Sample records for upgrading sewage lagoons

  1. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  2. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  3. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  4. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  5. Lagoon Seepage Testing Report for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory, Butte County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bridger Morrison

    2014-09-01

    J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) performed seepage tests on the CFA Wastewater Lagoons 1, 2, and 3 between August 26th and September 22nd, 2014. The lagoons were tested to satisfy the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16) that require all lagoons be tested at a frequency of every 10 years and the Compliance Activity CA-141-03 in the DEQ Wastewater Reuse Permit for the CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (LA-000141-03). The lagoons were tested to determine if the average seepage rates are less than 0.25 in/day, the maximum seepage rate allowed for lagoons built prior to April 15, 2007. The average seepage rates were estimated for each lagoon and are given in Table-ES1. The average seepage rates for Lagoons 1 and 2 are less than the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day. Lagoon 1 and 2 passed the seepage test and will not have to be tested again until the year 20241. However, the average seepage rate for Lagoon 3 appears to exceed the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day which means the potential source for the excessive leakage should be investigated further.

  6. Determining the footprint of sewage discharges in a coastal lagoon in South-Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Alexandra; Fernandes, Denise; Damião, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina; Reis, Margarida P

    2015-07-15

    Ria Formosa is a highly productive lagoon in South-Western Europe, supporting 90% of Portuguese clam production. Decreases in shellfish production have been ascribed to deterioration of water quality due to sewage discharges. Nevertheless, a thorough study considering their impact on the whole lagoon system has been missing. This work determined the sewage footprint from the major sewage treatment plants (STP) regarding eutrophication and microbial contamination within a two-year monitoring program. This focused on salinity, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll-a and faecal coliforms. Areas closer to sewage discharges showed an evident impact with maximum effects detected at the major STP. However, globally, the Ria Formosa did not show clear eutrophication problems due to high tidal flushing. Ammonium, oxygen, chlorophyll-a and faecal coliforms, unlike the other parameters, showed no seasonality. Microbiological contamination was of great concern and public health issues could be avoided by settling shellfish beds at least 500m away from discharge points. PMID:26013590

  7. Project summary: Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing 420,000 cubic meters (111 million gallons) of digested sewage sludge stored for up to 50 years. The project consisted of the following major tasks: (1) obtaining approval from regulatory agencies; (2) obtaining cooperation of landowners and farmers; (3) removing, transporting, and applying the lagooned sludge to soil; and (4) monitoring the impact on crops.

  8. Redistribution of sewage-nitrogen in estuarine food webs following sewage treatment upgrades.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Kylie A; Connolly, Rod M; Maxwell, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes were used to assess the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgrades on the utilisation of sewage-N by estuarine biota in Moreton Bay, Australia. We measured delta(15)N of filamentous algae, mangrove leaves and shore crabs at the Brisbane and Logan Rivers before and after scheduled WWTP upgrades, and at two reference rivers where WWTPs had been upgraded >4 years previously. The total N discharged into Brisbane River decreased by >80% after the upgrades had occurred, but N loads remained similar at Logan River despite the upgrade. In Brisbane River, delta(15)N values of algae and crabs decreased and were comparable to the reference rivers within 1-2 years but no changes occurred at Logan River. The delta(15)N of mangrove leaves remained elevated in all rivers, indicating that sewage-N remained a major source to mangroves either from residual WWTP discharges or from N accumulated in the sediments over many years. PMID:19138774

  9. Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU.

  12. Nitrogen Species in Soil, Sediment, and Ground Water at a Former Sewage-Treatment Wastewater Lagoon: Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.; Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The potential for contamination of ground water from remnant sewage sludge in re-graded sediments of a deconstructed sewage-treatment lagoon was evaluated. Ground-water levels were measured in temporary drive-point wells, and ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and other water-quality characteristics. Composite soil and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for organic carbon and nitrogen species. Multiple lines of evidence, including lack of appreciable organic matter in sediments of the former lagoon, agronomic analysis of nitrogen, the sequestration of nitrogen in the developing soils at the former lagoon, and likely occurrence of peat deposits within the aquifer material, suggest that the potential for substantial additions of nitrogen to ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon resulting from remnant sewage sludge not removed from the former lagoon are small. Concentrations of nitrogen species measured in ground-water samples were small and did not exceed the established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for nitrate (10 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of nitrate in ground-water samples were less than the laboratory reporting limit of 0.06 milligram per liter. Seventy to 90 percent of the total nitrogen present in ground water was in the ammonia form with a maximum concentration of 7.67 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of total nitrogen in ground water beneath the site, which is the sum of all forms of nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, ranged from 1.15 to 8.44 milligrams per liter. Thus, even if all forms of nitrogen measured in ground water were converted to nitrate, the combined mass would be less than the maximum contaminant level. Oxidation-reduction conditions in ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon were reducing. Given the abundant supply of ambient organic carbon in the subsurface and in ground water at the former lagoon, any nitrate that may leach from residual sludge and be transported to ground water with recharge is expected to be quickly denitrified or transformed to nitrite and ammonia under the strongly reducing geochemical conditions that are present. Concentrations of organic carbon, the primary constituent of sewage sludge, in sediments of the former sewage lagoon were less than 1 percent, indicating a near absence of organic matter. The amount of total nitrogen present in the sediments at the former sewage lagoon was only about 25 percent of the amount typically present in developed agricultural soils. The lack of substantial carbon and nitrogen in sediments of the former sewage lagoon indicates that surficial sediments of the former lagoon are essentially devoid of residual sewage sludge. The largest concentration of total nitrogen measured in soil samples from the former sewage lagoon (330 milligrams per kilogram) was used to calculate an estimate of the amount of nitrogen that might be leached from residual sewage sludge by recharge. During the first two years following deconstruction of the former sewage lagoon, the concentration of total nitrogen in recharge leachate might exceed 10 milligrams per liter but the recharge leachate would not likely result in substantial increases in the nitrate concentration in ground water to concentrations greater than the drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.

  13. Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Giesbrecht

    2014-05-01

    The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

  14. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  15. SEPARATION OF ALGAL CELLS FROM WASTEWATER LAGOON EFFLUENTS. VOLUME I. INTERMITTENT SAND FILTRATION TO UPGRADE WASTE STABILIZATION LAGOON EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A project to evaluate the performance characteristics of the intermittent sand filter for polishing lagoon effluents was conducted. Techniques described in the literature for summer and winter operation were applied to determine if filter effluents would consistently meet PL 92-5...

  16. Pollutant removal from municipal sewage lagoon effluents with a free-surface wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberley Cameron; Chandra Madramootoo; Anna Crolla; Christopher Kinsley

    2003-01-01

    This research project was initiated to refine the knowledge available on the treatment of rural municipal wastewater by constructed wetlands. To determine the treatment capacity of a constructed wetland system receiving municipal lagoon effluents, the wetland was monitored over one treatment season, from May 19 to November 3, 2000. The wetland system consisted of a three-cell free-surface wetland, phosphorus adsorption

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of Energy, NevadaOperations Office (DOE/NV) requests: CAU 404 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. NDEP provide a Notice of Completion to the DOE/NV.

  18. Pollutant removal from municipal sewage lagoon effluents with a free-surface wetland.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kimberley; Madramootoo, Chandra; Crolla, Anna; Kinsley, Christopher

    2003-07-01

    This research project was initiated to refine the knowledge available on the treatment of rural municipal wastewater by constructed wetlands. To determine the treatment capacity of a constructed wetland system receiving municipal lagoon effluents, the wetland was monitored over one treatment season, from May 19 to November 3, 2000. The wetland system consisted of a three-cell free-surface wetland, phosphorus adsorption slag filters and a vegetated filter strip. Bimonthly water samples at the inlet and outlet of each component of the wetland system were analysed for biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate and nitrite, ammonia and ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), ortho-phosphate (ortho-PO(4)), fecal coliforms (FCs) and Escherichia coli. The free-surface wetland cells treating the lagoon effluents achieved removals as follows: biochemical oxygen demand (34%), ammonia and ammonium (52%), TKN (37%), TSS (93%), TP (90%), ortho-PO(4) (82%), FCs (52%) and E. coli (58%). The wetland cells reduced total nitrogen, TP and biochemical oxygen demand to levels below the maximum permissible levels required for direct discharge to nearby receiving waters (TN<3.0 mg x L(-1), TP<0.3 mg x L(-1), BOD(5)<3.0 mg x L(-1)). The vegetated filter strip treating the effluents from the wetland cells achieved removals as follows: biochemical oxygen demand (18%), ammonia and ammonium (28%), TKN (11%), TSS (22%), TP (5%), FCs (28%) and E. coli (22%). It may therefore serve as an additional treatment stage further reducing the concentrations of these mentioned parameters. The slag filters reduced TP in the lagoon effluents by up to 99%, and, in this study, were concluded to be effective phosphorus adsorbers. PMID:12767284

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

  20. Coastal lagoons as a natural sewage treatment plant and their impact on the natural stable isotope signature in nitrate (d 15N, d 18O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, M.; Pastuszak, M.; Sitek, S.; Schulte, U.

    2003-04-01

    Eutrophication is one of the major threats to the Baltic Sea ecosystems and, therefore, various possibilities for nutrient removal scenarios are currently discussed. One approach considers a 50% decrease in nutrient inputs by all riparian countries, however, this would cost 380 Mio Euro/yr. Some countries already discharge highly treated sewage waters and any further reduction would be very costly, while other countries use only basic (mechanical) treatment procedures and further treatment could be done cost efficiently. One natural way that reduces nutrient loads and minimize inputs of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate is their transfer through coastal lagoons that act as a natural treatment plant. The residence time of river water is prolonged and that enables settlement of particles and bacterial removal of nitrate and ammonium. This study made it possible to investigate the effect the Szczecin Lagoon has on nutrient concentrations by comparing two stations - one located ca. 100 km upstream, and the other in the Swina Canal, the major outlet of the lagoon. Biweekly samples were taken at both stations. A drop in nitrate concentrations occasionally reached 90%, while the annual removal of nitrate amounted to 55%. The delta 15N and delta 18O data of nitrate were used to investigate the processes responsible for the drop in concentration. Surprisingly, the theoretical delta 15N values (calculated after Rayleigh equation) were negatively correlated with the measured ones, and delta 18O values were unusually high for the river nitrate. We therefore conclude that part of the nitrate was denitrified without fractionation as suggested by Brandes and Devol (1997). However, an additional nitrate source with low delta 15N and high delta 18O values might be also considered. For phosphate the removal was lower, reaching only 15% annually. It seems that the lagoon was more efficiently retaining nitrogen thus changing the N/P ratio of the outflowing water towards N-limitation.

  1. Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobay, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. (USGS)

  2. Macroinvertebrates associated with Chara in a tropical coastal lagoon (Imboassica lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves

    2001-01-01

    Imboassica lagoon is an urban coastal lagoon located in the municipality of Macaé (RJ), which has been exposed to a process of artificial eutrophication through the inflow of untreated sewage, as well as artificial openings of the sandbar that separates it from the ocean, provoking drastic modifications in this ecosystem. The sampling for the analysis of the community of macroinvertebrates

  3. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Kidman

    2009-01-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification

  4. PERFORMANCE AND UPGRADING OF WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings contain 18 papers discussing and describing the design, operation, performance, and upgrading of lagoon systems. Performance data for facultative and aerated lagoons collected at numerous sites throughout the USA are presented. Design criteria and the applicabilit...

  5. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  6. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2009-02-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons. This UR was established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and was based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This reevaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC to an administrative UR. Administrative URs differ from standard URs in that they do not require onsite postings (i.e., signs) or other physical barriers (e.g., fencing, monuments), and they do not require periodic inspections (see Section 6.2 of the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels [NNSA/NSO, 2006c]). This Administrative UR was based on a “Remote Work Sites” future land use scenario that was used to calculate the FAL. The administrative UR will protect workers from an exposure exceeding that used in the calculation of the FAL (i.e., 336 hours per year). Any proposed activity within these use restricted areas that would potentially cause an exposure exceeding this exposure limit would require approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at each site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at these sites that are unrelated to the FFACO URs such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at these sites.

  7. ROCK FILTERS FOR REMOVAL OF ALGAE FROM LAGOON EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to show that rock filtration was an effective, low cost unit process for removing algae from lagoon effluents and correspondingly upgrading lagoon treatment. Sedimentation is the primary mechanism of algal removal within rock filter. The settling...

  8. Comparative Study of Wastewater Lagoon with and without Water Hyacinth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca C. Mcdonald; B. C. Wolverton

    1980-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted on an existing, one-cell, facultative sewage lagoon having a total surface area of 3.6 ha and\\u000a receiving a BOD5 loading rate of 44 kglhald (40 Iblald). The comparative experimental periods ran from July through November for 3 consecutive\\u000a years. During the first period, water hyacinths completely covered the lagoon. The water hyacinth coverage was reduced

  9. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  10. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  11. Effect of coal ash residues on the microbiology of sewage sludge composting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; G. X. Li; M. H. Wong

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline coal ash residues (fly ash, FA, and lagoon ash, LA) which have been used as co-composting materials for sewage sludge to reduce the availability of trace metals, may have an adverse impact on the composting process. It is therefore the aim of the present study to evaluate the effect of FA and LA on the microbial activities of sewage

  12. Developing criteria for small on-site sewage treatment systems: Two case studies. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.P.; Fahmy, H.S.; Blair, A.W.; Jacquez, R.

    1992-10-01

    Two sites in Dona Ana County, the Lyons Country Estates Evapotranspiration (ET) bed and the Mesa Village sewage lagoons, were chosen as case study sites for evaluating the design criteria, operation, and impacts on groundwater of troubled on-site sewage systems.

  13. Endocrine disrupting activities in sewage effluent and river water determined by chemical analysis and in vitro assay in the context of granular activated carbon upgrade.

    PubMed

    Grover, D P; Balaam, J; Pacitto, S; Readman, J W; White, S; Zhou, J L

    2011-09-01

    As part of endocrine disruption in catchments (EDCAT) programme, this work aims to assess the temporal and spatial variations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in River Ray, before and after the commissioning of a full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant at a sewage treatment works (STW). Through spot and passive sampling from effluent and river sites, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were determined by chemical analysis and in vitro bio-assay. A correlation was found between chemical analyses of the most potent estrogens (estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) measurement, both showing clearly a reduction in estrogenic activity after the commissioning of the GAC plant at the STW. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of E1, E2 and EE2 had decreased from 3.5 ng L(-1), 3.1 ng L(-1) and 0.5 ng L(-1) to below their limit of detection (LOD), respectively, with a concentration reduction of at least 91%, 81% and 60%. Annual mean estrogenic activity measured by YES of spot samples varied from 1.9 ng L(-1) to 0.4 ng L(-1) E2 equivalent between 2006 and 2008 representing a 79% reduction. Similarly, anti-androgenic activity measured by yeast anti-androgen screen (anti-YAS) of spot samples was reduced from 148.8 to 22.4 ?g flutamide L(-1), or by 85%. YES and anti-YAS values were related to each other, suggesting co-existence of both types of activities from chemical mixtures in environmental samples. The findings confirm the effectiveness of a full-scale GAC in removing both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities from sewage effluent. PMID:21546050

  14. Crustacean zooplankton in aerated wastewater treatment lagoons as a potential feedstock for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kring, Stefanie A; Xia, Xiaoyan; Powers, Susan E; Twiss, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton biomass productivity was estimated for two 64,000 m3 (1.7 ha) facultative aerated wastewater treatment lagoons to evaluate potential biodiesel production from zooplankton biomass. Lagoons were monitored bi-weekly during summer 2010. Lipid accumulated by crustacean zooplankton was considered the most efficient means by which to collect lipid produced by phytoplankton owing to the greater ease in the collection of these organisms (>0.153mm) compared with unicellular algae (size <0.06 mm). In terms of biomass, the cladoceran Daphnia and the copepod Cyclops were the dominant zooplankton in these hypereutrophic lagoons, while unicellular chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community. Secondary productivity of these lagoons (250 g of dry weight m(-2) yr(-1)) is comparable to the secondary productivity of other sewage lagoons. The potential biodiesel production for one lagoon was estimated to be 0.04 +/- 0.02 L m(-2) yr(-1), which results in a total of 1120 +/- 560 L from two lagoons. This study showed that there are organisms present in wastewater lagoons, besides algae, that can serve as a biofuel feedstock. Additionally, this research expands the current knowledge of facultative aerated wastewater lagoon ecology and waste stream-derived biofuel. Future research should include complete life cycle and economic analyses to determine if harvesting zooplankton from wastewater lagoons is a sustainable endeavour. PMID:24350451

  15. Indian River Lagoon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

    Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

  16. OVERLAND FLOW TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE AT EASLEY, SOUTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overland flow has been demonstrated to be a feasible method for treatment of either comminuted raw sewage or effluent from a facultative lagoon in piedmont South Carolina where mild winters prevail in a region of high rainfall. An overland flow system was operated for three years...

  17. SOIL FILTRATION OF SEWAGE EFFLUENT OF A RURAL AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The treatment performance of irrigation using primary lagoon treated municipal sewage is compared to normal stream or ditch water irrigation when applied to mountain meadows and crops in a high altitude climate during summer months. The two irrigation waters are applied at differ...

  18. Storm-water characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.G.; Vaughn, R.W.; Scott, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and phenols and contained trace levels of methylene chloride. Characterization of lagoon influent showed it to be generally representative of domestic sewage, but also contained trace levels of boron, phenols, toluene, cyanide, chloroform, methylene chloride and ethyl benzene.

  19. Comparative study of wastewater lagoon with and without water hyacinth

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.C.; Wolverton, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    A facultative sewage lagoon completely covered with water hyacinths had significant improvement in effluent quality. BOD 5 and total suspended solids (TSS) were 23 and b mg/L respectively. Without water hyacinths, the effluent BOD5 and TSS were 52 and 77 mg/L, respectively. The effluent total organic C concentration was reduced from 72 to 40 mg/L with water hyacinth coverage.

  20. Brazil: Duck Lagoon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is ...

  1. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  2. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  3. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  4. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  5. Maryborough Lagoon Pocket

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    Manumber Mill Lagoon Pocket Delaneys Creek Coalstoun Lakes Glass House Mountains Harlin Howard Nambour/MAN HOWARD AL PARADISE DAM NOOSA BAR AL MOOLOOLAH AL/TM MARODIAN TM KILKIVAN TM BROOYAR TM BAUPLE EAST TM AL KENILWORTH BRIDGE WARANA BRIDGE AL/TM BRUCE HWY TM PEACHESTER WRC TM GARDNERS FALLS TM BORUMBA DAM

  6. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates. PMID:23404546

  7. Fingerprints of lagoonal life: Migration of the marine flatfish Solea solea assessed by stable isotopes and otolith microchemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierking, Jan; Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2012-06-01

    The commercially important marine flatfish common sole (Solea solea) facultatively uses NW Mediterranean lagoons as nurseries. To assess the imprint left by the lagoonal passage, muscle carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope values of S. solea juveniles caught in Mauguio lagoon in spring (shortly after arrival from the sea) and in autumn (before the return to the sea) were compared with values of juveniles from adjacent coastal marine nurseries. In addition, in the lagoon, sole otolith stable isotope (C and oxygen (O)) and elemental (11 elements) composition in spring and autumn, and the stable isotope composition (C and N) of organic matter sources in autumn, were determined. Overall, our data indicate that a distinct lagoonal signature existed. Specifically, lagoon soles showed a strong enrichment in muscle tissue 15N (>6‰) compared to their coastal relatives, likely linked to sewage inputs (see below), and a depletion in 13C (1-2‰), indicative of higher importance of 13C depleted terrestrial POM in the lagoon compared to coastal nurseries. In addition, over the time spent in the lagoon, sole otolith ?13C and ?18O values and otolith elemental composition changed significantly. Analysis of the lagoon sole foodweb based on C and N isotopes placed sediment particulate organic matter (POM) at the base. Seagrasses, formerly common but in decline in Mauguio lagoon, played a minor role in the detritus cycle. The very strong 15N enrichment of the entire foodweb (+7 to +11‰) compared to little impacted lagoons and coastal areas testified of important human sewage inputs. Regarding the S. solea migration, the analysis of higher turnover and fast growth muscle tissue and metabolically inert and slower growth otoliths indicated that soles arrived at least several weeks prior to capture in spring, and that no migrations took place in summer. In the autumn, the high muscle ?15N value acquired in Mauguio lagoon would be a good marker of recent return to the sea, whereas altered otolith ?18O values and elemental ratios hold promise as long-term markers. The combination of several complementary tracers from muscle and otoliths may present the chance to distinguish between fish from specific lagoons and coastal nurseries in the future.

