban expansion and agricultural development in coastal areas. In this study, we assess heavy metal pollution in the superficial and cored sediment of the Oualidia lagoon (Morocco). Superficial and cored sediment samples from the Oualidia lagoon were analyzed for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, Hg and Cd using ICP-MS. Sediments near urban and agricultural areas are commonly contaminated with heavy metals and the concentrations found in surface sediments are significantly higher than those from 50-100 years ago. The concentrations of these elements decrease sharply with depth in the sediment column and the elements are preferentially enriched in the <2 µm-size fraction of the sediment. The enrichment factors (EF) and statistical analyses, demonstrated that heavy metals that might pose a risk (Pb, Cu and Hg) have become largely enriched in the lagoon sediments during the recent period of agricultural intensification. Ni and Cr are the main pollutants originating from urban sewage. Keywords: Coastal land use, heavy metals, sediment pollution, lagoon.

Maanan, Me.; Fattal, P.; Maanan, M.; Ruiz-Fernández, A.-C.; Sahabi, M.

2012-04-01

57

Computational modelling of large aerated lagoon hydraulics.  

PubMed

A good understanding of the hydraulic performance of aerated lagoons is required for their design and operation. A comprehensive numerical procedure has been developed for the three-dimensional computational modelling of the flow in large lagoons including high-speed floating mechanical surface aerators. This paper describes the procedure that consists of separate aerator modelling, then applying the obtained results as boundary data for a full lagoon model. A model application to an industrial aerated lagoon serves as an example of flow analysis. Post processing of the results by calculating the local average residence time (age of fluid) provides a powerful and intuitive technique to visualize and analyse the lagoon performance. The model has been verified by comparing the local average residence time predictions with measurements from a dye study. It is shown that the numerical modelling proposed is feasible and constitutes an effective new tool in improving the performance and design of industrial lagoons. PMID:17418879

Pougatch, Konstantin; Salcudean, Martha; Gartshore, Ian; Pagoria, Philip

2007-05-01

58

Hypersaline lagoons as conservation habitats: macro-invertebrates at Muni Lagoon, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey on the aquatic ecology of Muni Lagoon was carried out during the period December 1993 to July 1994. Samples of zooplankton, aufwuchs and benthos were taken from a number of stations, representative of the different habitat types that occurred in the lagoon. The aquatic invertebrate fauna of the lagoon is listed and the temporal and spatial distribution of

Chris Gordon

2000-01-01

59

Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

60

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

61

Polarization in the Lagoon nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A V-band polarimetric survey of stars associated with the Lagoon nebula was conducted. The data were combined with existing photometric and spectroscopic observations in order to investigate the alignment of magnetic field lines with identifiable symmetry axes and to evaluate the nature of dust in the immediate vicinity. Although stars are not in general highly polarized, electric vectors align with the minor axis of the Lagoon nebula, perpendicular to the major axis of the spatial distribution of massive stars. The observations indicate that the collapse of the molecular cloud progenitor was inhibited along directions perpendicular to magnetic field lines. Considering the low polarization efficiency and the high ratio of total to selective extinction, smaller grains of intranebular dust appear to have been destroyed.

Mccall, Marshall L.; Richer, Michael G.; Visvanathan, N.

1990-01-01

62

Polarization in the Lagoon nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A V-band polarimetric survey of stars associated with the Lagoon nebula was conducted. The data were combined with existing photometric and spectroscopic observations in order to investigate the alignment of magnetic field lines with identifiable symmetry axes and to evaluate the nature of dust in the immediate vicinity. Although stars are not in general highly polarized, electric vectors align with the minor axis of the Lagoon nebula, perpendicular to the major axis of the spatial distribution of massive stars. The observations indicate that the collapse of the molecular cloud progenitor was inhibited along directions perpendicular to magnetic field lines. Considering the low polarization efficiency and the high ratio of total to selective extinction, smaller grains of intranebular dust appear to have been destroyed.

McCall, Marshall L.; Richer, Michael G.; Visvanathan, N.

1990-07-01

63

Deep Inside the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is one of the brightest galactic HII regions. While 9 Sgr (O4) and the adjoining OB cluster NGC 6530 have been well studied, the low-mass population has been difficult to identify. Based on the number of optically visible OB stars, we predict that a deep ACIS-I exposure of the Lagoon nebula region will reveal >1500 X-ray sources, most of them classical and weak-line T-Tauri stars. At the heart of this region is the Hourglass Nebula, its exciting O7 star Herschel 36, an ultra-compact HII region, a dense cluster of infrared objects and a ridge of 850um emission cores: signposts of active star formation. By matching infrared sources with X-ray selected Class I, II and III YSOs, we will signficantly increase our census of low-mass stars in galactic HII regions.

Gagne, Marc

2002-09-01

64

Deep Inside the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a pair of deep X-ray images of the Lagoon Nebula and the NGC 6530 star-forming region obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The ACIS images reveal 1542 X-ray sources in the combined field of view, most of these likely associated with classical and weak-line T-Tauri stars. Approximately 1200 X-ray sources have 2MASS JHK-band counterparts. The Chandra data reveal

P. J. Castro; M. Gagne; N. F. Tothill; M. A. Kenworthy; M. J. McCaughrean

2004-01-01

65

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

1991-07-01

66

Mercury pollution sources in sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Present study has continued the investigation on distribution of mercury in estuarine sediments of Patos Lagoon which began whilst assessing the after-effect of enormous accidental discharge of sulfuric acid into the estuary. An attempt to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic effluents on mercury pollution in sediments was undertaken. The effluents from Rio Grande City sewages were categorized into four groups based on their sources. Comparison of mercury concentrations from those, indicated that domestic effluent was prevalent. Apparent geographic controls of effluent locations enriched in mercury on zones of polluted estuarine sediments were also revealed. Insufficient control on waste collecting and absence of sewage treatment are considered the principal causes of mercury pollution in estuarine sediments. PMID:12604067

Mirlean, Nicolai; Andrus, Vlad E; Baisch, Paulo

2003-03-01

67

Bages-Sigean and Canet-St Nazaire lagoons (France): physico-chemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations (Cu, Cd, PCBs and PBDEs) as environmental quality of water and sediment.  

PubMed

Environmental characteristics in water and sediments of two contrasted coastal Mediterranean lagoons, Bages-Sigean and Canet-St Nazaire, were measured over a three season survey. The urban pollution (treatment plant discharges) is very important in Canet-St Nazaire lagoon reflecting untreated sewages, while in Bages-Sigean, the northern part appears more impacted due to larger anthropogenic inputs. Dissolved Cd concentrations are on the whole similar in both lagoons, whereas Cu concentrations are by far higher in lagoon Canet-St Nazaire. Cu concentrations appear to be highly dependent on dissolved organic carbon whereas salinity seems to control Cd variations. Concerning the sediments, the confined northern part of lagoon Bages-Sigean shows organic carbon and total nitrogen enrichment whereas lipid concentrations are much higher in the Canet-St Nazaire lagoon. Cu complexation seems to be strongly related to organic matter as evidenced by the two significant positive relationships, on one hand between Cu and organic carbon, and on the other hand, between Cu and lipids. On the contrary, Cd concentrations appear to be mainly controlled by carbonates. PCBs and PBDEs were detected only in sediments and show relatively low concentrations compared to similar lagoon environments. Regarding the sediment quality guidelines, Cd, Cu and PCBs in both lagoons did not exceed any Probable Effect Concentration (PEC). PMID:24174314

Vouvé, Florence; Buscail, Roselyne; Aubert, Dominique; Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc; Canal, Christophe; Desmousseaux, Marion; Alliot, Fabrice; Amilhat, Elsa; Faliex, Elisabeth; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

2014-02-01

68

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Sewer System Upgrade Project. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposed Sewer System Upgrade Project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The proposed action would include activities conducted at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and the Containment Test Facility at the Test Area North at INEL. The proposed action would consist of replacing or remodeling the existing sewage treatment plants at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and Containment Test Facility. Also, a new sewage testing laboratory would be constructed at the Central Facilities Area. Finally, the proposed action would include replacing, repairing, and/or adding sewer lines in areas where needed.

Not Available

1994-04-01

69

Biogeochemical responses to nutrient inputs in a Cuban coastal lagoon: runoff, anthropogenic, and groundwater sources.  

PubMed

Laguna Larga, a coastal lagoon in central Cuba, has been heavily altered by tourism infrastructure construction and sewage disposal. We hypothesize that this has decreased the circulation and caused eutrophication of the lagoon. To assess this, 12 bimonthly samplings were carried out in 2007-2008. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and nitrogen, and phosphorous fractions (inorganic, organic, and total) were determined. Water and salt budgets, as well as biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus were calculated using the LOICZ budget model for the three sections of the lagoon identified by morphological constrains and salinity patterns. Laguna Larga is a choked lagoon with restricted water circulation, low exchange, and high residence times that vary significantly along its sections. Residence time was estimated to be 0.1-0.7 years for the inner section and 1-9 days for the outer one. High levels of total nitrogen (annual means 126-137 ?M, peaks up to 475 ?M) and phosphorus (2.5-4.4 ?M, peaks up to 14.5 ?M) are evidence of eutrophication of Laguna Larga. During 2007, an average precipitation year, Laguna Larga exported water (703 m(3) d(-1)) and was a source of nitrogen (9.026 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) and phosphorus (0.112 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) to the adjacent sea. ?(15)N determinations in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (-1.83 to +3.02?‰) differed significantly between sites in the lagoon and offshore reference sites located W of the inlet, but were similar to those located E of the inlet. ?(15)N determinations in the seaweed Penicillus dumetosus (+1.02 to +4.2) did not show significant differences. PMID:23856810

González-De Zayas, R; Merino-Ibarra, M; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Castillo-Sandoval, F S

2013-12-01

70

THE PALAEARCTIC WADER POPULATION OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pringle, J. S. & Cooper, J. 1975. The Palaearctic wader population of Langebaan Lagoon. Ostrich 46:213-218.Monthly counts of Palaearctic waders were made at high tide in three areas of Langebaan Lagoon, southwestern Cape, during 1973 and 1974. A total of sixteen species was observed. The five commonest species, in order of abundance, were Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Grey Plover Squalarola

J. S. Pringle; J. Cooper

1975-01-01

71

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2012-07-01

72

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2010-07-01

73

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

...2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2014-07-01

74

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2011-07-01

75

33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES... § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

2013-07-01

76

Aerated Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual contains the textual material for a unit which focuses on the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. Topic areas discussed include: (1) characteristics of completely mixed aerated lagoons; (2) facultative aerated lagoons; (3) aerated oxidation ponds; (4) effects of temperature on aerated lagoons; (5)…

Andersen, Lorri

77

Deep Inside the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a pair of deep X-ray images of the Lagoon Nebula and the NGC 6530 star-forming region obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The ACIS images reveal 1542 X-ray sources in the combined field of view, most of these likely associated with classical and weak-line T-Tauri stars. Approximately 1200 X-ray sources have 2MASS JHK-band counterparts. The Chandra data reveal three populations of stars: (1) a large population of relatively soft X-ray sources associated with the 2-Myr old cluster NGC 6530, (2) a population of hard, variable X-ray sources to the south first discussed by Damiani et al. (2004) and probably associated with low-mass YSO's, and (3) a compact cluster of 80 hard X-ray sources within 1' of the very young O star Herschel 36. The soft X-ray emission from Her 36 (O7 V), the ionizing source of the Hourglass Nebula, is typical of many O stars. The two hard X-ray source populations are spatially coincident with ridges of enhanced far-infrared emission seen in 850-micron SCUBA maps of the Lagoon Nebula region. This research is supported through NASA/SAO grant GO3-4014.

Castro, P. J.; Gagne, M.; Tothill, N. F.; Kenworthy, M. A.; McCaughrean, M. J.

2004-05-01

78

Sewage treatment method  

DOEpatents

The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

1995-01-01

79

Residence times in a hypersaline lagoon: Using salinity as a tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally the waters of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal have a short residence time, in the order of 0.5 days (Tett, P., Gilpin, L., Svendsen, H., Erlandsson, C.P., Larsson, U., Kratzer, S., Fouilland, E., Janzen, C., Lee, J., Grenz, C., Newton, A., Ferreira, J.G., Fernandes, T., Scory, S., 2003. Eutrophication and some European waters of restricted exchange. Continental Shelf Research 23, 1635-1671). This estimation is based on the measurements of currents and the modelling of water exchange at the outlets to the ocean. However, observations of the temperature and salinity in the inner channels imply that residence time is greater in these regions of the lagoon. To resolve this apparent contradiction, spatial measurements of the temperature and salinity were made with a meter for conductivity, temperature and depth along the principal channels of the western portion of the lagoon, with a sampling frequency of two per second. Evaporation rates of 5.4 mm day -1 were measured in a salt extraction pond adjacent to the lagoon and used to determine the residence time through salinity differences with the incoming seawater. In June 2004, the water flooding in from the ocean had an average salinity of 36.07 which contrasted with a maximum of 37.82 at mid ebb on a spring tide, corresponding to a residence time of >7 days; the mean residence time was 2.4 days. As the tide flooded into the channels, the existing water was advected back into the lagoon. Although there was a small amount of mixing with water from another inlet, the water body from the inner lagoon essentially remained distinct with respect to temperature and salinity characteristics. The residence time of the water was further prolonged at the junction between the main channels, where distinct boundaries were observed between the different water masses. As the water ebbed out, the shallow Western Channel was essentially isolated from the rest of the outer lagoon, and the water from this channel was forced down the Ramalhete Channel, from where it was unable to exit the lagoon in one tidal cycle due to the extensive path length of ˜14 km to the sea. Although the overall exchange rate of water is short in the outer lagoon, this study emphasizes that management models should take into account additional complexities that might arise from the much longer exchange rates of the inner lagoon. For example, the principal sewage discharge for the urban area of Faro is into the section of the Ramalhete Channel where efficient flushing is impeded by the relatively high residence times of the water body in this channel. The implementation of the techniques used for this study are a quick and relatively cost effective approach to testing assumptions about water quality and exchange in shallow coastal systems.

Mudge, Stephen M.; Icely, John D.; Newton, Alice

2008-04-01

80

The importance of pathogenic organisms in sewage and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Deficient sanitation poses a serious threat to human and animal health, involving complex relationships between environments, animals, refuse, food, pathogens, parasites, and man. However, by sanitizing and stabilizing the organic matter of sewage sludge, agriculture can utilize it to maintain soil, water, and air quality. As ingredients in soil amendments, such bioresidues are a source of nutrients for plants. Stabilization and sanitation of sewage sludge safely couple its recycling and disposal. This coupling becomes increasingly important as economic and environmental constraints make strategies for waste disposal more difficult to apply. The occurrence of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and zooparasites in sewage sludge is reviewed in this article, and consequential epidemiologic concerns that arise from sewage sludge recycling is also addressed. PMID:11417676

Dumontet, S; Scopa, A; Kerje, S; Krovacek, K

2001-06-01

81

The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W

82

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

83

EPIC Computer Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

84

Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

Andersen, Lorri

85

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

86

The Lagoon Nebula M8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is a well known H h region in the constellation of Sagittarius. It is one of the most studied objects in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and has been examined at all wavelengths from the radio to the gamma ray region. This study will concentrate on the optical region using CCD images taken through filters centered at select wavelengths. These wavelengths are important to understanding the physics of the nebula and include emission lines of the following ions: O(sup ++) at lambda(lambda)4363,5007, N(sup +) at lambda(lambda)5755,6584, S(sup +) at lambda(lambda)6717,6731 and H(sup +) at lambda(lambda)4861,6563. The first two sets of lines are used to determine the electron temperature (Te) of the nebula, the next pair is used to calculate the electron density (Ne) and the final pair is used to determine the amount of light which is scattered due to dust in the nebula. The CCD images used in this study were obtained at San Pedro Matir Observatory in Baja, Mexico, using the 2.12 meter telescope. The images were reduced using the Image Reduction Analysis Facility (IRAF). Corrections to the raw data included bias subtraction, dark subtraction, cosmic ray removal and corrections for flat field differences. Additional steps were necessary to produce the final images, which are Te and Ne maps of the nebula. These steps will be discussed. The maps show variations in temperature and density on a pixel-by-pixel level. The O(sup ++) images clearly show high ionization regions in the nebula near the ionizing stars, as expected, Some of the most dramatic variations can be seen in the sulfur images. Clumps, ridges and arcs of high density material are clear and well defined. These maps are used to better understand the physical conditions in M8 and the chemical abundances in the nebula.

Williams, Anthony

1997-02-01

87

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2013-07-01

88

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2014-07-01

89

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2010-07-01

90

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2011-07-01

91

33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction...Sewage removal. The device must be designed for...solids in the sewage retention...

2012-07-01

92

Do human activities affect the picoplankton structure of the Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)?  

PubMed

The spatial variations of the picoplankton (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms) in the Ahe atoll lagoon were studied in May and October 2008 to assess whether they were affected by human activities along the atoll. Spatial patterns were studied using 10 sampling stations chosen according to the location of the anthropogenic activities (pearl farming, harbor). Experiments were also carried out to determine whether bacterial growth, with or without predators, was limited by inorganic (N and P) substrates. The results showed that heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance was superior to the photoautotrophic organisms, especially in May. Significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in May after 24 h incubation with +P and +N (but not in October). All samples complied with the quality levels for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) defined by the European Union and there was no evidence that human sewage had any impact on picoplankton over the whole atoll. PMID:22306310

Bouvy, Marc; Dupuy, Christine; Pagano, Marc; Barani, Aude; Charpy, Loic

2012-01-01

93

Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, ?18O and ?D data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from Malibu Lagoon through the sand berm at the mouth of the Lagoon contributed FIB to the adjacent beach at low tide. Similar increases in FIB concentrations did not occur at beaches adjacent to unsewered residential development, although wastewater indicator compounds and radon-222 (indicative of groundwater discharge) were present. High FIB concentrations at high tide were not related to groundwater discharge, but may be related to FIB associated with debris accumulated along the high-tide line.

Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

2012-01-01

94

Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger Lagoon. To address this data gap we collected sediment samples during a February 2013 field campaign. One set of sediment samples is from the bottom of the lagoon along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline and another set is from an approximately 1 m depth profile on the lagoon side of the sand berm (depth of the groundwater table at the time of collection). These samples are being analyzed for HgT, MMHg, and total organic carbon (TOC) and will provide a first glimpse into the distribution of mercury species and organic carbon in sediments from the Younger Lagoon Reserve. We will also collect and analyze sediment samples from another lagoon site with comparable watershed characteristics.

Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

2013-12-01

95

Anthropogenic nitrogen in a subtropical coastal lagoon (SE Gulf of California): sources and ecological consequences using isotopes stables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and isotopic compositions of N were studied in anthropogenic effluents received by Altata-Ensenada- Pabellón lagoon (AEP), a typical coastal ecosystem along the SE GC. Human activities mobilize from 33,000 to 55,000 tons of N per year to the AEP, which the agriculture (70%), livestock (10%), and atmospheric deposition (10%) are the largest N sources. Other N sources including sewage, shrimp farming, poultry, and livestock effluents constituted less than 10% of N inputs. The N is distributed as inorganic N that accounts for an input of 72% (NO3- 65% and NH4+ 7%) and organic N for 28% (>90% of the organic N occurring as DON). The N isotopic composition in the different effluents vary 6.1-16.1‰ for 15N-NH4+ and 2.1-15.9‰ for 15N-NO3. The 15N-NO3- values in agriculture effluents are related to fertilizer, while the enriched values of 15N-NH4+ in sewage and animal effluents and 15N-NO3- in groundwater result of the high ammonification and denitrification during the transport to the lagoon. Overall the C/N ratios (5.3-21.1) and isotopic signatures (13C -30.6 to -21.4‰ and 15N 6.1-12.5‰) in the POM for the diverse effluents had measurable differences and consistent with their origins. The 15N-DIN values measured at the selected stations recording inputs into AEP lagoon waters oscillated from 4.4 to 6.5‰ for 15N- NO3-, 12.9 to 20.9‰ 15N-NH4+, and from 4.4 to 10‰ 15N-POM. Overall the 15N values predicted by mass balances are in the range of the measured isotopic composition. The N requirement in Pacific Mexican lagoons is estimated to be 155 to 400 kg N ha-1 y-1, however, the current level is 1480 kg N ha-1 y-1, with anthropogenic N inputs (1200 kg N ha-1 y-1) of 80%. This excess of primary productivity is evidenced by the phytoplankton and macroalgae blooms that occur year-round, mainly in the areas close to the nutrient discharges from AEP lagoon.

Soto-Jimenez, M.; Paez-Osuna, F.

2007-05-01

96

Heavy-metal pollution assessment in the coastal lagoons of Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Jacarepaguá lagoon receives the waste from 239 industries and domestic sewage. Bottom sediment analysis revealed that metal pollution is not spread over the lagoons but restricted to the discharge areas of the main metal-carrier rivers. Metal concentrations in superficial water showed the following concentrations values in ng/ml: Zn, 9.63+/-3.59; Pb, 0.61+/-0.43; Cu, 0.94+/-0.45; Mn, 12.7+/-8.0. Metal concentration in fish (average of seven different species) presented the following results, in mg/kg wet weight: Cr, 0.08+/-0.01; Cu, 0.4+/-0.15; Zn, 4.6+/-3.4; Fe, 2.4+/-1.3; Mn, 0.4+/-0.3. These results imply, considering fish consumption rate and the RfD (USEPA Reference Dose), that the local population is not exposed to undue health risks. Metal concentrations in the water may, however, increase due to their dissolution induced by pH and redox changes in the sediments. PMID:15091655

Fernandes, H M; Bidone, E D; Veiga, L H; Patchineelam, S R

1994-01-01

97

A geomorphic study of lagoonal landforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform an analysis of the observational morphological structure of a tidal landscape aimed at examining key assumptions on the geomorphological evolution of wetlands, lagoons, estuarine areas and tidal environments in general. The issues addressed pertain to the statistical measures and the morphodynamic implications of topological or metric properties of the observed landforms, in particular their scale-dependent (or invariant) characters

Alessandra Feola; Enrica Belluco; Andrea D'Alpaos; Stefano Lanzoni; Marco Marani; Andrea Rinaldo

2005-01-01

98

Stanchion System Upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

... EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December 23, 1991 File : opp93044 DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS OFFICE OF ... Upgrade, McMurdo Station, Antarctica) To: Files (S.7 - Environment) This Environmental Action ...

99

Black Island telecommunications upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Black Island telecommunications upgrade Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : July 22, 1993 File : opp93107 OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT SECTION 202/357-7766 MEMORANDUM Date: July 22, 1993 From: Acting Environmental Officer Subject: Environmental Action Memorandum (Black Island Telecommunications Facility Upgrade) To: Director, Office of Polar Programs Manager, Polar Operations Section Safety and Health Officer Electronics Engineer Facilities Engineering Projects ...

100

ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNOLOGY ON SEWAGE TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic treatments for water and wastewater attract a special attention due to their safety, ecological purity, simplicity and low operating costs. Thus this study was carried out in order to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of applying magnetic technology for a better understanding of the sewage characteristics. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the feasibility of magnetic

Fadhil Othman; Johan Sohaili

101

Charophytes as a nutrient and energy reservoir in a tropical coastal Lagoon impacted by humans (RJ, Brazil).  