  8. Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

  9. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

    2013-02-15

    Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

  10. Ecosystem metabolism and carbon fluxes of a tidally-dominated coastal lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Santos; João Silva; Ana Alexandre; Nuria Navarro; Cristina Barrón; Carlos M. Duarte

    2004-01-01

    The metabolism and carbon flux in the western sector of the highly dynamic coastal lagoon Ria Formosa (south Portugal) were\\u000a assessed to elucidate the relative importance of the contribution of the main communities, the treated sewage inputs from\\u000a the adjacent city of Faro, and the exchange with the adjacent coastal waters to the ecosystem metabolism. The results depict\\u000a the Ria

  11. Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

  12. Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

  13. Sewage sludge combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Werther; T. Ogada

    1999-01-01

    In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

  14. Sewage sludge additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.D.; Kalvinskas, J.J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1980-06-24

    A raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage is discussed. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank, for the purposes mentioned. Because the sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage, it is necessary to add carbon to the process. In accordance with this invention, instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Hydrological heterogeneity, nutrient dynamics and water quality of a non-tidal lentic ecosystem (Lesina Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselli, Leonilde; Fabbrocini, Adele; Manzo, Cristina; D'Adamo, Raffaele

    2009-10-01

    The dynamics of the Lesina coastal lagoon (Italy) in terms of nutrients, phytoplankton and chemical-physical parameters were evaluated, together with their functional relationships with freshwater inputs, in order to identify ecosystem responses to changes in driving forces in a Mediterranean non-tidal lentic environment. Lesina Lagoon is a shallow coastal environment characterised by limited exchange with coastal waters, which favours enrichment of nutrients and organic matter and benthic fluxes within the system. Lagoon-sea exchanges are influenced by human management. There is a steep salinity gradient from East to West. High nitrogen and silica values were found close to freshwater inputs, indicating wastewater discharges and agricultural runoff, especially in winter. Dissolved oxygen was well below saturation (65%) near sewage and runoff inputs in the western part of the lagoon during summer. Classification in accordance with EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is of "poor" or "bad" quality in terms of nitrogen concentrations in the eastern zone during the winter rainy period. In terms of phosphate concentrations, the majority of the stations fall into the "good" category, with only two stations (close to the sewage and runoff inputs) classed as "bad". In both cases, the raw nitrogen levels make the lagoon a P-limited system, especially in the eastern part. There was wide space-time variability in chlorophyll a concentrations, which ranged from 0.25 to 56 ?g l -1. No relationships between chlorophyll a and nutrients were found, suggesting that autotrophic biomass may be controlled by a large number of internal and external forcing factors driving eutrophication processes. Water quality for this type of environment depends heavily on pressure from human activities but also on the management of sewage treatment plants, agricultural practices and the channels connecting the lagoon with the sea.

  17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-05-27

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond for treated wastewater effluent for irrigation water, as needed. The two new lagoons would be li

  18. The seasonal variability of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in water and bottom sediment of the Szczecin Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Bogus?awska-Was, E; Dabrowski, W

    2001-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples of water and bottom sediment from the Szczecin Lagoon were carried out from May, 1996 to December, 1997. Isolates of yeasts and yeast-like fungi from water samples reached maximum counts in July whereas sediment samples revealed highest counts in May. Qualitative analysis showed that Candida famata and Rhodothorula rubra were dominant species. As they are typical of strongly eutrophic water their presence indicates that the Szczecin Lagoon is significantly polluted by industrial and municipal sewage. PMID:11556149

  19. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Stephanie; Lamont-Black, John; Jones, Colin J F P

    2007-01-31

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based on pressure can only remove a very limited amount of this water because of the way in which water is bound to the sludge particles or flocs. Several researchers have shown that electrokinetic dewatering of sludge is more efficient than conventional hydraulically driven methods. This involves the application of a dc voltage across the sludge, driving water under an electrical gradient from positive (anode) electrode to negative (cathode) electrode. However, there have been several reasons why this technique has not been adopted in practice, not least because the, normally metallic, anode rapidly dissolves due to the acidic environment created by the electrolysis of water. This paper will describe experimentation using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG): polymer-based materials containing conducting elements. These have been used to minimise the problem of electrode corrosion and create a sludge treatment system that can produce dry solids contents in excess of 30%. It will suggest different options for the treatment of sludges both in situ in sludge lagoons and windrows, and ex situ as a treatment process. PMID:16635546

  20. INTRODUCTION The lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Lamel-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -isolated, shallow, non-tidal biotopes, e.g., brackish lagoons, estuaries, bays and lakes. It was previously thought and feed in lagoons and estuaries which are often inhabited by C. glaucum overland transport

  1. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

  2. Comparing different methods of analysing sewage sludge, dewatered sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston Hoffmann; Daniel Schingnitz; Bernd Bilitewski

    2010-01-01

    The following article compares different ways of characterising sewage sludge. Against the background of sludge recycling in agriculture as well as treatment with subsequent phosphorus recovery in mind, the article starts by collating and evaluating the levels of phosphorus, heavy metals, chlorine and sulphur in sludge as reported in the literature. Sewage sludge from the sewage treatment plant at Kaditz

  3. TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

  4. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  5. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

  6. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  7. Distribution of coliphages against four e. Coli virotypes in hospital originated sewage sample and a sewage treatment plant in bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muntasir; Farzana, Tasmia; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Nessa, Jamalun

    2011-06-01

    The distribution of coliphages infecting different Escherichia coli virotypes (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC) and an avirulent strain (K-12) in sewage system of a hospital and a sewage treatment plant (STP) was investigated by culture-based agar overlay methods. Coliphages were found in all the samples except stool dumping site in the sewage system of the hospital and lagoon of the STP. Bacteriophage count (pfu/ml) infecting E. coli strains showed the following ascending pattern (EHEC < EIEC < EPEC < ETEC < E coli K-12) in all the collected samples except one. Phages capable of infecting avirulent E. coli K-12 strains were present in the highest number among all the examined locations. Phages specific for E. coli K-12 presented high diversity in plaque size on the bacterial lawn. Virulent E. coli specific coliphages rarely produced plaques with diameter of 1-2 mm or over. Conventional agar overlay method was found to be not satisfactory for phage community analysis from primary stool dumping site of the hospital, probably due to the presence of high concentration of antimicrobial substances. The gradual decrease seen in the five groups of coliphage quantity with the ongoing treatment process and then the absolute absence of coliphages in the outlet of the examined treatment plant is indicative of the usefulness of the treatment processes practiced there. PMID:22654163

  8. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  9. Sewage treatment method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fassbender; Alex G

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating

  10. SWINE LAGOON EFFLUENT APPLIED TO COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage yield and quality, soil nu...

  11. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  12. Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meena Khwairakpam; Renu Bhargava

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality

  13. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  14. Compression and Creep of Venice Lagoon Sands

    E-print Network

    Sanzeni, Alex

    A laboratory test program was conducted to evaluate the one-dimensional (1D) compression and creep properties of intact sand (and silty-sand) samples from a deep borehole at the Malamocco Inlet to the Venice Lagoon. The ...

  15. How to Love Your LagoonHow to Love Your Lagoon Educate Yourself

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    -based processes to implement protection programs with specific actions to address environmental problems. Physical Features The Indian River Lagoon is a 156-mile long estuary located on Florida's East Coast. The IRL system is comprised of three distinct water bodies, Mosquito Lagoon, Banana River, and the Indian River

  16. Masterplan to safeguard Venice and to restore the lagoon and conterminous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Gallo, Alba; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Venice and its lagoon constitute a complex system, well known all over the world for the peculiarity of the town and for the fragility of the lagoon ecosystem with its delicate equilibrium. The whole system has been, and is currently, affected by human activities (industry, agriculture, settlements, tourism) that impact severely the ecosystem. Discharge from the agricultural drainage basin affects particularly the area North of the city of Venice; the central and southern areas, instead, receive important pollutant inputs from the industrial zone of Porto Marghera since the early'50s. Additional sources of pollution are domestic sewage and waste disposal from the urban area, that is visited by more than 10M people every year. As a consequence of the increasing land contamination, significant amounts of contaminants (both organic and inorganic) are accumulated in soils of the borderline, in water and in lagoon sediments, which constitute a potential source of secondary pollution. Results of surveys carried out in recent years in the whole area show that contaminants concentration increased from the beginning of the industrial activities until the '90s, when Porto Marghera declined. Most of contaminants have concentrations above the background levels. The highest metal levels were found in an area between Porto Marghera and the city of Venice, where both industrial and urban sewage are discharged, provoking environmental and human health hazard. In order to safeguard the city of Venice, and to restore its lagoon and conterminous areas, a Master Plan of intervention has been developed since the early 2000s. The land currently interested by environmental analysis and/or restoration covers approximately 1350ha; 78% of these (1100ha) proved variously contaminated, with 85% of sites overcoming the National Reference Values. Contamination, besides being diffused, is quite complex, involving the co-existence of several contaminant families (PAH, PCB, dioxin, heavy metals). PAH and metals, in particular, present wide diffusion, both horizontal and vertical (until 5 m below the sea level), with As, Zn, Cd and Hg being the elements more represented in all the soil strata considered. The lagoon sediments inside industrial channels is higher than the other parts of the lagoon; major contaminants are metals (As, Cd, Hg, Pb) and organic micro-pollutants (PCB, PAH); ammonia and phosphate too are present with conspicuous concentrations, contributing to lagoon eutrophication. Groundwater contamination is diffused and complex, with As prevailing over Pb and Cr(VI). The primary objective of the Master Plan was to reduce/eliminate the risk associated to the contamination sources of past activities, and the consequent environmental and human health hazard. Restoration is still in progress, and concerns different intervention strategies: • Channel overbank containment to prevent contaminant migration to water; • Excavation, physical removal and re-distribution of channel sediments (A and B classes); • Landfilling of heavily contaminated sediments (C class); • Soil containment to impede contact with people and the environment; • Restoration of contaminated agricultural land with phytoremediation techniques. Concerning in particular the last item, restoration has been carried out with native or exotic vegetation (e.g. Fragmites australis, Juncus lacustris, Pterix vittata, Spartina maritima), or cultivated plants (e.g. Heliantus annuus, Zea mays, Brassica napus), with contrasting results. The exotic fern (Pterix vittata) proved highly effective to accumulate As, consistently with data from literature; Spartina maritima proved more effective than Fragmites australis to uptake metals, while cultivated plants could not survive to high heavy metal concentrations. At some sites, soil has been stored, selected and finally (the most contaminated part) delivered to landfill, while groundwater was remediated by bioremediation techniques.

  17. Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Gamito, Sofia; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small rivers. Sampling took place in three stations along a gradient of marine influence from June 2001 to July 2002. During summer and autumn, the water in the lagoon was low, influencing positively water temperature, salinity, total solids in suspension (TSS), orthophosphates, total phosphorus (TP) and pH. In winter and spring, there was an increase of nitrates, nitrites, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and N:P ratio with the raise of water level in the lagoon. Chlorophyll a and phaeo-pigments concentrations were positively related to the previous parameters. Phytoplankton density was low and switching in dominant taxa was observed along time but the community was mainly dominated by Dinophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae were related to higher TSS and lower DIN, salinity and TP; Cyanophyceae were stimulated by the opposite conditions. The decrease of water level jointly with the raise of salinity and TP influenced positively pico-nano flagellate algae. Cryptophyceae were positively correlated with the same factors and also TSS. Several trophic state indexes and water quality indicators have been applied and an overall analysis pointed out to a coastal lagoon with mesotrophic characteristics. During the studied period no serious eutrophication events occurred, however there were some situations of nutrient enrichment due to human activities, such as agriculture and non-treated sewage discharges, which might have favoured the development of potentially toxic phytoplankton species, namely Prorocentrum minimum.

  18. Phosphorus removal from wastewater in upgraded activated sludge system with natural zeolite addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hrenovi?; Y. Orhan; H. Büyükgüngör

    A new application of natural zeolites (NZ) in sewage treatment is presented in this paper. In order to investigate possibilities of phosphorus removal from wastewater two experimental studies were run; the first one was an upgraded activated sludge system with NZ addition and the other one was a conventional activated sludge system, run as a control unit. The aim of

  19. DECAY OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER LAGOONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogenic activity of wastewater held in municipal lagoons was monitored over an ~ three month period, using the MCF-7 cell line in a modified E-screen. One lagoon was emptied and refilled with fresh wastewater effluent over a one month period to reach levels equivalent to a second lagoon that had...

  20. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had twofold objectives: 1] quantify denitrification e...

  1. Regime shifts in vegetation composition of Baltic Sea coastal lagoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kajsa Rosqvist; Johanna Mattila; Alfred Sandström; Martin Snickars; Mats Westerbom

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation communities, morphometric and water quality variables were sampled in 62 undisturbed coastal lagoons along a natural land-uplift gradient in the northern Baltic Sea. The lagoons had a morphological inlet threshold reflecting habitat isolation (i.e. the diminished connectedness of the lagoon to the sea) and located in different parts of the archipelago (corresponding to altering wave exposure). We used indirect

  2. Accuracy of lagoon gas emissions using an inverse dispersion method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions. These include those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish ...

  3. Coastal lagoon habitat re-creation potential in Hampshire, England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Johnson; J. Bartlett; L. A. Nash

    2007-01-01

    The Solent region in southern England represents one of the highest concentrations of coastal lagoons and saline ponds in the UK. Four lagoon complexes within the region comprise a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), under the European Habitats Directive. The ephemeral nature of coastal lagoons presents a particular management challenge in terms of retaining designated sites in “favourable conservation status”.

  4. Inverse-dispersion technique for assessing lagoon gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions, such as those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish equilib...

  5. Abdominal symptoms among sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Friis, L; Agréus, L; Edling, C

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal symptoms and the abdominal medical history among sewage workers. 142 male sewage workers and 137 male referents in 11 Swedish municipalities were addressed with a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms, medical history, occupational history and life style factors. The sewage workers suffered less from nausea [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.04-0.84] than the referents. There was no significant difference in the three months prevalence of diarrhoea (adjOR = 1.7, 95% Cl = 0.79-3.4), dyspepsia (adjOR = 0.85, 95% Cl = 0.49-1.5) or irritable bowel syndrome (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.53-3.5). The sewage workers were affected more often by peptic ulcers during their present jobs than the referents, although the increased risk was not significant (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.31-6.1). The odds ratios were adjusted for age, use of tobacco products and alcohol consumption. The conclusion of this study was that sewage workers are less affected by nausea than comparable referents. PMID:9800423

  6. On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for conventional on-site systems. Introduction Inadequate disposal of residential sewage creates prob- lems,000 Virginia households rely on on-site methods for sewage disposal. About 700,000 of these homes use. Inadequate sewage disposal, due to failing or nonexistent on-site treatment, is a problem in many Vir- ginia

  7. Heavy rains cause a sewage overflow.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Epic rainfall fell around Atlanta, Georgia on Sept. 21, 2009. The resulting runoff overwhelmed many of the combined storm/sewage systems, resulting in sewage overflows coming out of the sewers and flowing directly into rivers. This picture shows a sewage overflow occuring in Roswell, Georgia, just ...

  8. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation...Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable...

  9. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85...Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed...nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage retention...

  10. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation...Vessel Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable...

  11. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85...Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed...nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage retention...

  12. Theoretical basis for dewatering of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leino Reinola

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is formed as a by-product of the treatment of raw sewage from domestic households, but may also include industrial and commercial effluent. There is currently substantial interest in generating energy from sewage sludges. Compare to the fossil fuels, the biomass energy has been experiencing a surge in interest in many countries of the world. Water is the main

  13. Modeling ammonia removal in aerated facultative lagoons.

    PubMed

    Houweling, C D; Kharoune, L; Escalas, A; Comeau, Y

    2005-01-01

    A mechanistic model has been developed to model ammonia removal in aerated facultative lagoons. Flow is modeled through the water column by a continuously stirred tank reactor and exchanges between the sludge layer and the water column are simulated by a solids separator. The biological model is based on an activated sludge model with reactions added for anaerobic bacterial growth and degradation of inert organic material. Results show that the model is able to predict seasonal variation in ammonia removal as well as sludge accumulation in the lagoons. PMID:16114676

  14. Exploring new issues for coastal lagoons monitoring and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; De Wit, Rutger

    2012-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are productive and highly vulnerable ecosystems, but their management is still problematic mostly because they constitute transitional interface between terrestrial and marine domains. The "4th European Conference on Coastal Lagoon Research - Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems, South North comparisons", was focused on the scientific research on coastal lagoons and the management for their conservation and sustainable use. Selected contributions were considered in this special issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science "Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems" as they deal with three important aspects for coastal lagoons management: (1) the design of monitoring programmes using biological compartments, (2) the ecosystem functioning and the impacts of perturbations and (3) ecosystem trajectories particularly after ecosystem restoration. Here we introduce the selected papers published in this issue, place these contributions in the perspective of the science-management interface and discuss new issues for coastal lagoon management.

  15. Anthropogenic nitrogen in a subtropical coastal lagoon (SE Gulf of California): sources and ecological consequences using isotopes stables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Jimenez, M.; Paez-Osuna, F.

    2007-05-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of N were studied in anthropogenic effluents received by Altata-Ensenada- Pabellón lagoon (AEP), a typical coastal ecosystem along the SE GC. Human activities mobilize from 33,000 to 55,000 tons of N per year to the AEP, which the agriculture (70%), livestock (10%), and atmospheric deposition (10%) are the largest N sources. Other N sources including sewage, shrimp farming, poultry, and livestock effluents constituted less than 10% of N inputs. The N is distributed as inorganic N that accounts for an input of 72% (NO3- 65% and NH4+ 7%) and organic N for 28% (>90% of the organic N occurring as DON). The N isotopic composition in the different effluents vary 6.1-16.1‰ for 15N-NH4+ and 2.1-15.9‰ for 15N-NO3. The 15N-NO3- values in agriculture effluents are related to fertilizer, while the enriched values of 15N-NH4+ in sewage and animal effluents and 15N-NO3- in groundwater result of the high ammonification and denitrification during the transport to the lagoon. Overall the C/N ratios (5.3-21.1) and isotopic signatures (13C -30.6 to -21.4‰ and 15N 6.1-12.5‰) in the POM for the diverse effluents had measurable differences and consistent with their origins. The 15N-DIN values measured at the selected stations recording inputs into AEP lagoon waters oscillated from 4.4 to 6.5‰ for 15N- NO3-, 12.9 to 20.9‰ 15N-NH4+, and from 4.4 to 10‰ 15N-POM. Overall the 15N values predicted by mass balances are in the range of the measured isotopic composition. The N requirement in Pacific Mexican lagoons is estimated to be 155 to 400 kg N ha-1 y-1, however, the current level is 1480 kg N ha-1 y-1, with anthropogenic N inputs (1200 kg N ha-1 y-1) of 80%. This excess of primary productivity is evidenced by the phytoplankton and macroalgae blooms that occur year-round, mainly in the areas close to the nutrient discharges from AEP lagoon.

  16. Land application of poultry lagoon effluent

    E-print Network

    Aldrich, Lance John

    1996-01-01

    lagoons used to treat caged laying hen manure. Informed decisions can be made about the safe and practical rates of effluent application when the environmental impacts are known. Eighteen small plots were installed at the Texas A&M University Farm near...

  17. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent publications of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and high levels of potential surficial oxygen transfer indicated that large amounts of nitrogen may be removed via denitrification in anaerobic lagoons. If this denitrification is occurring via classical denitrification, the denitrification...

  18. Wetland vegetation in Manzala lagoon, Nile Delta coast, Egypt: Rapid responses of pollen to altered nile hydrology and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Stanley, J.-D.; Horton, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    The pollen record in a sediment core from Manzala lagoon on the Nile delta coastal margin of Egypt, deposited from ca. AD 1860 to 1990, indicates rapid coastal wetland vegetation responses to two primary periods of human activity. These are associated with artificially altered Nile hydrologic regimes in proximal areas and distal sectors located to ???1200 km south of Manzala. Freshwater wetland plants that were dominant, such as Typha and Phragmites, decreased rapidly, whereas in the early 1900s, brackish water wetland species (e.g., Amaranthaceae) increased. This change occurred after closure of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902. The second major modification in the pollen record occurred in the early 1970s, after Aswan High Dam closure from 1965 to 1970, when Typha pollen abundance increased rapidly. Massive population growth occurred along the Nile during the 130 years represented by the core section. During this time, the total volume of lagoon water decreased because of conversion of wetland areas to agricultural land, and input of organic-rich sediment, sewage (municipal, agricultural, industrial), and fertilizer in Manzala lagoon increased markedly. Although the wetland plant community has continued to respond to increasingly intensified and varied human-induced pressures in proximal sectors, the two most marked changes in Manzala pollen best correlate with distal events (i.e., closure of the two dams at Aswan). The study also shows that the two major vegetation changes in Manzala lagoon each occurred less than 10 years after closure upriver of the Low and High dams that markedly altered the Nile regime from Upper Egypt to the coast. ?? 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  19. Acetylcholinesterase as a biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic compounds in the clam Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Tomei, Andrea; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2005-12-01

    Measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is widely used as a biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic compounds in aquatic environments. In the present study, AChE activity was monitored in the clam Tapes philippinarum in the Lagoon of Venice, with the aim of evaluating the possible exposure of animals to neurotoxic compounds. Two sampling strategies were followed. In the first case, temporal and spatial variations of AChE activity were measured in clams collected seasonally (from October 2003 to June 2004) in 3 sites of the Lagoon: Campalto (site 1), near a sewage treatment plant, Marghera (site 2), a highly polluted area, and Poveglia (site 3), a reference site. The condition index (CI) of clams was also calculated. In the second case, AChE activity was measured in clams collected at the end of seasonal samplings in 12 sites located throughout the Lagoon: areas licensed for clam farming (sites 5 to 11), nearby canals characterised by waste waters from agricultural areas (sites 4, 12, 13, 14), and a reference site outside the Lagoon (site 15). Results revealed a significant reduction in AChE activity in clams from Marghera in October, January and April, indicating their probable exposure to neurotoxic compounds originating in the industrial zone of Porto Marghera. A seasonal trend in AChE activity was also observed, enzyme activity being higher in January and lower in June. Clams from Campalto generally had higher CI values than those from Marghera and Poveglia. However, no particular correlation between AChE activity and CI was found. Lastly, marked differences in AChE activity were recorded when comparing enzyme activity of clams from various sites in the Lagoon of Venice with those of clams collected at site 15. Significant reductions in AChE activity were observed in animals collected in both nearby canals and licensed areas, indicating the homogeneous spatial distribution of potentially neurotoxic compounds throughout the Lagoon. It is probable that sediment mobilisation caused by clam harvesting and the passage of shipping plays an important role in resuspension of persistent contaminants having neurotoxic activity. PMID:16115653

  20. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  1. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section...Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is...

  2. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121 Section...Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is...

  3. Anaerobic Pretreatment of Strong Sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Halalsheh

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised by a high concentration of COD tot<\\/sub> with averages higher than 1200 mg\\/l and with a

  4. Underwater pressure measurements in the lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rollosson

    1953-01-01

    On Mike shot of Operation Ivy measurement of underwater pressures was attempted at four locations near the floor of the lagoon. Gauges were installed at distances ranging from approximately 5700 to 112,000 ft from ground zero and about 1 mile from the reef. The single usable record showed sharp pressure spikes at 0.3 and 0\\/6 sec after zero time. Although

  5. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  6. Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-04-01

    Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  8. My Town, My Creek, My Sewage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    1972-01-01

    After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

  9. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Glendinning; John Lamont-Black; Colin J. F. P. Jones

    2007-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based

  10. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in freshwater lagoons and among marine migrant species.

  11. Land Application of Poultry Lagoon Effluent L. J. Aldrich1

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    1 Land Application of Poultry Lagoon Effluent by L. J. Aldrich1 , C. L. Munster2 , V. A. Haby3 , J poultry operations. Therefore, field research was conducted at College Station and Overton, TX, to evaluate the effects of poultry lagoon effluent on soil, vegetation and surface runoff quality. Two

  12. Holocene lagoonal development in the isolated carbonate platforms off Belize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eberhard Gischler

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one vibracores were taken in interior lagoons of Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands—three isolated carbonate platforms offshore Belize, Central America. Holocene facies successions overlying the Pleistocene limestone bedrock begin with soils, followed by mangrove peats, and marine carbonate sediments of lagoonal origin. The soils formed on top of subaerially exposed Pleistocene limestone before the Holocene transgression. Mangrove peats

  13. FIELD STUDY OF NUTRIENT CONTROL IN A MULTICELL LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers nutrient control in a serially arranged, multicell aerated lagoon system over a three year period. The objective was to develop reliable technology for reducing phosphorus and for converting ammonia-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen. A six-cell lagoon was modified i...

  14. SWINE MANURE AND LAGOON EFFLUENT APPLIED TO FESCUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine manure and swine lagoon effluent to tall fescue were evaluated for four years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9 in. X 9 in. plots by weekly sprinkler irrigations during the growing season while swine manure...

  15. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  16. Optics upgrade for switchyard

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

  17. Microbiological monitoring of bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal): a 20 years of sanitary survey.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina; Soares, Florbela

    2012-02-01

    The microbiological pollution of coastal waters is a major problem, especially in shellfish areas. This article shows the faecal contamination in bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal) along 20 years (1990-2009). The highest values of Escherichia coli in bivalves were obtained during the 90s, related with the discharge of untreated wastewaters and agricultural runoff. In the 2000s contamination levels decreased, with 83% of the population already served by new or remodelled sewage treatment plants. The highest levels were found in bivalves close to the largest city, where punctual and diffuse contamination sources still exist. Bivalves from the less impacted site showed the lowest contamination, an area with more water renewal. Seasonally, the highest levels were in autumn and winter, due to the runoff of waters from rainfall. These were opposite to those in spring and summer, when the highest temperatures and salinity showed a bactericidal effect. PMID:22197556

  18. Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.

    2010-09-01

    Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 ?g Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 ?g C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

  19. Holocene sea-level and climatic fluctuations: Pulicat lagoon - A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anjum Farooqui; G. G. Vaz

    Pulicat lagoon situated in the Palar Basin, is the se c- ond largest lagoon on the east coast of India. The north-western margin of the desiccated lagoon is an irregular and elevated hard surface. Palynological studies were carried out in sedime ntary soil samples from four pits dug across this part of the lagoon. Vegetational reconstruction from peat beds at

  20. Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

  1. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  2. Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

  3. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios as tools to evaluate the nature of particulate organic matter in the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berto, D.; Rampazzo, F.; Noventa, S.; Cacciatore, F.; Gabellini, M.; Aubry, F. Bernardi; Girolimetto, A.; Brusà, R. Boscolo

    2013-12-01

    Complex environments, such as transitional waters, are characterized by several sources of particulate organic matter (POM). The analyses of stable isotopes, ?13C and ?15N, are usually used to discriminate between allochthonous and autochthonous POM. This study aimed to characterize the nature of POM through the stable isotopic analysis for the first time in the Venice lagoon. Water samples were seasonally collected during 2011 and 2012 at 28 stations during the monitoring program for the accomplishment of the objectives of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive, 2000/60/CE). Dissolved nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll a, total suspended solids were determined and POM was characterized through ?13C, ?15N and C/N molar ratio. The results showed mixed sources (autochthonous and allochthonous) of POM in all lagoon stations. Nevertheless, in autumn, the enriched 13C and significantly depleted 15N POM suggested the major influence of terrestrial contribution, probably due to the increase of freshwater inputs and land runoff. Differently, in the summer period sewage discharges and biological processes as well as primary production and microbial degradation prevailed, giving a strong seasonal increase in ?15N values (up to 18.2‰).

  4. Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

    2011-01-01

    Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

  5. Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. (Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universitaria (Mexico)); Sharma, V.K. (Texas A M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Multi-centennial scale precipitation and following lagoon ecosystem fluctuation in the Holocene reconstructed by East Korean Lagoon sediment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, K.; Yang, D. Y.; Lim, J.; Nahm, W. H.; Nakanishi, T.; Seto, K.; Otsuka, M.; Kashima, K.

    2014-12-01

    There are lagoons in the northern east coast of the South Korea, which were formed during the transgression period in the early Holocene. These lagoons shrank about 5-30 % during the first half of 20 century due to terrestrial sediment input from soil erosion in reclamation lands. However, buried lagoonal sediments record Holocene climate change. In this study, multi-centennial scale paleo-climate and paleo-ecosystem change were investigated by analysis of this buried and present lagoon deposits. Based on the diatom assemblage analysis of the sediment in the lagoon Maeho where it is the east coast lagoons in Korea, this lagoon was formed about 8,400 years ago, and halophilic diatoms showed high peaks at three times within the last 8,400 years. Timings of these peaks were well coincident with the high-sea level periods reported in the western Japan. It is considered that sea-level of the east coast in Korea also showed high at three times during the mid-late Holocene, and then, salinity of the lagoon increased in these periods. Except for such sea-level dependent change, salinity of the lagoon Maeho showed the multi-centennial (200 or 400 years) scale periodic variation. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) also showed the clear 400 years periodicity in the mid-late Holocene. When the MS showed high value, oligohalobous diatoms showed high value. However, halophilic diatoms and number of total diatom valves increased when the MS showed low value. This correspondence probably indicates that magnetic minerals flew into the lagoon with river fresh water, and then volume of fresh water inflow has changed with 400 years cycles. Such MS cycle was also confirmed in the sediments of other lagoons. Change of fresh water inflow should be not local event, was a part of regional environmental change. These results probably indicate that the precipitation on the northeastern South Korea has changed by the 400 years cycle. On the basis of lagoon bottom sediment, it made clear that the change of diatom assemblage during the last 600 years has been well corresponded with the variation of Korean tree ring delta 14C. There is a high possibility that water quality and ecosystem in the Koran lagoons was controlled by 200-400 years periodical precipitation change, and they are further affected by the solar irradiance change may be via monsoon intensity change.

  7. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  8. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  9. Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

  10. WHT Millenium Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, G.

    2000-03-01

    The Isaac Newton Group have embarked on a comprehensive upgrade of the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), involving replacing and enhancing many systems. The programme embraces a number of projects, and all ING engineering groups are contributing. The upgrade directly supports the NAOMI adaptive optics system and INGRID IR imager but also brings performance and reliability improvements to the WHT in support of other instruments. Previous, recent improvements include an Alpha computer based Telescope Control System (TCS), the introduction of 4k*2k EEV-42 detectors and improved dome seeing through oil cooling.

  11. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  12. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  13. Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

  14. Glass-ceramic from sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S SUZUKI; M. TANAKA; T KANEKO

    1997-01-01

    Glass-ceramic was produced by adding limestone to sewage sludge incinerated ash. Black glass was produced by melting a blended\\u000a ash batch at 1450C. For nucleation, this glass was reheated at 800C for 1 h, and reheated at 1100C for 2 h to form glass-ceramic.\\u000a The main components of sewage sludge incinerated ash are SiO2 and Al2O3. Because small amounts of

  15. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  16. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  17. Cellular Automata Modelling of Seagrass in the Orbetello Lagoon

    E-print Network

    of wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima) meadows in the Orbetello lagoon, in central Italy, where the control, and this paper presents a further refinement, with the dynamics of wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima) including

  18. FLASH Upgrade 2009 FLASH Seminar

    E-print Network

    FLASH Upgrade 2009 FLASH Seminar March-31, 2009 New RF gun ACC7 (M8*) sFLASH + redesigned electron (~ 40 meters) · upgrades exchange 1st accelerating module exchange RF gun upgrades of RF stations 2, 2009 FLASH Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg Linac layout RF gun Laser New RF gun Bunch Compressor Bypass

  19. Thermally upgraded insulation in transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Prevost

    2005-01-01

    This paper will review the development of thermally upgraded paper. It will discuss the various chemical modifications developed and give the current processes used today. It will review current standards activities which deal with thermally upgraded insulation systems and their impact on the recommended loading practices of transformers. It will also review the effect of thermal upgraded insulations on diagnostic

  20. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef. PMID:26175962

  1. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs.

    PubMed

    Blakeway, David; Hamblin, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia's Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves-specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef. PMID:26175962

  2. Holocene lagoonal development in the isolated carbonate platforms off Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard

    2003-06-01

    Thirty-one vibracores were taken in interior lagoons of Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands—three isolated carbonate platforms offshore Belize, Central America. Holocene facies successions overlying the Pleistocene limestone bedrock begin with soils, followed by mangrove peats, and marine carbonate sediments of lagoonal origin. The soils formed on top of subaerially exposed Pleistocene limestone before the Holocene transgression. Mangrove peats developed during initial flooding of the platforms (Glovers ca. 8.5 ky, Lighthouse ca. 7 ky, Turneffe ca. 6 ky BP). As water depths increased, reefs colonized platform margins, lagoonal circulation improved thereby promoting carbonate production. The basal lagoonal carbonate sediments are characterized by shell beds and/or Halimeda packstones-grainstones. Mollusk-dominated wackestones and packstones follow upsection in Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. At present, open circulation prevails in Glovers and Lighthouse lagoons. In contrast, organic-rich Halimeda wackestones and packstones dominate the Turneffe Islands Holocene succession. The main lagoon area of Turneffe is enclosed by mangroves, and restricted circulation prevails. Factors that explain the differences in geomorphology, circulation, and facies are variations in depth of antecedent topography and degree of exposure to waves and currents. The thickness of Holocene lagoon sediments may exceed the maximum core length of 6 m in all atolls. Holocene sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/ky, with highest rates in Turneffe (0.82 m/ky), followed by Lighthouse (0.53 m/ky), and Glovers (0.46 m/ky). Like in many other isolated carbonate platforms and atolls, lagoon floor sedimentation did not keep pace with rising sea level, leading to unfilled accommodation space. At present, Glovers has an 18 m deep lagoon, while Lighthouse and the main Turneffe lagoon are 8 m deep. It is unlikely that the lagoons will be completely filled during the Holocene sea level highstand cycle. This observation should be kept in mind when using cycle thickness as a proxy for eustatic sea level change in fossil carbonate platforms.

  3. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  4. The upgraded DØ detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

    2006-01-01

    The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

  5. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  6. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  7. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects [3] are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes [1] This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects. [2] Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later. [3] Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D

  8. Lagoon PFA: Feasibility for use as a binder in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. McCarthy; P. A. J. Tittle; R. K. Dhir

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a study carried out to examine the influence of storing pulverized-fuel ash (PFA) in an excess of water,\\u000a or lagoon, on the properties of the material itself and its suitability for use as a component of the binder in concrete.\\u000a The work considered PFA slurried and stored in the laboratory (simulated lagoon PFA), and material recovered from

  9. Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

    2014-04-01

    A comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

  10. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  11. Sewage and Waste Technologies Department of Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Siegen, Universität

    Research Institute for Water and Environment Section Sewage and Waste Technologies EFFICIENT practical of system components sewerage ­ sewage plants - water bodies · Sewerage and rainwater management, drainage (certification to waste management companies, waste management concepts) · Consulting in land recycling

  12. CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

    2002-07-22

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

  13. RHIC LUMINOSITY UPGRADE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2010-05-23

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operates with either ions or polarized protons. After increasing the heavy ion luminosity by two orders of magnitude since its commissioning in 2000, the current luminosity upgrade program aims for an increase by another factor of 4 by means of 3D stochastic cooling and a new 56 MHz SRF system. An Electron Beam Ion Source is being commissioned that will allow the use of uranium beams. Electron cooling is considered for collider operation below the current injection energy. For the polarized proton operation both luminosity and polarization are important. In addition to ongoing improvements in the AGS injector, the construction of a new high-intensity polarized source has started. In RHIC a number of upgrades are under way to increase the intensity and polarization transmission to 250 GeV beam energy. Electron lenses will be installed to partially compensate the head-on beam-beam effect.

  14. Analysis of hydrobiological pattern in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjaoui, Béchir; Harzallah, Ali; Moussa, Mahmoud; Chapelle, Annie; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2008-10-01

    This study deals with the use of a multivariate analysis method in order to understand the functioning of the Bizerte lagoon ecosystem. A set of hydrobiological parameters was collected during 10 monthly campaigns in 2004. A variant of the EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) technique is used to examine hydrobiological variability modes in this lagoon. The permanent features characterising the lagoon are obtained by applying the EOF technique to data after removing the annual cycle. Two major modes were obtained. The first one shows a contrast between the northern sector of the lagoon, influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, and the southern one influenced by continental waters. This mode is mostly prominent for temperature and salinity. The second mode shows a contrast between shallow waters along the coastal zones and the deep central area of the lagoon. This contrast is more pronounced towards the southwestern edge of the lagoon, a region of important freshwater input from the Tinja channel, which drifts towards the downstream area of Menzel Bourguiba. This second mode may also correspond to northward water circulation under southerly wind blowing frequently in summer. The spatial and temporal variability in the lagoon is highlighted by applying the EOF to the raw data without removing the annual cycle. A weight series is obtained for each variable by extracting the corresponding data and then projecting them on the corresponding eigenvector. Using this technique, only one mode was found dominant with more than 52% of the total variance. It was also found that the north-south contrast of temperature, salinity and phosphorous and the coast-centre contrast of Chlorophyll a are enhanced in summer. Other variables such as ammonia and nitrate also show significant annual cycles but with local patterns.

  15. The VELO Upgrade

    E-print Network

    E. Jans

    2014-12-20

    A significant upgrade of the LHCb detector is scheduled to be installed in 2018-2019. Afterwards all sub-detectors will be read out at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz and the trigger will be fully implemented in software. The silicon strip vertex detector will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector. In these proceedings the following items are discussed: frontend ASIC, data rates, data transmission, cooling, radiation hard sensors, module design and simulated performance.

  16. The VELO Upgrade

    E-print Network

    Jans, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    A significant upgrade of the LHCb detector is scheduled to be installed in 2018-2019. Afterwards all sub-detectors will be read out at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz and the trigger will be fully implemented in software. The silicon strip vertex detector will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector. In these proceedings the following items are discussed: frontend ASIC, data rates, data transmission, cooling, radiation hard sensors, module design and simulated performance.

  17. The Composition of Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1932-01-01

    LIBRARY, A & hl COLLEGE. CAAYFUS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS 3ULLETIN NO. 445 APRIL, 1932 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Composition and Fertilizing Value of Sewage Sludge... of Agriculture. - - - - - - - ian nologist ent dent Y' dry sbandry Sewage sludge is a by-product from the purification of the . sew-age at several hundred towns and cities of Texas. Two types of sewage sludge are produced: the digested sludge...

  18. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tuts, P.M. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.)

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P[sub T] physics using precision measurements of e's, [mu]'s, jets, and missing E[sub T]. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10[sup 31] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1], and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5[mu]s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10[sup 32] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1] and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P[sub T] physics menu, but also the low P[sub T] physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

  19. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    LHCb is a forward spectrometer experiment dedicated to the study of new physics in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons produced in proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is the microstrip silicon detector surrounding the interaction point, providing tracking and vertexing measurements. The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will increase the luminosity up to 2×1033 cm-2 s-1 and will perform the readout as a trigger-less system with an event rate of 40 MHz. Extremely non-uniform radiation doses will reach up to 5×1015 1 MeV neq/cm2 in the innermost regions of the VELO sensors, and the output data bandwidth will be increased by a factor of 40. An upgraded detector is under development based in a pixel sensor of the Timepix/Medipix family, with 55×55 ?m2 pixels. In addition a microstrip solution with finer pitch, higher granularity and thinner than the current detector is being developed in parallel. The current status of the VELO upgrade program will be described together with recent testbeam results.

  20. The CDF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Newman-Holmes, C.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a general purpose detector used to study the world`s highest energy p{anti p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron. Upgrades to CDF to enable it to function as the Tevatron evolves are described. The upgrade plans are to: (1) Replace the plug and forward gas calorimeters with new scintillator-based calorimeters. (2) Replace the Central Tracking Chamber with a new device with shorter drift distance (Central Outer Tracker). (3) Replace the silicon vertex detector with a longer double-sided device with faster readout. (4) Add a new Intermediate Forward Tracker between the silicon vertex detector and the Central Outer Tracker to enhance pattern recognition capability at high luminosities and to provide tracking in the region 1.0 {le} {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {le} 2.0. (5) Upgrade the front-end electronics, trigger and data acquisition systems to accommodate data collection with shorter bunch spacing and higher rates.

  1. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tuts, P.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P{sub T} physics using precision measurements of e`s, {mu}`s, jets, and missing E{sub T}. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5{mu}s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P{sub T} physics menu, but also the low P{sub T} physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

  2. LHCb Upgrade Plans

    E-print Network

    F. Muheim

    2007-03-03

    The LHCb experiment will operate for about five years at a luminosity of 2x10^32 cm^-2 s^-1 and plans are to accumulate a data sample of ~10 fb^-1. Here we present the physics programme and detector design for a future high luminosity phase of the LHCb experiment. An upgraded LHCb experiment would operate at ten times the design luminosity, i.e. at ~2x10^33 cm^-2 s^-1 and aims to collect a data sample of ~100 fb^-1 over five years. This programme would allow the probe of new physics at an unprecedented level. Key measurements include the B^0_s mixing phase phi_s in B^0_s -> J/\\psi phi and B^0_s -> phi phi decays with a significant sensitivity to the small Standard Model prediction and a very precise measurement of the CKM angle gamma in tree diagram decays. Initial studies of the modified LHCb trigger and detectors are presented. The upgraded LHCb experiment can run with or without an LHC luminosity upgrade.

  3. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR SEWAGE NO DISCHARGE ZONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Locations where vessel sewage discharge is prohibited. Sewage no discharge zone (NDZ) locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Sewage no discharge zone locations are coded onto region.rch (Wat...

  4. Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

  5. Sintering effect on cement bonded sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Ho Chen; Ing-Jia Chiou; Kuen-Sheng Wang

    2006-01-01

    Through foaming reaction, hydration reaction and pozzolanic effect, sewage sludge ash (SSA) was used as main material to produce a sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight material (SSAFLM). Firing tests were conducted at different temperatures. This was to study how the use of sewage sludge ash (SSA) improved the thermal properties and sintering effects of cement-base materials, and to evaluate the

  6. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Bachmaier; Kevin Aiello; Robert K. Bastian; Jing Jy Cheng; Weihsueh A. Chiu; Jenny Goodman; Rosemary Hogan; Andrea R. Jones; Sunita Kamboj; Thomas Lenhart; William R. Ott; Allan B. Rubin; Stephen N. Salomon; Duane W. Schmidt; Loren W. Setlow; C. Yu; A. B. Wolbarst

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee

  7. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  8. Sewage Treatment Control System Design Based on Industry Ethernet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Hongwei; Wang Xinhuan; Yan Youyun; Zhang Tao

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing attention has been paid to environment protection by government, sewage treatment works is becoming more and more concerned. There are many equipments and complicated process in the project of sewage disposal. The paper discussed the application of PLC and network in the sewage treatment plant. Through the combination of the industrial automatic control technology, computer technology, network

  9. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food...PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the...

  10. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food...PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the...