PubMed

In the Imboassica Lagoon (22 degrees 24'S and 42 degrees 42'W) (Macaé, RJ, Brazil), two species of macroalgae of the genus Chara (C. angolensis and C. fibrosa) registered in large areas were identified. The lagoon is subject to several relevant anthropic impacts, of which untreated sewage is one of the most important. Results of the biomass distribution as analyzed in different areas of the lagoon showed values ranging from 172 to 510 gDW x m(-2). As for the nutrient concentration, the results presented large fluctuations, with carbon values ranging from 325 to 392 mg x g(-1)DW, those of nitrogen, from 14 to 27 mg x g DW, and of phosphorus from 0.45 to 0.85 mg.g(-1) DW. This led to large fluctuations of the C:N:P ratio (from 387:24:1 to 872:47:1). The minimum and maximum energetic values of the biomass were 9.54 e 12.34 kJ x g(-1)DW. Smaller C:N:P ratios tended to occur in more eutrophic areas. The association between biomass and nutrient concentration showed that the highest quantities in the beds are found in oligotrophic areas. The Spearman correlation between nutrient concentration in the water column and biomass was r(s) = 0.45 (p < 0.05) for nitrogen and r(s) = 0.50 (p < 0.01) for phosphorus (n = 30). The large total biomass associated with nutrient concentration and energy content indicates that Charophytes are an important biological compartment in the structure and metabolism of the lagoon. PMID:15622845

Palma-Silva, C; Albertoni, E F; Esteves, F A

2004-08-01

102

Characterization of Salmonella Bacteriophages Isolated from Swine Lagoon Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Salmonella bacteriophages that had been originally isolated from swine manure lagoons were characterized and compared to each other\\u000a and to well-known Salmonella phages P22 and Felix 01. Host ranges of the lagoon phages were similar to each other in spot tests on reference strains of\\u000a Salmonella, but differed slightly from each other on a panel of Salmonella lagoon strains.

Michael R. McLaughlin; Rodney A. King

2008-01-01

103

Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL), which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of different water sources in the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon which is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous groundwater dependent ecosystem.

Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

2014-07-01

104

The LHCb VELO upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment at the LHC plans to massively increase its data taking capabilities by running at a higher luminosity with a fully upgraded detector around 2016. This scheme is independent of (but compatible with) the plans for the SLHC upgrades. The silicon detector will be upgraded to provide a 40 MHz readout and to be able to cope with the increased radiation environment. This paper describes the options currently under consideration. A highlight of the R&D so far undertaken is a beam test during summer 2009 using the Timepix chip to track charged particles. Preliminary results are presented, including a measurement of the resolution achieved by the 55?m pitch pixel array of better than 9.5?m for perpendicular tracks and 55?m for angled tracks.

Collins, P.; Akiba, K.; Alexander, M.; Artuso, M.; Bayer, F.; van Beuzekom, M. G.; Blusk, S.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Coco, V.; Crossley, M.; Dumps, R.; Eklund, L.; Esperante, D.; Ferre Llin, L.; Gallas, A.; Gandelman, M.; Gersabeck, M.; Gligorov, V.; Huse, T.; John, M.; Kucharczyk, M.; Llopart, X.; Maneuski, D.; Michel, T.; Mountain, R.; Nichols, M.; Papadelis, A.; Parkes, C.; Plackett, R.; Poikela, T.; Rodrigues, E.; Tlustos, L.; Wang, J. C.; Whitehead, M.; Xing, Z.

2011-04-01

105

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1--3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and Halpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the

N. F. H. Tothill; M. Gagné; B. Stecklum; M. A. Kenworthy

2008-01-01

106

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

1991-07-01

107

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

E-print Network

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1-3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and H-alpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the optically-visible HII region and cluster; observations of infrared and submillimetre-wave emission, and of optical emission features, indicate ongoing star formation in several locations across the Lagoon. The most prominent of these are the Hourglass Nebula and M8E. Submillimetre-wave observations also reveal many clumps of dense molecular gas, which may form the next generation of stars. The complex structure of the region has been shaped by the interaction of the underlying molecular gas with multiple massive stars and episodes of star formation. NGC 6530 is the oldest component, with the newest stars found embedded in the molecular gas behind the cluster and at its southern rim. A degree to the east of the Lagoon, Simeis 188 is a complex of emission and reflection nebulae, including the bright-rimmed cloud NGC 6559; the presence of H-alpha emission stars suggests ongoing star formation.

N. F. H. Tothill; Marc Gagné; B. Stecklum; M. A. Kenworthy

2008-09-19

108

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1--3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and H? emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the optically-visible HII region and cluster; observations of infrared and submillimetre-wave emission, and of optical emission features, indicate ongoing star formation in several locations across the Lagoon. The most prominent of these are the Hourglass Nebula and M8 E. Submillimetre-wave observations also reveal many clumps of dense molecular gas, which may form the next generation of stars. The complex structure of the region has been shaped by the interaction of the underlying molecular gas with multiple massive stars and episodes of star formation. NGC 6530 is the oldest component, with the newest stars found embedded in the molecular gas behind the cluster and at its southern rim. A degree to the east of the Lagoon, Simeis 188 is a complex of emission and reflection nebulae, including the bright-rimmed cloud NGC 6559; the presence of H? emission stars suggests ongoing star formation.

Tothill, N. F. H.; Gagné, M.; Stecklum, B.; Kenworthy, M. A.

2008-12-01

109

The UKIRT Upgrades Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tim Hawarden presented this paper to the 30th anniversary workshop, just a month before his untimely death. The editors have done their best to convert his talk into this paper, and gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Nick Rees (a member of the Upgrades team, now at Diamond Light Source). Tim's discussion concerned the UKIRT Upgrades Project, which ran through the 1990s and transformed the telescope and made it truly competitive on the world stage for operation into the twenty-first century. The reference list at the end of the paper is comprehensive; some of these are referred to in the paper itself and some are included for completeness only.

Adamson, Andy; Davies, John; Robson, Ian

110

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

111

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2012-07-01

112

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2013-07-01

113

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2010-07-01

114

33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which...

2011-07-01

115

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants  

MedlinePLUS

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

116

Reducing sewage pollution in the Antarctic marine environment using a sewage treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Antarctica being the largest pristine wilderness on Earth, many coastal Antarctic research stations release untreated sewage waste into the marine environment, which may have negative effects on local wildlife. In February 2003 a sewage treatment plant was installed at Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula). After one year of operation the sewage treatment plant had dramatically reduced the

Kevin A. Hughes

2004-01-01

117

Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

Musante, Susan

2011-01-01

118

The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

2006-01-01

119

Tevatron detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

120

ISIS upgrades David Findlay  

E-print Network

ISIS upgrades David Findlay Head, Accelerator Division ISIS Department Rutherford Appleton Laboratory / STFC Proton Accelerators for Science and Innovation, 12­14 January 2012, FNAL #12;2 ISIS World for research in the physical and life sciences National and international community of >2000 scientists -- ISIS

McDonald, Kirk

121

SRS control system upgrade requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

Hill, L.F.

1998-08-04

122

Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in freshwater lagoons and among marine migrant species.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

2013-11-01

123

Variability of Organic Matter Processing in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of plant organic matter processing was studied experimentally in a shallow coastal lagoon (Tancada lagoon, average depth: 37 cm, area: 1.8 km2) in the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain). To determine the effect of hydrology and sediment characteristics on plant organic matter processing, leaves of Phragmites australis at the end of its vegetative cycle and whole plants

Margarita Menéndez; Oliver Hernández; Neus Sanmartí; Francisco A. Comín

2004-01-01

124

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

125

EVALUATION OF A TREATMENT LAGOON FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a two year study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 143 MG facultative lagoon for treating combined sewer overflow and polishing secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent. The lagoon performance was evaluated for changes in the deg...

126

Bottom Communities of Semyachik Lagoon (Kronotskii Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Kamchatka)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom communities of Potamogeton filiformis,Zostera marina+ Z. japonica+ Macoma balthica, Enteromorpha prolifera, and a stony block–boulder intertidal community were distinguished in Semyachik Lagoon. The macrobenthos associated with these communities is described. Generally, the biomass and occurrence frequency indices of the macrozoobenthic communities of the lagoon are an order of magnitude lower than those of macrophytobenthic communities (Kafanov, Plekhov, 1998); therefore,

A. I. Kafanov; S. P. Plekhov

2001-01-01

127

Pressures and effects on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon  

E-print Network

SESSION 2 Pressures and effects on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon Chair: Terry Done Rapporteur: Chris Crossland Keynote Paper: Biological oceanography of the Great Barrier Reef M Furnas* and A Mitchell Soft-bottom benthic communities and processes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon D Alongi (Paper

Marsh, Helene

128

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE AERATED LAGOON SYSTEM AT WINDBER, PENNSYLVANIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Publicly-owned wastewater treatment lagoons are in extensive use throughout the United States today. However, the long term data needed to conduct a proper evaluation of lagoon design to meet Federal Secondary Treatment Standards have been lacking. This report presents the data c...

129

Teacher from the Black Lagoon & Other Story Books  

E-print Network

Teacher from the Black Lagoon & Other Story Books Dear Teacher: We have created the following study the Black Lagoon & other Story Books as meaningful as possible. For many, it will be their first time to the performers and the rest of the audience. This performance highlights seven favorite children's stories

Hutcheon, James M.

130

THE NEOTROPICAL RIVER OTTER Lutra longicaudis IN IBERÁ LAGOON, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neotropical river otter has suffered intense hunting pressure in Argentina. Over the last two decades, hunting has decreased. A survey was carried out in an area where otters appear to be abundant, the Iberá Swamps and Lagoons Reserve, where the government has concentrated conservation efforts. A good population was found here and in several other lagoons in the reserve,

Anibal Parera

131

CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

132

Toward homogenization of Mediterranean lagoons and their loss of hydrodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are considered to be the most valuable systems of the Mediterranean coastal area, with crucial ecological, historical, economical, and social relevance. Climate change strongly affects coastal areas and can deeply change the status of transitional areas like lagoons. Herein we investigate the hydrological response of 10 Mediterranean lagoons to climate change by means of numerical models. Our results suggest that Mediterranean lagoons amplify the salinity and temperature changes expected for the open sea. Moreover, numerical simulations indicate that there will be a general loss of intralagoon and interlagoon variability of their physical properties. Therefore, as a result of climate change, we see on Mediterranean lagoons an example of a common process that in future may effect many coastal environments: that of homogenization of the physical characteristics with a tendency toward marinization.

Ferrarin, Christian; Bajo, Marco; Bellafiore, Debora; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Umgiesser, Georg

2014-08-01

133

Upgrading of high boiling hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for upgrading a high boiling hydrocarbon, comprising: deasphalting the high boiling hydrocarbon to recover as separate fractions, deasphalted oil, resin and pitch; upgrading the resin fraction to produce an effluent containing upgraded product and high boiling components; recovering high boiling components from the effluent; subjecting the deasphalting at least a portion of the recovered high boiling components to reject coke precursors in the (pitch fraction) high boiling components portion prior to recycle thereof to the upgrading with the resin fraction; and thereafter recycling the high boiling components portion with the resin fraction to the upgrading.

Van Driesen, R.P.; Friday, J.R.

1987-08-11

134

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

135

Heavy Metal Speciation in Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is a rich source of organic matter and nutrients, so there is a possibility of their broader agricultural utilization. However, agricultural utilization of this material is limited by excessive quantities of heavy metals. In accordance with this, the current paper presents the results of investigations referring to the speci- ation of heavy metals in selected sewage sludge. It

M. Jakubus; J. Czeka?a

136

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

137

Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the

J. A. De-la-Ossa-Carretero; Y. del-Pilar-Ruso; F. Giménez-Casalduero; J. L. Sánchez-Lizaso; J.-C. Dauvin

138

My Town, My Creek, My Sewage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

Woodburn, John H.

1972-01-01

139

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

140

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc\\u000aaway, associated with the young (1-3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains\\u000aseveral O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected\\u000aby X-ray and H-alpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a\\u000athousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the

N. F. H. Tothill; Marc Gagne; B. Stecklum; M. A. Kenworthy

2008-01-01

141

Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available

1992-12-01

142

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01

143

The D0 upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P{sub T} physics using precision measurements of e`s, {mu}`s, jets, and missing E{sub T}. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5{mu}s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P{sub T} physics menu, but also the low P{sub T} physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

Tuts, P.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; The D0 Collaboration

1992-10-01

144

The Lagoon Nebula and its Vicinity  

E-print Network

The Lagoon Nebula is an HII region in the Sagittarius Arm, about 1.3 kpc away, associated with the young (1-3 Myr) open cluster NGC 6530, which contains several O stars and several dozen B stars. Lower-mass cluster members, detected by X-ray and H-alpha emission, and by near-IR excess, number more than a thousand. Myr-old star formation is traced by the optically-visible HII region and cluster; observations of infrared and submillimetre-wave emission, and of optical emission features, indicate ongoing star formation in several locations across the Lagoon. The most prominent of these are the Hourglass Nebula and M8E. Submillimetre-wave observations also reveal many clumps of dense molecular gas, which may form the next generation of stars. The complex structure of the region has been shaped by the interaction of the underlying molecular gas with multiple massive stars and episodes of star formation. NGC 6530 is the oldest component, with the newest stars found embedded in the molecular gas behind the cluster a...

Tothill, N F H; Stecklum, B; Kenworthy, M A

2008-01-01

145

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

146

Sewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering  

E-print Network

calculation and pollution load controlling · Ability, improvement and extension of local sewage facilitiesSewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering Section Sewage and Waste Technologies Research Institute for Water and Environment Section Sewage and Waste Technologies EFFICIENT practical

Siegen, Universität

147

Gille-STPA 35 1 Sewage on San Diego Beaches  

E-print Network

Gille-STPA 35 1 Sewage on San Diego Beaches For a casual reader of the San Diego Union treatment standards, so that San Diego could dump less seriously treated sewage into the ocean. Then he. As a result, sewage from Tijuana will be held to a higher treatment standard than sewage from San Diego. Why

Gille, Sarah T.

148

Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2000-01-01

149

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

150

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over the next 2 decades.

Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

2014-05-01

151

The LHCb Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the demonstration that LHCb can successfully perform forward precision measurements with event pileup, the operation and trigger strategy evolved significantly during the LHC Run 1 allowing LHCb to collect over 3fb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8TeV. Increased bandwidth opened the door for LHCb to extend the physics program. The additional statistics and well managed systematic effects together with the stable trigger and data taking conditions have led to a very large number of world-class measurements and dominance in heavy flavour physics [1], in addition to a reputation of an excellent forward general purpose detector at the LHC. Long Shutdown (LS) 1 (2013-2014) will allow LHCb to fully explore the large statistics collected and prepare LHCb for Run 2 (2015 - 2017). However, even after an additional expected integrated luminosity of 5-6 fb-1 in Run 2, many of the LHCb precision measurements will remain limited by statistics, and some exploratory physics modes will not even be accessible yet. With the need for reconstructing the event topology in order to efficiently trigger on the beauty and the charm hadrons decays, the current 1 MHz readout limit is the main bottle neck to run at higher luminosity and with higher trigger efficiencies. LHCb will therefore undergo a major upgrade in LS 2 ( 2018 - 2019) aimed at collecting an order of magnitude more data by 2028. The upgrade consists of a full readout at the LHC bunch crossing rate ( 40 MHz) with the ultimate flexibility of only a software trigger. In order to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 2x1033cm-2s-1, several sub-detector upgrades are also underway to cope with the higher occupancies and radiation dose.

Jacobsson, Richard

2013-11-01

152

CDF calorimeter and its upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The CDF calorimeter systems are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on the calibration and the performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter. Several physics analyses where the calorimetry plays an important role are discussed. The present gas calorimeter will be upgraded in accord with the collider upgrade. The new system is a scintillator-based calorimeter with optical fiber readout. A status of the CDF calorimeter upgrade project is also described.

Seiya, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Institute of Physics

1995-01-01

153

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08

154

The upgraded DØ detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; De, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; DeMaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.

2006-09-01

155

'Upgrading' psoriasis responsibly.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a 'pacemaker' in dermatology. Substantial progress has been made regarding our understanding of its pathophysiology and genetic background, fuelling developments in cutaneous biology in general. Besides, the clinical perspective on psoriasis is currently changing, taking into consideration comorbidity and the systemic dimensions of this seemingly organ-specific inflammation. The availability of drugs exhibiting fewer contraindications and improved long-term safety opened a discussion around replacing a relatively limited (regarding both objectives and duration) 'therapeutic' by a much broader 'management' approach when it comes to treating psoriasis as a systemic disease. The question arises whether this 'upgrade' is warranted. PMID:25040560

Boehncke, Sandra; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

2014-10-01

156

The agricultural use of municipal sewage.  

PubMed

The reuse of municipal sewage for agricultural purposes is becoming more prevalent. The literature concerning the impact of this practice is reviewed. It is readily apparent that agricultural reuse of municipal sewage is preferable to other common methods of disposal both from the point of view of ecological influence and economical waste utilization. There is a need to establish guidelines for the agricultural use of municipal sewage which will serve the variable conditions found in Canada and meet the public health concerns associated with an extensive agricultural use. PMID:6091855

Hamilton, D L; Brockman, R P; Knipfel, J E

1984-08-01

157

Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

1981-01-01

158

Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.  

PubMed

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

159

The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.  

PubMed Central

A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

1980-01-01

160

Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems  

PubMed Central

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

161

Energy Efficiency Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

Roby Williams

2012-03-29

162

SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

2012-03-01

163

Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.  

PubMed

Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

2013-07-01

164

Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron-reducing bacteria seemed to contribute to methylation and Hg-resistant bacteria increased in importance in the reductive demethylation of MeHg. The high rates of MeHg demethylation in lagoon sediments may diminish the accumulation of MeHg.

Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

2012-11-01

165

Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

2012-12-01

166

Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed  

SciTech Connect

Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

2000-04-01

167

VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects [3] are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes [1] This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects. [2] Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later. [3] Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D

2011-01-01

168

The Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics during an El Niño event (1998)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TELEMAC-2D, a two-dimensional depth-averaged finite element flow model, has been chosen for modelling the hydrodynamics of the Patos Lagoon during the 1998 El Niño event. The model is initially calibrated against measurements carried out between 20 and 29/10/98, and good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted longitudinal velocities. Model validation is carried out by comparing measurements and predictions for one reference station in the estuarine area for the period between 23/05 and 06/06/98. Results indicate an excellent agreement between measurements and predictions, and the model is considered calibrated and validated for the Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics. A study of the Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics under the El Niño extreme conditions shows that the local and non-local wind effects associated with the freshwater discharge at the top of the lagoon promote longitudinal and lateral set-up/set-down mechanisms that influence the circulation. Results indicate that velocities in the lagoon and estuary during the extreme conditions observed in the El Niño period are much stronger than the normal periods. The response of the Patos Lagoon entrance to the local and non-local forcing is studied for the first time in terms of the inflow and outflow of water in the system. Results indicate that during the 1998 El Niño event the non-local forcing dominated, promoting exchanges that represent around 7% of the lagoon initial volume in the simulation. Strong freshwater discharges at the top of the lagoon combined with pressure gradients due to changes in elevation generated by the local and non-local wind favours the predominant seawards flow at the mouth, with outflows in the order of 5000 m3 s-1. The strong outflow observed during the El Niño extreme flow conditions generates huge plumes of freshwater into the adjacent coastal area.

Fernandes, E. H. L.; Dyer, K. R.; Moller, O. O.; Niencheski, L. F. H.

2002-07-01

169

Hydraulic regime-based zonation scheme of the Curonian Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to delineate the spatial zonation of the Curonian Lagoon based on the hydraulic regime and the sediment\\u000a characteristics. A finite element hydrodynamic model has been applied to the Curonian Lagoon to simulate the circulation patterns\\u000a for three years. With the help of a transport diffusion model the salinity distribution and the residence times of

Ferrarin Christian; Razinkovas Arturas; Gulbinskas Saulius; Umgiesser Georg; Bli?džiut? Lina

2008-01-01

170

Characterization of lagoon gases by an electronic nose  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF LAGOON GASES BY AN ELECTRONIC NOSE A Thesis by JANE CATHERINE WOODCOCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1997 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering CHARACTERIZATION OF LAGOON GASES BY AN ELECTRONIC NOSE A Thesis by JANE CATHERINE WOODCOCK Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Woodcock, Jane Catherine

2012-06-07

171

Sewage Pollution Risk Assessment for Environmental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous potential for Geographic Information Systems to benefit the management of environmental health is progressively being realised. This paper summarises a new approach to mapping the risks associated with on-site sewage facilities. One of the many intended applications is to help predict and thereby manage sources of pathogens contributing to health issues. Over 284,000 on-site sewage facilities exist in

Steven Kenway; Robert Irvine

2001-01-01

172

Skill Upgrading, Incorporated. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As in two other projects in Cleveland and Newark, New Jersey, this project was set up in Baltimore to provide technical assistance in designing ways to meet in-plant skills needs by upgrading job skills on entry workers through High Intensity Training (HIT). Skill Upgrading, Inc. was established in Maryland to provide training and manpower…

Skill Upgrading, Inc., Baltimore, MD.

173

Work related symptoms among sewage workers.  

PubMed Central

Employees at six sewage treatment plants and three drinking water plants were interviewed for the presence of specific medical symptoms. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations, white blood cell counts and fibrinogen degradation product concentrations (FDP) in urine were determined as were the number and species of airborne Gram negative rods in order to characterise exposure to aerosols of sewage water. The highest number of bacteria was found in areas where the sewage water was agitated. A significantly higher proportion of employees at sewage treatment plants reported skin disorders, diarrhoea, and other gastrointestinal symptoms than the control group. No significant differences were found between the groups for white blood cell count or serum immunoglobulin concentrations, except that IgM concentrations were slightly higher in the sewage workers. Some workers had serum transaminase concentrations in excess of normal; some of these returned to normal after the summer holiday. Among non-smokers a higher proportion of sewage treatment workers had increased amounts of FDP in urine. It is conceivable that the symptoms observed were caused by toxins from Gram negative bacteria. PMID:6871122

Lundholm, M; Rylander, R

1983-01-01

174

Upgrading the ATLAS control system  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-ion accelerators are tools used in the research of nuclear and atomic physics. The ATLAS facility at the Argonne National Laboratory is one such tool. The ATLAS control system serves as the primary operator interface to the accelerator. A project to upgrade the control system is presently in progress. Since this is an upgrade project and not a new installation, it was imperative that the development work proceed without interference to normal operations. An additional criteria for the development work was that the writing of additional ``in-house`` software should be kept to a minimum. This paper briefly describes the control system being upgraded, and explains some of the reasons for the decision to upgrade the control system. Design considerations and goals for the new system are described, and the present status of the upgrade is discussed.

Munson, F.H.; Ferraretto, M.

1993-09-01

175

Seismic upgrades of healthcare facilities.  

PubMed

Before 1989 seismic upgrading of hospital structures was not a primary consideration among hospital owners. However, after extensive earthquake damage to hospital buildings at Loma Prieta in Northern California in 1989 and then at Northridge in Southern California in 1994, hospital owners, legislators, and design teams become concerned about the need for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. Because the damage hospital structures sustained in the earthquakes was so severe and far-reaching, California has enacted laws that mandate seismic upgrading for existing facilities. Now hospital owners will have to upgrade buildings that do not conform to statewide seismic adequacy laws. By 2030, California expects all of its hospital structures to be sufficiently seismic-resistant. Slowly, regions in the Midwest and on the East Coast are following their example. This article outlines reasons and ways for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. PMID:10168656

Yusuf, A

1997-06-01

176

The Fermilab ACNET upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network (ACNET) upgrade consists of a new physical medium (IEEE 802.5 token ring), additions to the calling sequence and added processor support. ACNET is the accelerator control backbone network for all data communication. A proprietary network was replaced by an IEEE standard enabling an open network with excellent characteristics for the control system. The calling sequence was enhanced for the added capabilities of the token-ring interface such as "gather-read" and "scatter-write". In addition to prior support of DEC PDP11s under RS11M and VAXs under VMS, the ACNET calling sequence was implemented in the language C for the IBM PC with MS-DOS and Motorola 680 x0 with MTOS using VME bus. Additional support is in progress for Intel 80 x86 with MTOS using Multibus II.

Briegel, Charlie; Johnson, Glenn; Winterowd, Lin

1990-08-01

177

The ATLAS upgrade program  

E-print Network

After the first successful LHC run in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades leading eventually to about above times the design-luminosity in about ten years. The larger luminosity will allow to perform precise measurements of the just discovered Higgs boson and to continue searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Coping with the high instantaneous and integrated luminosity will be a great challenge for the ATLAS detector and will require changes in most of the subsystems, specially those at low radii and large pseudorapidity, as well as in its trigger architecture. Plans to consolidate and, whenever possible, to improve the physics performance of the current detector over the next decade are summarized in this paper.