  11. LOW-TEMPERATURE MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wahi; A. Idris; M. A. Mohd; K. Khalid

    Microwave pyrolysis is proposed as one of several optional technologies for disposing and recycling sewage waste in Malaysia. In this study, sewage sludge was dried and pyrolyzed at low temperature (maximum 650ºC) in a single process at laboratory scale. Sewage sludge was placed in a quartz reactor, which was placed in a microwave cavity oven. The modified household microwave oven

  12. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  13. Variability of Anaerobic Animal Waste Lagoon deltaN Source Signatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadayappan Mariappan; Mary E. Exner; Glen E. Martin; Roy F. Spalding

    2009-01-01

    High ammonium-N concentrations derived from animal wastes stored and partially treated in earthen anaerobic lagoons at confined feeding facilities can seep to groundwater. ?N-NH4 values from +2.0 to +59.1‰ in 13 lagoons complicate identification of lagoon seepage as well as land-applied lagoon effluent in ground and surface waters. The spectrum of ?N values requires site-specific isotope characterization of the potential

  14. Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam. PMID:23644798

  15. Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

    2013-05-01

    Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

  16. The impact of mining activities on the hypersaline Mar Menor lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dassenakis; G. Garcia; E. Diamantopoulou; J. D. Girona; E. M. Garcia-Marin; G. Filippi; V. Fioraki

    2010-01-01

    Mar Menor lagoon is one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the Mediterranean Sea. The lagoon is threatened by environmental degradation due to the urban growth around it, the intensive agriculture in its watershed and the remains of mining activities in the nearby Cartagena-La Unio´n area. The present study aims at estimating the levels of zinc and lead in

  17. Modelling water discharges and nutrient inputs into a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France). Impact on phytoplankton production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Plus; I. La Jeunesse; F. Bouraoui

    2003-01-01

    The lagoon of Thau (French Mediterranean coast), is a large (75 km2) and rather deep coastal lagoon (mean depth 4 m), connected to the sea by its two extremities (residence time: about 3 months). Besides its ecological interest as a breeding and transit zone for some sea fish species, the lagoon has a notable economic importance due to shellfish cultivation

  18. Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons

    E-print Network

    Catch Efficiencies of Purse and Beach Seines in Ivory Coast Lagoons Emmanuel Charles-Dominique ABSTRACT: Catch efficiencies of two commonly used fishing gears. in Ivory Coast lagoons, purse seine fisheries are well developed in Ivory Coast lagoons, yielding from 10,000 to 20,000 tons of commercially

  19. A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL NUMBERS AND BIOMASS IN LANGEBAAN LAGOON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. F. Mazure; G. M. Branch

    1979-01-01

    Water samples taken down the length of Langebaan lagoon reveal a decline in bacterial numbers from Saldanha Bay to the head of the lagoon, with a parallel decline in suspended particles. Bacterial biomass (x 43, 27 mg.m) was comparable to zooplankton biomass. Intertidal samples from different sediment types showed an increase of bacteria towards the southern tip of the lagoon,

  20. A system for estimating bowen ratio And evaporation from waste lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low cost system was deployed above a swine waste lagoon to obtain estimates of Bowen ratios and characterize lagoon temperatures. The system consisted of humidity and temperature sensors and anemometers deployed above the lagoon, water temperature sensors, and a meteorological station located by t...

  1. Distribution of foraminifera in the barrier reef and lagoon of British Honduras

    E-print Network

    Cebulski, Donald Edward

    1961-01-01

    lagoon Mid lagoon Hear-reef lagoon b - b' o - o' d-d' e - e' f-f' silty clay clayey silt silty clay shelly silt silty sand shelly sand sandy clay silty clay silty clay silty sand clayey silt olayey silt clayey silt shelly clay shelly...

  2. Stormwater characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Garland; R. W. Vaughn; P. T. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and

  3. NAME: Indian River Lagoon LOCATION: Brevard and Indian River Counties, Florida

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    NAME: Indian River Lagoon LOCATION: Brevard and Indian River Counties, Florida ACRES/RIVER MILES) Indian River Lagoon Program PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The goal of this project is to restore 47.5 acres of estuarine habitat in the Indian River Lagoon by removing invasive species, such as Brazilian pepper

  4. The LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2013-11-01

    With the demonstration that LHCb can successfully perform forward precision measurements with event pileup, the operation and trigger strategy evolved significantly during the LHC Run 1 allowing LHCb to collect over 3fb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8TeV. Increased bandwidth opened the door for LHCb to extend the physics program. The additional statistics and well managed systematic effects together with the stable trigger and data taking conditions have led to a very large number of world-class measurements and dominance in heavy flavour physics [1], in addition to a reputation of an excellent forward general purpose detector at the LHC. Long Shutdown (LS) 1 (2013-2014) will allow LHCb to fully explore the large statistics collected and prepare LHCb for Run 2 (2015 - 2017). However, even after an additional expected integrated luminosity of 5-6 fb-1 in Run 2, many of the LHCb precision measurements will remain limited by statistics, and some exploratory physics modes will not even be accessible yet. With the need for reconstructing the event topology in order to efficiently trigger on the beauty and the charm hadrons decays, the current 1 MHz readout limit is the main bottle neck to run at higher luminosity and with higher trigger efficiencies. LHCb will therefore undergo a major upgrade in LS 2 ( 2018 - 2019) aimed at collecting an order of magnitude more data by 2028. The upgrade consists of a full readout at the LHC bunch crossing rate ( 40 MHz) with the ultimate flexibility of only a software trigger. In order to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 2x1033cm-2s-1, several sub-detector upgrades are also underway to cope with the higher occupancies and radiation dose.

  5. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  6. Bonneville upgrades lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-30

    A stretch of Bonneville Power Administration transmission line between Spokane and the Grand Coulee Dam is an 82-mile bottleneck as it is the last 115-kv section of [open quotes]road[close quotes] along a 500-kv transmission [open quotes]highway[close quotes]. Soon the administration will change all that. A number of independent and utility powerplants have been proposed in Idaho, Montana and the Spokane, Wash., area during the 1990s. As the operators will need to move their power, Bonneville is planning to build a $144-million, 500-kv line to upgrade the 115-kv section. The agency is planning to use its existing right-of-way.

  7. LHC detector upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Green

    2003-09-15

    The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

  8. Email Service Feature Comparison BEFORE UPGRADE AFTER UPGRADE

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Email Service Feature Comparison BEFORE UPGRADE AFTER UPGRADE IMAP/Webmail My Pitt Email Storage up contacts in Global Address List No Yes Tasks No Yes Spam and Virus Filtering Is email filtered No Yes Inline compose (reply to emails without popping out a new window) No Yes Forgotten attachment

  9. Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 ? M in 1987 to 2.7 ? M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

  10. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  11. Sewage outflow impact and temporal variation of butyltins in an intermittent French River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahinian, Nanée.; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Brunel, Victor; Aubert, Gabriel; Saarbach, Bruno; Tournoud, Marie-George; Perrin, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    Organotins (OTs) are anthropogenic molecules used in many industrial applications for their thermoresistant and biocidal properties. Because of their toxicity and widespread use these molecules are on the EU water directive's list of prioritary substances. Organotins are prone to adsorption, can bond easily to particulate matter and "migrate" from the water column unto the sediments where their half-life can extend to a few decades. Recent surveys in various EU countries have indicated the presence of OTs in surface and sewage waters. The objective of this work is to study the temporal evolution of butyl, octyl and phenyl tins in contrasted flow conditions, in the sediments and water column of an intermittent river reach located to the right of an extensive sewage treatment plant (STP). The study zone is a reach of the Vène river located in southern France. The Vène is a major tributary of the Thau lagoon which is an important shellfish farming site and thus very vulnerable to OT contamination. Butyltin, trace metal and DOC concentrations were measured on water and sediment samples collected during two consecutive and contrasted hydrological years. The input and output of the STW was sampled in order to assess its impact on butyltin degradation and transformation. The results revealed the presence of butyltins at concentrations exceeding the EU and French pollution limits regularly. Very low concentrations of phenyltins were found in the water samples thus indicating that there is little use of OTs based pesticides in the area. The OTs concentrations were systematically higher during the wetter year, probably because of higher and more frequent wash off contribution to the reach and minimal dilution along the rivercourse. By contrast, the STW's impact in terms of OTs flux is more important during dry periods when there is less dilution in the river. Although the STW's outflows contained less OTs than the inputs, its efficiency in terms of OTs degradation could not be quantified from the available data as no information was available on the OTs concentrations in the deposited sediments of the lagoons. Future efforts will concentrate on a thorough analysis of OTs degradation within the STW.

  12. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  13. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Franz

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate

  14. Chemical fixation of sewage sludge derived ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhana Mohamed; I. Y. Sam Cheng; Ruey S. Huang; Evelyn C. Santos

    1991-01-01

    Los Angeles processes sewage sludge by dehydration and combustion at its Hyperion Treatment Plant. The ash product is usually classified as hazardous because of its heavy metal content, and four readily?available fixing agents have been evaluated for possible use as stabilizers. The ash leachability was assessed before and after fixation using the California Waste Extraction Test. The leaching characteristics of

  15. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  16. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Eriksson; Nina Christensen; Jens Ejbye Schmidt; Anna Ledin

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) present in the sludge. Application on land used for agriculture is,

  17. FUEL SAVINGS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...

  18. SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

  19. Energy minimization at Metro Denver Sewage District

    SciTech Connect

    Korbitz, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Metro Denver Sewage District energy minimization includes adjustment of treatment operations to maximize use of high purity oxygen treatment with 31 percent reduction in electric power and replacement of sludge incineration with land disposal at 23 percent energy reduction. Future sludge utilization as fertilizer and minor energy reduction efforts in areas of illumination, heating and employee transportation offer additional benefits.

  20. A 3500-year record of Hg and Pb contamination in a mediterranean sedimentary archive (the Pierre Blanche Lagoon, France).

    PubMed

    Elbaz-Poulichet, F; Dezileau, L; Freydier, R; Cossa, D; Sabatier, P

    2011-10-15

    A sediment core encompassing 3500 years of continuous sedimentation has been collected from a coastal lagoon located on the southwestern French Mediterranean coast. Lead concentrations and stable isotopes show that the sediments have recorded the three major periods of Pb pollution: the Etruscan-Greek-Roman period (650 BC to AD 50), the medieval period (AD 650 to AD 1450), and the modern period (from around AD 1850 to the present). These periods were separated by low pollution periods during the Dark Ages (between AD 50 and 650) and during the 16th century. From the end of the 19th century to the 1960s, Pb pollution increased exponentially. Coal combustion was the major source of Pb in the lagoon in the second half of the 20th century. Both the decrease in coal consumption and the ban on leaded gasoline resulted in a decrease in Pb pollution by a factor of 1.5 between 1973 and 1995. From 1991, sewage treatment plants and incinerators could be the major source of Pb. The average baseline Hg concentration from 1525 BC to AD 900 was 0.017 ± 0.003 ?g g?¹ (n = 54). The Hg concentrations profile shows three major peaks: in AD 1150, AD 1660, and AD 1969, with the concentrations being respectively 8, 5, and 34 times higher than the baseline levels. The medieval peak (AD 1150) is attributed the medical use of Hg in the town of Montpellier and/or the burning of soil and vegetation. Noticeable Hg pollution was also detected during the 17th century in relation to gold and silver amalgamation in Europe. From the end of the 19th century, Hg concentrations increased exponentially until 1969. This modern pollution is attributed to the burning of coal. PMID:21879750

  1. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  2. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  3. TMX upgrade experimental operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    Coensgen, F.H.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-07-01

    This document describes the operating plan for the TMX Upgrade experiment. This plan covers the period from November 1981 to March 1983 and describes how the TMX will be brought into operation, our schedules and milestones, and how we will determine if the TMX Upgrade program milestones have been met.

  4. Seismic upgrades of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A

    1997-06-01

    Before 1989 seismic upgrading of hospital structures was not a primary consideration among hospital owners. However, after extensive earthquake damage to hospital buildings at Loma Prieta in Northern California in 1989 and then at Northridge in Southern California in 1994, hospital owners, legislators, and design teams become concerned about the need for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. Because the damage hospital structures sustained in the earthquakes was so severe and far-reaching, California has enacted laws that mandate seismic upgrading for existing facilities. Now hospital owners will have to upgrade buildings that do not conform to statewide seismic adequacy laws. By 2030, California expects all of its hospital structures to be sufficiently seismic-resistant. Slowly, regions in the Midwest and on the East Coast are following their example. This article outlines reasons and ways for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. PMID:10168656

  5. Comparative bioaccumulation of trace metals using six filter feeder organisms in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (of the central-east Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Jara-Marini, M E; Tapia-Alcaraz, J N; Dumer-Gutiérrez, J A; García-Rico, L; García-Hernández, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2013-02-01

    The Tobari Lagoon, located in the central-east coast of the Gulf of California, receives effluents from the Yaqui Valley, one of the most extensive agricultural areas of México. The Tobari Lagoon also receives effluents from nearby shrimp farms and untreated municipal sewage. Surface sediment samples and six different species of filter feeders (Crassostrea corteziensis, Crassostrea gigas, Chione gnidia, Anadara tuberculosa, Chione fluctifraga, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians) were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons and analyzed to determine concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Seasonal variations in metal concentrations in sediment were evident, especially for Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn. The total and bioavailable concentrations of the five metals are not elevated in comparison to other areas around the world. The percentages of bioavailable respect to total concentrations of the metals varied from 0.6 % in Hg to 50.2 % for Cu. In the organisms, Hg showed the lowest concentrations (ranged from 0.22 to 0.65 ?g/g) while Zn showed the highest (ranged from 36.6 to 1,702 ?g/g). Linear correlations between the levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soft tissues of C. fluctifraga and C. gnidia, and A. tuberculosa and C. gnidia were found. Seasonal and interspecies variations in the metal levels in filter feeders were found; F. dentivarians, C. corteziensis, and C. gigas exhibited the highest levels, could be used as biomonitors of metals contamination in this area. PMID:22527455

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  7. Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m?2 specimen area d?1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m?2 lagoon area d?1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems. PMID:24367570

  8. A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water column sampler was needed to study stratification of nutrients and bacteria in a swine manure lagoon. Conventional samplers yielded shallow samples near the bank or required a boat. These limitations prompted development of a new sampler to collect at multiple depths with minimal disturbanc...

  9. Nitrogen retention in the Szczecin Lagoon, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Voss, Maren; Deutsch, Barbara; Liskow, Iris; Pastuszak, Marianna; Schulte, Ulrike; Sitek, Stanis?aw

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) retention and transformation in the Szczecin Lagoon, southern Baltic Sea, were studied by means of budget calculations and stable isotope data of dissolved and particulate matter. Two stations, one located at the main outlet of the lagoon (Swina Strait) and the other 100 km to the south, on the Oder River (Widuchowa), were sampled biweekly over the years 2000-2002. The Oder River is one of the five largest rivers draining into the Baltic Sea and the largest one discharging its waters into the western Baltic. According to our data, the Oder River carried approximately 60 kt y(-1) total N, of which 7 kt y(-1) (<12 %) are particulate organic nitrogen and 46 kt y(-1) (77 %) dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Seasonal patterns of particulate nitrogen and nitrate concentrations were similar at Widuchowa and Swina Strait station, but nitrate concentrations in the Swina Strait were much lower, pointing not only to the dilution effect but also to considerable nutrient removal capacity (especially of nitrate) in the lagoon. The loss of nitrate suggests that denitrification is the major N-removal process, whereas primary production was only a minor contributor, due to the very low particle load. Combining budget calculations with stable isotope measurements reveal unique information about nitrogen turnover processes in the lagoon. PMID:20672205

  10. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from a waste lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost-effective approach was used to investigate the relationship between emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O and energy fluxes from a swine waste lagoon. Energy fluxes were calculated using the Penman method. The energy fluxes showed a diurnal pattern as expected of such flux...

  11. Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibi...

  12. LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

  13. Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Markon, C.J.; Douglas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to assess spatial change from 1987. Eelgrass beds were the predominant vegetation type in the lagoon, comprising 44-47% (15000-16000 ha) of the total area in 1978 and 1987. Izembek Lagoon contains the largest bed of seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America and largest known single stand of eelgrass in the world. There was a high degree of overlap in the spatial distribution of eelgrass among years of change detection. The overall net change was a 6% gain between, 1978 and 1987 and a <1% gain between 1987 and 1995. The lack of significant change in eelgrass cover suggests that eelgrass meadows in Izembek Lagoon have been stable during the 17-year period of our study.

  14. Reduction of Malodorous Compounds from a Treated Swine Anaerobic Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Loughrin; Ariel A. Szogi; Matias B. Vanotti

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can eliminate envi- ronmental problems associated with anaerobic lagoons. These tech- nologies must be able to capture nutrients, kill pathogens, and reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors. To meet these needs, a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was installed as a demonstration project on one of three 4360-pig (Sus scrofa) production units

  15. IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON USING AN HYPERSPECTRAL phosphorus concentrations. A reflectance determination coefficient of 0.49 was obtained from the 467 to 529 phosphorus distribution map. In 1995 the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USCOE) developed the CH3D-WES and CE

  16. Aerated Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) describes the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. In addition, special troubleshooting and maintenance problems are discussed. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of slides used…

  17. In Situ Monitoring of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An apparatus for the in situ quantification of malodorous compounds from animal wastewater was developed that employed a submersible magnetic stir plate and stir bar sorbtive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bars. Prior to deployment of the apparatus in a hog waste lagoon, experime...

  18. Cellular Automata Modelling of Seagrass in the Orbetello Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Marsili-Libelli; Elisabetta Giusti

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution in time and spa ce of wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima) meadows in the Orbetello lagoon, in central Italy, where the control of the submerged vegetation, with a critical coexistence between macroalgae and macrophytes, is the key management problem. While macroalgae are liable to cause dystrophic crises, m acrophytes oxygenate and stabilise the sediment and thus control

  19. Evaluation of eutrophication in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Newton; J. d. Icely; M. Falcao; A. Nobre; J. p. Nunes; J. g. Ferreira; C. Vale

    2003-01-01

    The Ria Formosa is a shallow mesotidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal, with natural biogeochemical cycles essentially regulated by tidal exchanges at the seawater boundaries and at the sediment interface. Existing data on nutrients in the water column and the sediment, together with chlorophyll a and oxygen saturation in the water column, are compared using different models for

  20. A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

    This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

  1. Methane Dynamics in Sediments from Mangrove-dominated Costal Lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, P. C.; Paytan, A.; Young, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Porewater methane and sulfate concentrations from cored sediments have been measured in two coastal mangrove ecosystems (Celestún and Chelem Lagoons) on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Methane exists in shallow sediments while sulfate is not depleted and stable carbon isotopes of methane (-87.27‰ ~ -62.08‰) imply high methane fluxes/production rates below and within the cored sediment depths. The preliminary results from a transport-reaction model show that methane emitted to the water column from these sediments could be 17.8 mg m-2 d-1 in Celestún Lagoon and much higher (565 mg m-2 d-1) in Chelem Lagoon. Since the water depths are shallow (mostly less than 100 cm), the high fluxes of methane could contribute to the atmosphere. The objectives of this study will aim to understand the biogeochemical cycles for methane and sulfate in sediments. A numerical transport-reaction model will be applied to the sedimentary geochemical data (methane, sulfate, chloride, particulate organic carbon (POC) and stable carbon isotopes of headspace methane) from the two lagoons to estimate sulfate reduction, methane oxidation and production rates and advective methane fluxes. The modeled results will be used to discuss the role of methane from mangrove areas and their potential contribution to the global methane cycle.

  2. Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Ward; Carl J. Markon; David C. Douglas

    1997-01-01

    Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to

  3. REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM TREATED ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with anaerobic lagoons typically used to manage manure. These technologies must be able to capture nutrients, kill pathogens, and reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odors. To meet these ne...

  4. The FNAL injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The present FNAL H{sup -} injector has been operational since the 1970s and consists of two magnetron H{sup -} sources and two 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerators. In the upgrade, both slit-type magnetron sources will be replaced with circular aperture sources, and the Cockcroft-Waltons with a 200 MHz RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole). Operational experience at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable, improve beam quality and require less manpower than the present system. The present FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) injector has been operational since 1978 and has been a reliable source of H{sup -} beams for the Fermilab program. At present there are two Cockcroft-Walton injectors, each with a magnetron H{sup -} source with a slit aperture. With these two sources in operation, the injector has a reliability of better than 97%. However, issues with maintenance, equipment obsolescence, increased beam quality demands and retirement of critical personnel, have made it more difficult for the continued reliable running of the H{sup -} injector. The recent past has also seen an increase in both downtime and source output issues. With these problems coming to the forefront, a new 750 keV injector is being built to replace the present system. The new system will be similar to the one at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) that has a similar magnetron source with a round aperture and a 200MHz RFQ. This combination has been shown to operate extremely reliably.