Gemme, C

2014-01-01

178

The ATLAS upgrade program  

E-print Network

After the rst successful LHC run in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades leading eventually to about ve times the design-luminosity in about ten years. The larger luminosity will allow to perform precise measurements of the just discovered Higgs boson and to continue searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Coping with the high instantaneous and integrated luminosity will be a great challenge for the ATLAS detector and will require changes in most of the subsystems, specially those at low radii and large pseudorapidity, as well as in its trigger architecture. Plans to consolidate and, whenever possible, to improve the physics performance of the current detector over the next decade are summarized in this paper.

Gemme, C; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

179

The Lagoon Saga goes on: Proplyds and other remarkable Objects seen in WFPC2 Images of the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectacular WFPC2 images of the Lagoon Nebula have attracted much attention since our STScI press release in January 1997. The level of detail revealed by Hubble was rarely obtained before for a giant stellar nursery except for the Orion Nebula. The Lagoon Nebula (also called M8, NGC 6523) is 1.5 kpc from us, about 10 times more distant from

A. Caulet

1997-01-01

180

The FNAL injector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The present FNAL H{sup -} injector has been operational since the 1970s and consists of two magnetron H{sup -} sources and two 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerators. In the upgrade, both slit-type magnetron sources will be replaced with circular aperture sources, and the Cockcroft-Waltons with a 200 MHz RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole). Operational experience at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable, improve beam quality and require less manpower than the present system. The present FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) injector has been operational since 1978 and has been a reliable source of H{sup -} beams for the Fermilab program. At present there are two Cockcroft-Walton injectors, each with a magnetron H{sup -} source with a slit aperture. With these two sources in operation, the injector has a reliability of better than 97%. However, issues with maintenance, equipment obsolescence, increased beam quality demands and retirement of critical personnel, have made it more difficult for the continued reliable running of the H{sup -} injector. The recent past has also seen an increase in both downtime and source output issues. With these problems coming to the forefront, a new 750 keV injector is being built to replace the present system. The new system will be similar to the one at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) that has a similar magnetron source with a round aperture and a 200MHz RFQ. This combination has been shown to operate extremely reliably.

Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

181

Identifying the Source of Nutrient Contamination in a Lagoon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations within watercourses are often associated with the input of sewage or the runoff of fertilizers. Due to population increases, there has been a dramatic rise in the amount of fertilizer applied to land, as well as in the further development of sewage treatment plants (STPs), both of which can lead to significant discharges with associated eutrophication risks in

D. Wayland; D. P. Megson; S. M. Mudge; J. D. Icely; A. Newton

2008-01-01

182

Prevention of Sewage Pollution by Stabilization Ponds Sewage Pollution & Stabilization Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It

J. S. S. Lakshminarayana

1975-01-01

183

Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of concerns regarding health, safety, and aesthetics, a test that identifies the presence of sewage sludge or its products (biosolids) in commercial materials such as soil conditioners and composts would be useful. This test could also trace the effluent plume from a sewage treatment plant. We have discovered that synthetic fibers serve as such an indicator. Synthetic fibers are

Daniel Habib; David C. Locke; Leonard J. Cannone

1998-01-01

184

Metagenomics-based analysis of viral communities in dairy lagoon wastewater.  

PubMed

Microbial populations, especially those of viruses, are poorly studied in dairy wastewater treatment operations. Here we report signature nucleic acid metagenomic sequences obtained by pyrosequencing viromes of virus-like particles that were extracted from two dairy waste treatment lagoons. The lagoons are operated in series, with Lagoon I being used as the primary stage and Lagoon II as the secondary stage of wastewater treatment. An average of 2000 sequences was obtained from each lagoon. More than 300 signatures from each lagoon matched sequences in the virus database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). We utilized a bioinformatics approach and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the viral diversity and presence of potential viral pathogens within the lagoons. Our results showed differences in viral community compositions between Lagoon I and Lagoon II, suggesting that the viral community changes significantly in the transition of water between the two lagoons. Furthermore, the diverse viral community in the lagoon samples contained signature sequences of a variety of bacterial, plant, and animal viruses. Bacteriophage sequences dominated the viral community metagenomes in both lagoons. Ultimately these results can be used to identify viral bioindicators to rapidly assess wastewater treatment quality and the potential impacts of dairy operations on watersheds. Our viral metagenomic sequences have been submitted to GenBank (GPID 65805) and can provide insight into the composition and structure of viral communities within wastewaters of dairy lagoon systems. PMID:23220059

Alhamlan, F S; Ederer, M M; Brown, C J; Coats, E R; Crawford, R L

2013-02-15

185

Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

2014-04-01

186

Nutrient inputs to a Lagoon through submarine groundwater discharge: The case of Laoye Lagoon, Hainan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with inputs of nutrients in certain regions may play a significant role in controlling water quality in the coastal regions. In this paper, we have determined four naturally occurring radium isotope (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) activities and nutrient concentrations in surface water, coastal groundwater and river water in the mixing zone of Laoye Lagoon to estimate the fluxes of SGD by several models. The activities of the four radium isotopes of ground water were considerably greater than those in surface water samples. Using a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio (AR) model, we estimated the average lagoon water age to be 3.2 days, which was comparable with the flushing time of 4.0 days. Based on the excess radium isotopes and the water age of the lagoon, the estimated fluxes of SGD (in 106 m3/d) ranged from 2.64 to 5.32 with an average of 4.11. Moreover, we used Si balance to evaluate the flux of SGD (4.8 × 106 m3/d) which was close to the result calculated by radium. The SGD-derived nutrient fluxes (in mol/d) were DIN = 1.7 × 105, PO43 - = 5.2 × 102, and SiO3 = 5.3 × 104. Furthermore, we applied the biogeochemical budget approach using SiO3 as a tracer to evaluate the impact of SGD. The differences between the results estimated by radium and SiO3 may indicate different pathways for the input of nutrients.

Ji, Tao; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Zhang, Guosen; Su, Ni; Zhang, Jing

2013-02-01

187

Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.  

PubMed

An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively. PMID:21036608

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

2011-02-01

188

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates in a restricted Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were investigated in the restricted Bizerte Lagoon in 2002 and 2004. The\\u000a 2002 study, carried out at one station from January to October, showed significant seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics.\\u000a High growth rates (0.9–1.04 day?1), chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (6.6–6.8 ?g l?1) and carbon biomass (392–398 ?g C l?1) were recorded in summer (July), when several chain-forming diatoms had intensively proliferated and

A. Sakka Hlaili; B. Grami; Hassine Hadj Mabrouk; M. Gosselin; D. Hamel

2007-01-01

189

The RHIC polarized source upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

2010-09-27

190

NSLS control system upgrade status  

SciTech Connect

The NSLS control system initially installed in 1978 has undergone several modifications but the basic system architecture remained relatively unchanged. The need for faster response, increased reliability and better diagnostics made the control system upgrade a priority. Since the NSLS runs continuously, major changes to the control system are difficult. The upgrade plan had to allow continuous incremental changes to the control system without having any detrimental effect on operations. The plan had to provide for immediate improvement in a few key areas, such as data access rates, and be complete in a short time. At present, most accelerator operations utilize the upgraded control system.

Smith, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Y.; Flannigan, J.; Sathe, S.; Keane, J.; Krinsky, S.

1993-07-01

191

Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the heavy metal pollution level of tannery effluent-affected lagoon and canal water in the southwestern Dhaka, Bangladesh. The measured physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, pH, SO²??, PO³??, Cl-, and NO??) and metals (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were subjected to principal component (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses, and examining correlation matrix as well in order to explain the behavior and sources of the parameters/metals. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the lagoon and canal water were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the standard limits recommended by the Bangladesh Government. The following elemental associations were obtained from PCA and CA: Ca-Cd-Cr-Fe-K-Mn-Pb-Zn, Co-Cu-Ni, and As, which could be linked to anthropogenic sources (i.e., processes of the tannery and paint industries with some contributions from the municipal waste system). Potassium, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Cd occurred as important anthropogenic markers in the lagoons and lower part of the canal. Copper, Co, and Ni were importantly distributed in the lower part of the canal, which also received metal inputs from the municipal waste and other industrial sources, including paint industry. GIS-based factor score maps, generated to show the spatial controls of the major processes affecting surface water hydrochemistry, suggest that the activities of paint and tannery industries and municipal sewage are pervasive processes in the area, whereas the contribution from pesticides (used for tanning and disinfecting hides) has localized effects. This study has provided the evidence that effluents discharged from the tannery and auxiliary industries and urban sewage system are the main sources of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon and canal water systems in the Hazaribagh area of southwestern Dhaka. The high mean concentrations (in mg/l) of Cr (5.27), Pb (0.81), As (0.59), and Cd (0.13) observed in the water samples may have serious public health and potential environmental hazard implications. PMID:20544274

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Suruvi, Nahid I; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Quraishi, Shamshad B; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

2011-04-01

192

21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from...

2010-04-01

193

A mangrove stand under sewage pollution stress: Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mangrove stand of Avicennia marina located at the South Corniche of Jeddah city receives about 100 000 m3 of sewage per day. The sewage has high values of BOD, COD, nutrient concentrations, heavy metals and faecal coliform counts.

A. S. Mandura

1997-01-01

194

JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

1976-01-01

195

Altair performance and upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Altair is the facility single conjugate AO system for Gemini North. Although it has been in operation for more than 10 years (and upgraded to LGS in 2007), Altair's performance is degraded by three main issues: vibrations of the telescope and instrument support structure, spatial aliasing on centroid offsets from the M2 support structure print-through on the optical surface and static non-common path aberrations. Monte-Carlo simulations can reproduce the behavior of Altair when including these three effects and they are roughly of the same order of magnitude. Solutions or mitigations are being investigated to overcome these nefarious effects and restore Altair's performance to its nominal level. A simplex algorithm as well as a phase diversity approach are being investigated to measure and correct for static aberrations. A high accuracy phase map of the M2 print-through has been obtained and is being used to calibrate and/or filter centroids affected by aliasing. A new real time computer is under consideration, to be able to handle more advanced controllers, especially notch filters to combat vibrations. In this paper we will report on the various simulations and on-sky results of this rejuvenation of one of Gemini's workhorse instruments.

Lai, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; White, John; Ball, Jesse; Trujillo, Chad

2014-07-01

196

Giant Twisters in the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar 'twisters,' eerie funnels and twisted-rope structures in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) which lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. The central hot star, O Herschel 36 (lower right), is the primary source of the ionizing radiation for the brightest region in the nebula, called the Hourglass. Analogous to the spectacular phenomena of Earth tornadoes, the large difference in temperature between the hot surface and cold interior of the clouds, combined with the pressure of starlight, may produce strong horizontal shear to twist the clouds into their tornado-like appearance. Though the spiral shapes suggest the clouds are 'twisting,' future observations will be needed, perhaps with Hubble's next generation instruments, with the spectroscopic capabilities of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) or the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), to actually measure velocities. These color-coded images are the combination of individual exposures taken in July and September, 1995 with Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) through three narrow-band filters (red light ionized sulphur atoms, blue light, double ionized oxygen atoms, green light, ionized hydrogen).

1995-01-01

197

Quantification of Water, Salt and Nutrient Exchange Processes at the Mouth of A mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing

Georgios K. Sylaios; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis; Christos Akratos; Kiriaki Haralambidou

2006-01-01

198

NOA Accelerator Upgrades: Phil Adamson  

E-print Network

project · Please feel free to ask about your favourite subject NOvA Accelerator Upgrades Phil Adamson 2 bumper" to cancel tail · Tail measurement similar to electrical measurements (good) 14 #12;NOv

McDonald, Kirk

199

ISIS Project Upgrade Campus Community  

E-print Network

ISIS Project Upgrade Campus Community Page Navigation Page | 1 Page navigation has changed in the ISIS Application. This document provides you with the new location of all your key Campus Community the Navigation Pagelets": ISIS.UML..EDU #12;

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

200

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

1997-01-01

201

Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam. PMID:23644798

Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

2013-02-01

202

RISK REDUCTION FOR MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY UPGRADES.  

SciTech Connect

We present in this paper a method for evaluating explicitly the contribution of nuclear material accountability upgrades to risk reduction at nuclear facilities. The method yields the same types of values for conditional risk reduction that physical protection and material control upgrades yield. Thereby, potential material accountability upgrades can be evaluated for implementation in the same way that protection and control upgrades are evaluated.

FISHBONE, L.G.; SISKIND, B.

2005-05-16

203

The D0 upgrade trigger  

SciTech Connect

The current trigger system for the D0 detector at Fermilab`s Tevatron will need to be upgraded when the Min Injector is installed and the Tevatron can operate at luminosities exceeding 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and with a crossing time of 132 ns. We report on preliminary designs for upgrades to the trigger system for the Main Injector era.

Eno, S. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-09-01

204

Food web structure of two Mediterranean lagoons under varying degree of eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food web structure and functioning of two north-western Mediterranean lagoons exhibiting contrasting degrees of eutrophication and marine influences were compared through ?13C and ?15N analysis of major potential food sources and consumers. The Lapalme Lagoon is well preserved and has kept a natural and temporary connection with the open sea. Conversely, the Canet Lagoon is heavily eutrophicated and its

Antoine Carlier; Pascal Riera; Jean-Michel Amouroux; Jean-Yves Bodiou; Martin Desmalades; Antoine Grémare

2008-01-01

205

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution  

E-print Network

Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution by Steve Ress UNL Water livestock waste lagoons may not be significant contributors to groundwater pollution. "This is particularly of groundwater pollution from livestock waste lagoons, Spalding said. Samples also were analyzed for nitrogen

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

206

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

207

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California  

E-print Network

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California ACRES: 28.3 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSORS: City of Long Beach Friends of Colorado Lagoon PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Colorado Lagoon is a 28 of visitors from communities within and surrounding the City of Long Beach, California. There are over 700

US Army Corps of Engineers

208

THE BIOLOGY OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON: A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SHELTER FROM WAVE ACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system are described and it is shown that there are graded changes in wave action, substratum, temperature and salinity between the bay and the head of the lagoon. None the less the lagoon is not an estuary but a sheltered inlet of the sea.Two transects of rocky shores and four transects of

J. H. Day

1959-01-01

209

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

210

Biodegradation of sewage wastewater using autochthonous bacteria.  

PubMed

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

211

High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n 118)

Aina Iversen; I. Kuhn; Anders Franklin; R. Mollby

2002-01-01

212

To Upgrade or Not to Upgrade Impact of Online Upgrades across Multiple Administrative Domains  

E-print Network

.0 applications that rely on AJAX client-side code or systems that lease cloud- computing resources. Previous research ad- vocates coordinating the upgrade operations [14, 26, 29], to prevent the new version

Ryder, Barbara G.

213

To Upgrade or Not to Upgrade Impact of Online Upgrades across Multiple Administrative Domains  

E-print Network

.0 applications that rely on AJAX client-side code or systems that lease cloud- computing resources. Previous research ad- vocates coordinating the upgrade operations [14, 26, 29], to prevent the new ve

214

Spring breakup and flushing of an Arctic lagoon estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simpson Lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from the Beaufort Sea by a chain of low-lying barrier islands. Narrow channels are found between the barrier islands, one of which, the Egg Island Channel, is a major connection between the lagoon and the Beaufort Sea. The Kuparuk River produces great quantities of springtime floodwaters which overflow the still-frozen lagoon. This paper examines the relationships between these floodwaters and the character of the water within the lagoon. Measurements of temperature, salinity, sea level, and currents have been made in Egg Island Channel during 1978 and 1979. Meltwater from the Kuparuk River was observed on satellite images to overflow the 2-m-thick bottomfast ice of the lagoon in late May and early June. These floodwaters flush saline (>40‰) water out the 5-m deep channel and replace it with freshwater at 0°C. Analysis of satellite images for several years shows that overflow occurs on May 31 with a standard deviation of 8 days. Sea level rose 64 cm above mean at peak flood in 1978. Subsequently, channel waters warmed to 8°C in late June and were flushed by cold (˜0°C, saline (˜24‰) water from the Beaufort Sea in mid-July. Flooding in 1979 was anomalously early, providing additional insight into the flushing process. The return of seawater to the channel is due to wind-driven currents following the clearing of bottomfast ice in the lagoon. Satellite image analysis shows that ice-free conditions occur by July 10 with a standard deviation of 8 days.

Mattehews, J. B.; Stringer, W. J.

1984-03-01

215

Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 ? M in 1987 to 2.7 ? M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

2007-05-01

216

Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

2013-05-01

217

Sediment biogeochemical differences in two pristine Mediterranean coastal lagoons (in Italy) characterized by different phanerogam dominance-A comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate functional differences in two Italian coastal lagoons (Caprolace and Fogliano, Tyrrhenian Sea) characterized by the dominance of two different seagrass species: Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in the Caprolace lagoon and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande in the Fogliano lagoon. 2. A monitoring system was set up in both lagoons in order to (i)

A. SIGNORINI; G. MASSINI; G. MIGLIORE; M. TOSONI; C. VARRONE; G. IZZO

2008-01-01

218

HYDROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL LAGOONS AT HUGH TAYLOR BIRCH STATE RECREATION AREA, FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The author presents initial results of an ongoing study of Southeast Florida coastal lagoon lakes. Objectives include presenting environmental conditions within and adjacent to the lagoons under a variety of hydrologic conditions and to determine water-quality changes in ground water and surface water and how these changes in water quality affect lagoonal biological communities within the lagoons.

Brock, Robert J.

1987-01-01

219

Evaluation of multiple sewage-associated Bacteroides PCR markers for sewage pollution tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host specificity of the five published sewage-associated Bacteroides markers (i.e., HF183, BacHum, HuBac, BacH and Human-Bac) was evaluated in Southeast Queensland, Australia by testing fecal DNA samples (n=186) from 11 animal species including human fecal samples collected via influent to a sewage treatment plant (STP). All human fecal samples (n=50) were positive for all five markers indicating 100% sensitivity

W. Ahmed; A. Goonetilleke; D. Powell; T. Gardner

2009-01-01

220

Node weighted network upgrade problems  

SciTech Connect

Consider a network where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v can be upgraded at an expense of cost(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v by a fixed factor x, where 0 < x < 1. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a spanning tree in which edge is of delay at most a given value {delta}. The authors provide both hardness and approximation results for the problem. They show that the problem is NP-hard and cannot be approximated within any factor {beta} < ln n, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME(n{sup log log n}), where n is the number of nodes in the network. They then present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem. For the general case, the approximation algorithm comes within a factor of 2 ln n of the minimum upgrading cost. When the cost of upgrading each node is 1, they present an approximation algorithm with a performance guarantee of 4(2 + ln {Delta}), where {Delta} is the maximum node degree. Finally, they present a polynomial time algorithm for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, S.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1996-09-01

221

Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

Petrik, Milivoj

1954-01-01

222

Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread speculation that sewage treatment plants (STPs) and aquatic environments in general may be breeding grounds for antibiotic resistant bacteria. We examine the question of whether low concentrations of antibiotics in STPs can provide or contribute to a selective pressure facilitating the acquisition or proliferation of antibiotic resistance among bacteria in the receiving environment. Examination of available literature

Karen L. Jury; Stuart J. Khan; Tony Vancov; Richard M. Stuetz; Nicholas J. Ashbolt

2011-01-01

223

Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

Wooding, N. Henry

224

Seasonal occurrence of rotavirus in sewage.  

PubMed Central

A seasonal distribution was observed for rotaviruses in sewage by using indirect immunofluorescence. Levels were low from May through September and generally higher during winter and spring. In contrast, no seasonal pattern was observed for total enteroviruses. Limitations of the indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay for environmental samples are discussed. PMID:6324678

Hejkal, T W; Smith, E M; Gerba, C P

1984-01-01

225

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...

226

FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

227

DISTRICT OF HOPE SEWAGE TREATMENT STUDY  

E-print Network

Discharge Permit 2.4 Effluent Monitoring Results Figure 1 1992 BOI) & TSS Figure 2 1993 BOD & TSS discharges to raw sewage is as follows: Total Suspended SOlidS(TSS) 200 ppm 15,000 ppm 75:1 BOD6 200 ppm 10 is equivalent to a daily BOD loading of 500 people. This loading is received over a relatively s

228

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

229

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

230

Radon Indicates Hydrological Connection between the Ocean and Lagoon, Santa Cruz, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoons are common along the coastline of Santa Cruz, CA. In the summer dry season, Corcoran Lagoon in Santa Cruz, California is separated from the ocean by a 100 meter long sand berm. Because sand is a porous medium, water can flow through the berm with a maximum calculated speed of 0.427 meters per hour at Corcoran Lagoon. Previous studies have shown that radon can be used as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge into the ocean and that discharge into the ocean fluctuates as a function of tide. We used similar techniques in the lagoon to measure 222Rn as groundwater stored in the berm is pushed into the lagoon by the advancing tide. We also measured the salinity of water stored in the berm water at three temporary wells and compared it to seawater and lagoon water at the same time as our radon measurements. As the tide advanced, we observed a radon and salinity increase near the midpoint of the lagoon. The highest salinity measurements, which were higher than both the ocean and the lagoon, were recorded in the berm at the temporary well nearest to the lagoon. These data indicate that the berm stores high salinity and radon rich groundwater which is then pushed into the lagoon with a rising tide which demonstrates the hydrological connection between the lagoon and the ocean.

Vattadi, N.; Foley, N.; Lecher, A.; Murray, J.

2013-12-01

231

Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

2013-04-01

232

Physical protection upgrades in Ukraine.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control and accountability and in physical protection to several facilities in Ukraine. This paper summarizes the types of physical protection upgrades that have been or are presently being implemented at these facilities. These facilities include the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, and the South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant. Typical upgrades include: hardening of storage areas; improvements in access control, intrusion detection, and CCTV assessment; central alarm station improvements; and implementation of new voice communication systems. Methods used to implement these upgrades and problems encountered are discussed. Training issues are also discussed.

Djakov, A.

1998-08-06

233

The D0 detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector.

Bross, A.D.

1995-02-01

234

Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan.

Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

1981-07-20

235

Comparative bioaccumulation of trace metals using six filter feeder organisms in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (of the central-east Gulf of California).  

PubMed

The Tobari Lagoon, located in the central-east coast of the Gulf of California, receives effluents from the Yaqui Valley, one of the most extensive agricultural areas of México. The Tobari Lagoon also receives effluents from nearby shrimp farms and untreated municipal sewage. Surface sediment samples and six different species of filter feeders (Crassostrea corteziensis, Crassostrea gigas, Chione gnidia, Anadara tuberculosa, Chione fluctifraga, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians) were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons and analyzed to determine concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Seasonal variations in metal concentrations in sediment were evident, especially for Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn. The total and bioavailable concentrations of the five metals are not elevated in comparison to other areas around the world. The percentages of bioavailable respect to total concentrations of the metals varied from 0.6 % in Hg to 50.2 % for Cu. In the organisms, Hg showed the lowest concentrations (ranged from 0.22 to 0.65 ?g/g) while Zn showed the highest (ranged from 36.6 to 1,702 ?g/g). Linear correlations between the levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soft tissues of C. fluctifraga and C. gnidia, and A. tuberculosa and C. gnidia were found. Seasonal and interspecies variations in the metal levels in filter feeders were found; F. dentivarians, C. corteziensis, and C. gigas exhibited the highest levels, could be used as biomonitors of metals contamination in this area. PMID:22527455

Jara-Marini, M E; Tapia-Alcaraz, J N; Dumer-Gutiérrez, J A; García-Rico, L; García-Hernández, J; Páez-Osuna, F

2013-02-01

236

Anthropogenic disturbance and spatial heterogeneity of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages in coastal lagoons: the study case of Pialassa Baiona (northern Adriatic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution patterns of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages at different spatial scales and in relation to natural and anthropogenic disturbance gradients were investigated in the Pialassa Baiona, a eutrophic and polluted brackish coastal lagoon located along the Italian coast of the northern Adriatic Sea. This coastal lagoon shows a complex physiography with several shallow water ponds and channels separated by discontinuous artificial embankments. Environmental variables and macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages showed higher heterogeneity at small spatial scale (i.e. within channels and ponds). Distinction between channels and ponds is only weakly supported by the distribution patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. Depth was the major factor in structuring benthic communities within ponds, while species distributions along the channels were strongly correlated with the anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Anthropogenic disturbance mainly affected species richness, which was inversely correlated with the organic carbon contents in the sediments and the water surface temperature, which is affected by the input of cooling water from two thermal power plants. Some opportunistic species, like the polychaetes Streblospio shrubsolii and Capitella capitata, were more abundant in the southern polluted areas. In particular, the abundance of S. shrubsolii significantly increased with organic carbon contents in the sediments and water surface temperature, while C. capitata was more abundant in the warmed sites and close to sewages. Conversely, the abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum was inversely related to organic carbon contents.

Ponti, Massimo; Casselli, Chiara; Abbiati, Marco

2011-03-01

237

ENTERIC VIRUS REMOVAL IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT LAGOON SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Indigenous enteric virus removal from raw wastewater was examined in facultative and partially aerated treatment lagoon systems at paired sites in the southwest, southeast, and north central regions of the U.S. The virus samples were concentrated from large wastewater volume usin...

238

Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

1987-05-01

239

Decline of Ulva growth in the lagoon of Venice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes and effects of the remarkable regression of the macroalga Ulva rigida C. Ag. in the central part of the Venice lagoon since 1990 are reported. Climatic changes triggered the progressive reduction of Ulva coverage and production (?80% in 1993; ?95% in 1995) until its almost complete disappearance in 1996. Grazers, especially Gammaridae, controlled 70% of the current biomass production,

Adriano Sfriso; Antonio Marcomini

1996-01-01

240

eschweizerbartxxx Macrophyte biomass in a Mediterranean lagoon 243  

E-print Network

Biomass of Ruppia cirrhosa and Potamogeton pectinatus in a Mediterranean brackish lagoon, Lake Ichkeul: The biomass of the macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande and their energy in the Ichkeul ecosystem during the study period is estimated at 5306 kJ/m². Key words: Potamogeton pectinatus

Boudouresque, Charles F.

241

Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons  

E-print Network

to demand into high­value demand­following power; and second, it can simultaneously serve as a tidal powerEnhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons David J.C. MacKay Cavendish/3/07 Summary The principle that the net energy delivered by a tidal pool can be increased by pumping extra

MacKay, David J.C.

242

Enhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons  

E-print Network

to demand into high-value demand-following power; and second, it can simultaneously serve as a tidal powerEnhancing Electrical Supply by Pumped Storage in Tidal Lagoons David J.C. MacKay Cavendish/3/07 Summary The principle that the net energy delivered by a tidal pool can be increased by pumping extra

MacKay, David J.C.

243

A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

244

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose

V. E. Noshkin

1997-01-01

245

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF TEMPERATURE IN TWO COASTAL LAGOONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With in situ continuous recording thermographs, year-long surface-temperature time series were gener- ated at four points in San Quintin Bay and at three points in Estero de Punta Banda. During spring and summer, upwelling events were clearly detected at the mouth of San Quintin Bay. Upwelled waters propa- gate throughout San Quintin Bay by tidal currents. In both coastal lagoons

JOSUE ALVAREZ-BORREGO; SAUL ALVAREZ-BORREGO

1982-01-01

246

Evaluation of eutrophication in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria Formosa is a shallow mesotidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal, with natural biogeochemical cycles essentially regulated by tidal exchanges at the seawater boundaries and at the sediment interface. Existing data on nutrients in the water column and the sediment, together with chlorophyll a and oxygen saturation in the water column, are compared using different models for

A. Newton; J. d. Icely; M. Falcao; A. Nobre; J. p. Nunes; J. g. Ferreira; C. Vale

2003-01-01

247

A combined wind wavetidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy  

E-print Network

A combined wind wave­tidal model for the Venice lagoon, Italy L. Carniello and A. Defina Department of Hydraulic, Maritime, Environmental and Geotechnics Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy S, Environmental and Geotechnics Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy Received 30 August 2004; revised 8

Fagherazzi, Sergio

248

Modelling Zostera marina and Ulva spp. in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented new modules of seagrass and macroalgae in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The modules were tested using a version of ERSEM coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) in San Quintin Bay (SQB), a coastal lagoon in Baja California, Mexico. As we are working in a region where horizontal advective transport of nutrients is

Leslie Aveytua-Alcázar; Victor F. Camacho-Ibar; Alejandro J. Souza; J. I. Allen; Ricardo Torres

2008-01-01

249

Metals in tissues of fish from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate the metal concentrations in muscle, liver, gonad, and gill of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758), and keeled mullet (Liza carinata Valenciennes, 1836) from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean region. So, the levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium,\\u000a copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in tissues of specimens from

Aysun Türkmen; Mustafa Türkmen; Yalç?n Tepe; Mustafa Çekiç

2010-01-01

250

Antifungal defenses of seagrasses from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the antifungal chemical defenses and physiological responses of five seagrasses collected from nearshore seagrass beds from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, against a panel of co-occurring marine fungi isolated from nearby coastal communities. Whole plant tissues from Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme prevented overgrowth by three of the seven fungi used in this study. Organic extracts

Cliff Ross; Melany P. Puglisi; Valerie J. Paul

2008-01-01

251

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

252

Fuzzy prediction of the algal blooms in the Orbetello lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,

Stefano Marsili-libelli

2004-01-01

253

Estimation of bottom ammonium affinity in the New Caledonia lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium affinity of New Caledonia lagoon benthic communities was measured during the course of 33 in situ enrichment experiments, in order to estimate the contribution of benthos to ammonium fluxes. Ammonium chloride was injected into enclosures pushed into the sediment, in order to obtain a concentration of 20–22 µmol l-1 in the enclosed water which approximated the interstitial water content.

G. Boucher; J. Clavier; C. Garrigue

1994-01-01

254

Distributional patterns of fishes in an Alaskan Arctic Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summer, the fish community of Simpson Lagoon and adjacent coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea was dominated by two marine species (Arctic cod, fourhorn sculpin) and three anadromous species (Arctic and least cisco, Arctic char). The anadromous species remained in the relatively warm and brackish waters near shore and demonstrated an affinity for shoreline edges, particularly the mainland shoreline

P. C. Craig; W. B. Griffiths; L. Haldorson; H. McElderry

1985-01-01

255

Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Human sewage pollution is a major threat to public health because sewage always comes with pathogens. Human sewage is usually received and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to control pathogenic risks and ameliorate environmental health. However, untreated sewage that flows into water environments may cause serious waterborne diseases, as reported in India and Bangladesh. To examine the fate of the human sewage microbiome in a local municipal WWTP of Hong Kong, we used massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to systematically profile microbial communities in samples from three sections (i.e., influent, activated sludge, and effluent) obtained monthly throughout 1 year. The results indicated that: (1) influent sewage bacterial profile reflected the human microbiome; (2) human gut bacterial community was the dominant force shaping influent sewage bacterial profile; (3) most human sewage bacteria could be effectively removed by the WWTP; (4) a total of 75 genera were profiled as potentially pathogenic bacteria, most of which were still present in the effluent although at a very low level; (5) a grouped pattern of bacterial community was observed among the same section samples but a dispersed pattern was found among the different section samples; and (6) activated sludge was less affected by the influent sewage bacteria, but it showed a significant impact on the effluent bacteria. All of these findings provide novel insights toward a mechanistic understanding of the fate of human sewage microbiome in the WWTP. PMID:24305737

Cai, Lin; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

2014-04-01

256

Biological control of trace metal and organometal benthic fluxes in a eutrophic lagoon (Thau Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ benthic chamber experiments were conducted in the Thau Lagoon that allowed the simultaneous determination of the benthic exchanges of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and U) and mercury species (iHg and MMHg). Fluxes of organotin compounds (MBT, DBT and TBT) were also investigated for the first time. The benthic incubations were performed during two campaigns at

M. Monperrus; E. Tessier; D. Amouroux; L. Chauvaud; G. Thouzeau; F. Jean; E. Amice; J. Grall; A. Leynaert; J. Clavier; O. F. X. Donard

2007-01-01

257

Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and geochemical behaviour of several heavy metals in this coastal system, focusing on their distribution in both the dissolved phase (<0.45 ?m) and the suspended particulate matter. Therefore, the general hydrochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and concentration of total particulate and dissolved metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr and Mn) were measured along 2 years (2004-2006) at two different sites. As regards their distribution, hydrological parameters did not present any evidence of deviation with respect to historical values. Suspended particulate matter showed no seasonal variation or any relationship with the tide, thus indicating that in this shallow coastal lagoon neither tides nor freshwater sources regulate the particulate matter input. Heavy metals behaviour, both in dissolved and particulate phases did not reveal any relationship with tide or seasons. Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon showed a large input of dissolved and particulate metals, which is probably due to intensive agriculture within the drainage basin of this system.

Beltrame, María Ornela; De Marco, Silvia G.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

2009-10-01

258

Automatic software upgrades for distributed systems  

E-print Network

Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributed systems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in a system at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting the system for an ...

Ajmani, Sameer, 1976-

2004-01-01

259

DESIGN MANUAL: UPGRADING EXISTING WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A revision to the 1971 original, it discusses and evaluates corrective actions that are required to upgrade existing municipal wastewater treatment plants. ull chapter is devoted to case histories of successful upgrading situations....

260

ISIS Project Upgrade Student Records  

E-print Network

ISIS Project Upgrade Student Records Page Navigation Page | 1 Page navigation has changed in the ISIS Application. This document provides you with the new location of all your key Student Records Information Term Activate a Student Term History Records and Enrollment Student Term Information Term

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

261

ISIS Project Upgrade Student Financials  

E-print Network

ISIS Project Upgrade Student Financials General Page Navigation Page | 1 Page navigation has changed in the ISIS Application. This document provides you with the new location of all your key Student Financials Charges and Payments Group Processing Review Transactions Health Insurance History

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

262

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion and electron temperature profiles in conventional L and H mode on ASDEX Upgrade are generally stiff and limited by a critical temperature gradient length ?T\\/T as given by ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. ECRH experiments indicate that electron temperature (Te) profiles are also stiff, as predicted by electron temperature gradient turbulence with streamers. Accordingly, the core and edge

O. Gruber; R. Arslanbekov; C. Atanasiu; A. Bard; G. Becker; W. Becker; M. Beckmann; K. Behler; K. Behringer; A. Bergmann; R. Bilato; D. Bolshukin; K. Borrass; H.-S. Bosch; B. Braams; M. Brambilla; R. Brandenburg; F. Braun; H. Brinkschulte; R. Brückner; B. Brüsehaber; K. Büchl; A. Buhler; H. Bürbaumer; A. Carlson; M. Ciric; G. Conway; D. P. Coster; C. Dorn; R. Drube; R. Dux; S. Egorov; W. Engelhardt; H.-U. Fahrbach; U. Fantz; H. Faugel; M. Foley; P. Franzen; P. Fu; J. C. Fuchs; J. Gafert; G. Gantenbein; O. Gehre; A. Geier; J. Gernhardt; E. Gubanka; A. Gude; S. Günter; G. Haas; D. Hartmann; B. Heinemann; A. Herrmann; J. Hobirk; F. Hofmeister; H. Hohenöcker; L. Horton; L. Hu; D. Jacobi; M. Jakobi; F. Jenko; A. Kallenbach; O. Kardaun; M. Kaufmann; A. Kendl; J.-W. Kim; K. Kirov; R. Kochergov; H. Kollotzek; W. Kraus; K. Krieger; B. Kurzan; G. Kyriakakis; K. Lackner; P. T. Lang; R. S. Lang; M. Laux; L. Lengyel; F. Leuterer; A. Lorenz; H. Maier; K. Mank; M.-E. Manso; M. Maraschek; K.-F. Mast; P. J. McCarthy; D. Meisel; H. Meister; F. Meo; R. Merkel; V. Mertens; J. P. Meskat; R. Monk; H. W. Müller; M. Münich; H. Murmann; G. Neu; R. Neu; J. Neuhauser; J.-M. Noterdaeme; I. Nunes; G. Pautasso; A. G. Peeters; G. Pereverzev; S. Pinches; E. Poli; R. Pugno; G. Raupp; T. Ribeiro; R. Riedl; S. Riondato; V. Rohde; H. Röhr; J. Roth; F. Ryter; H. Salzmann; W. Sandmann; S. Sarelma; S. Schade; H.-B. Schilling; D. Schlögl; K. Schmidtmann; R. Schneider; W. Schneider; G. Schramm; J. Schweinzer; S. Schweizer; B. D. Scott; U. Seidel; F. Serra; S. Sesnic; C. Sihler; A. Silva; A. Sips; E. Speth; A. Stäbler; K.-H. Steuer; J. Stober; B. Streibl; E. Strumberger; W. Suttrop; A. Tabasso; A. Tanga; G. Tardini; C. Tichmann; W. Treutterer; M. Troppmann; N. Tsois; W. Ullrich; M. Ulrich; P. Varela; O. Vollmer; U. Wenzel; F. Wesner; R. Wolf; E. Wolfrum; R. Wunderlich; N. Xantopoulos; Q. Yu; M. Zarrabian; D. Zasche; T. Zehetbauer; H.-P. Zehrfeld; A. Zeiler; H. Zohm

2001-01-01

263

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results from the ASDEX Upgrade experimental campaigns 2001 and 2002 are presented. An improved understanding of energy and particle transport emerges in terms of a 'critical gradient' model for the temperature gradients. Coupling this to particle diffusion explains most of the observed behaviour of the density profiles, in particular, the finding that strong central heating reduces the tendency for

H. Zohm; C. Angioni; R. Arslanbekov; C. Atanasiu; G. Becker; W. Becker; K. Behler; K. Behringer; A. Bergmann; R. Bilato; V. Bobkov; D. Bolshukhin; T. Bolzonella; K. Borrass; M. Brambilla; F. Braun; A. Buhler; A. Carlson; G. D. Conway; D. P. Coster; R. Drube; R. Dux; S. Egorov; T. Eich; K. Engelhardt; H.-U. Fahrbach; U. Fantz; H. Faugel; K. H. Finken; M. Foley; P. Franzen; J. C. Fuchs; J. Gafert; K. B. Fournier; G. Gantenbein; O. Gehre; A. Geier; J. Gernhardt; T. Goodman; O. Gruber; A. Gude; S. Günter; G. Haas; D. Hartmann; B. Heger; B. Heinemann; A. Herrmann; J. Hobirk; F. Hofmeister; H. Hohenöcker; L. D. Horton; V. Igochine; A. Jacchia; M. Jakobi; F. Jenko; A. Kallenbach; O. Kardaun; M. Kaufmann; A. Keller; A. Kendl; J.-W. Kim; K. Kirov; R. Kochergov; H. Kollotzek; W. Kraus; K. Krieger; T. Kurki-Suonio; B. Kurzan; P. T. Lang; C. Lasnier; P. Lauber; M. Laux; A. W. Leonard; F. Leuterer; A. Lohs; A. Lorenz; R. Lorenzini; C. Maggi; H. Maier; K. Mank; M.-E. Manso; P. Mantica; M. Maraschek; E. Martines; K.-F. Mast; P. McCarthy; D. Meisel; H. Meister; F. Meo; P. Merkel; R. Merkel; D. Merkl; V. Mertens; F. Monaco; A. Mück; H. W. Müller; M. Münich; H. Murmann; Y.-S. Na; G. Neu; R. Neu; J. Neuhauser; F. Nguyen; D. Nishijima; Y. Nishimura; J.-M. Noterdaeme; I. Nunes; G. Pautasso; A. G. Peeters; G. Pereverzev; S. D. Pinches; E. Poli; M. Proschek; R. Pugno; E. Quigley; G. Raupp; M. Reich; T. Ribeiro; R. Riedl; V. Rohde; J. Roth; F. Ryter; S. Saarelma; W. Sandmann; A. Savtchkov; O. Sauter; S. Schade; H.-B. Schilling; W. Schneider; G. Schramm; E. Schwarz; J. Schweinzer; S. Schweizer; B. D. Scott; U. Seidel; F. Serra; S. Sesnic; C. Sihler; A. Silva; A. C. C. Sips; E. Speth; A. Stäbler; K.-H. Steuer; J. Stober; B. Streibl; E. Strumberger; W. Suttrop; A. Tabasso; A. Tanga; G. Tardini; C. Tichmann; W. Treutterer; M. Troppmann; H. Urano; P. Varela; O. Vollmer; D. Wagner; U. Wenzel; F. Wesner; E. Westerhof; R. Wolf; E. Wolfrum; E. Würsching; S.-W. Yoon; Q. Yu; D. Zasche; T. Zehetbauer; H.-P. Zehrfeld

2003-01-01

264

Toxicity of contaminants in lagoons and pannes of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in water and sediments of lagoons and pannes were 2--90 times greater at sites adjacent to slag and coal piles than those at reference sites. One site (Lagoon-US5) had sediments with very high concentrations of toxic organics (e.g. naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran). Although analyses indicated a gradient of contaminant concentration with distance from their sources, toxicity assays were somewhat equivocal. With the exception of less reproduction in Ceriodaphnia at one lagoon site (US3 = 0.55 of reference), survival of fathead minnows and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia in lagoon and panne waters varied independently of the contaminant concentration. In fact, there was better Ceriodaphnia reproduction in water from two contaminated sites (Lagoon-US5, Panne-WP1) than in water from reference sites. Fathead minnow survival, Ceriodaphnia survival, Ceriodaphnia reproduction, amphipod survival, and amphipod growth varied among sites in toxicity assays with sediments, 100% mortality of fatheads at Lagoon-US5, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia at Lagoon-US3, and less survival of fathead minnows at Lagoon-US3 indicate possible toxicity from contaminants in sediments at these sites. Of all organisms and end-points tested, Ceriodaphnia survival seemed to be most closely associated with concentrations of contaminants in lagoon water and sediments. Amphipod survival also varied with contaminants in sediments, however, survival in sediments of contaminated sites ranged only from 0.90--0.93 of reference sites. Although the results are not consistent among organisms, toxicity assays indicate that sediments from the lagoon site with the highest contaminants (Lagoon-US5) and possibly those from another contaminated lagoon site (Lagoon-US3) could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Water and sediments from contaminated panne sites do not appear to be toxic to aquatic test organisms.

Gillespie, R.; Speelman, J. [Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States). Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

1995-12-31

265

Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2  

E-print Network

Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2 Benchmarks Other Studies Conclusions Upgrades of GS2 Jessica A. Baumgaertel Effects of stellarator geometry on gyrokinetic turbulence #12;Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2 Benchmarks Other Studies Conclusions Outline 1 Motivation and Background 2

Hammett, Greg

266

Is There Sewage in My Sample?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

267

Engineering Properties of Sewage Sludge in Trinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some physical and engineering properties of five sewage sludges collected from different locations in Trinidad were measured in the laboratory. The properties assessed were dry bulk density, fibrosity, water content, solids content, the Atterberg limits, saturated hydraulic conductivity, density–water relations, penetration resistance, shear strength and compressibility. Air–dry bulk density of the sludges ranged from 0·37 to 0·83 Mg\\/m3while the solids

R. J Stone; E. I Ekwue; R. O Clarke

1998-01-01

268

Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

Zak, B.D. (ed.)

1982-12-01

269

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-04-01

270

Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the species showed high sensitivity, particularly species such as Bathyporeia borgi, Perioculodes longimanus and Autonoe spiniventris, whereas other species appeared to be more tolerant to the sewage input, such as Ampelisca brevicornis. These different responses could be related to burrowing behaviour, with fossorial species being more sensitive and domicolous species being less affected. Benthic amphipods, which live in direct contact with sediment, are widely used for bioassay and numerous species are usually employed in ecotoxicology tests for diverse contaminants. In order to consider amphipods for monitoring and biodiversity programmes, it is important to establish the degree of sensitivity of each species to different sources of pollution.

de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A.; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y.; Giménez-Casalduero, F.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J. L.; Dauvin, J.-C.

2012-01-01

271

Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

1976-01-01

272

78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Administrative practice...recordkeeping requirements, Sewage sludge incinerators. Dated...Control of Air Emissions From Sewage Sludge Incinerators Sec. 62...the emission guidelines for Sewage Sludge Incinerators...

2013-06-11

273

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2011-07-01

274

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2012-07-01

275

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2014-07-01

276

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2010-07-01

277

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a...

2013-07-01

278

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

... 2014-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge record...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES...Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record...maintain, in English, a legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge...

2014-07-01

279

Risk Factors for Colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48?hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48?hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings. PMID:21977048

Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A.; Reif, John S.

2011-01-01

280

Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana

2010-01-01

281

Iron in water near wastewater lagoons in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

High dissolved-iron concentrations have been noted in water in wells used to monitor effluent that percolates from wastewater disposal lagoons near Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park. The concentration of dissolved iron in water in a well increased from 80 ..mu..g\\/l (micrograms per liter) before a nearby lagoon was used for disposal of effluent to 17,000 ..mu..g\\/l after the lagoon

Cox

1978-01-01

282

Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

2014-09-01

283

Fiji's Great Astrolabe Lagoon: baseline study and management issues for a pristine marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Astrolabe Lagoon (18°45?S,178°32?E), located some 70km south of Suva, the capital of Fiji, is a marine environment in relatively pristine condition, impacted only by low human populations on small islands. The Great Astrolabe Reef which encloses the Lagoon is a barrier reef composed of oceanic ribbon reefs. A baseline study of the Lagoon was carried out in 1989–92

R. J. Morrison; Milika R. Naqasima

1999-01-01

284

Space Shuttle Propulsion Safety Upgrades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the proposed upgrades to the Space Shuttle Propulsion system, to improve safety, and reduce significant hazards. The goals of the program are to reduce the risk of a catastrophe in ascent, to achieve significant reduction in orbital and entry systems, and to improve the crew cockpit situational awareness for managing the critical operational situations. The document reviews the upgrades to the propulsion system which are planned to improve the safety. These include modifications to the Advanced Thrust Vector Control, modifications to the Space Shuttle Main Engine Block III, improvement in the Advanced Health Management System, the use of Friction Stir welding on the external tank, which is expected to improve mechanical properties, and reduce defect rate, and the modification of the propellant grains geometry.

Humphries, William Randy, Jr.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

285

Upgrade and Future of ATLAS  

E-print Network

The discovery of the Higgs Boson is just start of a major program to measure Higgs properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of SM and search for new physics at LHC. The data sample of 3000 fb-1 at 14 TeV will provide unprecedented and unparalleled physics opportunities. In this talk, we will review the ATLAS upgrade program and future of ATLAS.

Yao, W; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

286

The FNAL Injector Upgrade Status  

SciTech Connect

The new FNAL H{sup -} injector upgrade is currently being tested before installation in the Spring 2012 shutdown of the accelerator complex. This line consists of an H{sup -} source, low energy beam transport (LEBT), 200 MHz RFQ and medium energy beam transport (MEBT). Beam measurements have been performed to validate the design before installation. The results of the beam measurements are presented in this paper.

Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Karns, P.R.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A; Scarpine, V.E.; Tomlin, R.E.; /Fermilab

2012-05-14

287

Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

1985-02-01

288

A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments.  