  5. NIRSS Upgrades: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Politovich, Marcia K.

    2007-01-01

    This year we were able to further the NIRSS program by re-writing the data ingest and display code from LabVIEW to C++ and Java. This was leveraged by a University of Colorado Computer Science Department Senior Project. The upgrade made the display more portable and upgradeable. Comparisons with research aircraft flights conducted during AIRS-2 were also done and demonstrate reasonable skill in determining cloud altitudes and liquid water distribution. Improvements can still be made to the cloud and liquid logic. The icing hazard index was not evaluated here since that represents work in progress and needs to be made compatible with the new CIP-Severity algorithm. CIP is the Current Icing Potential product that uses a combination decision tree/fuzzy logic algorithm to combine numerical weather model output with operational sensor data (NEXRAD, GOES, METARs and voice pilot reports) to produce an hourly icing diagnosis across the CONUS. The new severity algorithm seeks to diagnose liquid water production through rising, cooling air, and depletion by ice processes. The information used by CIP is very different from that ingested by NIRSS but some common ground does exist. Additionally, the role of NIRSS and the information it both needs and provides needs to be determined in context of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS). The Weather Integrated Products Team has a plan for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) to take place in 2012. NIRSS is not explicitly a part of that IOC but should be considered as a follow-on as part of the development path to a 2025 full capability.

  6. Fish stock assessment of the northern New Caledonian lagoons:2 – Stocks of lagoon bottom and reef-associated fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Kulbicki; Pierre Labrosse; Yves Letourneur

    2000-01-01

    Fish stocks found on lagoon bottoms and near reefs are characterized by a high diversity and heterogeneous habitat which make stock estimation difficult. In particular, it is necessary to combine several methods in order to evaluate the major components of these stocks. The present study aimed at estimating reef fish stocks in the Northern Province of New Caledonia, a region

  7. The RHIC polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

  8. Is There Sewage in My Sample?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

  9. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D. (ed.)

    1982-12-01

    A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

  10. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159... Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4770...SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...4770 Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?...

  12. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159... Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel...

  13. RISK REDUCTION FOR MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY UPGRADES.

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE, L.G.; SISKIND, B.

    2005-05-16

    We present in this paper a method for evaluating explicitly the contribution of nuclear material accountability upgrades to risk reduction at nuclear facilities. The method yields the same types of values for conditional risk reduction that physical protection and material control upgrades yield. Thereby, potential material accountability upgrades can be evaluated for implementation in the same way that protection and control upgrades are evaluated.

  14. Integrated odour modelling for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Lovell, M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from sewage treatment works are a significant source of environmental annoyance. There is a need for tools to assess the degree of annoyance caused, and to assess strategies for mitigation of the problem. This is the role of odour modelling. Four main stages are important in the development of an odour problem. Firstly, the odorous molecules must be formed in the liquid phase. They must then transfer from the liquid to the gaseous phase. They are then transported through the atmosphere to the population surrounding the odour source, and are then perceived and assessed by that population. Odour modelling as currently practised tends to concentrate on the transportation of odorants through the atmosphere, with the other areas receiving less attention. Instead, odour modelling should consider each stage in an integrated manner. This paper describes the development of integrated odour models for annoyance prediction. The models describe the liquid-phase transformations and emission of hydrogen sulphide from sewage treatment processes. Model output is in a form suitable for integration with dispersion models, the predictions of which can in turn be used to indicate the probability of annoyance. The models have been applied to both hypothetical and real sewage treatment works cases. Simulation results have highlighted the potential variability of emission rates from sewage treatment works, resulting from flow, quality and meteorological variations. Emission rate variations can have significant effects on annoyance predictions, which is an important finding, as they are usually considered to be fixed and only meteorological variations are considered in predicting the odour footprint. Areas for further development of integrated odour modelling are discussed, in particular the search for improved links between analytical and sensory measurements, and a better understanding of dose/response relationships for odour annoyance. PMID:15484758

  15. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  16. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adam; B. Peplinski; M. Michaelis; G. Kley; F.-G. Simon

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes

  17. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits. PMID:23017593

  18. Sensitivity of amphipods to sewage pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A.; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y.; Giménez-Casalduero, F.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J. L.; Dauvin, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Amphipods are considered a sensitive group to pollution but here different levels of sensitivity were detected among species, by analysing the impact of five sewage outfalls, with different flow and treatment levels, on amphipod assemblages from the Castellon coast (NE Spain). Sewage pollution produced a decrease in the abundance and richness of amphipods close to the outfalls. Most of the species showed high sensitivity, particularly species such as Bathyporeia borgi, Perioculodes longimanus and Autonoe spiniventris, whereas other species appeared to be more tolerant to the sewage input, such as Ampelisca brevicornis. These different responses could be related to burrowing behaviour, with fossorial species being more sensitive and domicolous species being less affected. Benthic amphipods, which live in direct contact with sediment, are widely used for bioassay and numerous species are usually employed in ecotoxicology tests for diverse contaminants. In order to consider amphipods for monitoring and biodiversity programmes, it is important to establish the degree of sensitivity of each species to different sources of pollution.

  19. Occurrence of cytophagas in sewage plants.

    PubMed

    Güde, H

    1980-04-01

    With the application of plate count methods and of the KOH-flexirubin test, bacteria belonging to the Cytophaga group were proved to occur regularly in samples from biological sewage treatment facilities. Generally, the percentage of Cytophaga colonies of the total heterotrophic colonies was lowest in the inflow sewage water as compared with the values found in activated sludge, trickling filter, and effluent samples. During an observation period of 16 months, the highest percentages of cytophagas were found in winter samples from activated sludge and trickling filters. Furthermore, cytophagas were shown to have high percentages of the bacteria lytic to polymeric substrates such as cellulose, chitin, dextran, pectin, xylan, and gelatin. Thus, it is suggested that cytophagas may contribute to sewage purification, especially at cold temperatures and by polymer breakdown. Cytophaga strains isolated were shown to have gliding motility, flexirubin pigmentation, and a low guanine plus cytosine base ratio in common. The strains were roughly subdivided into a spreading, a nonspreading, and a cellulolytic group. PMID:16345539

  20. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  1. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be carefully monitored so that appropriate responses can be timely to mitigate the impacts from global change. References: Eisenreich, S.J. (2005). Climate Change and the European Water Dimension - A report to the European Water Directors. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Comission-Joint Research Centre. Ispra, Italy. 253pp. Kerr, R. (2008). Global warming throws some curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 322, 515. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., Miller, H. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Lloret, J., Marín, A., Marín-Guirao, L. (2008). Is coastal lagoon eutrophication likely to be aggravated by global climate change? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78, 403-412. Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T., Niazi, S. (2008). Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 77, 206-213.

  2. Arecibo Upgrade Notes INSTRUMENTAL POLARIZATION

    E-print Network

    Arecibo Upgrade Notes INSTRUMENTAL POLARIZATION: CROSS COUPLING AND HYBRID CONVERSION ISSUES Jim routine measurement of circular polarizations. The linears thus need conversion to circular polarization% polarization. (B) We also consider cross coupling combined with imperfect conversion. Calibration

  3. Arecibo Upgrade Notes INSTRUMENTAL POLARIZATION

    E-print Network

    Arecibo Upgrade Notes INSTRUMENTAL POLARIZATION: CROSS COUPLING AND HYBRID CONVERSION ISSUES Jim require routine measurement of circular polarizations. The linears thus need conversion to circular 1 polarization. B We also consider cross coupling combined with imperfect conversion. Calibration

  4. Upgrades to NRLMOL code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basurto, Luis

    This project consists of performing upgrades to the massively parallel NRLMOL electronic structure code in order to enhance its performance by increasing its flexibility by: a) Utilizing dynamically allocated arrays, b) Executing in a parallel environment sections of the program that were previously executed in a serial mode, c) Exploring simultaneous concurrent executions of the program through the use of an already existing MPI environment; thus enabling the simulation of larger systems than it is currently capable of performing. Also developed was a graphical user interface that will allow less experienced users to start performing electronic structure calculations by aiding them in performing the necessary configuration of input files as well as providing graphical tools for the displaying and analysis of results. Additionally, a computational toolkit that can avail of large supercomputers and make use of various levels of approximation for atomic interactions was developed to search for stable atomic clusters and predict novel stable endohedral fullerenes. As an application of the developed computational toolkit, a search was conducted for stable isomers of Sc3N C80 fullerene. In this search, about 1.2 million isomers of C80 were optimized in various charged states at the PM6 level. Subsequently, using the selected optimized isomers of C80 in various charged state, about 10,000 isomers of Sc3N C80 were constructed which were optimized using semi-empirical PM6 quantum chemical method. A few selected lowest isomers of Sc3N C80 were optimized at the DFT level. The calculation confirms the lowest 3 isomers previously reported in literature but 4 new isomers are found within the lowest 10 isomers. Using the upgraded NRLMOL code, a study was done of the electronic structure of a multichromoric molecular complex containing two of each borondipyrromethane dye, Zn-tetraphenyl-porphyrin, bisphenyl anthracene and a fullerene. A systematic examination of the effect of structural strain and the presence of ligands on the ionization energy and the electron affinity was also done. Finally, calculations were performed on a few lowest charge transfer states involving electronic transitions from the porphyrin component to the fullerene subunit of the complex using the perturbative delta-SCF method.

  5. Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, M.C. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States); CDF Collaboration

    1998-04-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking.

  6. The ecology of solar sewage drying beds in the Pirana Sewage Farm at Ahmedabad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Ganapati; I. P. S. Prasadarao; S. H. Godbole; V. Kothandaraman; Thomas Koshy

    1965-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Impounding of sewage in holding and percolating ponds, called solar drying beds, of less than one acre to 1.7 acres in area\\u000a and with depths of 1 to 2 feet, has been practised as a distinct treatment process since 1932 for a portion of the sewage\\u000a admixture with textile mill wastes in Ahmedabad.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The solar drying beds

  7. Risk Factors for Colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A.; Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48?hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48?hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings. PMID:21977048

  8. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in water and sediment of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida - 1977 to 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C.; Johnson, R.S.; Bricker, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the Indian River lagoon between Vero Beach, Indian River County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT and 0.5 ppB PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppB to 0.63 ppM Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppB to 0.081 ppM sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations than did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the Indian River Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce.

  9. Altair performance and upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; White, John; Ball, Jesse; Trujillo, Chad

    2014-07-01

    Altair is the facility single conjugate AO system for Gemini North. Although it has been in operation for more than 10 years (and upgraded to LGS in 2007), Altair's performance is degraded by three main issues: vibrations of the telescope and instrument support structure, spatial aliasing on centroid offsets from the M2 support structure print-through on the optical surface and static non-common path aberrations. Monte-Carlo simulations can reproduce the behavior of Altair when including these three effects and they are roughly of the same order of magnitude. Solutions or mitigations are being investigated to overcome these nefarious effects and restore Altair's performance to its nominal level. A simplex algorithm as well as a phase diversity approach are being investigated to measure and correct for static aberrations. A high accuracy phase map of the M2 print-through has been obtained and is being used to calibrate and/or filter centroids affected by aliasing. A new real time computer is under consideration, to be able to handle more advanced controllers, especially notch filters to combat vibrations. In this paper we will report on the various simulations and on-sky results of this rejuvenation of one of Gemini's workhorse instruments.

  10. Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana

    2010-01-01

    In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

  11. Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

    2014-09-01

    Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its hydrogeologic control in a reef lagoon setting, but is likely to occur in many similar coastal settings. Ignoring geologic complexity can result in mischaracterization of SGD and other coastal groundwater processes at many spatial scales.

  12. Factors structuring temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities in a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Patrícia; Pereira, Fábio; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Gaspar, Miguel B

    2011-03-01

    The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the effects of the organic loadings into the lagoon may be reflected until this area. This transitional feature was corroborated by biological data, with macrobenthic assemblages displaying characteristics of down- and upstream areas. Macrobenthic abundance peaked in winter, which was associated with a higher nutrient availability (mainly ammonium) and the proliferation of green macroalgae in mid-lower and inner lagoon areas. However, massive macroalgae growth resulted in a sharp decrease of macrobenthic diversity and abundance in spring, particularly where the higher amounts of decaying algae were detected. Higher dissimilarities between assemblages were detected during winter (and spring, for trophic composition), while in summer, differences were highly attenuated. The least contaminated area (close to the sea inlet) experienced smaller temporal variations for environmental variables, as well as the lowest temporal biological variability. This area was dominated by carnivores, which were related with increased salinity. Deposit-feeders were numerically dominant in the lagoon, being generally spread within organically enriched sandy and muddy areas. The high concentration of chlorophyll a and suspended particulate matter in water was reflected in the abundance of deposit-feeders/suspension-feeders, taking benefit of the high primary productivity. On the other hand, deposit-feeders/herbivores responded to the decay of macroalgae mats in the sediment. Biological associations varied with the biological data used (taxonomic versus trophic group composition; abundance versus biomass), highlighting the relevance of the combination of different data analysis' approaches. In general, BIOENV analysis indicated total phosphorus, biomass of Ulva, metals and organic carbon and nitrogen as being significantly influencing benthic patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies in ecological behaviours of some taxa were also detected in the present study stressing the need for additional studies on the relationships between macrobenthic communities and environmental variables. Implications of the present results for monitoring studies are discussed. PMID:21236484

  13. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alvin Y T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong; Yuan, Xiangcheng; He, Lei; Jiang, Yuelu; Lee, Joseph H W; Anderson, Donald M; Harrison, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO(3) and SiO(4) concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters when rainfall and river discharge was maximal in summer. Continuous year round discharge of sewage effluent resulted in high NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbour (VH) and its vicinity. In winter, spring and fall, the water column at all stations was moderately mixed by winds and tidal currents, and phytoplankton biomass was relatively low compared to summer. In summer, the mean surface phytoplankton chl biomass was generally > 9 microL(-1) in most areas as a result of thermohaline stratification, and high nutrients, light, and water temperature. In summer, the potential limiting nutrient is PO(4) in the most productive southern waters and it seldom decreased to limiting levels ( approximately 0.1 microM), suggesting that phytoplankton growth may be only episodically limiting. The mean bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) remained > 3.5 mg L(-1) at most stations, indicating that the eutrophication impact in HK waters was not as severe as expected for such a eutrophic area. After the implementation of chemically enhanced primary sewage treatment in 2001, water quality in VH improved as indicated by a significant decrease in NH(4) and PO(4) and an increase in bottom DO. In contrast, there were an increase in chl a and NO(3), and a significant decrease in bottom DO in southern waters in summer, suggesting that hypoxic events are most likely to occur in this region if phytoplankton biomass and oxygen consumption keep increasing and exceed the buffering capacity of HK waters maintained by monsoon winds, tidal mixing and zooplankton grazing. Therefore, future studies on the long-term changes in nutrient loading from PRE and HK sewage discharge will be crucial for developing future strategies of sewage management in HK waters. PMID:18514234

  14. Benthic nutrient remineralization in a coastal lagoon ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Nowicki; Scott W. Nixon

    1985-01-01

    In situ measurements of the exchange of ammonia, nitrate plus nitrite, phosphate, and dissolved organic phosphorus between sediments\\u000a and the overlying water column were made in a shallow coastal lagoon on the ocean coast of Rhode Island, U.S.A. The release\\u000a of ammonia from mud sediments in the dark (20–440 ?mol per m2 per h) averaged ten times higher than from

  15. Heavy metals distribution in sediments of Nador lagoon (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloundi, K.; Duplay, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Nador lagoon is a paralic system, located North-East of Morocco. At the present time this ecosystem undergoes an anthropic stress induced by urban, industrial and agricultural releases, and also by fishery activity which enriches this ecosystem in organic and inorganic wastes. A geochemical study has been undertaken, first to define the areas contaminated by heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr and V), and second to caracterize the different mineral phases, which trap these elements. Sediment samples were collected on twenty-eight stations scattered all over the lagoon, and each core (30 cm) was subdivided in two horizons (surface and depth). Mineralogical analyses as well as major and trace elements analyses were performed on surface and deep sediments. The results on major element analyses (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, P) show an enrichment in halite and phosphates in the surface sediments. This highlights on one hand, low water exchange rates between the lagoon and the Mediterranean sea, and on the other hand, an increase in organic releases related to the urban, agricultural and fishery activities. The highest concentrations in inorganic micro-pollutant were recorded N-E of the lagoon and close to Nador city. With reference to the geochemical background, it can be concluded that there is a slight contamination in heavy metals. Moreover, enrichment factor calculations (EF) for heavy metals point out an increase in metal elements as following: Zn>Co>Cr>V>Cu. Sequential extractions were performed to determine the behaviour of these micro-pollutants. Thus, it was shown that carbonates, oxides and phosphates are the preferential mineral phases for trapping these heavy metals.

  16. Crustacean fish parasites from Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asri T. Yuniar; Harry W. Palm; Thorsten Walter

    2007-01-01

    The present study is the first investigation on ectoparasites of commercial important fish from Segara Anakan, a brackish\\u000a water lagoon located at the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. Eight economically important marine fish species (Mugil cephalus, Siganus javus, Scatophagus argus, Caranx sexfasciatus, Lutjanus johnii, Eleutheronema \\u000a tetradactylum, Johnius coitor, and Epinephelus coioides) were examined for crustacean parasites. Prevalence and intensity data

  17. Coastal lagoons: “transitional ecosystems” between transitional and coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Concepción Marcos; Isabel María Pérez-Ruzafa; María Pérez-Marcos

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a well differentiated typology of water bodies on the basis of scientific\\u000a and biological criteria. For coastal waters, such criteria have long been established, while for transitional waters they\\u000a are still under discussion. One of the difficulties when applying the WFD to coastal lagoons is to include them in only one\\u000a of these

  18. Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher T. Perry; Kevin G. Taylor; Philip G. Machent

    2006-01-01

    Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5km wide), deep (up to 56m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the

  19. Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Perry; K. G. Taylor; P. G. Machent

    2006-01-01

    Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much

  20. Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

    1999-11-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

  1. Integrated remote sensing mission in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borfecchia, Flavio; Cimbelli, A.; De Cecco, Luigi; Della Rocca, Antonio B.; Martini, Sandro; Barbini, Roberto; Colao, Francesco; Fantoni, Roberta; Palucci, Antonio; Ribezzo, Sergio

    1997-01-01

    In this work active and passive remote sensing techniques have been merged to collect information upon the distribution of natural, anthropic and industrial pollutants in the Venetian Lagoon. Some IR and UV images, sensed by a bispectral Daedalus AA3500 scanner, on board of an Italian Guardia di Finanza aircraft flying at 3000 m, have been integrated with lidar measurements, appropriately processed and georeferenced by means of GPS receivers, in order to display large scale distributions. The lidar fluorosensor, installed on a boat, has covered many different sites of the lagoon, while measuring amounts of chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter and oil slick. Lidar data have been used to calibrate the bispectral images acquired by the airborne scanner at low height by means of appropriate regression models. The models have shown a good correlation between the two different types of collected data. Finally, small scale detailed thematic maps of the distributions of the above- mentioned bio-chemical parameters have been produced for some risk sites of the lagoon, with the characterization and localization of pollutant sources.

  2. Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering Treatment—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanpää Mika; Isosaari Pirjo

    2012-01-01

    Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

  3. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Frank; Carl Klauck; Kohzoh I. Stonefield

    1983-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for

  4. Coliform Bacteria in Sediments Around Three Marine Sewage Outfalls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SYDNEY C. RITTENBERG; TOD MITTWER; DANIEL IVLER

    The distribution of coliforms in the sediments around three marine sewage outfalls was investigated. It was found that coliform fields extended for considerable distances around the two outfalls discharging unchlorinatcd primary treatment effluent and that a less ex- tensive field existed around the outfall discharging more highly treated sewage. In general, the coliforms in the sediments were found in areas

  5. Lightweight aggregate made from sewage sludge and incinerated ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ing-Jia Chiou; Kuen-Sheng Wang; Ching-Ho Chen; Ya-Ting Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sewage sludge ash (SSA), with similar characteristics to expansive clay, was used as the principal material and sewage sludge (SS) as the admixture to sinter lightweight aggregate and to study the influences of raw material composition on pelletising, sintering effect and aggregate properties. Results showed that both SS and SSA could be sintered to produce synthetic aggregates

  6. Mechanisms of Phosphorus Control in Urban Streams Receiving Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Mechanisms of Phosphorus Control in Urban Streams Receiving Sewage Effluent Paul D. Bedore & Mark B of phosphorus (P) to rivers, primarily due to large inputs of sewage effluent. A good example of this is Chicago are the dominant chemical controls on P chemistry in this P enriched system. Keywords Phosphorus . Streams . Urban

  7. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood. PMID:9258296

  8. The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

    2014-10-01

    The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (?77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed. PMID:24862981

  9. Study of organic sulphur compounds (DMS, DMSP and CS2) in lagoon ecosystems: the case of the Venice lagoon.

    PubMed

    Gambaro, Andrea; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Andreoli, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Turetta, Clara; Cescon, Paolo

    2003-03-01

    This study of the origin and fate of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a particular and complex lagoon ecosystem such as that of the Venice lagoon focuses on the temporal evolutions of DMS concentrations in surface water together with those of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), carbon disulphide (CS2), nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, silicate), sulphate, chlorophyll a, chlorinity, water temperature and phytoplankton (composition and density). Measurements were made from 3 March 1997 to 23 July 1998 at three stations in the central part of the Venice lagoon. The temporal trends of DMS concentration showed an absolute maximum concentration in winter (65 nmol S/l, 19/2/1998, Stn. 1; 119 nmol S/l, 19/2/1998, Stn. 2; 29 nmol S/l, 17/2/1998, Stn. 3) and two relative maxima in the spring-summer period. The spring-summer secondary maxima of DMS concentration were related to the maxima of DMSP and chlorophyll a concentrations and consequently to phytoplanktonic abundance while the winter DMS maximum showed no relation to DMSP or to chlorophyll a suggesting that the production and the fate of DMS could be different for the two periods. According to previous studies the CS2 concentration increased in the spring, achieved its maximum in summer, decreased in autumn and fell to its minimum in winter. PMID:12737485

  10. Seasonal Variation of the Macrozoobenthic Community Structure at Low Salinities in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Monolimni Lagoon, Northern Aegean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2004-09-01

    The macrozoobenthic community structure and dynamics at low salinities (0.3-6 psu) in a Mediterranean lagoon (Monolimni lagoon) were investigated. Samples were collected monthly from February 1998 to February 1999 at two sampling stations. Community structure was analyzed by means of uni- and multivariate methods. 21 taxa were collected; the amphipod Corophium orientale and the gastropod Ventrosia maritima dominated the assemblages. Total abundance peaked (50,000-60,000 individuals m-2) in mid or late autumn. Community structure showed an almost even seasonal periodicity; seasonal changes were mainly derived from the intense variation in abundance of most species and the non-occurrence of a few ones (e.g. Corophium insidiosum, Polydora ciliata) in spring and summer. Non- occurrence, which led to a depression of the most diversity indices, was possibly the only direct impact of the extremely low salinities (~0.3 psu) on community structure. The main structuring factors of the community in the deeper outer part of the lagoon were water temperature and depth, and in the innermost part, where a Ruppia maritima meadow occurred, were water temperature and predation pressure by crabs (Carcinus aestuarii) and gobies (Knipowitchia caucasica). A temporary decline in total abundance in summer followed an increase in abundance of these predators. (

  11. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  12. Long-term and high-resolution measurements of bed level changes in a temperate, microtidal coastal lagoon

    E-print Network

    on many coasts worldwide and are often found in estuaries and coastal lagoons but may also be situated accretionary and a large part of the fine-grained material found in estuaries and coastal lagoons

  13. Fish Larvae Abundance and Distribution in the Coastal Zone off Terminos Lagoon, Campeche (Southern Gulf of Mexico)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sánchez-Velasco; C. Flores-Coto; B. Shirasago

    1996-01-01

    Fish larvae abundance and distribution in the coastal zone off Terminos Lagoon and their relation to the environmental features of the Lagoon inlets were analysed (1986–87). The sampling grid consisted of 24 stations extending between 0·5 and 10km off the Lagoon, including both Terminos Lagoon Inlets; El Carmen and Puerto Real. A total of 23 families and 43 species were

  14. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-07-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols. PMID:26030695

  15. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

  16. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. (Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, AZ (USA))

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  17. Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Renuka; Garg, V K

    2008-05-30

    In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory scale experiments. Two approaches investigated in the study were: (1) evaluation of vermistabilization of PSS and CD mixtures after 15 weeks in terms of fertilizer quality of the products and; (2) growth and reproduction of Eisenia foetida up to 11 weeks in different vermireactors. In all the PSS and CD mixtures, a decrease in pH, TOC and C:N ratio, but increase in EC, TKN, TK and TP was recorded. The heavy metals' content in the vermicomposts was higher than initial mixtures. Maximum worm biomass was attained in 10% PSS+90% CD mixture while, the worm growth rate was highest in 30% PSS+70% CD feed mixture. It was inferred from the study that addition of 30-40% of PSS with CD had no adverse effect on the fertilizer value of the vermicompost as well as growth of Eisenia foetida. The results indicated that PSS could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed in appropriate ratio (30-40%) with cow dung. PMID:17950995

  18. NSTX Upgrade Project Execution Plan NSTX Upgrade Project

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Office, ou=DOE-PSO, email=aindelicato@pppl.gov, c=US Date: 2012.10.15 09:41:43 -04'00' #12;NSTX Upgrade Threshold (top of page 20), Change DOE Federal Project Director and Deputy Federal Project Director. Various ..............................................................................................................................1 1.2.1 DOE-approved project documents

  19. Automatic Software Upgrades for Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Ajmani, Sameer

    2005-11-30

    Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributed systems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in a system at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting the system for an ...

  20. Automatic Software Upgrades for Distributed Systems

    E-print Network

    Ajmani, Sameer

    2005-10-06

    Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributedsystems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in asystem at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting thesystem for an ...

  1. DESIGN MANUAL: UPGRADING EXISTING WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A revision to the 1971 original, it discusses and evaluates corrective actions that are required to upgrade existing municipal wastewater treatment plants. ull chapter is devoted to case histories of successful upgrading situations....

  2. Influences of a Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing bloom on zooplankton populations in Jacarepaguá Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aloysio S. Ferrão-Filho; Patricia Domingos; Sandra M. F. O. Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Jacarepaguá Lagoon is a shallow, hypereutrophic, coastal lagoon located in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil), with recurrent blooms of cyanobacteria. This study was carried out with the aim to detect the effects of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa on zooplankton populations (especially cladocerans) in the lagoon. At two sampling stations we measured temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency, and collected

  3. REDUCTION OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM SWINE LAGOONS USING ALTERNATIVE WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. To meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on ...

  4. Modelling the submerged vegetation in the Orbetello lagoon with fuzzy cellular automata

    E-print Network

    Modelling the submerged vegetation in the Orbetello lagoon with fuzzy cellular automata E. Giusti the evolution in time and space of the submerged vegetation in the Orbetello lagoon, in central Italy, where between nutrients and the submerged vegetation in a 2-D spatial context, and this paper presents a further

  5. Effects of the Sand Bar Breaching on Typha domingensis (PERS.) in a Tropical Coastal Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anderson M. dos Santos; André M. Amado; Murilo Minello; Vinicius F. Farjalla; Francisco A. Esteves

    2006-01-01

    Coastal lagoons are usually subjected to several kinds of human impacts, especially eutrophication. The breaching of the sand bar, which separates the lagoon from the ocean, by human action, is a common process used to decrease the negative effects of eutrophication. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of the artificial sand bar breaching on the populations

  6. Reproductive biology of the holothurians from the major communities of the New Caledonian Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Conand

    1993-01-01

    The reproductive biology of nine species of aspidochirote holothurians from the major communities of the New Caledonian lagoon has been analysed. The data were obtained from monthly sampling from 1978 to 1982 of their populations on reef slopes and passes for Holothuria nobilis, H. fuscogilva, H. fuscopunctata and Thelenota ananas, in the inner lagoon for Stichopus variegatus, H. scabra and

  7. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  8. THE DIET OF THE CURLEW SANDPIPER AT LANGEBAAN LAGOON, SOUTH AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian M. Puttick

    1978-01-01

    Puttick, G. M. 1978. The diet of the Curlew Sandpiper at Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa. Ostrich 49:158-167.Nereid worms (mainly Ceratonereis erythraensis) and the hydrobiid gastropod Assiminea globulus were the most important prey items throughout the year for Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea feeding at Langebaan Lagoon. Other important items were the amphipod Urothoe grimaldi, the crabs Hymenosoma orbiculare and Cleistostoma edwardsii

  9. FLOATING COVER SYSTEMS FOR WASTE LAGOONS: POTENTIAL APPLICATION AT OLD INGER SITE, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous liquids are impounded in pits, ponds, and lagoons at many uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country. As the ranking, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies proceed at these sites, many of the lagoons gradually fill with rainwater and threaten to ov...

  10. Model-based decision support for integrated management and control of coastal lagoons

    E-print Network

    Mocenni, Chiara

    Model-based decision support for integrated management and control of coastal lagoons Marco Casini in the regional planning and management processes of coastal zones. Since lagoon systems are subject to various-economic and environmental characteristics of the project case studies. The proposed structure helps integrate and manage

  11. CAS EE 348E Monitoring and Management of Coastal Wetlands, Lagoons and Estuaries

    E-print Network

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    CAS EE 348E Monitoring and Management of Coastal Wetlands, Lagoons and Estuaries Spring 2014-two are located on estuaries, for a total population of about 350 million. Estuaries, lagoons and coastal wetlands provide resources, benefits, and services not just for humans but also for thousands of species of birds

  12. Estimation of Residence Time in a Shallow Back Barrier Lagoon, Hog Island Bay, Virginia, USA

    E-print Network

    Estimation of Residence Time in a Shallow Back Barrier Lagoon, Hog Island Bay, Virginia, USA David in a Shallow Lagoon 1 Corresponding Author #12;Fugate, Friedrichs, and Bilgili 2 Abstract Hog Island Bay to timescales of biologically driven chemical transformations. Introduction Hog Island Bay, Virginia

  13. Wind-Driven Surficial Oxygen Transfer and Dinitrogen Gas Emission from Treatment Lagoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Ro; P. G. Hunt; M. E. Poach

    2006-01-01

    Surficial oxygen transfer plays an important role, when analyzing the complex biochemical and physical processes responsible for ammonia and dinitrogen gas emission in animal waste treatment lagoons. This paper analyzes if currently known nitrogen biochemical pathways can explain the enigmatic dinitrogen gas emissions recently observed from the treatment lagoons, based on the amount of wind-driven oxygen that can be transferred

  14. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces end up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped with...

  15. Removal of Estrogenic Compounds in Dairy Waste Lagoons by Ferrate (VI): Oxidation/Coagulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrate(VI) was used to break down and/or remove steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE). Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for estrogenic content (EC) and assayed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Effects of varying...

  16. REMOVAL OF ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY WASTE LAGOONS BY FERRATE (VI): OXIDATION/COAGULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrate (VI)is used as a means of breaking down and/or removing steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE), to minimize the amount of SE entering groundwater/watersheds. Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for EC (estrogenic content) and assayed using High Performance Liquid Chrom...

  17. Reduction of Ammonia Emissions from Swine Lagoons Using Alternative Wastewater Treatment Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Szögi; M. B. Vanotti

    There is a need for treatment technologies that can effectively address environmental concerns associated with ammonia (NH ) emissions from anaerobic lagoons, typically used to manage manure. T 3 o meet this need, we conducted a study to determine the effects of water quality improvement in swine lagoons on NH3 emission rates using alternative wastewater treatments. This determination was done

  18. Reduction of malodors from swine lagoons through influent pre-treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During lagoon treatment and storage, anaerobic processes contribute to emission of volatile compounds, some of which are offensive odors. Therefore, there is major interest in developing swine manure treatment systems that can substantially reduce malodor emissions from lagoons. The effect of two pr...

  19. LONG TERM IMPACT OF SWINE LAGOON WASTEWATER ON SHALLOW GROUNDWATER NITROGEN LEVELS IN VEGETATED BUFFER SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An eight-year study was conducted to determine the impact of swine lagoon wastewater on shallow groundwater in vegetated buffer systems. Replicated 30 X 4 m plots were established at the interface of a pasture and riparian forest in 1993. Wastewater from the third lagoon of the University of Georg...

  20. Metal pollution loading, Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt: Implications for aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Siegel; M. L. Slaboda; D. J. Stanley

    1994-01-01

    High cultural enrichment factors are found for Hg (13×), Pb (22.1×), and other potentially toxic metals (e.g., Sn, Zn, Cu, Ag) in the upper 20 cm of sediment cores from the southeastern Ginka subbasin of Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt. Cores from other areas of the lagoon show little metal loading. Metal loading followed the closure of the Aswan High

  1. Do concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sewage reflect prescription figures?

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Beyers, Herman; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Verpooten, Gert; Neels, Hugo; Jorens, Philippe G

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, it has been demonstrated that sewage-based epidemiology can deliver interesting information on trends in illicit drug consumption. However, until now, no real evidence exists that the measured concentrations of drugs in sewage can be exactly correlated with the amounts of drugs used by a specific population. This study aimed therefore at correlating detailed monthly prescription figures of 11 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bisoprolol, citalopram, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, losartan, telmisartan, valsartan, carbamazepine, metformin, and tramadol) with measured concentrations of these compounds in influent sewage from five sewage treatment plants in Belgium. For 7 out of the 11 substances, a ratio between loads calculated from the prescription figures and loads calculated from measured concentrations in the range of 0.30-3.00 was observed. For four pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bisoprolol, telmisartan, and venlafaxine), the observed relationship was less pronounced. The manuscript gives an overview of the possible uncertainties that are related with the calculated correlations. This study highlights the need for gathering all the necessary information regarding sewage sampling, stability of substances in sewage, pharmacokinetics, and analytical method performance when sewage-based epidemiology studies are performed. PMID:25874419

  2. Proactive price regulation for upgrading telecommunications infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Wang; Jon M. Peha

    1997-01-01

    The extent to which society benefits from an upgrade to a telecommunications network infrastructure depends on when that upgrade occurs. This paper discusses a proactive pricing approach in which the regulator defines a pricing policy to induce a profit-seeking monopoly carrier to upgrade the infrastructure at the socially desirable time. We discuss how the regulator can determine the optimal time

  3. The VLA Upgrade Project Memorandum #1

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    the specifications for the VLA Upgrade Project, ffl to prepare the cost and manpower estimates, ffl to developThe VLA Upgrade Project Memorandum #1 Organization and Goals of the Project Rick Perley and Dick, the VLA Upgrade was formally organized as a project, with Rick Perley as the project scientist. His

  4. Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna K Marttinen; Riitta H Kettunen; Jukka A Rintala

    2003-01-01

    Sewages of different composition and the effluents of four sewage treatment plants (STPs), plus sewage sludges were analysed for semivolatile organic priority pollutants. Furthermore, 11 landfill leachates were analysed to evaluate their contribution to sewage pollutants when co-treated. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the pollutant occurring at highest concentrations (up to 122 ?g\\/l) and it was present in all sewages and

  5. Arecibo Upgrade Notes INSTRUMENTAL POLARIZATION

    E-print Network

    Memo Instrumental Polarization: Cross Coupling and Hybrid Conversion Issues we showed that the measuredArecibo Upgrade Notes INSTRUMENTAL POLARIZATION: POLARIZATION ISOLATION & ERRORS IN STOKES polarization isolation is related to errors in Stokes parameters; 2 estimate a tolerable level of errors

  6. Arecibo Upgrade Notes INSTRUMENTAL POLARIZATION

    E-print Network

    In our 1992 Memo (Instrumental Polarization: Cross Coupling and Hybrid Conversion Issues) we showedArecibo Upgrade Notes INSTRUMENTAL POLARIZATION: POLARIZATION ISOLATION & ERRORS IN STOKES polarization isolation is related to errors in Stokes parameters; (2) estimate a tolerable level of errors

  7. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

  8. The physical hydrology of a lagoon system on the Pacific coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. H.; Slinn, D. J.

    1984-10-01

    The annual hydrological cycle of the Caimanero-Huizache lagoon system on the Pacific coast of Mexico was investigated during 1977-1978. There is a well defined wet season during which the lagoons fill with water derived from fluvial inputs and direct precipitation. Water is lost by evaporation and outflow to the sea, the latter process starting as the wet season progresses and being facilitated by a falling mean sea level. Evaporation exceeds in situ precipitation and during the dry season complete desiccation may be prevented by a now rising mean sea level which promotes the flow of seawater into the lagoon basin. A quantitative estimate of the magnitude of these controlling processes is presented and processes bringing about mixing in the lagoons discussed. A brief comparison is made with other lagoon systems on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  9. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.

    1983-12-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

  10. Economic evaluation of a swine farm covered anaerobic lagoon digester

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    It is helpful to evaluate anaerobic digestion technologies using objective economic criteria. Options can then be ranked in terms of their relative cost effectiveness, leading to rational deployment decisions. This study presents the results of a hypothetical pro forma economic evaluation of one type of digestion system that could commonly be found on many swine farms; a covered anaerobic lagoon. The digester was assumed to be located in North Carolina, a major swine-producing state. Electricity generation with waste heat recovery was assumed to be the major end-use application of biogas manufactured from this process.

  11. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  12. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected. PMID:21972239

  13. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives.

  14. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  15. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow ...

  16. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  17. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  18. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage...integrity and performance of the waste treatment works serving the...collection system will be for waste waters originating from the...

  1. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  2. CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

  3. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  4. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  5. Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kusum J. Patel-Mandlik; Charles G. Manos; Donald J. Lisk

    1988-01-01

    In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000°C. Temperatures of 550°C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration

  6. Organic markers in the lipidic fraction of sewage sludges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilie Jardé; Laurence Mansuy; Pierre Faure

    2005-01-01

    The lipidic organic fraction of 48 sewage sludges that originated from food-processing, paper-mill and domestic (urban, small urban, and rural) wastewater-treatment plants of the Lorraine region (Northeast of France) was characterised by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS).This study enables us to define an average organic composition typical of each group of sewage sludges. Linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) are

  7. The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Qian Jiang; Alex Panagoulopoulos; Mike Bauer; Pete Pearce

    2006-01-01

    The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium

  8. Behavior of fluorescent whitening agents during sewage treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Poiger; Jennifer A. Field; Thomas M. Field; Hansruedi Siegrist; Walter Giger

    1998-01-01

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are contained in most modern laundry detergents and are thus discharged in substantial quantities with household wastewater. To determine the mass flows and fate of the predominant detergent FWAs, a field study was conducted at a full-scale mechanical–biological sewage treatment plant at Zürich-Glatt, Switzerland. Samples of wastewater (raw sewage, and primary and secondary effluent) and sludge

  9. Estuarine and lagoon biodiversity and their natural goods and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basset, A.; Elliott, M.; West, R. J.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    Assessing and monitoring ecosystem quality status and service provision of aquatic ecosystems is an increasingly important area of scientific, socio-economical and political interest. Contributions from two related meetings organized by the Estuarine & Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and the Euro-Mediterranean Lagoon Federation (EUROMEDLAG) address this area of interest in estuaries and lagoons, dominant types of transitional waters, by an integration of holistic and reductionistic approaches. In this context, we synthesise the key points raised by the contributions given at the two meetings to emphasise that transitional waters have emergent properties, which support their classification as an aquatic realm different from both freshwater and marine ones. They provide crucial ecosystem services, such as food provision and support for nutrient cycling, whose value and underlying mechanisms have been addressed with particular reference to estuarine ecosystems. The experimental studies show the mechanistic relationships and the responses of ecosystem functions and biodiversity to contrasting/changing environmental conditions with human activities as key drivers affecting both biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision.

  10. [Antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetale isolated from the lagoon in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Alliouch-Kerboua, Chérifa; Gacemi Kirane, Djamila; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the aim of the study of the taxonomy and the antimicrobial activity, a strain of actinomycete SM2/2GF which was isolated from sediment of the lagoon El-Mellah which is situated in the city of El-Kala in the Northeast of Algeria, was tested against diverse pathogenic microorganisms and against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila which was isolated from water of the lagoon El-Mellah. The phenotypic and the molecular characteristics show that the isolate SM2/2GF belongs to the kind Streptomyces. This strain showed an antimicrobial activity against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila and the positive-Gram bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as the yeast Candida albicans. It has no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The interesting antimicrobial activity of the strain SM2/2GF against the pathogenic microorganisms could encourage further researches on one or several bioactive molecules which it secretes. PMID:25847739

  11. Evaluation of bangkok sewage sludge for possible agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Pasda, Nuanjun; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Limtong, Pitayakon; Oliver, Robert; Montange, Denis

    2006-04-01

    Bangkok (Thailand) covers more than 1500 km2 and has 10 million inhabitants. The disposal of wastewater is creating huge problems of pollution. The estimated amount of sewage sludge was estimated to be around 108 tonnes dry matter (DM) per day in 2005. In order to find a lasting way of disposal for this sewage sludge, the suitability of the sludge produced from three waste-water treatment plants for use as fertilizing material was investigated. Monthly samplings and analysis of sewage sludge from each plant showed that the composition of sludge varied according to the area of collection and period of sampling, and there was no link to rainfall cycle. Plant nutrient content was high (i.e. total N from 19 to 38 g kg(-1) DM) whereas organic matter content was low. The concentrations of heavy metals varied between sludge samples, and were sometimes higher than the E.U. or U.S. regulations for sewage sludge use in agriculture. Faecal coliforms were present in the sludge from one of the plants, indicating a possible contamination by night soil. In order to decrease this potentially pathogenic population the sewage sludge should be heated by composting. As the C/N ratio of sewage sludge was low (around 6) some organic by-products with high carbon content could be added as structural material to enhance the composting. PMID:16634231

  12. Prospects for Upgrade of KEKB

    E-print Network

    Kinoshita, K

    2009-01-01

    The Belle experiment at the KEKB electron-positron collider is expected to have collected close to one billion $\\Upsilon$(4S) events by the time it comes to an end in 2009. An upgrade to KEKB has been proposed. It is designed for an order of magnitude higher luminosity than KEKB, following a three-year construction period. The ultimate goal of $8 \\times 10^{35}{\\rm cm}^{-2}{\\rm s}^{-1}$ luminosity would be reached through further improvements over several years. To exploit the physics accessible through this improved luminosity, an upgrade of the Belle detector is also planned. A new international collaboration, temporarily named sBelle, is in the process of being formed. Super-KEKB and sBelle were officially placed on the KEK 5-year Roadmap in early 2008.