PubMed

A sampler was needed for a spatial and temporal study of microbial and chemical stratification in a large swine manure lagoon that was known to contain zoonotic bacteria. Conventional samplers were limited to collections of surface water samples near the bank or required a manned boat. A new sampler was developed to allow simultaneous collection of multiple samples at different depths, up to 2.3 m, without a manned boat. The sampler was tethered for stability, used remote control (RC) for sample collection, and accommodated rapid replacement of sterile tubing modules and sample containers. The sampler comprised a PVC pontoon with acrylic deck and watertight enclosures, for a 12 VDC gearmotor, to operate the collection module, and vacuum system, to draw samples into reusable autoclavable tubing and 250-mL bottles. Although designed primarily for water samples, the sampler was easily modified to collect sludge. The sampler held a stable position during deployment, created minimal disturbance in the water column, and was readily cleaned and sanitized for transport. The sampler was field tested initially in a shallow fresh water lake and subsequently in a swine manure treatment lagoon. Analyses of water samples from the lagoon tests showed that chemical and bacterial levels, pH, and EC did not differ between 0.04, 0.47, and 1.0 m depths, but some chemical and bacterial levels differed between winter and spring collections. These results demonstrated the utility of the sampler and suggested that future manure lagoon studies employ fewer or different depths and more sampling dates. PMID:24549945

McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A

2014-07-01

289

Kinematics of the Hourglass Region in the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hourglass region, ionized solely by the star Herschel 36, represents the brightest part of the Lagoon nebula. In this paper, we present new kinematic observations of the region in [N II] 6583 Å emission line using an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer in the spectrographic mode. We find both asymmetric and symmetric line profiles with large linewidths of 22-40 km\\/s towards

A. Chakraborty; B. G. Anandarao

1997-01-01

290

Three Band Submillimetre Mapping of the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon Nebula, M8, has been mapped at 450 micron, 850 micron, and 1.3 mm, using SCUBA and the IRAM 30-m telescope. The large-scale maps (~20' × 10') show clumpy structures surrounding the hii region, extending as far as M8E. The core sizes are around 15 arcsec --30 arcsec (0.1--0.3 pc), with temperatures of 10--40 K. The mass spectrum of

N. F. H. Tothill; G. J. White

2000-01-01

291

Far-infrared observations of the Lagoon Nebula \\/M8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-beam far-infrared photometry is used to estimate the dust temperature and mass, geometry, and energetics of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Most of the data can be explained in terms of the visible star cluster, NGC 6530, heating a dense molecular cloud that lies behind it. The source M8E, however, may be heated internally, and appears to be a likely site

H. A. Thronson Jr.; R. F. Loewenstein; G. M. Stokes

1979-01-01

292

Intense molecular emission from the Lagoon nebula, M8  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery is reported of the second strongest source of mm and submm wavelength CO line emission, towards M8, the Lagoon Nebula in Sagittarius. The ~31Msun_ molecular core has dimensions ~0.2x0.3pc and is centred on the O7V star Herschel 36 (H36), near the Hourglass Nebula in the core of M8. Emission from the CO line wings extends to the north

G. J. White; N. F. H. Tothill; H. E. Matthews; W. H. McCutcheon; M. Huldtgren; M. J. McCaughrean

1997-01-01

293

New Hergig-Haro objects in the Lagoon Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the discovery of five new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects in the Lagoon Nebula (M8), as part of the search for evidences of ongoing star formation in the region using optical wide-field narrow-band imaging obtained at ESO Observatory in La Silla (Chile). Based on the analysis of the [S II] and Halpha images, we study in detail the morphology of

J. I. Arias; R. H. Barbá

2006-01-01

294

Far-infrared observations of the Lagoon Nebula (M8)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-beam far-infrared photometry is used to estimate the dust temperature and mass, geometry, and energetics of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Most of the data can be explained in terms of the visible star cluster, NGC 6530, heating a dense molecular cloud that lies behind it. The source M8E, however, may be heated internally, and appears to be a likely site

R. F. Loewenstein; G. M. Stokes

1979-01-01

295

Upgrade of the CMS tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

Tricomi, A.

2014-03-01

296

Coastal lagoons and their evolution: A hydromorphological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a geoscience perspective, coastal lagoons are essentially ephemeral features which are part of a continuum of coastal environments. Their natural hydromorphological evolution is seldom if ever permitted to take place as a consequence of human action; either directly by engineering interventions, to maintain or create navigable inlets, or indirectly due to activities within their catchment areas. The hydromorphological impacts of historical, contemporary and proposed engineering activities in coastal lagoons around in the world are reviewed and from these a powerful exemplar is that of the Aveiro system in Portugal. Here, two centuries of channelization, jetty and breakwater construction and progressive dredging have transformed a then fluvially dominant system into one that is today tidally dominant. Both the tidal range and tidal prism have increased along with the extent of saline intrusion. The associated stresses imposed by increased tidal currents have, in turn, led to important changes in the sedimentary regime and to the loss of almost all seagrass species which were once abundant in the system. This, along with observations from other related case studies, raises important questions regarding the concept of lagoon ecosystem 'health' and the baseline or reference conditions to which it is assessed.

Duck, Robert W.; da Silva, José Figueiredo

2012-09-01

297

Benthic Fluxes of Radium in Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine three radium isotopes (224Ra, 223Ra and 226Ra) as a sediment-water interface tracer in upper Indian River Lagoon. Benthic fluxes are estimated using lagoon budgets, benthic chambers and pore water profiles. The lagoon budget approach estimates range from ~20 dpm/m2-d for 224Ra to ~7 dpm/ m2-d for 223Ra to zero for 226Ra. Benthic Chamber flux estimates determined over an 8 hour time period are statistically no different than zero for all three isotopes. Pore water profile flux estimates are low with 0.5 dpm/m2-d for 224Ra to 0.2 dpm/m2-d for 223Ra and zero for 226Ra. Benthic flux estimates correlate with the regeneration rates of the individual isotopes. Radium-224 has the largest flux value and is the isotope with the fastest regeneration rates due to a short half-life. The isotope with the slowest regeneration rate (226Ra) due to a 1600-year half-life, cannot be distinguished from zero in any of the estimates. The short half-life of 224Ra and 223Ra, allow for the examination of exchange processes at the sediment-water interface that cannot be achieved with the long-lived radium isotope (226Ra).

Smoak, J. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.

2002-12-01

298

The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.  

PubMed

The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (?77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed. PMID:24862981

D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

2014-10-01

299

The Lagoon Saga goes on: Proplyds and other remarkable Objects seen in WFPC2 Images of the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectacular WFPC2 images of the Lagoon Nebula have attracted much attention since our STScI press release in January 1997. The level of detail revealed by Hubble was rarely obtained before for a giant stellar nursery except for the Orion Nebula. The Lagoon Nebula (also called M8, NGC 6523) is 1.5 kpc from us, about 10 times more distant from us than the planetary nebula Helix, 3 times more distant from us than the Orion Nebula, and at about the same distance as the Egg Nebula (M16). In these three regions, Hubble revealed several thousands cometary knots (CK) in Helix, many partially ionized globules (PIGs) and protoplanetary disks (proplyds) in Orion, and the evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) in M16. Those objects contain small dense gas cores, externally ionized, leading sometimes to the formation of a star. In this poster, we use the WFPC2 observations of the Lagoon Nebula in all filters available (nebular emission lines, and continuum blue and red light) for a detailed investigation of remarkable objects identified in those images (Bok globules, bow shocks around stars, ionized cusps, wisps, rings, knots and jets). In an early phase of the study, one candidate proplyd close to the ionizing star Herschel 36 was identified and described briefly in the ST-ECF Newsletter (number 24, March 1997, pages 12--13). A complete analysis of the ``proplyd" is given here. Then, the poster consists of: a) color views of whole field; b) identification of many remarkable objects; c) individual presentation with continuum subtracted emission line images, contour maps, flux diagrams i.e. band-fluxes as function of wavelength; and finally, d) a comparison between the Lagoon objects and CKs, PIGs, proplyds, EGGS identified in other nebulae. A movie is being prepared for projection at this meeting.

Caulet, A.

1997-05-01

300

Groundwater and porewater as a major source of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by radon) and shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1. Both sources of TA were important on a reef wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependant on the time of day. On a daily basis, groundwater can contribute approximately 70% to 80% of the TA taken up by corals within the lagoon. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water-column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2012-11-01

301

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

302

Seasonal Variation of the Macrozoobenthic Community Structure at Low Salinities in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Monolimni Lagoon, Northern Aegean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrozoobenthic community structure and dynamics at low salinities (0.3-6 psu) in a Mediterranean lagoon (Monolimni lagoon) were investigated. Samples were collected monthly from February 1998 to February 1999 at two sampling stations. Community structure was analyzed by means of uni- and multivariate methods. 21 taxa were collected; the amphipod Corophium orientale and the gastropod Ventrosia maritima dominated the assemblages. Total abundance peaked (50,000-60,000 individuals m-2) in mid or late autumn. Community structure showed an almost even seasonal periodicity; seasonal changes were mainly derived from the intense variation in abundance of most species and the non-occurrence of a few ones (e.g. Corophium insidiosum, Polydora ciliata) in spring and summer. Non- occurrence, which led to a depression of the most diversity indices, was possibly the only direct impact of the extremely low salinities (~0.3 psu) on community structure. The main structuring factors of the community in the deeper outer part of the lagoon were water temperature and depth, and in the innermost part, where a Ruppia maritima meadow occurred, were water temperature and predation pressure by crabs (Carcinus aestuarii) and gobies (Knipowitchia caucasica). A temporary decline in total abundance in summer followed an increase in abundance of these predators. (

Kevrekidis, Theodoros

2004-09-01

303

Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2013-04-01

304

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade on Cryogenic Lines at Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

This is an upgrade to the thermal contraction analysis sound in D0 Engineering Note: 3823.115-EN-426. In this new design, a portion of the transfer lines are consolidated into one 6-inch vacuum jacket. Since all four transfer lines follow the same path and are of equal lengths, the stress analysis is performed on only one transfer line using the design system ALGOR{reg_sign}. The GHe Cooldown Supply line is analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight and all the stresses were below the allowable stress limit of 25,050 psi.

Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

1995-09-26

305

Microbial activities in soil amended with sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial populations and enzyme activities in a Light-colored Andosol amended with sewage sludges were studied in relation to the decomposition of the sludges. Six kinds of sewage sludges were mixed with the soil at rates of 5 and 1%. Subsequently, the mineralization of C and N, numbers of soil microorganisms, and activities of soil enzymes were determined during an 8-week

Hiroyuki Hattori

1988-01-01

306

Plant availability of phosphorus in sewage sludge compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to compare the effectiveness of Blue Plains sewage sludge compost (BLU), Parkway sewage sludge compost (PAR), and triple superphosphate (TSP) as sources of P for corn. These amendments were applied to a Sassafras sandy loam in a field study and to the Sassafras soil and a Christian silty clay loam in a greenhouse study.

J. L. McCoy; L. J. Sikora; R. R. Weil

2009-01-01

307

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

308

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in sewage and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is the evaluation of resistance patterns of E. coli in wastewater treatment plants without an evaluation of basic antibiotic resistance mechanisms.Investigations have been done in sewage, sludge and receiving waters from three different sewage treatment plants in southern Austria. A total of 767 E. coli isolates were tested regarding their resistance to 24 different antibiotics.

F. F Reinthaler; J Posch; G Feierl; G Wüst; D Haas; G Ruckenbauer; F Mascher; E Marth

2003-01-01

309

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY AND TREATMENT OF EGYPTIAN DOMESTIC SEWAGE  

E-print Network

The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage for four Egyptian villages and four Egyptian cities was determined. The sewage of the Egyptian villages and cities represented a very strong sewage with an average total COD of 1100 and 570 mg/l, respectively. The biodegradability of the Egyptian-villages sewage (73%) was higher than that of the cities (66%). The results of a mathematical-model indicates that at applying a UASB reactor for the treatment of Egyptian villages and cities sewage, an optimum HRT of, respectively, 16 and 8 h is required. At these HRTs, a total COD removal and a conversion to methane of, respectively, 62-70 % and 59-64 % can be achieved for the sewage of Egyptian cities and, respectively, 71-77 % and 67-69 % will be obtained for the villages sewage. The model results show also that at a treatment of villages sewage in a two-step (anaerobic filter + UASB reactor) system a higher total COD removal can be achieved (77-81%) at a short HRT of 10 h (4+6 h).

T. A. Elmitwalli; A. Al-sarawey; M. F. El-sherbiny; G. Zeeman

310

Isolation of Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia vietnamiensis from human sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh human sewage was examined from a sewage treatment plant for the presence of members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) of bacterial organisms and confirmed the presence of viable B. cenocepacia and B. vietnamiensis, by a combination of cultural, phenotypic and genotypic techniques. Both these organisms are important respiratory pathogens for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Presently, the survival

Damian McNeely; John E. Moore; J. Stuart Elborn; B. Cherie Millar; Jackie Rendall; James S. G. Dooley

2009-01-01

311

Use of composted sewage sludge in growth media for broccoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a binary component with peat (P) in growth media for a horticultural crop, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Botryti cv. Marathon), was evaluated. Four treatments were established, based on the addition of increasing quantities of composted sewage sludge to peat (0%, 15%, 30% and 50%, v\\/v). Physical, physico-chemical and chemical

M. D. Perez-Murcia; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; A. Perez-Espinosa; C. Paredes

2006-01-01

312

CAUSES OF PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research was initiated to determine the cause of oral papillomas in black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) from the final oxidation pond of the Tuskegee, Alabama, sewage treatment plant. The water in this pond was chlorinated effluent from the sewage treatment plant. The presence...

313

Analysing of industrial sewages of an oil desalinaion unit in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil contains salt water and solid materials at the time of extraction, more percentage of the materiales less quality of oil . so oil is transferred to desalination factory, to extract saltwater. The process produces indusrial sewages which contain a lot of water, salt, oil and some heavy metals. To understand rate of reservoir sewage pollution in the studied

Faramarz Tarkian; Masumeh Bostani; Ali Akbar Azimi

314

[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  

PubMed

"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

2013-02-01

315

Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser

1993-01-01

316

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

317

The Upgraded D0 detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

2005-07-01

318

VISIR upgrade overview and status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As AQUARIUS detector array (Raytheon) which has been carefully characterized in ESO's IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a user-defined constraint on water vapour. During the commissioning in 2012 it was found that the on-sky sensitivity of the AQUARIUS detector was significantly below expectations and that VISIR was not ready to go back to science operations. Extensive testing of the detector arrays in the laboratory and on-sky enabled us to diagnose the cause for the shortcoming of the detector as excess low frequency noise (ELFN). It is inherent to the design chosen for this detector and can't be remedied by changing the detector set-up. Since this is a form of correlated noise its impact can be limited by modulating the scene recorded by the detector. We have studied several mitigation options and found that faster chopping using the secondary mirror (M2) of the VLT offers the most promising way forward. Faster M2 chopping has been tested and is scheduled for implementation before the end of 2014 after which we plan to re-commission VISIR. In addition an upgrade of the IT infrastructure related to VISIR is planned in order to support burst-mode operations. The upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing close to background limited performance for diffraction-limited observations at an 8-m telescope. It will offer synergy with facilities such as ALMA, JWST, VLTI and SOFIA, while a wealth of targets is available from survey work (e.g. VISTA, WISE). In addition it will bring confirmation of the technical readiness and scientific value of several aspects of potential mid-IR instrumentation at Extremely Large Telescopes.

Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans-Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Di Lieto, Nicola; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Duhoux, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Heikamp, Stephanie; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Sandrock, Stefan; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Valdes, Guillermo; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli

2014-07-01

319

75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country...System (NPDES) general permits for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian...issuance of the NPDES general permit for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in...

2010-08-31

320

Late Quaternary history of the Nouméa lagoon (New Caledonia, South West Pacific) as depicted by seismic stratigraphy and multibeam bathymetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barrier reef tract of New Caledonia is the second largest in the world enclosing lagoons of variable width. The Late Quaternary evolution of these barrier reefs and lagoons is poorly known. A recent high resolution seismic and multibeam bathymetry survey was carried out in the south-western lagoon from shoreline to open ocean across the barrier reef pass systems to

P. Le Roy; G. Cabioch; B. Monod; Y. Lagabrielle; B. Pelletier; B. Flamand

2008-01-01

321

WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOON MICROORGANISM REMOVAL EFFICIENCY AND EFFLUENT DISINFECTION WITH CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project had two major objectives: (1) to evaluate the amenability of algae-laden lagoon effluent to chlorine disinfection; and (2) to evaluate the performance of a multi-cell lagoon system in removing coliform bacteria by natural means without the need for disinfection. Resu...

322

Wind-Driven Surficial Oxygen Transfer and Dinitrogen Gas Emission from Treatment Lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surficial oxygen transfer plays an important role, when analyzing the complex biochemical and physical processes responsible for ammonia and dinitrogen gas emission in animal waste treatment lagoons. This paper analyzes if currently known nitrogen biochemical pathways can explain the enigmatic dinitrogen gas emissions recently observed from the treatment lagoons, based on the amount of wind-driven oxygen that can be transferred

K. S. Ro; P. G. Hunt; M. E. Poach

2006-01-01

323

Watershed scale assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in the Indian River Lagoon basin, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing evidence that the ecological and biological integrity of the lagoon has declined during the last 50 years, probably due to the decline in water quality. Establishment of a watershed scale seagrass-based nutrient load assessment is the major aim of water quality management in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Best estimate loadings incorporate wet and dry deposition,

Gilbert C. Sigua; Wendy A. Tweedale

2003-01-01

324

Hydrodynamic studies and modelization for aerated lagoons and waste stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

All attempts to model a wastewater treatment process necessarily require knowledge of the reactor hydraulic mixing characteristics. However, very few tracer experiments have been conducted on full-scale facilities, especially aerated lagoons and waste stabilization ponds. Several equations based on a dispersion model have been proposed to estimate the hydrodynamic behavior of ponds and lagoons. This paper compares these equations with

Th. Nameche; J. L. Vasel

1998-01-01

325

Dynamics of copper and zinc sedimentation in a lagooning system receiving landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This study characterises the sediment dredged from a lagooning system composed of a settling pond and three lagoons that receive leachates from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in France. Organic carbon, carbonate, iron oxyhydroxides, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were measured in the sediment collected from upstream to downstream in the lagooning system. In order to complete our investigation of sedimentation mechanisms, leachates were sampled in both dry (spring) and wet (winter) seasonal conditions. Precipitation of calcite and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and sedimentation of organic matter occurred in the settling pond. Since different distributions of Zn and Cu concentrations are measured in sediment samples collected downstream in the lagooning system, it is suggested that these elements were not distributed in a similar way in the leachate fractions during the first stage of treatment in the settling pond, so that their sedimentation dynamics in the lagooning system differ. In the lagoons, it was found that organic carbon plays a major role in Cu and Zn mobility and trapping. The presence of macrophytes along the edges provided an input of organic matter that enhanced Cu and Zn scavenging. This edge effect resulted in a two-fold increase in Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediment deposited near the banks of the lagoons, thus confirming the importance of vegetation for the retention of Cu and Zn in lagooning systems. PMID:23810321

Guigue, Julien; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Denimal, Sophie; Steinmann, Marc; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Grisey, Hervé

2013-11-01

326

The effects of trawling on the properties of surface sediments in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of trawling for clams in two differently impacted areas of the Lagoon of Venice were investigated. The Lagoon has an area of 55,000 hectares and the trawling of clams (Tapes phippinarum) has important socio-economic and environmental implications for the area. Bottom trawling has been shown to have large disruptive effects on the structure of benthic communities but the

R. Aspden; S. Vardy; R. Perkins; I. Davidson; D. M. Paterson

2003-01-01

327

Characterization of atmospheric ammonia emissions from swine waste storage and treatment lagoons  

E-print Network

measured during each season (summer, fall, winter, and spring) using a dynamic flow through chamber system. Measured lagoon physicochemical parameters included surface lagoon temperature (T C, 15 cm below surface Carolina based on current inventories for NH3-N emissions published by the North Carolina Division of Air

Aneja, Viney P.

328

Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

329

Late-Summer Abundance and Distribution of Marine Birds in Kasegaluk Lagoon, Chukchi Sea, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas drilling programs in the Alaska Chukchi Sea were carried out on leases offshore from Kasegaluk Lagoon in 1989-91, and further exploration and development activities in this area are likely in future years. We conducted aerial surveys between late July and early September 1989-91 to determine the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Kasegaluk Lagoon area.

STEPHEN R. JOHNSON; DAVID A. WIGGINS; PETER F. WAINWRIGHT

330

Water Quality during Development and Apportionment of Pollution from Rivers in Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan. Factor analysis was conducted to explain the characteristics and the variation in the quality of water during the disassembly of oyster frames and fishery boxes. The result shows that the most important latent factors in Tapeng Lagoon are the ocean factor, primary productivity factor, and the fishery pollution factor. Canonical

Shao-Wei Liao; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Jia-Yuh Sheu; Chang-Gai Lee

2006-01-01

331

Identification of pollution of Tapeng Lagoon from neighbouring rivers using multivariate statistical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon and three neighbouring rivers (the Kaoping River, Tungkang River and Lingbeng River) in Taiwan, Republic of China. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to identify the source of pollution in neighbouring rivers outside Tapeng Lagoon. The two constructed discriminant functions showed a marked contribution to all discriminant variables, and the total nitrogen,

Shao-Wei Liao; Hwa-Sheng Gau; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Chang-Gai Lee

2008-01-01

332

Santa Giusta Lagoon (Sardinia): phytoplankton and nutrients before and after waste water diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to assess the effect of the diversion of waste water on the trophic status of the Stagno di Santa Giusta, a hypertrophic lagoon on the centre-western coast of Sardinia. The data available (1990, 1992-1994) before the diversion (1995) were compared with those collected from 1995 to 1999. The lagoon has an area of about

Nicola SECHI; Fatima FIOCCA; Antonietta SANNIO; Antonella LUGLIÈ

2001-01-01

333

Effects of the Sand Bar Breaching on Typha domingensis (PERS.) in a Tropical Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal lagoons are usually subjected to several kinds of human impacts, especially eutrophication. The breaching of the sand bar, which separates the lagoon from the ocean, by human action, is a common process used to decrease the negative effects of eutrophication. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of the artificial sand bar breaching on the populations

Anderson M. dos Santos; André M. Amado; Murilo Minello; Vinicius F. Farjalla; Francisco A. Esteves

2006-01-01

334

THE DIET OF THE CURLEW SANDPIPER AT LANGEBAAN LAGOON, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puttick, G. M. 1978. The diet of the Curlew Sandpiper at Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Ostrich 49:158-167.Nereid worms (mainly Ceratonereis erythraensis) and the hydrobiid gastropod Assiminea globulus were the most important prey items throughout the year for Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea feeding at Langebaan Lagoon. Other important items were the amphipod Urothoe grimaldi, the crabs Hymenosoma orbiculare and Cleistostoma edwardsii

Gillian M. Puttick

1978-01-01

335

The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion in…

Barajas, Frank P.

2006-01-01

336

Environmental heterogeneity patterns and assessment of trophic levels in two Mediterranean lagoons: Orbetello and Varano, Italy.  

PubMed

The management of coastal lagoons is of particular interest due to their high economical importance. In spite of their great productivity, coastal lagoons are often impacted by human pressure which produces water eutrophication. The aim of this paper is to assess the trophic state of the two Mediterranean lagoons taking into account chemical-physical parameters, nutrient concentrations and biological parameters. Two Italian lagoons, Orbetello and Varano (respectively located in Tyrrhenian and Adriatic coast, Italy) were studied between May 2003 and April 2005. Both these systems receive treated urban outflows, agricultural effluents and rivers freshwater inputs. Field collected data showed that studied lagoons were characterized by different human and natural pressures. Orbetello showed the highest water eutrophication, highlighted by the trophic index values, while Varano showed lower eutrophication levels except for the summertime. The values of physical, chemical and biological parameters measured in Orbetello and Varano lagoons indicate that a wide spatial and seasonal gradient of the water characteristics was established during the study period, but in particular in winter. This gradient, typical of estuarine systems, was essentially due to the mixing of freshwater, seawater and anthropogenic inputs. Orbetello lagoon seemed much more affected by the urban impact and the fish-farming activities than Varano lagoon, but the latter showed a greater agriculture activities impact as showed by the remote sensing images. PMID:18550150

Specchiulli, Antonietta; Focardi, Silvia; Renzi, Monia; Scirocco, Tommaso; Cilenti, Lucrezia; Breber, Paolo; Bastianoni, Simone

2008-09-01

337

Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genetic Variation across Calving Lagoons in Eastern North Pacific Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification

S. ELIZABETH ALTER; S ERGIO FLORES RAMIREZ; S ERGIO NIGENDA; J ORGE URBAN RAMIREZ; L ORENZO ROJAS BRACHO; STEPHEN R. PALUMBI

2008-01-01

338

Complete survey of german sewage sludge ash.  