  13. Space Shuttle Propulsion Safety Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, William Randy, Jr.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the proposed upgrades to the Space Shuttle Propulsion system, to improve safety, and reduce significant hazards. The goals of the program are to reduce the risk of a catastrophe in ascent, to achieve significant reduction in orbital and entry systems, and to improve the crew cockpit situational awareness for managing the critical operational situations. The document reviews the upgrades to the propulsion system which are planned to improve the safety. These include modifications to the Advanced Thrust Vector Control, modifications to the Space Shuttle Main Engine Block III, improvement in the Advanced Health Management System, the use of Friction Stir welding on the external tank, which is expected to improve mechanical properties, and reduce defect rate, and the modification of the propellant grains geometry.

  14. Quantification of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Feedlot Lagoons by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marilyn S.; Yang, Richard K.; Knapp, Charles W.; Niu, Yafen; Peak, Nicholas; Hanfelt, Margery M.; Galland, John C.; Graham, David W.

    2004-01-01

    A new real-time PCR method is presented that detects and quantifies three tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes [tet(O), tet(W), and tet(Q)] in mixed microbial communities resident in feedlot lagoon wastewater. Tcr gene real-time TaqMan primer-probe sets were developed and optimized to quantify the Tcr genes present in seven different cattle feedlot lagoons, to validate the method, and to assess whether resistance gene concentrations correlate with free-tetracycline levels in lagoon waters. The method proved to be sensitive across a wide range of gene concentrations and provided consistent and reproducible results from complex lagoon water samples. The log10 of the sum of the three resistance gene concentrations was correlated with free-tetracycline levels (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.001; n = 18), with the geometric means of individual resistance concentrations ranging from 4- to 8.3-fold greater in lagoon samples with above-median tetracycline levels (>1.95 ?g/liter by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques) than in below-median lagoon samples. Of the three Tcr genes tested, tet(W) and tet(Q) were more commonly found in lagoon water samples. Successful development of this real-time PCR assay will permit other studies quantifying Tcr gene numbers in environmental and other samples. PMID:15574938

  15. Modeling interaction of fluid and salt in an aquifer/lagoon system.

    PubMed

    Fujinawa, Katsuyuki; Iba, Takahiro; Fujihara, Yohichi; Watanabe, Tsugihiro

    2009-01-01

    To simulate the dynamic interaction between a saline lagoon and a ground water system, a numerical model for two-dimensional, variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, and coupled flow and solute transport (saltwater intrusion by finite elements and characteristics [SIFEC]) was modified to allow the volume of water and mass of salt in the lagoon to vary with each time step. The modified SIFEC allows the stage of a lagoon to vary in accordance with a functional relation between the stage and water volume of the lagoon, and also allows the salt concentration of the lagoon to vary in accordance with the salt budget of the lagoon including chemical precipitation and dissolution of salt. The updated stage and salt concentration of the lagoon are in turn used as transient boundary conditions for the coupled flow and solute transport model. The utility of the modified model was demonstrated by applying it to the eastern Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey for assessing impacts of climate change on the subsurface environment under scenarios of sea level rise, increased evaporation, and decreased precipitation. PMID:18715262

  16. RHIC and its upgrade programmes.

    SciTech Connect

    Roser,T.

    2008-06-23

    As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species. After a brief review of the achieved performance the presentation will give an overview of the plans, challenges and status of machine upgrades, that range from a new heavy ion pre-injector and beam cooling at 100 GeV to a high luminosity electron-ion collider.

  17. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S. (The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States))

    1992-10-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radial{times}7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels.

  18. Upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricomi, A.

    2014-03-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  19. Upgraded Fuel Assemblies for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, N.L. [AREVA NP Inc., 2101 Horn Rapids Road, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Rentmeister, T.; Lippert, H.J. [AREVA NP GmbH, Bunsenstrasse43, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Mollard, P. [AREVA NP 10, Rue Juliette Recamier 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)

    2007-07-01

    Established with engineering and manufacturing operations in the US and Europe, AREVA NP has been and is supplying nuclear fuel assemblies and associated core components to light water reactors worldwide, representing today more than 170,000 fuel assemblies on the world market and more than 56,000 fuel assemblies for BWR plants. Since first delivered in 1992, ATRIUM{sup TM}(1)10 fuel assemblies have now been supplied to a total of 28 BWR plants in the US, Europe, and Asia resulting in an operating experience over 16 000 fuel assemblies. In the spring of 2001, a BWR record burnup of 71 MWd/kgU was reached by four lead fuel assemblies after eight operating cycles. More recently, ATRIUM 10XP and ATRIUM 10XM fuel assemblies featuring changes in their characteristics and exhibiting upgraded behavior have been delivered to several utilities worldwide. This success story has been made possible thanks to a continuous improvement process with the aim of further upgrading BWR fuel assembly performance and reliability. An overview is given on current AREVA advanced BWR fuel supply regarding: - advanced designs to tailor product selection to specific operating strategies; - performance capabilities of each advanced design option; - testing and operational experience for these advanced designs; - upgraded features available for inclusion with advanced designs. (authors)

  20. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade on Cryogenic Lines at Refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

    1995-09-26

    This is an upgrade to the thermal contraction analysis sound in D0 Engineering Note: 3823.115-EN-426. In this new design, a portion of the transfer lines are consolidated into one 6-inch vacuum jacket. Since all four transfer lines follow the same path and are of equal lengths, the stress analysis is performed on only one transfer line using the design system ALGOR{reg_sign}. The GHe Cooldown Supply line is analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight and all the stresses were below the allowable stress limit of 25,050 psi.

  1. Recent Upgrades and Extensions of the ASDEX Upgrade ECRH System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Dietmar; Stober, Jörg; Leuterer, Fritz; Monaco, Francesco; Münich, Max; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Schütz, Harald; Zohm, Hartmut; Thumm, Manfred; Scherer, Theo; Meier, Andreas; Gantenbein, Gerd; Flamm, Jens; Kasparek, Walter; Höhnle, Hendrik; Lechte, Carsten; Litvak, Alexander G.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Chirkov, Alexey; Popov, Leonid G.; Nichiporenko, Vadim O.; Myasnikov, Vadim E.; Tai, Evgeny M.; Solyanova, Elena A.; Malygin, Sergey A.

    2011-03-01

    The multi-frequency Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECRH) system at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak employs depressed collector gyrotrons, step-tunable in the range 105-140 GHz. The system is equipped with a fast steerable launcher allowing for remote steering of the ECRH RF beam during the plasma discharge. The gyrotrons and the mirrors are fully integrated in the discharge control system. The polarization can be controlled in a feed-forward mode. 3 Sniffer probes for millimeter wave stray radiation detection have been installed.

  2. The Phytotoxicity Changes of Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Malara, Anna; Jo?ko, Izabela; Lesiuk, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was the estimation of changes in the phytotoxicity of soils amended with sewage sludge with relation to Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. The study was realised in the system of a plot experiment for a period of 29 months. Samples for analyses were taken at the beginning of the experiment, and then after 5, 17 and 29 months. Two kinds of sewage sludge, with varying properties, were added to a sandy soil (soil S) or a loamy soil (soil L) at the dose of 90 t/ha. The addition of sewage sludge to the soils at the start of the experiment caused a significant reduction of both seed germination capacity and root length of the test plants, the toxic effect being distinctly related to the test plant species. With the passage of time the negative effect of sewage sludge weakened, the extent of its reduction depending both of the kind of sewage sludge applied and on the type of soil. Phytotoxicity of the soils amended with the sewage sludges was significantly lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning. The species of the plants grown on the soils also had a significant effect on their phytotoxicity. The greatest reduction of toxicity was observed in the soil on which no plants were grown (sandy soil) and in the soil under a culture of willow (loamy soil). Solid phase of sewage sludge-amended soils was characterised by higher toxicity than their extracts. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1248-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23002312

  3. Sewage coliphages studied by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, H W; Nguyen, T M

    1983-01-01

    Sewage was enriched with 35 Escherichia coli strains, and sediments of enrichment cultures were studied in the electron microscope. They contained up to 10 varieties of morphologically different particles. T-even-type phages predominated in 14 samples. Thirteen phages were enriched, representing the families Myoviridae (seven), Styloviridae (two), Podoviridae (three), and Microviridae (one). Twelve of these corresponded to known enterobacterial phage species, namely, 121, K19, FC3-9, O1, 9266, T2, 16-19, kappa, beta 4, N4, T7, and phi X174. Cubic RNA phages and filamentous phages were not detected. Types 121 and 9266 have previously been observed only in Romania and South Africa. Identification by morphology is usually simple. Our investigative technique is qualitative and will not detect all phages present. Most enrichment strains are polyvalent, and electron microscopy is always required for phage identification. In a general way, electron microscopy seems to be the method of choice for investigation of phage geography and ecology. Images PMID:6847179

  4. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  5. Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons

    E-print Network

    lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies elsewhere and we provide guide- lines in terms of costs

  6. A Jurassic counterpart for modern kopara of the Pacific atolls: lagoonal, organic matter-rich,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Author Keywords: bacteria; Kimmeridgian; laminated sediments; (palaeo-) lagoonal environment 1 types of laminated sediments are compared in this paper: the Kimmeridgian bituminous laminites or Kiritimati (Christmas) Island from the Pacific Ocean. The kopara is made of laminated sediments, several tens

  7. Topographic and Base-level Control on Back-Barrier Lagoon Evolution: West Galveston Bay, TX 

    E-print Network

    Laverty, Paul H

    2014-12-02

    Estuaries are economically and ecologically significant regions that are highly sensitive to external forcing from sea-level rise, storm events, and anthropogenic change. West Galveston Bay (West Bay) is a back-barrier lagoon system located...

  8. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  9. Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

    2011-10-01

    Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 ?g g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 ?g g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural "barrier" for the potential risk of Hg transfer to the aquatic trophic chain.

  10. Systems tracts sedimentology in the lagoon of Mayotte associated with the Holocene transgression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, J.; Reijmer, J. J. G.; Thomassin, B. A.

    2003-08-01

    Twelve gravity cores from various settings within the Mayotte barrier reef-lagoon complex were studied to determine the sedimentology of the sequence stratigraphic systems tracts that formed during the Holocene transgression. Our studies focussed on the determination of physical, chemical, mineralogical and biological parameters of the sediments from specific systems tracts. These parameters determine the thickness and facies of each systems tracts and are controlled by the rate and amplitude of sea-level rise, lagoonal topography and environmental changes. The lowstand systems tract (LST) (before 11.5 ka BP) comprises ferralitic or organic-rich paleosoils in the proximal and middle lagoon and karstified Pleistocene reefal carbonates in the distal lagoon. The transgressive systems tract (TST) (11.5-7 ka BP) consists of a lower terrigenous and an upper mixed terrigenous-carbonate or carbonate-dominated unit. Locally, mangrove muds were deposited. The highstand systems tract (HST) can be divided into an early highstand (eHST) (7-1 ka BP) and a late highstand systems tract (lHST) (after 1 ka BP). In the proximal lagoonal wedge, the early highstand systems tract consists of terrigenous or mixed terrigenous-carbonate muds to sandy muds. In the middle lagoon, it shows carbonate mud to sandy mud and carbonate gravel to reefal carbonates in the distal lagoons. Terrigenous muds dominate the late highstand systems tract in the proximal lagoonal wedge. In the mid-lagoonal plain, mixed terrigenous-carbonate or carbonate mud to sandy mud dominates, while carbonate gravel to reefal carbonate prevails in the distal lagoon. For the last 9 ka, sedimentation in the lagoon of Mayotte has been spatially divided into a proximal terrigenous and a distal, carbonate-dominated province. Maximum carbonate concentrations between 4 and 1 ka BP coincide with the time of maximum solar insolation. After 1 ka BP, a general decrease in carbonate concentrations can be observed. This coincides with increased terrigenous sediment input, which results from a reduction in accommodation space and to some extent is of anthropogenic origin.

  11. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  12. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  13. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  14. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  15. Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model) 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-10-30

    on the buried sewer lines infiltration. Therefore, separating the storm water/infiltration and sanitary sewage reduces the possibility of sewage discharge during heavy rain periods, and saves energy....

  16. Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)

    E-print Network

    Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-10-30

    In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms...

  17. The Dynamics of Mercury Speciation and Transport at a Central California Coastal Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Dimova, N. T.; Merckling, J.; Kehrlein, N. C.; Hohn, R. A.; Richardson, C. M.; Johnson, C. D.; Fisher, A. T.; Lamborg, C. H.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal trends in total mercury and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in groundwater, lagoon water, and nearshore seawater to assess the drivers of MMHg production in a coastal lagoon system. Many West Coast streams transition from estuarine to lagoon conditions in the dry season when a sand berm develops at the stream mouth, restricting surface water exchange with the ocean. Because lagoons accumulate nutrients from their upstream watershed they are susceptible to eutrophication, which can promote the growth of anaerobic bacteria. In nearshore settings, these bacteria are primarily responsible for producing MMHg, a bioaccumulative neurotoxin. We found that MMHg concentrations in lagoon water (1 - 5 pM) were higher than in groundwater (0.2 - 1 pM) and coastal seawater (0.1 - 0.6 pM). Groundwater depth profiles combined with subsurface resistivity images suggest MMHg in lagoon water was transported through the sand berm to adjacent seawater. MMHg in seawater and groundwater followed similar trends, providing additional evidence of groundwater-surface water interaction. MMHg in groundwater directly below the lagoon was consistently higher where dissolved oxygen and NO3- decreased, implying MMHg production by anaerobic bacteria. Over a ~7-hour period we observed a 0.6 pM decrease in groundwater MMHg (1 to 0.4 pM) that coincided with a decrease in water temperature (16.5 to 13 °C). We hypothesize that microbial activity, and consequently MMHg production, were enhanced in warmer water. Because coastal lagoons support intricate food webs and serve as nurseries for a variety of organisms, processes that influence mercury speciation and transport in these ecosystems may have a disproportionate impact on nearshore mercury biogeochemical cycling.

  18. Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Chee-Sanford; R. I. Aminov; I. J. Krapac; N. Garrigues-Jeanjean; R. I. Mackie

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance (tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA) were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These

  19. Characterization of atmospheric ammonia emissions from swine waste storage and treatment lagoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viney P. Aneja; J. P. Chauhan; J. T. Walker

    2000-01-01

    Fluxes of atmospheric ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, where NH3-N 5 (14\\/17)NH3) from an anaerobic ;2.5 ha (1 ha 5 10,000 m 2 ) commercial hog waste storage lagoon were measured during the summer of 1997 through the spring of 1998 in order to study the seasonal variability in emissions of NH3-N and its relationship to lagoon physicochemical properties. Ammonia-nitrogen fluxes were measured

  20. Quantification of water, salt and nutrient exchange processes at the mouth of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Sylaios, Georgios K; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A; Akratos, Christos; Haralambidou, Kiriaki

    2006-08-01

    Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing behavior. Results indicated that although the system is micro-tidal, tidal effects appeared to be the dominant factor for the longitudinal distribution of physical and chemical parameters, while the associated residual flow is also important and serves as a baseline measure of overall circulation. However, analysis of the net longitudinal currents and fluxes of water, salt and nutrients revealed the importance of non-tidal effects (wind effect and precipitation incidents) in the mean tidal transport. It is shown that the Eulerian residual currents transported water and its properties inwards under southern winds, while a seaward transport was induced during precipitation incidents and northern winds. The Stokes drift effect was found an order of magnitude lower than the Eulerian current, directed towards the lagoon, proving the partially-progressive nature of the tide. Nutrients and chlorophyll-alpha loads are exported from the lagoon to the open sea during the ebb phase of the autumn and winter tidal cycles, associated with the inflow of nutrient-rich freshwater, seeped through the surrounding drainage canal. The reverse transport occurs in spring and early summer, when nutrients enter the lagoon during the flood tidal phase, from the nutrient-rich upper layer of the stratified adjacent sea. Application of a tidal prism model shows that Vassova lagoon has a mean flushing time of 7.5 days, ranging between 4 to 18 days, affected inversely by the tidal oscillation. PMID:16741822

  1. Ecological risk assessment of pesticide residues in coastal lagoons of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; Tolosa, Immaculada; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Lacayo, Martha; Cruz, Adela

    2002-10-01

    A detailed investigation on the contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorous pesticides of the coastal lagoon system of Chinandega district, Nicaragua, allowed the identification of contaminant sources and lagoon areas currently more contaminated. The discharge of rivers into the lagoons is the main transport pathway of pesticide residues; whereas atmospheric depositions are likely to be the main pathway for the introduction of PCBs into the lagoons. Analysis of water samples indicates widespread contamination with soluble organophosphorous compounds, such as dichlorvos, up to 410 ng L(-1), diazinon, up to 150 ng L(-1), and chlorpyrifos, up to 83 ng L(-1). Analyses of suspended matter for low solubility organochlorine (OC) compounds revealed very high concentrations of toxaphene, up to 17,450 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), total DDTs up to 478 ng g(-1), Aroclor 1254, up to 119 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations for other compounds. Lagoon sediments contain high concentrations also of toxaphene, from 7.9 to 6,900 ng g(-1) (dw), and DDTs, from 1.5 to 321 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane and other residues. Concentrations of OCs in soft tissues of clams are statistically correlated with the concentrations of the same compounds in bottom sediments, indicating that sediments are a source of contaminants to biota. In some areas of the lagoon system, concentration of residues in sediments are far above recommended threshold guideline values for protection of aquatic life, and may cause acute and chronic toxic effects on more sensitive aquatic species. Despite the ban on the use of toxaphene and DDT, residues of these compounds are still entering the lagoons due to erosion of, and leaching from, agriculture soils in the region. Measures for protection of the lagoon ecosystem are discussed. PMID:12400931

  2. CISOCUR - Residence time modelling in the Curonian Lagoon and validation through stable isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Zemlys, Petras; Ertürk, Ali; M?žin?, Jovita

    2015-04-01

    The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Here we show how the SI analysis was used to validate the hydrodynamic model on the basis of residence time. The average residence time of the Nemunas waters is estimated through SI data and is then compared with the model data computed through standard algorithms. Seasonal changes of carbon content are taken care of through a preliminary application of a carbon kinetic model. The results are compared to literature data.

  3. The Upgraded D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U./Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco deQuito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS; ,

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  4. CMS upgrade and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoepfner, Kerstin

    2015-05-01

    CMS plans for operation at the LHC phase-II unprecedented in terms of luminosity thus resulting in serious consequences for detector performance. To achieve the goal to maintain the present excellent performance of the CMS detector, several upgrades are necessary. To handle the high phase-II data rates, the readout and trigger systems are redesigned using recent technology developments. The high particle rates will accelerate detector aging and require replacement of the tracker and forward calorimeters. In addition, the muon system will be extended.

  5. The Upgraded D0 Detector

    E-print Network

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

    2005-01-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  6. The CDF silicon detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Azzi, P.

    1998-04-01

    A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here.

  7. Macrobenthos response to sewage pollution in a tropical inshore area.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, T; Rakhesh, M; Raman, A V; Nanduri, Sateesh; Moore, Shonda; Rajanna, B

    2014-06-01

    Organic sewage pollution is the major stressor that affects benthic communities in the coastal waters. In the present study involving a once-off sampling (July-August 2003) of a sewage treatment plant (STP) outfall and areas 6 km farther into the sea, we tried to estimate the severity of organic pollution on marine macrobenthos over a pollution gradient in the inshore waters (station depths, 5-30 m) off a heavily urbanized tropical city, on the east coast of India. Multivariate ordination analyses revealed two different groups of faunal assemblages. Group I is associated with sites impacted by the sewage outfall and group II with the locations 3-6 km away in the open sea. Polychaetes and amphipods were the predominant fauna with significant taxonomic differences between the assemblages. Despite the homogeneity in sediment texture, the two-fold increase in sediment organic matter near the sewage outfall area supported r-strategists, while group II locations favoured K-strategists. Approximation through benthic opportunistic polychaetes amphipods (BOPA) index and information on the key taxa responsible for the observed assemblage patterns corroborated these findings. Thus, the present findings revealed how organic sewage pollution influences benthic diversity in coastal waters by supporting communities of opportunistic characteristics. We advocate inclusion of community traits and compatible analytical tools (statistical approaches) in studies of similar nature so that the observations could be compared and broad remedial measures could be evolved. PMID:24464401

  8. Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease. PMID:23438335

  9. Pharmaceuticals as indictors of sewage-influenced groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross

    2012-09-01

    A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.

  10. Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

    2012-04-01

    The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

  11. Performance of the upgraded Orroral laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luck, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: upgrade arrangements, system prior to 1991, elements of the upgrade, laser performance, timing system performance, pass productivity, system precision, system accuracy, telescope pointing and future upgrades and extensions.

  12. Rates of sediment supply and sea-level rise in a large coastal lagoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Ward, G.H.; White, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Laguna Madre, Texas, is 3-7 km wide and more than 190 km long, making it one of the longest lagoons in the world. The lagoon encompasses diverse geologic and climatic regions and it is an efficient sediment trap that accumulates clastic sediments from upland, interior, and oceanic sources. The semi-arid climate and frequent tropical cyclones historically have been responsible for the greatest volume of sediment influx. On an average annual basis, eolian transport, tidal exchange, storm washover, mainland runoff, interior shore erosion, and authigenic mineral production introduce approximately one million m3 of sediments into the lagoon. Analyses of these sediment transport mechanisms and associated line sources and point sources of sediment provide a basis for: (1) estimating the long-term average annual sediment supply to a large lagoon; (2) calculating the average net sedimentation rate; (3) comparing introduced sediment volumes and associated aggradation rates with observed relative sea-level change; and (4) predicting future conditions of the lagoon. This comparison indicates that the historical average annual accumulation rate in Laguna Madre (<1 mm/yr) is substantially less than the historical rate of relative sea-level rise (~4 mm/yr). Lagoon submergence coupled with erosion of the western shore indicates that Laguna Madre is being submerged slowly and migrating westward rather than filling, as some have suggested.