PubMed

The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

2014-10-21

339

Optimising the preparation of activated carbon from digested sewage sludge and coconut husk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to dispose of sewage sludge as well as to produce a low-cost adsorbent for pollutant removal. This research work aimed to optimise the condition for activated carbon preparation from anaerobically digested sewage sludge with the additive coconut husk. The sewage sludge sample was mixed with the additive coconut husk.

J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2001-01-01

340

SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE (EPA/625/R-95/002)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage sludge and domestic septage may be applied to the land as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer, incinerated, or placed on land (surface disposal). Placement refers to the act of putting sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit (land on which only sewage sludge is...

341

Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons.  

PubMed

Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z

2014-01-01

342

A summary of preliminary studies of sedimentation and hydrology in Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating sedimentary and hydrologic conditions in Bolinas Lagoon, a 1,100-acre lagoon 15 miles northwest of San Francisco. The program began in May 1967 and will continue into 1970. Only the study results analyzed before June 1968 are summarized in the report. Two series of measurements of suspended-sediment load and water discharge in the lagoon inlet showed that much of the suspended sediment is sand and that the average velocity was as much as 4.7 feet per second. Littoral drift near the inlet was generally toward the inlet, whereas farther from the inlet the pattern is irregular. Circulation velocities in the lagoon decrease rapidly away from the inlet, but probably remain high enough to erode bottom sediment along the channels. In most of the lagoon median size of bottom sediment was fine sand. Sediment was derived chiefly from Monterey Shale.

Ritter, John R.

1970-01-01

343

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project Preliminary Design Report Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project  

E-print Network

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project · Preliminary Design Report Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project Preliminary Design Report December 2012 Chapter 1: Project Overview #12;Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project · Preliminary Design Report The Advanced Photon Source, an Office of Science User Facility

Kemner, Ken

344

Physics Motivation for NSTXPhysics Motivation for NSTX UpgradeUpgrade Jon Menard and Masa Ono  

E-print Network

Physics Motivation for NSTXPhysics Motivation for NSTX UpgradeUpgrade Jon Menard and Masa Ono NSTX CEA, Cadarache IPP, Jülich IPP, Garching ASCR, Czech Rep U Quebec #12;NSTXNSTX Physics Motivation ARIES-ST #12;NSTXNSTX Physics Motivation for NSTX Upgrade 3Fall 2009 NSTX Research Priorities: · Full

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

345

SND data acquisition system upgrade  

E-print Network

The data acquisition (DAQ) system of the SND detector successfully operated during four data-taking seasons (2010-2013) at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000. Currently the collider is shut down for planned reconstruction, which is expected to increase the VEPP-2000 luminosity and data flow from the SND detector electronics by up to 10 times. Since current DAQ system implementation (electronics and computer part) does not have enough reserve for selection of events in the new environment without compromising quality, there arose the need for the system upgrade. Here we report on the major SND data acquisition system upgrade which includes developing new electronics for digitization and data transfer, complete redesign of the data network, increasing of the DAQ computer farm processing capacity and making the event building process concurrent. These measures will allow us to collect data flow from the most congested detector subsystems in parallel in contrast to the current situation. We would like to discuss also the possibility to implement full software trigger solution in the future.

A. G. Bogdanchikov; V. P. Druzhinin; A. A. Korol; S. V. Koshuba; A. I. Tekutiev; Yu. V. Usov

2014-04-02

346

SND data acquisition system upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data acquisition (DAQ) system of the SND detector successfully operated during four data-taking seasons (2010-2013) at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000. Currently the collider is shut down for planned reconstruction, which is expected to increase the VEPP-2000 luminosity and data flow from the SND detector electronics by up to 10 times. Since current DAQ system implementation (electronics and computer part) does not have enough reserve for selection of events in the new environment without compromising quality, there arose the need for the system upgrade. Here we report on the major SND data acquisition system upgrade which includes developing new electronics for digitization and data transfer, complete redesign of the data network, increasing of the DAQ computer farm processing capacity and making the event building process concurrent. These measures will allow us to collect data flow from the most congested detector subsystems in parallel in contrast to the current situation. We would like to discuss also the possibility to implement full software trigger solution in the future.

Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Tekutiev, A. I.; Usov, Yu V.

2014-06-01

347

Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

2010-11-29

348

Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different environmental factors acting upon the shell assemblages. These results suggest that tsunamigenic shell deposits can be identified based on their taphonomic characteristics when compared to beach and storm deposits in the same setting. Our data indicates that the following diagnostic taphonomic characteristics may indicate a tsunamigenic deposit: 1) presence/absence of articulated bivalves, 2) increased percentage of fragmented valves, 3) increased percentage of angular fragments, and 4) the large number of offshore bivalves in the lagoon. This study highlights the potential benefits and opportunity for using bivalve taphonomy as a useful indicator of paleotsunami deposits, particularly in protected coastal embayments in arid regions where stratified deposits might not readily preserve. This technique holds potential, as shell deposits are easy to identify in the field by non-experts, is very low cost, and analysis uses simple, easily applicable and recognizable taphonomic characteristics. Furthermore, this proxy can be used for risk assessment purposes in coastal areas with a seismic history but lacking a paleotsunami record. Further testing of this hypothesis should be conducted along the Omani coastline, particularly in the lagoons along the Eastern promontory. Key Words: tsunami, taphonomy, Oman, bivalve

Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

2007-05-01

349

Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5?(H)- and 5?(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17?(H),21?(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

1991-09-01

350

Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C{sub 30}-C{sub 32}, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5{alpha}(H)- and 5{beta}(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17{beta}(H), 21{beta}(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C{sub 30}-C{sub 33} hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. (CID-CISC, Barcelona (Spain)); Yruela, I.; Saizjimenez, C. (CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)); Toja, J. (Univ. of Sevilla (Spain)); Leeuw, J.W. De. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1991-09-01

351

Consistency of temporal and habitat-related differences among assemblages of fish in coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consistency of habitat-related differences in coastal lagoon fish assemblages was assessed across different spatial and temporal scales. Multimesh gillnets were used to sample assemblages of fish on a monthly basis for 1-year in three habitats (shallow seagrass, shallow bare and deep substrata) at two locations (>1 km apart), in each of two coastal lagoons (approximately 500 km apart), in southeastern Australia. A total of 48 species was sampled with 34 species occurring in both lagoons and in all three habitats; species caught in only one lagoon or habitat occurred in low numbers. Ten species dominated assemblages and accounted for more than 83% of all individuals sampled. In both lagoons, assemblages in the deep habitat consistently differed to those in the shallow strata (regardless of habitat). Several species were caught more frequently or in larger numbers in the deep habitat. Assemblages in the two shallow habitats did not differ consistently and were dominated by the same species and sizes of fish, possibly due to habitat heterogeneity and the scale and method of sampling. Within each lagoon, very few between location differences in assemblages within each habitat were observed. Consistent differences in assemblages were detected between lagoons for the shallow bare and deep habitats, indicating there were some intrinsic differences in ichthyofauna between lagoons. Assemblages in spring differed to those in summer, which differed to those in winter for the shallow bare habitat in both lagoons, and the deep habitat in only one lagoon. Fish-habitat relationships are complex and differences in the fish fauna between habitats were often temporally inconsistent. This study highlights the need for greater testing of habitat relationships in space and time to assess the generality of observations and to identify the processes responsible for structuring assemblages.

Gray, Charles A.; Rotherham, Douglas; Johnson, Daniel D.

2011-12-01

352

Far-infrared observations of the Lagoon Nebula /M8/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-beam far-infrared photometry is used to estimate the dust temperature and mass, geometry, and energetics of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Most of the data can be explained in terms of the visible star cluster, NGC 6530, heating a dense molecular cloud that lies behind it. The source M8E, however, may be heated internally, and appears to be a likely site of very recent star formation. The associated molecular cloud may be the location of future stellar formation activity as well.

Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Stokes, G. M.

1979-01-01

353

Three Band Submillimetre Mapping of the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula, M8, has been mapped at 450 micron, 850 micron, and 1.3 mm, using SCUBA and the IRAM 30-m telescope. The large-scale maps (~20' × 10') show clumpy structures surrounding the hii region, extending as far as M8E. The core sizes are around 15 arcsec --30 arcsec (0.1--0.3 pc), with temperatures of 10--40 K. The mass spectrum of the cores is derived, together with estimates of the likely errors. The problems of measuring cores in regions of high-mass star formation are noted.

Tothill, N. F. H.; White, G. J.

354

Garbage + sewage water + coal = electricity. [Lakeland, Fla. 364MW unit cooled by sewage-water effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakeland, Florida is building a power-generating unit that will burn 80% Kentucky high-sulfur coal and 20% garbage and will be cooled by sewage water effluent. The plant was designed when a proposed new oil-fired unit was rejected in the mid-1970s, although additional capacity was anticipated to keep pace with the area's population and development growth. A coal\\/garbage fuel mixture has

Lesnett

1979-01-01

355

GLOBALISATION, FIRM UPGRADING AND IMPACTS ON LABOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question that drives this paper is: When can we expect firm upgrading by developing-country suppliers in global value chains will lead to improvements in labour conditions? To deal with this question we, (a) position firm upgrading in the global value chain approach, (b) investigate existing evidence and conceptualisations on how economic globalisation impacts on labour, and (c) develop some

PETER KNORRINGA; LEE PEGLER

2006-01-01

356

Status and prospects for the LHCb upgrade  

E-print Network

High-precision measurements performed by the LHCb collaboration have opened a new era in charm physics. Several crucial measurements, particularly in spectroscopy, rare decays and CP violation, can benefit from the increased statistical power of an upgraded LHCb detector. The upgrade of LHCb detector, its software infrastructure, and the impact on charm physics are discussed in detail.

Andrea Contu

2013-11-14

357

Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades  

SciTech Connect

This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420.

CARPENTER, K.E.

1999-02-25

358

NSTXpool Computer Upgrade December 9, 2010  

E-print Network

NSTXpool Computer Upgrade WP #1685 Bill Davis December 9, 2010 #12;Work Scope Upgrade Operating System, Application Software, and Programs that run on NSTX computers using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. nstxpool computers + nstxops nstxWindowsPC (Control Room Display Wall) Big Blue cluster for EFIT Selected

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

359

UPGRADE OF THE BUCHAREST FN TANDEM ACCELERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bucharest FN Tandem Accelerator was put in operation in 1973 and upgraded a first time in 1983 to 9 MV. In the period 2006-2009 a second program of the tandem upgrade was performed aiming to transform this accelerator in a modern and versatile facility for atomic and nuclear physics studies as well as for different applications using accelerated ion

S. Dobrescu; I. Branzan; C. V. Craciun; G. Dumitru; C. Florea; D. Ghita; G. Ion; G. Mihon; D. Moisa; D. V. Mosu; G. Naghel; C. Paun; S. Papureanu; T. Sava

360

Spectroscopic study of the humification process during sewage sludge treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the free radical transition of organic materials during the sewage treatment process. Investigations of sludge from biologic-mechanical sewage treatment plant in Sosnowiec Zagórze were carried out. The course of the humification processes during sewage treatment was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The concentration of free radicals at each process stage and the value g were determined. Sludge samples and extracted fractions of humic acids were examined. Humic acids were extracted from sludge by means of conventional methods elaborated by Stevenson. For study of humic acids structures, besides EPR, the UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy were used.

Paj?czkowska, J.; Su?kowska, A.; Su?kowski, W. W.; J?drzejczyk, M.

2003-06-01

361

Growth of chrysanthemums in sewage sludge amended media  

E-print Network

(Trifolium r~e ens, L. ) when grown on soil amended with sewage sludge. Reports indicate that sewage sludge applications increased the dry matter yield of several container grown agricultural crops. Giordano et al. (35 ) reported that corn (Zea ~ma s, L... dry matter yield of turnips (Brassica ~ra a, L. ) and white clover (Trifolium r~e ens, L. ) increased with increasing rates of sewage sludge. Kirkham (tg) f d th t th d'ff f h 1 y (H d ~1 L. ) height and final dry weight among four different rates...

Schlutt, Edward Frederick

2012-06-07

362

Performance of the upgraded Orroral laser ranging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics discussed include the following: upgrade arrangements, system prior to 1991, elements of the upgrade, laser performance, timing system performance, pass productivity, system precision, system accuracy, telescope pointing and future upgrades and extensions.

Luck, John M.

1993-01-01

363

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

364

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge  

PubMed Central

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

2014-01-01

365

Five-megajoule homopolar upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The five-megajoule homopolar generator (5-MJ HPG) designed and built in 1974 by the Center for Eelctromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) was the result of an engineering feasibility study that examined alternate means of pulsed energy storage for controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments. The machine proved very reliable and useful in a variety of applications, notably pulsed resistance welding, and was modified in 1978 to improve its flexibility and ease of maintenance. CEM-UT is now completing a major upgrading of this HPG to a hydraulically motored, 10-MJ, 47-V, 1.02-MA device capable of welding large-section, high-carbon railroad rail. This report considers the design and fabrication of the new rotor, shaft, brush mechanisms, field coil, making switch, busbar system, and control system, as well as the addition of the 31-MPa (4500 psi) hydraulic motoring system. Future applications of the 10-MJ HPG are also discussed.

Bullion, T.M.; Zowarka, R.C.; Aanstoos, T.A.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

1981-01-01

366

CDF level 2 trigger upgrade  

SciTech Connect

We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

2006-01-01

367

Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year�¢����s average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

Kara Berst; Maria Howeth

2010-06-01

368

Metals in tissues of fish from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the metal concentrations in muscle, liver, gonad, and gill of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758), and keeled mullet (Liza carinata Valenciennes, 1836) from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean region. So, the levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in tissues of specimens from the lagoon were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Concentrations of metals in muscles of the examined species ranged from 0.10 to 0.47 mg kg(-1) for cadmium, 0.10 to 0.43 mg kg(-1) for cobalt, 0.17 to 0.72 mg kg(-1) for chromium, 0.62 to 1.03 mg kg(-1) for copper, 28.9 to 52.3 mg kg(-1) for iron, 0.75 to 0.96 mg kg(-1) for manganese, 0.11 to 0.57 mg kg(-1) for nickel, 0.19 to 0.47 mg kg(-1) for lead, and 6.01 to 13.9 mg kg(-1) for zinc, respectively. Additionally, metal concentrations in muscles of fish were assessed for human uses according to provisional tolerable weekly intake and provisional tolerable daily intake. PMID:19680760

Türkmen, Aysun; Türkmen, Mustafa; Tepe, Yalçin; Cekiç, Mustafa

2010-09-01

369

Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo

2009-08-01

370

Subtidal Variability in the Virginia Coast Reserve Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virginia Coastal Reserve (VCR) lagoon is a ~ 65 km X 15 km body of water (depth 1-2 m) west of Chesapeake Bay, and bounded by solid land on the west and a barrier island chain to the east. Inlets between the barrier islands allow communication with the Atlantic continental shelf. We examine data from four water level gauges and three meteorological stations around the estuary. Spectra of water level variations show that the estuary is dominated by the M2 tide, and tidal constituents determined by a least squares fit reveal tide heights are O(0.5 m). Winds are generally light (~ 1-2 m/s), with isolated events in the range 4-6 m/s. We have low-pass filtered these wind and sea level observations. Sea level differences between different gages reveal that there is no east-west or north-south wind-induced water level set-up in response to the wind fluctuations with periods longer than two days. Instead, the VCR undergoes an estuary-wide sea level change, which seems loosely correlated with the wind. We show evidence from stations external to the VCR and simple analytical arguments that the lagoon is remotely forced by meteorological events on the continental shelf.

Mied, R. P.; Handler, R.; Snow, C.; Fusina, R.; Porter, J.

2009-12-01

371

Long term trends in sewage abatement and water quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary  

SciTech Connect

Long-term trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of 70 years of sewage abatement and treatment in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary near New York City (NYC). Regional construction of wastewater treatment plants since the 1920`s has reduced discharges of untreated sewage into the estuary from approximately 47 M{sup 3}/S in 1936 to less than 0.1 M{sup 3}/S by 1994. From at least 1922 through the early 1960s, average summer DO percent saturation in the Hudson River varied between 35--50% in surface waters and 25--40% in bottom waters. Beginning in the late 1970s, DO concentrations increased through the 1980s and especially into the 1990s, coinciding with the secondary treatment upgrade of the 7.4 M3/s North River plant in the spring of 1991. Average summer percent saturation in the early 1 990s exceeded 80% in surface waters and 60% in bottom waters. In addition, summer DO minima increased from less than 1.5 mg/L in the early 1970s, to greater than 3.0 mg/L in the 1990s, and the duration of hypoxia during summer months has been reduced. While this general trend has been observed throughout the estuary, some areas have displayed recent declines in DO, possibly due to increasing eutrophication. Total coliforms also display strong decreasing trends from the 1960s into the 1990s, with declines attributed to plant construction and expansion, and improved operation of the sewer system. Metal loadings have also decreased significantly. Signs of improved ecosystem quality include reopened beaches and shellfish beds, re-infestation of woodpilings by marine wood-borers, and the resurgence of wading birds in several areas of the estuary.

Brosnan, T.M.; O`Shea, M.L. [New York City Dept. of Environmental Protection, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

372

High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa.  

PubMed

Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (?(15)N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of 'reproducibility', incorporating 'taxonomic replication' in the measurement of ?(15)N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects. PMID:23602260

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S; Kildea, Timothy N; Schlacher, Thomas A

2013-06-15

373

Second review of standards of performance for sewage sludge incinerators  

SciTech Connect

Standards to control emissions from new and existing sewage-sludge incinerators are reviewed. Information on the background and authority regulatory alternatives considered and the economic impacts of the proposed regulations is presented.

Not Available

1984-03-01

374

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

375

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2010-07-01

376

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2011-07-01

377

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2012-07-01

378

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system. That...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...1972; (b) The collection system is...

2013-07-01

379

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

380

Behavior of fluorescent whitening agents during sewage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are contained in most modern laundry detergents and are thus discharged in substantial quantities with household wastewater. To determine the mass flows and fate of the predominant detergent FWAs, a field study was conducted at a full-scale mechanical–biological sewage treatment plant at Zürich-Glatt, Switzerland. Samples of wastewater (raw sewage, and primary and secondary effluent) and sludge

Thomas Poiger; Jennifer A. Field; Thomas M. Field; Hansruedi Siegrist; Walter Giger

1998-01-01

381

Mechanism of wet sewage sludge pyrolysis in a tubular furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to develop a preliminary mechanistic understanding of wet sewage sludge decomposition from starting constituents to final products, including intermediates formed during the pyrolysis process. Sewage sludge with a moisture content of 84.2 wt% was pyrolyzed at different temperatures in a tubular furnace, the pyrolysis products (hydrogen-rich fuel gas, tar and solid char) were detected

Beiping Zhang; Sijiang Xiong; Bo Xiao; Dongke Yu; Xiaoyuan Jia

2011-01-01

382

Hindcasting of nutrient loadings from its catchment on a highly valuable coastal lagoon: the example of the Fleet, Dorset, UK, 1866-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrient loadings from its catchment upon The Fleet, a highly valuable coastal lagoon in Southern England, were hindcast for the period AD 1866–2004, using a catchment model, export coefficients, and historical data on land use changes, livestock numbers, and human population. Agriculture was the main nutrient source throughout, other inputs representing minor contributions. Permanent pasture was historically the main land use, with temporary grassland and cereals increasing during the mid-20th century. Sheep, the main 19th century livestock, were replaced by cattle during the 1930s. Results Total nitrogen loadings rose from ca 41 t yr-1 during the late 19th century to 49–54 t yr-1 for the mid-20th, increasing to 98 t yr-1 by 1986. Current values are ca 77 t yr-1. Total phosphorus loads increased from ca 0.75 t yr-1 for the late 19th century to ca 1.6 t yr-1 for the mid-20th, reached ca 2.2 t yr-1 in 1986, and are now ca 1.5 t yr-1. Loadings rose most rapidly between 1946 and 1988, owing to increased use of inorganic fertilisers, and rising sheep and cattle numbers. Livestock were the main nutrient source throughout, but inputs from inorganic fertilisers increased after 1946, peaking in 1986. Sewage treatment works and other sources contribute little nitrogen, but ca 35% of total phosphorus. Abbotsbury Swannery, an ancient Mute Swan community, provides ca 0.5% of total nitrogen, and ca 5% of total phosphorus inputs. Conclusion The Fleet has been grossly overloaded with nitrogen since 1866, climaxing during the 1980s. Total phosphorus inputs lay below 'permissible' limits until the 1980s, exceeding them in inner, less tidal parts of the lagoon, during the 1940s. Loadings on Abbotsbury Bay exceeded 'permissible' limits by the 1860s, becoming 'dangerous' during the mid-20th century. Phosphorus stripping at point sources will not significantly reduce loadings to all parts of the lagoon. Installation of 5 m buffer strips throughout the catchment and shoreline will marginally affect nitrogen loadings, but will reduce phosphorus inputs to the West Fleet below 'permissible' limits. Only a combination of measures will significantly affect Abbotsbury Bay, where, without effluent diversion, loadings will remain beyond 'permissible'. PMID:17196108

Weber, Geraint J; O'Sullivan, Patrick E; Brassley, Paul

2006-01-01

383

Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood damage, but still easily mapped from aerial photos. These features suggest that Isla Angel de la Guarda experienced Quaternary uplift similar in scale to many other gulf islands on which marine terraces are preserved. Closed lagoons around the Gulf of California represent a stable oligotrophic ecosystem affected by extreme aridity and hypersalinity, punctuated episodically by the injection of floodwater from tropical storms. The taxonomic and geographic ranges of microbial communities throughout the larger region remain to be explored.

Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

2012-07-01

384

[National survey of urban sewage reuse in China].  

PubMed

On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas. PMID:23323420

Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min

2012-11-01

385

Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill  

SciTech Connect

Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. (Ocean Research Inst., San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

386

Three main stressors acting on the Ria Formosa lagoonal system (Southern Portugal): Physical stress, organic matter pollution and the land ocean gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 15 years of the 20th century, several researchers carried out extensive sampling of benthic macrofauna communities in the Ria Formosa lagoon. The main objective of this paper is to discern the main communities of benthic fauna of the Ria Formosa and the leading stressors that limit them based on this large data set. The high species richness and high diversity values observed at most of the stations or groups of stations indicate a good ecological status, with the exception of the sewage-impacted areas and the physically stressed areas. It was possible to define three main stressors acting on the Ria Formosa. The most important is the physical stress imposed by the limited water renewal in some areas of the Ria Formosa. The second is the nutrient and organic matter pollution that is limited to the vicinity of the sewage outfall stations and to some locations of the Ria Formosa. This is due to the dual effects of the low residence time of water, but also due to a degradation of water quality in places of relatively restricted water circulation but with high primary production, symptoms of eutrophication. The third stressor is the natural land-ocean gradient, denoting the influence of seawater exchanges and emersion time, attenuated by the high water exchange rates of Ria Formosa. It was possible to differentiate the anthropogenic stress from the natural physical stress through the application of multivariate analysis. However, both structural (species richness and diversity indices) and functional indicators (trophic composition) indicate the same trend - low species richness, low diversity indices, and a community dominated by detritivores species at the locations characterized by high anthropogenic impact or by physical stress. The physically stressed areas were dominated by chironomid larvae and hydrobiid gastropods and the most polluted areas were dominated by oligochaetes, mainly tubificids.

Gamito, S.

2008-05-01

387

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01

388

Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

Trageser, Katherine H.

2011-01-01

389

Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Performance Expectation exists to update, revise, and/or cancel seven onsite SARPS during FY 1999. It is the U.S. Department of Energy's desire that 100% of the SARPs (which existed at the beginning of the PHMC Contract) be upgraded, revised, and/or canceled by the end of the five year contract. This plan is a ''living'' document and is used as a management tool.

KELLY, D.L.

1998-11-18

390

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two years on ASDEX Upgrade the physics base for ITER operation was significantly extended in both the foreseen standard H-mode scenario as well as the stationary improved H-mode scenario with enhanced performance. For anomalous transport (energy, particles, toroidal momentum) a multi-faceted picture of mode dominance in different plasma parameter regimes of ITG, TEM and ETG turbulence is evolving based on detailed measurements including fluctuation reflectometry and gyrokinetic calculations. Similar structures were found for natural and pellet induced, mitigated type I-ELMs. They develop to outward drifting helical filaments which are seen as footprints on plasma phasing components. New insights were gained on the interaction of energetic particles (driven by NBI and ICRH) with large scale instabilities (TAEs, NTMs, ELMs) based on new diagnostic and theoretical tools. The unexpected broadening of NBI driven currents beyond a certain heating power can be explained by a fast particle diffusion driven by small-scale turbulence. The active control of MHD instabilities (sawteeth, NTMs) concentrates on ECCD as proposed for ITER. NTMs were completely stabilized with very localized deposition of dc ECCD in improved H-modes, while for the deposition widths larger than the marginal island size as in ITER modulated injection phased with the island O-point was demonstrated to be advantageous. The tungsten coverage of the vessel interior was further extended up to 85%, where the highest erosion occurs at the LFS poloidal limiters, where it is dominated by ICRF accelerated impurities and fast particles from NBI. The W concentration can be kept at an acceptable level by ELM pace-making (using pellets) and by tailored central heating. The stationary improved H-mode extends ITER operation beyond its standard H-mode performance for confinement and beta with H_{98(y,2)}\\beta _{N}/q_{95}^{2} up to 0.4 (ITER reference value 0.2). Based on ASDEX Upgrade kinetic profiles it promises either a fusion performance up to ignition at full current or long pulses of up to 1 h at reduced current (hybrid scenario). This operation mode extends well into the ITER dimensionless parameter range except for ?*. Besides the development of discharge scenarios, the influence of the edge pedestal on confinement and of the flat central q-profile on MHD and confinement was documented.

Gruber, O.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

2007-10-01

391

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a...startup 1. Maximum design dry sewage sludge burning capacity2... 8. Results of initial air pollution control device...

2013-07-01

392

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.

Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

393

Package warehouse upgrades and regulations  

SciTech Connect

Many regulations have been written by states and the EPA about bulk chemical storage since its introduction in the late 1970`s. However, until this year the National Fire Protection Association, through their NFPA guidelines, and the Uniform Fire Code have been the only significant work written concerning package ag chemical storage. These codes have been adopted by many states and are enforced at the local (city) level on both US coasts and larger cities around the midwest and south. Several catastrophic fires at package locations during the last few years have resulted in discussions by regulators and industry to provide not only insurance and guidance but also regulations to retailers and distributors in order to upgrade facilities to reduce the risk of large spills and fires. The Midwest Ag Chemical Association began the task of providing guidance regarding package warehouses three years ago and after twelve months of input from EPA, suppliers and retail dealers, has published the Fundamental Principles of Agricultural Chemical Storage in August of 1993.

Hester, J.F.

1994-12-31

394

Safety upgrades plug car leaks  

SciTech Connect

To lessen the chance of a chemical leak occurring during rail transport, some companies are improving tank car sturdiness and safety by adding such features as top-loading valves, on-board monitoring devices, and thicker, more impact-resistant hulls. Results include a dramatic drop in the number of rail incidents and leak tank cars. Chemicals Division of Olin Corporation (Stamford, Connecticut) has assigned its name to a new fleet of chlorine, caustic soda and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) tank cars. Each car carries the company's Care[trademark]Car registered trademark. The upgrade is part of a company-wide quality improvement process started in 1986. The company requires acoustic emissions (AE) testing on all hazardous materials tank cars. If an area has a defect, it expands and makes a slight sound when subjected to stress. In an AE test, cars are subject to simulated bumps and jolts as in rail shipment. Electronic sensors transfer any stress noises onto a computer screen, where an operator can pinpoint the trouble source.

Not Available

1993-08-01

395

Anatomy of an upgrade event in the upgrade era, and implications for the LHCb trigger  

E-print Network

This document studies the rates at which particles of interest are produced within the LHCb detector acceptance, in both Run 1 and Upgrade conditions. We present the event rates that could be selected by an idealised trigger system during the LHCb Upgrade, and compare these to the rates selected by the Run 1 trigger system. We discuss the implications of our findings for the proposed LHCb Upgrade trigger.

Fitzpatrick, C

2014-01-01

396

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

Gibbson, Murray

2011-01-01

397

Capacity upgrade in WDM submarine cable system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity upgrade from 20 Gbit\\/s to 160 Gbit\\/s in a WDM submarine cable system has been designed based on the experimental study of the dependency of the repeater output power and the number of wavelength

Eiichi Shibano; Hidenori Taga; Toshio Kawazawa; Koji Goto

1999-01-01

398

STAR upgrade program and future physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will present STAR's future plan in terms of both the detector upgrade and physics measurement to study matter with colour degrees of freedom. We will first discuss the status of the newly installed Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector, and their physics prospect in 2014-2016. We will then describe the proposed detector upgrades for the second phase of Beam Energy Scan program in 2018-2019 to study the QCD phase diagram. Finally we will present STAR's plan with detector upgrades in the forward directions for the anticipated pp/pA physics program in 2021-2022 and ep/eA in 2025+. The upgraded STAR experiment will be in an excellent position to perform precision measurements of the partonic structures of the nucleon and nuclei.

Wang, Yaping; Star Collaboration

2014-09-01

399

Upgrade Your Refinery for Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

Upgrading existing refineries for efficient energy utilization imposes strict restraints upon design engineers. Present and future production requirements must be defined. Reliable operating data must be obtained from historical records and test...

Johnnie, D. H., Jr.; Klooster, H. J.

1983-01-01

400

The upgraded scheme of Hefei Light Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enhance the performance of Hefei Light Source, which was designed and constructed two decades ago, an upgrade project would be carried out in the near future. The detail upgrade scheme was described in this paper. Firstly, the magnet lattice of storage ring should be reconstructed with 4 DBA cells, whose advantages are lower beam emittance and more straight section available for insertion devices. Secondly, the beam diagnostics, main power supply, transverse and longitudinal multi-bunch feedback, beam control and manipulation system would be upgrade to improve the beam orbit stability. Finally, the injection system of storage ring and injector, which is composed of electron linac and beam transfer line, would be updated in order to assure smooth beam accumulation process under new low emittance lattice. With above improvement, it is hopeful to increase the brilliance of Hefei Light Source by two orders approximately. After three-year upgrade project, the performance of HLS would meet the demands of advanced SR users.

Wei-min, Li; Hong-liang, Xu; Lin, Wang; Guang-yao, Feng; Shan-cai, Zhang; Hao, Hao

2010-06-01

401

Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

402

Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Ghar El Melh lagoon, Tunisia.  

PubMed

The concentrations of 20 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 12 superficial sediments collected from The Ghar El Melh lagoon. Sediment samples were extracted by Soxhlet and analyzed by Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The concentrations of PCBs, as sum of the 20 congeners, ranged from not detected to 3.987 ng/g on a dry weight basis, with a predominance of highly chlorinated (penta- and hepta-chlorobiphenyls) congeners. No significant correlation was found between the total PCB concentrations and organic carbon content suggesting that sediment organic carbon content did not play an important role in controlling the PCBs levels in the sediments. PCB levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism. The PCBs concentrations were lower than ERM and ERL values for all the collected samples. PMID:21465108

Ameur, W Ben; Trabelsi, S; El Bedoui, B; Driss, M R

2011-05-01

403

Kinematics of the Hourglass Region in the Lagoon Nebula.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hourglass region, ionized solely by the star Herschel 36, represents the brightest part of the Lagoon nebula. In this paper, we present new kinematic observations of the region in [N II] 6583 Å emission line using an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer in the spectrographic mode. We find both asymmetric and symmetric line profiles with large linewidths of 22-40 km/s towards the regions of the Hourglass and Herschel 36. The H II region of the Hourglass reveals a notable expansion up to -18 km/s with respect to the star. Our kinematic data suggest a particular orientation of the cavities created by the H II region expanding into the parent molecular cloud. Relatively higher velocities of -30 to -50 km/s are observed south of Herschel 36, indicating the presence of low density regions and champagne flow.

Chakraborty, A.; Anandarao, B. G.

1997-10-01

404

New Hergig-Haro objects in the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of five new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects in the Lagoon Nebula (M8), as part of the search for evidences of ongoing star formation in the region using optical wide-field narrow-band imaging obtained at ESO Observatory in La Silla (Chile). Based on the analysis of the [S II] and Halpha images, we study in detail the morphology of these objects and attempt to identify their potential driving sources among the population of T Tauri stars and embedded sources in the surroundings. Some of the new HH objects appear to be parsec-scale outflows and we derive large dynamical ages for them. The obtained results conclusively demonstrate the existence of very young stars in M8 going through the accreting phase of their formation.

Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.

405

ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

406

Ferric hydroxide and ferric hydroxysulfate precipitation by bacteria in an acid mine drainage lagoon  

E-print Network

Ferric hydroxide and ferric hydroxysulfate precipitation by bacteria in an acid mine drainage communities growing in an acid mine drainage lagoon sediment has confirmed that microorganisms were also: Ferrihydrite; Ferric hydroxysulfate; Bacteria; Biomineralization; Acid mine drainage Contents 1. Introduction

Konhauser, Kurt

407

NAME: Grassy Flats Estuarine Habitat Restoration Project LOCATION: Lake Worth Lagoon, Florida, USA  

E-print Network

by maximizing carbon sequestration and allowing for a natural succession of habitat types as sea level risesNAME: Grassy Flats Estuarine Habitat Restoration Project LOCATION: Lake Worth Lagoon, Florida, USA

US Army Corps of Engineers

408

Seamless Access Router Upgrades through IP/Optical Integration  

E-print Network

Seamless Access Router Upgrades through IP/Optical Integration Susan R. Bailey* , Vijay ISP to upgrade access routers supporting thousands of customers. OCIS codes: (060.4250) Networks; (060 and common occurrence, operators struggle to provide seamless router upgrades. Most network upgrades

Fisher, Kathleen

409

A Fault Model for Upgrades in Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies, and a large body of anecdotal evidence, suggest that upgrades are unreliable and often end in failure, causing downtime and data-loss. While this is sometimes due to software defects in the new version, most upgrade- failures are the result of faults in the upgrade procedure, such as broken dependencies. In this paper, we present data on upgrade failures

Tudor Dumitras; Soila Kavulya; Priya Narasimhan

410

WIYN bench upgrade: a revitalized spectrograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the redesign and upgrade of the versatile fiber-fed Bench Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope. The spectrograph is fed by either the Hydra multi-object positioner or integral-field units (IFUs) at two other ports, and can be configured with an adjustable camera-collimator angle to use low-order and echelle gratings. The upgrade, including a new collimator, charge-coupled device (CCD) and

M. Bershady; S. Barden; P.-A. Blanche; D. Blanco; C. Corson; S. Crawford; J. Glaspey; S. Habraken; G. Jacoby; J. Keyes; P. Knezek; P. Lemaire; M. Liang; E. McDougall; G. Poczulp; D. Sawyer; K. Westfall; D. Willmarth

2008-01-01

411

The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960's), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed\\/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the nontimed

Michael Oothoudt; Stuart Schaller; Eric Bjorklund; Mary Burns; Gary Carr; John Faucett; David Hayden; Matthew Lusk; Robert Merl; Jerry Potter; Jerome Reynolds; Dolores Romero; F. E. Shelley

2003-01-01

412

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller

2007-02-01

413

Seasonal Variability in Mercury Speciation within Select Coastal Lagoons of Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons may play an important role in mercury biogeochemical cycling at the land-sea margin. Along the coast of California, these systems are seasonally dynamic, behaving as estuaries during the wet season and as lagoons in the dry season when ephemeral sand berms develop and isolate terrestrial freshwater from direct exchange with the ocean. As a consequence, many lagoons become eutrophic in the dry season and are characterized by high nutrient and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Because monomethylmercury (MMHg) production can be mediated by anaerobic bacteria, coastal lagoons are a potential source of biologically available MMHg that may be transported to the nearshore environment via submarine groundwater discharge. To evaluate the importance of coastal lagoons at the land-sea margin, we quantified total mercury (HgT) and MMHg concentrations in surface water and coastal seawater from six sites during dry and wet season conditions, including one storm event. Additionally, we conducted a tidal study at one lagoon in which we sampled surface water, seawater, and groundwater over a 10-hour period during a falling tide (+1.63 to 0.00 m). Groundwater was collected using a multi-port piezometer screened at depths ranging from 1 m to a few centimeters below the lagoon's sediment-water interface. This enabled us to characterize surface water - groundwater interaction. During wet season conditions, the average unfiltered HgT (U-HgT) concentration in surface water at the tidal study lagoon was 13 pM and did not fluctuate in response to tidal changes. Filtered (< 0.45 ?m) HgT (F-HgT) concentrations in the lagoon were similar to U-HgT concentrations during high tide and decreased to 8 pM during low tide. Groundwater F-HgT concentrations were about 1.5 pM at a depth of 1 m and systematically increased at shallower depths, reaching approximately 6 pM near the surface. These data indicate F-HgT exchange between the lagoon and groundwater to a depth of at least 1 m. Seawater HgT was typically < 5 pM. MMHg concentrations in surface water at this lagoon during the dry season ranged from 2 to 5 pM, suggesting enhanced methylmercury production.

Ganguli, P. M.; Conaway, C. H.; Dimova, N. T.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Kehrlein, N. C.; Flegal, A. R.

2011-12-01

414

Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 ?g g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 ?g g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural "barrier" for the potential risk of Hg transfer to the aquatic trophic chain.

Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

2011-10-01

415

Biotests for environmental quality assessment of composted sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The quality of sewage sludge-based products, such as composts and growth media, is affected by the contamination of sewage sludge with, potentially, hundreds of different substances. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve the reliable environmental quality assessment of sewage sludge-based products solely based on chemical analysis. In the present work, we demonstrate the use of the kinetic luminescent bacteria test (ISO 21338) to evaluate acute toxicity and the Vitotox™ test to monitor genotoxicity of sewage sludge and composted sewages sludge. In addition, endocrine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity was studied using yeast-cell-based assays. The relative contribution of industrial waste water treated at the Waste Water Treatment Plants led to elevated concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) in sewage sludge. The effect of elevated amounts of organic contaminants could also be identified with biotests able to demonstrate higher acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and potential for endocrine-disruptive properties. Additional extraction steps in kinetic luminescent bacteria test with DMSO and hexane increased the level of toxicity detected. Composting in a pilot-scale efficiently reduced the amounts of linear alkylbenzensulphonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenolethoxylates (NPE/NPs) and PAH with relative removal efficiencies of 84%, 61% and 56%. In addition, decrease in acute toxicity, genotoxicity and endocrorine-disrupting and dioxin-like activity during composting could be detected. However, the biotests did have limitations in accessing the ecotoxicity of test media rich with organic matter, such as sewage sludge and compost, and effects of sample characteristics on biotest organisms must be acknowledged. The compost matrix itself, however, which contained a high amount of nutrients, bark, and peat, reduced the sensitivity of the genotoxicity tests and yeast bioreporter assays. PMID:23540356

Kapanen, Anu; Vikman, Minna; Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Virta, Marko; Itävaara, Merja

2013-06-01

416

The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

2012-09-01

417

The attenuation of tidal and subtidal oscillations in the Patos Lagoon estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single, long and narrow channel that usually connects choked coastal lagoons to the ocean can serve as a natural hydraulic low-pass filter that reduces or eliminates tidal and subtidal effects inside the lagoon. This study proposes an alternative method of estimating the attenuation of the tidal and subtidal oscillations throughout the Patos Lagoon estuary. The attenuation is estimated for conditions of contrasting river runoff and weather (summer and winter). A high-pass/low-pass filter (fast fourier transformation technique - FFT) is applied to time series of sea-surface elevation (SSE) measured at the mouth of the Patos Lagoon. The resulting high-frequency (tidal) and low-frequency (subtidal) signals are used in independent simulations to force the TELEMAC-2D model. Attenuation of the tidal and subtidal signals throughout the estuary is estimated by applying cross-spectral analysis between the model-generated SSE time series at different locations throughout the estuary and the filtered SSE time series measured at the mouth. Results from the proposed method suggest that: (1) the low-frequency (subtidal) oscillations are less attenuated and propagate further than the high-frequency (tidal) oscillations in the Patos Lagoon estuary; (2) the filtering capability of the Patos Lagoon estuary is expected to follow a seasonal pattern, although further investigations on an interannual time scale are recommended in order to confirm this hypothesis; (3) the influence of the oceanic boundary processes on the SSE dynamics of the lagoon is restricted to the lower estuary. Further inland, the local forcing generated by the wind and freshwater input is likely to be the main forcing effect controlling the dynamics of the system. The proposed method proved to be an efficient and alternative way of estimating the attenuation of energy in the tidal and subtidal bands throughout the access channel of a choked coastal lagoon located in an area of reduced tidal influence.

Fernandes, E. H. L.; Mariño-Tapia, I.; Dyer, K. R.; Möller, O. O.

418

Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance (tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA) were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These

J. C. Chee-Sanford; R. I. Aminov; I. J. Krapac; N. Garrigues-Jeanjean; R. I. Mackie

2001-01-01

419

Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N2O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification\\/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N2O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study

Konstantinos C. Makris; Dibyendu Sarkar; Syam S. Andra; Stephan B. H. Bach; Rupali Datta

2009-01-01

420

Biomass, production and heterotrophic activity of bacterioplankton in the Great Astrolabe Reef lagoon (Fiji)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass, production and heterotrophic activity of bacterioplankton were determined for two weeks in the Great Astrolabe Reef\\u000a lagoon, Fiji. Bacterial and Bacterial activities were distributed homogeneously throughout the water column (20 to 40?m deep)\\u000a and varied little from site to site inside the lagoon. Bacterioplankton biomass and production also varied little over a diel\\u000a period with coefficients of variation of

J.-P. Torréton

1999-01-01

421

The fish fauna of three North African lagoons: specific inventories, ecological status and production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ecological and biological status of fisheries in three coastal lagoons in the southern Mediterranean\\u000a region: Merja Zerga in Morocco, Ghar El Melh in Tunisia and Lake Manzala in Egypt. Despite similarities in some ecological\\u000a characteristics, the three lagoons’ respective fisheries show differences in specific composition, in population structure\\u000a and in their production both in qualitative and

M. M. Kraïem; L. Chouba; M. Ramdani; M. H. Ahmed; J. R. Thompson; R. J. Flower

2009-01-01

422

Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy.Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224Ra to 228Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore

John Rapaglia; Christian Ferrarin; Luca Zaggia; Willard S. Moore; Georg Umgiesser; Ester Garcia-Solsona; Jordi Garcia-Orellana; Pere Masqué

2010-01-01

423

Effects of shrimp-farm effluents on the food web structure in subtropical coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies have reported the negative effects of shrimp aquaculture on water quality, little is known about the ecological effects of these practices in coastal lagoons and near-shore marine habitats. The impact of shrimp-farm effluents on the food webs of an impacted subtropical coastal lagoon in the Gulf of California was evaluated through measurements of isotopic (?13C, ?15N) signatures

L. Serrano-Grijalva; S. Sánchez-Carrillo; D. G. Angeler; R. Sánchez-Andrés; M. Álvarez-Cobelas

2011-01-01

424

Geological criteria for the selection of unconfined dredged material disposal sites in estuaries and lagoons  

E-print Network

GEOLOGIC CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF UNCONFINED DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITES IN ESTUARIES AND LAGOONS A Thesis ROBERT MICHAEL MCHAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the rectuirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Ma jor Sub j ect: Geology GEOLOGIC CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF UNCONFINED DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITES IN ESTUARIES AND LAGOONS A Thesis ROBERT MICHAEL MCHAM Approved as to style and content by...

McHam, Robert Michael

2012-06-07

425

A geochemical analytical approach for the evaluation of heavy metal distribution in lagoon sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim, and Scope  Italian lagoon environments are of great importance due either to their frequency and distribution along the coasts or to\\u000a their management. Agriculture, urban and industrial activities in lagoon catchments can be sources of heavy metal (HM) pollution\\u000a by direct waste dumping, atmospheric deposition of fumes or, simply, as a consequence of a lack of natural water recharge.

Renata Pacifico; Paola Adamo; Carlo Cremisini; Fabio Spaziani; Luciano Ferrara

2007-01-01

426

Characterization of atmospheric ammonia emissions from swine waste storage and treatment lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of atmospheric ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, where NH3-N 5 (14\\/17)NH3) from an anaerobic ;2.5 ha (1 ha 5 10,000 m 2 ) commercial hog waste storage lagoon were measured during the summer of 1997 through the spring of 1998 in order to study the seasonal variability in emissions of NH3-N and its relationship to lagoon physicochemical properties. Ammonia-nitrogen fluxes were measured

Viney P. Aneja; J. P. Chauhan; J. T. Walker

2000-01-01

427

An evaluation of the USEPA calculations of greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

On 10 Apr. 2009, USEPA proposed and on 30 Oct. 2009 USEPA finalized reporting thresholds for a wide range of human-derived sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) as a first step in establishing emission limits in the United States. The only on-farm source category that required monitoring under the proposed and final rule was methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (NO(2)) emissions from manure storage facilities. Our objective was to assess, through a literature review, the methodology used by USEPA to estimate current CH(4) emissions from uncovered anaerobic lagoons and the proposed methodology for reporting those emissions under the proposed rule. A review of the performance of uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicates that they are more effective at degrading volatile solids (VS) than predicted using parameters provided by USEPA that had been developed for anaerobic digesters. We also documented errors in the USEPA- and International Panel on Climate Change-estimated methane conversion factors for uncovered anaerobic lagoons. We suggest estimating CH(4) emissions from anaerobic lagoons based on VS degraded in the lagoon and B' (m(3) CH(4) generated kg(-1) VS destroyed). Our estimate of CH(4) released from uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicated the regulatory operation size threshold could be at least 65% smaller than predicted by USEPA in the proposed rule. Our calculated estimate of CH(4) emissions was substantially greater than the few estimates of CH(4) loss based on direct measurements on uncovered anaerobic lagoons. More research is needed before it will be possible to provide definitive estimates of CH(4) loss from uncovered anaerobic lagoons. PMID:20400573

Lory, John A; Massey, R E; Zulovich, J M

2010-01-01

428

Abundances, distribution, and sources of trace metals in Nakaumi–Honjo coastal lagoon sediments, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom sediments from Nakaumi Lagoon and the Honjo Area in southwest Japan were analyzed to determine their geochemical compositions\\u000a and to assess potential impacts by comparison with sediment quality guidelines. Present-day water quality was also assessed.\\u000a Results showed that the water quality of Nakaumi Lagoon and the Honjo area contrasts between their upper and lower parts.\\u000a Average abundances of As,

Faruque Ahmed; M. Hawa Bibi; Koji Seto; Hiroaki Ishiga; Takehiko Fukushima; Barry P. Roser

2010-01-01

429

Trophic state and water turn-over time in six choked coastal lagoons in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentration, nutrient loading, and water turn-over time in six shallow choked lagoons along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established that water turn-over time is related to the trophic state of the lagoons with additional anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting this relationship. Turnover time was calculated as a flushing half-life from

Bastiaan Knoppers; Björn Kjerfve; Jean-Pierre Carmouze

1991-01-01

430

Dynamics of phytoplankton and picoplankton over a tidal cycle in a subtropical lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of a tidal cycle on the distribution of autotrophic plankton were investigated in a hyper-eutrophic lagoon\\u000a designated as a scenic area. Results showed that the highest concentrations of picoplankton and phytoplankton were found in\\u000a the middle and inner part of the lagoon, irrespective of the tides. The MDS result also revealed that phytoplankton communities,\\u000a dominated by Ceratium furca,

Kwee Siong Tew; Pei-Jie Meng; Hung-Jen Lee; Yi-Xiu Ye; Jimmy Kuo; Lee-Shing Fang; Wei-Rung Chou

2010-01-01

431

Water quality of Mediterranean coastal plains: conservation implications from the Akyatan Lagoon, Turkey.  

PubMed

The water quality of the Akyatan Lagoon was characterized using hydrochemical methodology. The lagoon is located on the Mediterranean coast and is the largest wetland ecosystem in Turkey. In addition, the lagoon is classified as a hyper-salinity wetland. Water samples were collected monthly between December 2007 and November 2008. Eleven stations within the lagoon were determined, and triplicate grab samples were obtained from each station to characterize water quality as follows: T °C, pH, total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and main anions, including chloride (Cl(-)), nitrates (NO3 (-)), and sulfate (SO4 (2-)). Results from selected stations indicated varying TDS, EC, salinity, and Cl(-) concentrations, from 20,892 to 175,824 mg/L, from 35.7 to 99.6 mS/cm, from 22.3 to 71.0 ppt, and from 14,819 to 44,198 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Data indicated that the spatial distribution of water quality parameters was significantly affected by freshwater input via the constructed drainage channels which collect water from a catchment area and discharge water into the lagoon as a point source, thus preventing drainage water to reach the lagoon as a nonpoint source. PMID:25079087

Demir Yetis, Aysegul; Selek, Zeliha; Seckin, Galip; Davutluoglu, Orkun I

2014-11-01

432

Non-steady-state modelling of faecal coliform removal in deep tertiary lagoons.  

PubMed

In Noirmoutier, a French island off the Atlantic coast, secondary effluents flow into a series of four lagoons, 1.4-2.8 m deep, and are reused for agricultural irrigation. The excess water is disposed of to the sea. The aim of this study was to provide a model capable of predicting the microbiological quality of the water pumped for irrigation or discharged to the sea. Meteorological variables, flow rates, physical-chemical characteristics and faecal coliform (FC) contents were monitored for a year and a half. The hydraulic pattern of each lagoon was assumed to be that of completely mixed reactor because of the calculated dispersion numbers and the wind mixing effect. Coliform decay was assumed to follow first order kinetics in each lagoon. Die-off coefficients were calculated in each lagoon using a non-steady-state model. The main bacterial removal mechanism was shown to be solar irradiation. Empirical equations were established to calculate die-off coefficients as a function of received solar energy and temperature. FC die-off rates were higher in the first lagoon and then decreased successively in those following. FC numbers in the different lagoons were predicted with reasonable accuracy in spite of high variation in inlet water quality. The model will facilitate the prediction of water quality under various climatic conditions and different water reuse scenarios and will help to optimise reclamation and storage facilities. PMID:12171406

Xu, P; Brissaud, F; Fazio, A

2002-07-01

433

Taxonomical and numerical comparison of epipelic algae from Balik and Uzun lagoon, Turkey.  

PubMed

The epipelic algae of Balik lagoon and Uzun lagoon were investigated from May 2003 to December 2004. A total of 106 taxa were identified. Of these, 85 were found in Balik lagoon and 78 were found in Uzun lagoon. Water temperature of the lagoons ranged from 6.5 to 24.5 degrees C during the sampling period. Conductivity hardness, dissolved oxygen an pH values varied between 0.70 and 8.00 mS, 26.00 and 86.60 degrees f, 3.50 and 9.00 mg l(-1) and 7.82 and 8.70 respectively. Nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, chloride, phosphate phosphorus and sulphate concentrations in the water were also measured and ranged from 0.01 to 0.14, 0.01 to 0.24, 2.41 to 48.70, 0.01 to 0.12 and 54.00 to 104.40 mg l(-1) respectively Species richness (d), diversity (Shannon - Weaver, H') and evennes (J') were calculated for epipelic algae and the findings showed similar oscillations throughout the research period. Cluster analyses and multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed a similar distribution pattern of epipelic algal flora in both lagoons. PMID:20143705

Gonulol, Arif; Ersanli, Elif; Baytut, Ozgur

2009-09-01

434

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion and electron temperature profiles in conventional L and H mode on ASDEX Upgrade are generally stiff and limited by a critical temperature gradient length ?T/T as given by ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. ECRH experiments indicate that electron temperature (Te) profiles are also stiff, as predicted by electron temperature gradient turbulence with streamers. Accordingly, the core and edge temperatures are proportional to each other and the plasma energy is proportional to the pedestal pressure for fixed density profiles. Density profiles are not stiff, and confinement improves with density peaking. Medium triangularity shapes (?<0.45) show strongly improved confinement up to the Greenwald density nGW and therefore higher ?values, owing to increasing pedestal pressure, and H mode density operation extends above nGW. Density profile peaking at nGW was achieved with controlled gas puffing rates, and first results from a new high field side pellet launcher allowing higher pellet velocities are promising. At these high densities, small type II ELMs provide good confinement with low divertor power loading. In advanced scenarios the highest performance was achieved in the improved H mode with HL-89P?N approx 7.2 at ? = 0.3 for five confinement times, limited by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) at low central magnetic shear (qmin approx 1). The T profiles are still governed by ITG and trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence, and confinement is improved by density peaking connected with low magnetic shear. Ion internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges - mostly with reversed shear (qmin>1) and L mode edge - achieved HL-89P <= 2.1 and are limited to ?N <= 1.7 by internal and external ideal MHD modes. Turbulence driven transport is suppressed, in agreement with the E × B shear flow paradigm, and core transport coefficients are at the neoclassical ion transport level, where the latter was established by Monte Carlo simulations. Reactor relevant ion and electron ITBs with Te approx Ti approx 10 keV were achieved by combining ion and electron heating with NBI and ECRH, respectively. In low current discharges full non-inductive current drive was achieved in an integrated high performance H mode scenario with [`n]e = nGW, high ?p = 3.1, ?N = 2.8 and HL-89P = 1.8, which developed ITBs with qmin approx 1. Central co-ECCD at low densities allows a high current drive fraction of >80%, while counter-ECCD leads to negative central shear and formation of an electron ITB with Te(0)>12 keV. MHD phenomena, especially fishbones, contribute to achieving quasi-stationary advanced discharge conditions and trigger ITBs, which is attributed to poloidal E × B shearing driven by redistribution of resonant fast particles. But MHD instabilities also limit the operational regime of conventional (NTMs) and advanced (double tearing, infernal and external kink modes) scenarios. The onset ?N for NTM is proportional to the normalized gyroradius ?*. Complete NTM stabilization was demonstrated at ?N = 2.5 using ECCD at the island position with 10% of the total heating power. MHD limits are expected to be extended using current profile control by off-axis current drive from more tangential NBI combined with ECCD and wall stabilization. Presently, the ASDEX Upgrade divertor is being adapted to optimal performance at higher ?'s and tungsten covering of the first wall is being extended on the basis of the positive experience with tungsten on divertor and heat shield tiles.

Gruber, O.; Arslanbekov, R.; Atanasiu, C.; Bard, A.; Becker, G.; Becker, W.; Beckmann, M.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bilato, R.; Bolshukin, D.; Borrass, K.; Bosch, H.-S.; Braams, B.; Brambilla, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Braun, F.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brückner, R.; Brüsehaber, B.; Büchl, K.; Buhler, A.; Bürbaumer, H.; Carlson, A.; Ciric, M.; Conway, G.; Coster, D. P.; Dorn, C.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Egorov, S.; Engelhardt, W.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fantz, U.; Faugel, H.; Foley, M.; Franzen, P.; Fu, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gafert, J.; Gantenbein, G.; Gehre, O.; Geier, A.; Gernhardt, J.; Gubanka, E.; Gude, A.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hartmann, D.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Hofmeister, F.; Hohenöcker, H.; Horton, L.; Hu, L.; Jacobi, D.; Jakobi, M.; Jenko, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Kendl, A.; Kim, J.-W.; Kirov, K.; Kochergov, R.; Kollotzek, H.; Kraus, W.; Krieger, K.; Kurzan, B.; Kyriakakis, G.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lang, R. S.; Laux, M.; Lengyel, L.; Leuterer, F.; Lorenz, A.; Maier, H.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Maraschek, M.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P. J.; Meisel, D.; Meister, H.; Meo, F.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Meskat, J. P.; Monk, R.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nunes, I.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pinches, S.; Poli, E.; Pugno, R.; Raupp, G.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Riondato, S.; Rohde, V.; Röhr, H.; Roth, J.; Ryter, F.; Salzmann, H.; Sandmann, W.; Sarelma, S.; Schade, S.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schlögl, D.; Schmidtmann, K.; Schneider, R.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schweinzer, J.; Schweizer, S.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Sesnic, S.; Sihler, C.; Silva, A.; Sips, A.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Tabasso, A.; Tanga, A.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Tsois, N.; Ullrich, W.; Ulrich, M.; Varela, P.; Vollmer, O.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Wolf, R.; Wolfrum, E.; Wunderlich, R.; Xantopoulos, N.; Yu, Q.; Zarrabian, M.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.; Zeiler, A.; Zohm, H.

2001-10-01

435

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASDEX Upgrade was operated with a fully W-covered wall in 2007 and 2008. Stationary H-modes at the ITER target values and improved H-modes with H up to 1.2 were run without any boronization. The boundary conditions set by the full W wall (high enough ELM frequency, high enough central heating and low enough power density arriving at the target plates) require significant scenario development, but will apply to ITER as well. D retention has been reduced and stationary operation with saturated wall conditions has been found. Concerning confinement, impurity ion transport across the pedestal is neoclassical, explaining the strong inward pinch of high-Z impurities in between ELMs. In improved H-mode, the width of the temperature pedestal increases with heating power, consistent with a \\beta_{pol,ped}^{1/2} scaling. In the area of MHD instabilities, disruption mitigation experiments using massive Ne injection reach volume averaged values of the total electron density close to those required for runaway suppression in ITER. ECRH at the q = 2 surface was successfully applied to delay density limit disruptions. The characterization of fast particle losses due to MHD has shown the importance of different loss mechanisms for NTMs, TAEs and also beta-induced Alfven eigenmodes (BAEs). Specific studies addressing the first ITER operational phase show that O1 ECRH at the HFS assists reliable low-voltage breakdown. During ramp-up, additional heating can be used to vary li to fit within the ITER range. Confinement and power threshold in He are more favourable than in H, suggesting that He operation could allow us to assess H-mode operation in the non-nuclear phase of ITER operation.

Zohm, H.; Adamek, J.; Angioni, C.; Antar, G.; Atanasiu, C. V.; Balden, M.; Becker, W.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bertoncelli, T.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottino, A.; Brambilla, M.; Braun, F.; Brüdgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Chankin, A.; Classen, I.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; de Marné, P.; D'Inca, R.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fattorini, L.; Fink, J.; Fischer, R.; Flaws, A.; Foley, M.; Forest, C.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gál, K.; García Muñoz, M.; Gemisic Adamov, M.; Giannone, L.; Görler, T.; Gori, S.; da Graça, S.; Granucci, G.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hahn, D.; Harhausen, J.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hicks, N.; Hobirk, J.; Hölzl, M.; Holtum, D.; Hopf, C.; Horton, L.; Huart, M.; Igochine, V.; Janzer, M.; Jenko, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Kálvin, S.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Kick, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H.-J.; Koscis, G.; Kollotzek, H.; Konz, C.; Krieger, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Langer, B.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Leuterer, F.; Likonen, J.; Liu, L.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maggi, C. F.; Manini, A.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Mantsinen, M.; Maraschek, M.; Martin, P.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P.; McCormick, K.; Meister, H.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Meyer, H.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, H.-W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Poli, E.; Potzel, S.; Püschel, M.; Pütterich, T.; Pugno, R.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reiter, B.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Sandmann, W.; Santos, J.; Sassenberg, K.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schirmer, J.; Schmid, A.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schustereder, W.; Schweinzer, J.; Schweizer, S.; Scott, B.; Seidel, U.; Sempf, M.; Serra, F.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sips, A. C. C.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Stadler, R.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Treutterer, W.; Tröster, C.; Urso, L.; Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.; Varela, P.; Vermare, L.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, D.; Wigger, C.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Würsching, E.; Yadikin, D.; Yu, Q.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zilker, M.

2009-10-01

436

Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.  

PubMed

Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

2014-06-01

437

Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)  

E-print Network

In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms...

Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-10-30

438

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2011-01-01

439

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2013-01-01

440

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing...63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners...

2012-01-01

441

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

...2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering...

2014-01-01

442

Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total

Martin Snickars; Alfred Sandström; Antti Lappalainen; Johanna Mattila; Kajsa Rosqvist; Lauri Urho

2009-01-01

443

Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in semi-enclosed reef lagoons of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton biomass and primary production rates within semi-enclosed reef lagoons of the central Great Barrier Reef were compared with adjacent shelf waters. Chlorophyll concentrations and surface primary production rates were usually higher in lagoons although seasonal differences were only significant during the summer. Nitrate concentrations were higher in lagoons than in shelf waters year-round. Nano- (10–20 µm size fraction), however,

Miles J. Furnas; Alan W. Mitchell; Malvern Gilmartin; Noelia Revelante

1990-01-01

444

Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.  

PubMed

The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

2012-04-01

445

The charm physics programme at the LHCb upgrade, and Atlas and CMS upgrades  

E-print Network

Charm physics has been established at the LHC based on several high-precision measurements. The future of charm physics at the LHC experiments is discussed in detail. The bulk of the charm physics programme will be performed by LHCb and the LHCb upgrade. In particular, the impact of the LHCb upgrade on mixing and \\CP violation measurements is presented.

Marco Gersabeck; for the LHCb Collaboration

2012-09-26

446

Treatability study of industrial waste using sanitary sewage to supply nutrients  

E-print Network

and settling Trickling filters degree of treating the waste. In 1951, Helmers, Frame, Greenberg and Sawyer (14) used sanitary sewage to supply nutrients to cotton kiering waste, rag rope pulping waste and brewery waste. The joint treatment of the sewage... and settling Trickling filters degree of treating the waste. In 1951, Helmers, Frame, Greenberg and Sawyer (14) used sanitary sewage to supply nutrients to cotton kiering waste, rag rope pulping waste and brewery waste. The joint treatment of the sewage...

Ferguson, James Ritchie

2012-06-07

447

Impacts of climate change on water resources in watersheds of four European lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic impacts of projected climate change were assessed for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: the Ria de Aveiro lagoon in Portugal, the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain, the Vistula lagoon in Poland and Kaliningrad region and the Tyligulski lagoon in Ukraine. The eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied to each of the four case study areas individually, considering basin-specific characteristics and management settings. All four watersheds were calibrated and validated towards river discharge at one or more gauges, reaching satisfactory to very good modelling results, depending on the quality and availability of input data (i.e. observed climate and discharge data). For the assessment of climate change impacts we forced the four model set-ups with scenario data from the ENSEMBLES project. Therefore a set of 15 climate scenarios, all running until the end of the 21st century, was applied to SWIM for one reference and three future periods of 30 years each. We evaluated the long-term changes of total freshwater inflow to the four lagoons and compared the results considering average trends and uncertainties induced by the different climate scenarios. The comparison not only shows differences in the magnitude of potential impacts among the four regions but also differences in the direction of change. In Spain and Portugal an average decrease in discharge of about -5% and -15% can be expected, while at the same time the total inflow to the Vistula and the Tyligulski lagoon is projected to increase by 18% and 20% on average by the end of the century. The agreement of climate projections among scenarios is varies between regions and in consequence the uncertainty in model outputs also differs between the four case studies. In the watershed of the Tyligulski lagoon the projected changes in river discharge vary between -70% and 120%, whereas the results for the Ria de Aveiro lagoon range between -1% and -27% for the last three decades of the century. We concluded that the outputs of such kind of impacts intercomparison can add a very valuable contribution to integrated lagoons management in a pan-European context.

Stefanova, Anastassi; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

2014-05-01

448

Environmental quality of transitional waters: the lagoon of Venice case study.  

PubMed

The health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters such as coastal lagoons, is regulated by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires the classification of the water bodies' environmental quality and the achievement of a good ecological status by 2015. In the Venice lagoon, a transitional water body located in the northeastern part of Italy, the achievement of a good ecological status is hampered by several anthropogenic and natural pressures, such as sediment and water chemical contamination, and sediment erosion. In order to evaluate the lagoon's environmental quality according to the WFD (i.e. 5 quality classes, from High to Bad), an integrated Weight-of-Evidence methodology was developed and applied to classify the quality of the lagoon water bodies, integrating biological, physico-chemical, chemical, ecotoxicological, and hydromorphological data (i.e. Lines of Evidence, LOE). The quality assessment was carried out in two lagoon habitat typologies (previously defined on the basis of morphological, sediment, and hydrodynamic characteristics) which were selected taking into account the ecological gradient from sea to land, and the differences in anthropogenic pressure and contamination levels. The LOE classification was carried out by using indicators scored by comparing site specific conditions to reference conditions measured in lagoon reference sites, or provided by local, national or European regulations (e.g. Environmental Quality Standards, EQS, for chemicals). Finally, the overall quality status for each water body was calculated by a probabilistic approach, i.e. by reporting the final result as the frequency distribution of quality classes. The developed procedure was applied by using data and information concerning selected LOE and collected from monitoring programs and research studies carried out in the last 15 years in the lagoon of Venice. A set of sampling stations characterized by spatially and temporally coherent information for each LOE was selected, and among these stations, potential reference sites for each water body typology were identified. The quality assessment highlighted that there are specific lagoon areas, especially those located near the industrially developed area, which are highly affected by anthropogenic activities, and that chemical contamination is one of the main pressures affecting ecological status (e.g. macro-benthonic biodiversity) in the Venice lagoon. The integrated quality assessment procedure that was developed provided a new tool supporting decision making, as well as lagoon assessment and management. PMID:20934753

Micheletti, C; Gottardo, S; Critto, A; Chiarato, S; Marcomini, A

2011-01-01

449

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of solids value of 1.55, and loss on ignition (LOI) value of 70% dry mass. Strongly digested sludge, produced by digesting the liquid sludge further at 35 degrees C in the laboratory, was found to have a lower LOI value of 55% dry mass, and a higher specific gravity of solids value of about 1.72. The maximum dry density of 0.56 tonne/m3 for the dried sludge material was produced using standard Proctor compaction at roughly 85% moisture content (54% solids content). Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained triaxial compression and vane shear. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented. Shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. The effective angle of shearing resistance (phi') was determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The phi' value increased from 32 degrees for moderately digested sludge, to 37 degrees for strongly digested sludge. The effective cohesion of the sludge material remained zero throughout. The shrinkage, swelling and adhesion properties of the sludge material were also studied. Significant shrinkage occurred as the compacted material dried. The sludge material lost its adhesion below about 95% moisture content (51% solids content). Re-hydration of the dry material caused the bulk volume to double. PMID:15681178

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2005-01-01

450

Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

1995-12-31

451

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) power, by installing 2 × 8 internal magnetic perturbation coils, and by improving the ion cyclotron range of frequency compatibility with the tungsten wall. With the perturbation coils, reliable suppression of large type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) could be demonstrated in a wide operational window, which opens up above a critical plasma pedestal density. The pellet fuelling efficiency was observed to increase which gives access to H-mode discharges with peaked density profiles at line densities clearly exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit. Owing to the increased ECRH power of 4 MW, H-mode discharges could be studied in regimes with dominant electron heating and low plasma rotation velocities, i.e. under conditions particularly relevant for ITER. The ion-pressure gradient and the neoclassical radial electric field emerge as key parameters for the transition. Using the total simultaneously available heating power of 23 MW, high performance discharges have been carried out where feed-back controlled radiative cooling in the core and the divertor allowed the divertor peak power loads to be maintained below 5 MW m-2. Under attached divertor conditions, a multi-device scaling expression for the power-decay length was obtained which is independent of major radius and decreases with magnetic field resulting in a decay length of 1 mm for ITER. At higher densities and under partially detached conditions, however, a broadening of the decay length is observed. In discharges with density ramps up to the density limit, the divertor plasma shows a complex behaviour with a localized high-density region in the inner divertor before the outer divertor detaches. Turbulent transport is studied in the core and the scrape-off layer (SOL). Discharges over a wide parameter range exhibit a close link between core momentum and density transport. Consistent with gyro-kinetic calculations, the density gradient at half plasma radius determines the momentum transport through residual stress and thus the central toroidal rotation. In the SOL a close comparison of probe data with a gyro-fluid code showed excellent agreement and points to the dominance of drift waves. Intermittent structures from ELMs and from turbulence are shown to have high ion temperatures even at large distances outside the separatrix.

Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Äkäslompolo, S.; Amdor, C.; Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bardin, S.; Barrera Orte, L.; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottereau, C.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Brochard, T.; Brüdgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Casson, F. J.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I. G. J.; Coenen, J. W.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Curran, D.; da Silva, F.; de Marné, P.; D'Inca, R.; Douai, D.; Drube, R.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Fünfgelder, H.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gál, K.; García Muñoz, M.; Geiger, B.; Giannone, L.; Görler, T.; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; Härtl, T.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Höhnle, H.; Hölzl, M.; Hopf, C.; Houben, A.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kantor, M.; Käsemann, C.-P.; Kallenbach, A.; Kálvin, S.; Kantor, M.; Kappatou, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kasparek, W.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H.-J.; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kubic, M.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Lazaros, A.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lindig, S.; Lisgo, S.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Maraschek, M.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuwirth, D.; Nocente, M.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Plöckl, B.; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polozhiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Püschel, M. J.; Pütterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reimold, F.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Rooij, G. v.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Santos, J.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sommer, F.; Stäbler, A.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Tala, T.; Tardini, G.; Teschke, M.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Tsalas, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Varela, P.; Veres, G.; Vicente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Viola, B.; Vorpahl, C.; Wachowski, M.; Wagner, D.; Wauters, T.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Würsching, E.; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

2013-10-01

452

Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge may be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but the practice has been criticized because sludge may contain trace elements and pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of total and pseudototal extractants of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and to compare the results with the bioavailable concentrations of these elements to maize and sugarcane in a soil that was amended with sewage sludge for 13 consecutive years and in a separate soil that was amended a single time with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge. The 13-year amendment experiment involved 3 rates of sludge (5, 10, and 20 t ha(-1)). The one-time amendment experiment involved treatments reflecting 50, 100, and 200 % of values stipulated by current legislation. The metal concentrations extracted by aqua regia (AR) were more similar to those obtained by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3052 than to those obtained by EPA3051, and the strongest correlation was observed between pseudo(total) concentrations extracted by AR and EPA3052 and bioavailable concentrations obtained by Mehlich III. An effect of sewage sludge amendment on the concentrations of heavy metals was only observed in samples from the 13-year experiment. PMID:22810380

Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; de Melo, Wanderley José; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

2013-04-01

453

Drug Resistance of Coliform Bacteria in Hospital and City Sewage  

PubMed Central

The number and properties of drug-resistant coliform bacteria in hospital and city sewage were compared. There was little difference in the counts of organisms with nontransferable resistance to one or more of 13 commonly used drugs. An average of 26% of coliforms in hospital waste water had transferable resistance to at least one of the drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, or tetracycline as compared to an average of 4% in city sewage. R+ bacteria in the hospital discharge were also resistant to a broader spectrum of drugs than those in city sewage. In both effluents, the occurrence of fecal Escherichia coli among R+ coliforms was twice as high as among coliforms with nontransferable resistance. Resistance was transferable to Salmonella typhi, and such drug-resistant pathogens in the water environment could be of particular concern. The significance of the results with regard to environmental pollution with R+ bacteria and the dissemination of these organisms is discussed. PMID:4597713

Grabow, W. O. K.; Prozesky, O. W.

1973-01-01

454

Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g?L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

2010-11-01

455

Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania  

E-print Network

the health risks to humans, sewage pollution also threatens community structure, biodiversity, and services, 1985). Such deleterious effects of sewage pollution on coral reefs can have a strong impactIsotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania Molly A

Harvell, Catherine Drew

456

Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

457

Changes in Macroalgal Communities in the Vicinity of a Mediterranean Sewage  

E-print Network

of pollution (Table 1). The sewage ¯owing into the sea is mainly carried westwards along the coast by currentsChanges in Macroalgal Communities in the Vicinity of a Mediterranean Sewage Outfall After of the Marseille (Mediterranean, France) sewage outfall, 8 years after the setting up of a wastewater t