  13. Trends in the variation of the sea level in the lagoons of the Southeastern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotskaya, S. E.; Chubarenko, B. V.

    2013-02-01

    This paper analyses the global tendency of the sea level rise (SLR) and its long term influence on the sea level upstream drainage cascade based on the example of the level's variation in the Vistula Lagoon of the Baltic Sea compared to the other lagoons and coastal regions of the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. A steady positive trend in the water level variations was revealed; its magnitude varies significantly depending on the time period. In general, during the 100-150 year period, the rate of the SLR in the lagoons and coastal areas of the Baltic Sea (1.7-1.8 mm per year) is close to the SLR rate in the World Ocean. In the second half of the 20th century, the increased rate of the SLR in the lagoons and marine areas became stronger (up to 3.6 mm per year in the Vistula Lagoon and in 1959-2006 in the sea and exceeded the rate of global ocean SLR). It dramatically increased at the end of the last century both in the lagoons and in the sea (up to 10.0-15.0 mm per year). This is the response not only to the global climate warming but it is likely that it is also a response to the changes of the climate driving forces that influence the regimes of the local wind and precipitation in the catchment.

  14. Restoration of the eutrophic Orbetello lagoon (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): water quality management.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Mauro; Palmieri, Roberto; Porrello, Salvatore

    2003-12-01

    The Orbetello lagoon (Tyrrhenian coast, Italy) receives treated urban and land based fishfarms wastewater. The development of severe eutrophication imposed the three main activity adoption focuses on (1) macroalgae harvesting; (2) pumping of water from the sea; (3) confining wastewater to phytotreatment ponds. The responses to these interventions were rapid and macroalgal reduction growth and seagrass return were recorded. Since 1999, a new macroalgal development was recorded. The aim of this research was to discover whether the recent macroalgal growth can be attributed to the continuing wastewater influx from the remaining persistent anthropic sources (PAS) or from the sediment nutrient release. A monitoring programme was carried out between August 1999 and July 2000 in order to measure dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in the wastewaters entering into the lagoon and in central lagoon areas, seaweed and seagrass distribution and lagoon N, P annual budgets. The results showed higher N and P values close to PAS. The distribution of the macroalgal species confirms that the available P comes almost entirely from these remaining PAS. In conclusion, the environmental measures adopted produced a significant reduction in algal biomass development in the lagoon; the macroalgal harvesting activities produced a sediment disturbance with following oxidize conditions, which make P unavailable in the lagoon water, excepting close the PAS. PMID:14643780

  15. Odorous Compounds Hazards and Health Risk Assessment of Urban Sewage Pumping Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Q. Lu; M. D. Li

    2011-01-01

    According to the secondary pollution problem of odorous compounds which produced by urban sewage pumping station, the odorous compounds hazards and health risk were assessed. Taking 6 urban sewage pumping stations in north China as an example, firstly, the main components of odorous compounds in different positions of sewage pumping stations was monitored and analyzed. Secondly, the odorous compounds strength

  16. Effect of Alkaline Fly Ash on Heavy Metal Speciation in Stabilized Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongling Zhang; Lina Sun; Guofeng Ma

    2011-01-01

    Mixing sewage sludge with coal fly ash could reduce the mobility of heavy metals in stabilized sewage sludge. In order to access the mobility and bioavailability of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) in stabilized sewage sludge, five-step sequential extraction method was performed according to the modified Tessier method. The results showed that application of coal fly ash to

  17. Physical and chemical properties study of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoge Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

    2002-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the activated carbon made from sewage sludge so as to give a basic understanding of its structure. The activated

  18. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from...SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...Delegation of Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt...

  19. Further insights into the activation process of sewage sludge-based precursors by alkaline hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Angeles Lillo-Ródenas; Anna Ros; Enrique Fuente; Miguel A. Montes-Morán; María J. Martin; Angel Linares-Solano

    2008-01-01

    The present work extends previous activation results obtained with a sewage sludge to others and deepens into the study and characterisation of sewage sludge-based sorbents prepared by alkaline hydroxide activation. Results obtained show that different sewage sludges, whose compositions and treatments vary from each other, can be successfully activated by KOH. A wide range of porosities are achieved, being remarkable

  20. Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    E-print Network

    Harvell, Catherine Drew

    l e i n f o Keywords: Coral Sewage pollution Enterococcus d15 N Zanzibar Human health a b s t r a c the health risks to humans, sewage pollution also threatens community structure, biodiversity, and services, 1985). Such deleterious effects of sewage pollution on coral reefs can have a strong impact

  1. Evolutionary parameter optimization of a fuzzy controller which is used to control a sewage treatment plant

    E-print Network

    Ebner, Marc

    , sewage treatment plants may need to be redesigned or extended. Instead of reconstructing large parts of a sewage treatment plant, which can be very costly, it is in many cases sufficient to install relatively computational demands of simulating a sewage treatment plant, it is only possible to work with small population

  2. Basic Study of Concrete Made Using Ash Derived from the Incinerating Sewage Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobutaka Sasaoka; Katsunori Yokoi; Takashi Yamanaka

    2006-01-01

    Sewage sludge incinerated ash is discharged as waste. Those are increasing with progress of a sewage enterprise every year. However, the reservation of the last disposal place for reclaiming the generated incineration ash is becoming quickly difficult. In this situation of sewage sludge processing, it is very important to promote more reducing and development of new reusing method. Recently, in

  3. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

    2010-11-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  4. Useful Ingredients Recovery from Sewage Sludge by using Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Moriyama, Mika; Yamasaki, Yuki; Takahashi, Yui; Inoue, Chihiro

    2006-05-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of sludge from a sewage treatment plant was conducted to obtain useful ingredients for culture of specific microbes which can reduce polysulfide ion into sulfide ion and/or hydrogen sulfide. Several additives such as acid, base, and oxidizer were added to the hydrothermal reaction of excess sludge to promote the production of useful materials. After hydrothermal treatment, reaction solution and precipitation were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and estimated the availability as nutrition in cultural medium. From the results of product analysis, most of organic solid in sewage was basically decomposed by hydrothermal hydrolysis and transformed into oily or water-soluble compounds. Bacterial culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) showed the good results in multiplication with medium which was obtained from hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge with magnesium or calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  5. [Enhancement of sewage sludge anaerobic digestibility by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge are carried out to investigate the effects of thermal hydrolysis on the digestibility of sewage sludge. The results show that thermal hydrolysis pretreatment can facilitate the dissolving of organic solid in sludge, and soluble organics hydrolyzed into low molecular organics, in which volatile fat acids accounted for 30% - 40 % of soluble COD, so the digestibility of sewage sludge remarkably improved. The optimum pretreatment temperature and holding time were 170 degrees C and 30 minutes, under which the total COD removal rate enhanced from original 38.11% to 56.78%, and biogas production rate of COD in feeding sludge from 160mL/g to 250mL/g. PMID:15859411

  6. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g?L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

  7. Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1988-07-01

    Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

  8. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  9. Conference on Upgrading and New Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Manpower Policy Task Force, Washington, DC.

    This conference met to consider the political and financial problems in providing government-financed programs to improve upgrading in private and public jobs. The morning session was devoted to federal support of upgrading in industry. In the afternoon session, participants discussed new careers in the service sector, including civil service…

  10. The fishbone instability in ASDEX Upgrade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kass; H.-S. Bosch; F. Hoenen; K. Lackner; M. Maraschek; H. Zohm

    1998-01-01

    In ASDEX Upgrade the excitation of the fishbone instability has been experimentally investigated. The initial frequency of the fishbone oscillation scales with the toroidal precession frequency of the fast trapped ions. A new feature, the coupling of the fishbone mode with the edge localized mode (ELM) instability during high-beta discharges, is found. Fishbones occur in ASDEX Upgrade only for betafast

  11. NSTXpool Computer Upgrade December 9, 2010

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NSTXpool Computer Upgrade WP #1685 Bill Davis December 9, 2010 #12;Work Scope Upgrade Operating System, Application Software, and Programs that run on NSTX computers using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. nstxpool computers + nstxops nstxWindowsPC (Control Room Display Wall) Big Blue cluster for EFIT Selected

  12. MAST-Upgrade Advancing compact fusion sources

    E-print Network

    MAST-Upgrade Advancing compact fusion sources #12;#12;The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centrepiece of the UK's fusion research programme. It has led studies into the spherical tokamak, a compact to the drive towards commercial fusion power. 1. Testing reactor concepts. MAST-Upgrade will be the first

  13. Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1998-03-12

    This SARP Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A performance agreement has been assigned, beginning in FY 1997, to update, revise, and/or cancel 20 percent of the existing onsite SARPS, so that 100 percent are reviewed and within current standards by the completion of the Project Hanford Management Contract (five-year period).

  14. SQL Server 2012 Upgrade Technical Guide

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    SQL Server 2012 Upgrade Technical Guide Writers: Ron Talmage, Nigel Sammy, Allan Hirt, Herbert Published: May 2012 Applies to: SQL Server 2012 Summary: This technical guide takes you through the essentials for upgrading SQL Server 2005, SQL Server 2008, and SQL Server 2008 R2 instances to SQL Server

  15. Tank Farms Restoration and Upgrades Program Plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Bigbee; G. D. Bouchey

    1993-01-01

    The Tank Farm Restoration and Upgrades Program Plan provides a summary description of action plans to renovate various Tank Farm management control programs, equipment, systems, and facilities. The Tank Farm upgrades identified in this plan are required (1) to ensure safe, environmentally compliant, and efficient operation of the facilities or (2) to support the waste cleanup mission at the Hanford

  16. Metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) concentration patterns in components of a macrophyte-based coastal lagoon ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodora Boubonari; Theodoros Kevrekidis; Paraskevi Malea

    2009-01-01

    Information on the metal biological fate in macrophyte-based coastal lagoons is provided; this information can contribute\\u000a to the assessment of the environmental effects of metal pollution and to the development of predictive models for rational\\u000a management of coastal lagoons. Iron, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations in the dominant invertebrate and fish species of Monolimni\\u000a Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, as well

  17. Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Snickars; Alfred Sandström; Antti Lappalainen; Johanna Mattila; Kajsa Rosqvist; Lauri Urho

    2009-01-01

    The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total

  18. Behavior of PAHs from sewage sludge incinerators in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Bo; Kim, Jin Pil; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Oh Sang; Jung, Dong Il

    2009-02-01

    Although production of sewage sludge increases every year, its proper treatment has only been recently raised as a new issue, as current landfill and ocean dumping arrangements are expected to become increasingly difficult to manage in the future. The Korean Ministry of Environment plans to diversify its processing facilities and expand its processing systems by 2011, with the purpose of processing all sludge produced in Korea. According to this plan, incineration (including incineration of municipal wastes) will process 30% of the entire sewage sludge throughout the country in 2011. This study reviews the characteristics of PAH, which is one of the organic substances found in sewage sludge during the incinerating process. The total amount of PAH produced from sewage sludge incineration was found to be 6.103 mg/kg on average, and investigation performed on 16 PAHs of inlets and outlets of the air control devices at five full-scale incineration facilities showed that concentrations of the PAHs on the inlet and on the outlet ranged from 3.926 to 925.748 microg/m(3) and from 1.153 to 189.449 microg/m(3), respectively. In the case of the incineration facility fed with municipal waste (95%) and sewage sludge (5%), the total of the PAH emissions concentration was higher than that found at the incineration facilities used exclusively to treat sewage. The combustion of waste vinyl and plastics contained in municipal waste fed into the facility might contribute to the high levels of PAHs in the stack gas. However more investigation is needed on the production mechanism of PAHs at different operating conditions of the incineration facilities, such as the types of waste, and other relevant factors. PMID:18951779

  19. Do physiography and hydrology determine the physico-chemical properties and trophic status of coastal lagoons? A comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselli, L.; Cañedo-Argüelles, M.; Costa Goela, P.; Cristina, S.; Rieradevall, M.; D'Adamo, R.; Newton, A.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal lagoons are very heterogeneous systems covering a wide range of physiographical and hydrological characteristics. The hypothesis of the present investigation was that physiographical and hydrological characteristics of coastal lagoons affect their physico-chemical properties and their buffering capacity against nutrient enrichment. We compared data collected during a complete annual cycle in six coastal lagoons which were representative of the different lagoon types proposed by Kjerfve (1986) and were subjected to different anthropogenic pressures. The greater exchange of water with the sea in the leaky lagoon of Ria Formosa (type 3) reduced the seasonal differences in the physico-chemical variables and increased the buffer capacity against nutrient enrichment when compared to the restricted (type 2) and chocked (type 1) lagoon types. The lagoon types also showed important differences regarding nutrient limitation, with types 1 and 2 being P-limited and type 3 being N-limited. Our approach can be applied to other coastal lagoons representative of transitional water types in order to provide a general framework for the rational management and policy strategies of coastal lagoons.

  20. Constructed Landscaping Combination Constructed Wetlands System Used for Sewage Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yong-hua; Wu Xiao-fu; Chen Ming-li; Yao Jing; Li Ke-lin; Wang Zhong-cheng; Lei Dian

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a combinant landscape constructed wetland for sewage treatment based on landscape plants in this study. The results are summerized as follows: the system uses model as: A(biological pretreatment pond)-B(biochemistry pond)- C(subsurface flow wetland)-D(surface flow wetland)-E(the third level vertical-flow wetland)-F(second-level vertical-flow wetland) -G(landscape surface flow wetland)-H(biology pond), this combination craft sewage treatment is performed effectively, and the system outcome

  1. CISOCUR - Hydrodynamic circulation in the Curonian Lagoon inferred through stable isotope measurements and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Barisevi?i?t?, Ruta; Baziuk?, Dalia; Ertürk, Ali; Gasi?nait?, Jovita; Gulbinskas, Saulius; Lubien?, Irma; Mara?kinaite, Jurgita; Petkuvien?, Jolita; Pilkaityt?, Renata; Ruginis, Tomas; Zemlys, Petras; Žilius, Mindaugas

    2013-04-01

    The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Overall, the project will develop according to 4 main phases: 1) A pilot study to measure the isotope composition of different carbon compounds (dissolved and suspended) in different water bodies that feed water into the central lagoon. Through this pilot study the optimal study sites for the seasonal campaign will be identified as well. 2) Seasonal field campaigns in the monitoring stations identified in phase 1 to measure the carbon isotope ratio. 3) Development of a model that describes the kinetics of carbon isotopes and its transformation. 4) Application of a hydrodynamic model that includes the kinetic model and uses the data in order to describe the overall circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Project activities will be carried out as common co-ordinated effort of field an SI group and the modeling group that will have to calibrate the hydrodynamic model. In this way the expertise of different groups (physicists and oceanographers) will result in added value, providing the best available expertise along the eastern coast of the Baltic.

  2. The distribution of salinity and main forcing effects in the Berre lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Bernard; Alekseenko, Elena; Chen, Paul Gang; Kharif, Christian; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The results from previous studies in lagoons and well mixed estuaries indicate that salt transport is primarily in response to advection associated with freshwater outflow, tidal diffusion, and to shear effects arising from spatial correlations of vertical and especially transverse deviations in salinity and current speed (Smith, 1994). Therefore, the inflow of fresh and salt water into coastal lagoons is an important factor influencing the structure and function of lagoonal ecosystems worldwide (Lirman et al., 2007). The predominance of marine or freshwater inflow leads to the different ecosystems. Among several lagoons located along the Mediterranean shore of France, the Berre lagoon has been under intense anthropogenic pressure for several decades (Delpy et al., 2012). Moreover, the salinity level of the Berre lagoon was varying dramatically from the 19th century up to now. In this work, a special attention is focused on the salinity variation in the Berre lagoon due to the three dominant abiotic forcing mechanisms, i.e., incoming sea tide, runoff from a hydropower and a strong wind. Four different model scenarios were considered in order to examine the impact of each forcing mechanism or combined effects, i.e. : (a) tide only, (b) runoff only, (c) combined tide and runoff, and (d) an N-NW wind, tide and runoff together. Numerical modeling and interpretation of numerical results are based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D. It is found that the strongest negative impact is related to the huge hydropower runoffs, inducing the desalinization of the surface and subsurface waters not only in the centre of the lagoon, but also in the entire water column in the coastal seagrass recolonization zones. In the absence of wind, the huge inputs of freshwater from the hydropower lead to a haline stratification and thus, to anoxic conditions, making most of the lagoon unproductive. On the contrary, strong winds play a positive role on the salinity level of the Berre lagoon by destroying rapidly (in a few hours) the vertical stratification, thereby reducing the risk of anoxia. The results from these model scenarios are useful to further understand the ecosystem of the Berre lagoon and to help the designers of seagrass restoration program. References Delpy F., Pagano M., Blanchot J., Carlotti F., Thibault-Botha D. : Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64 (9) : 1921-32, 2012. Lirman D., Serafy J.E. : Documenting Everglades restoration impacts on Biscayne Bay's shallowest benthic habitats. First Annual Report. CERP Monitoring and Assessment Plan Component : Activity Number 3.2.3.3. Miami, FL, 2008. Smith N.P. : Water, salt and heat balance of coastal lagoons. In B. Kjerfve (ed.), Coastal Lagoon Processes. (pp. 69-101). Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1994.

  3. 68 FR 75531 - Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge; Final Agency Response to the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-31

    ...new sewage sludge treatment...methods for analysis of sewage sludge matrices...sewage sludge samples, calling...limited data are available...incineration pathway analysis (USEPA 2003c...in sewage sludge) for the...source of data for use in...waterbody (a pond) and...

  4. Hydrologic characteristics of lagoons at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during an October 1974 tidal cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Ellis, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Flow and water-quality changes were studied during a period of intense rainfall in the San Juan Lagoon system. The study covered a 25-hour period beginning 0900 hours 22 October, 1974. Precipitation during the study period averaged 70 millimeters. Sampling stations were located at Boca de Cangrejos, the main ocean outlet; Canal Pinones between Laguna de Pinones and Laguna La Torrecilla; Canal Suarez between Laguna San Jose, connects to Laguna La Torrecilla; and Cano de Martin Pena between Laguna San Jose and Bahia de San Juan. In addition water-elevation recording gages were installed at each lagoon. Water samples from the canal stations were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and suspended sediment. Specific-conductance measurements were used with the chemical data to estimate the runoff contributions of nutrients. Runoff into the lagoon, system during the study period was about 2.8 million cubic meters, or about 70 percent of the average precipitation. The runoff contributed chemical loadings to the lagoons of 95,000 kilograms total-organic carbon; 2,700 kilograms of total phosphorus; and 10,000 kilograms of total Khjeldhal nitrogen. A comparison with a prior study during which there was no significant rain, show that dry-period loadings are less than 10 percent of the wet-period loadings. At the end of the study period the system had not reached equilibrium, and the lagoons retained 80 percent of the water inflows from 50 to 90 percent of the chemical loads. Nearly 95 percent of the water outflows occurred at the Boca de Cangrejos sea outlet. The three lagoons and interconnecting canals form a very complex hydraulic system that is difficult to study using traditional techniques. A model of the system will facilitate management to improve the quality of water in the lagoons.

  5. The Unare lagoon - A recent example of sequence stratigraphic control in reservoir patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C. (Corpoven, S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    The Unare lagoon constitutes a barred coastal lagoon formed during the Holocene transgression on a moderate wave energy, microtidal coast. An extensive surface sampling and core drill program has been carried out in the lagoon in order to develop a reservoir sedimentology and sequence stratigraphic model applicable to similar subsurface deposits. During the rapid Halocene sea level rise, more than 70 m of fluvial and delta plain sediments have aggraded behind the landward stepping coastal barrier. These sediments are truncated seaward by a transgressive wave ravinement surface, and are capped by widespread lagoonal muds which accumulated between 8300 and 7250 yBP. These muds constitute the Holocene Maximum Flooding Surface which preceded the onset of the post Holocene stillstand (c. 500[approximately] yBP), probably as a result of the high rate of sediment supply and the confined nature of the lagoon which acted as an efficient sediment trap. During the post Holocene stillstand, a fluvial-dominated delta has prograded across the lagoon and attained the coastal barrier. This delta constitutes a Highstand Systems Tract. The major reservoir sands comprise distributary channel meanderbelts and the transgressive barrier. The channels form sand ribbons 5-7 m thick, and up to 2 km wide. The barrier and shoreface sands forms a strike-elongate deposits less than 5 m thick, up to 150-600 m wide, and 5-10 km long. The lagoonal facies of the Maximum Flooding Surface form a good reservoir seal overlying the aggrading transgressive fluvial and delta plain sands and muds.

  6. Five-megajoule homopolar upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bullion, T.M.; Zowarka, R.C.; Aanstoos, T.A.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The five-megajoule homopolar generator (5-MJ HPG) designed and built in 1974 by the Center for Eelctromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) was the result of an engineering feasibility study that examined alternate means of pulsed energy storage for controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments. The machine proved very reliable and useful in a variety of applications, notably pulsed resistance welding, and was modified in 1978 to improve its flexibility and ease of maintenance. CEM-UT is now completing a major upgrading of this HPG to a hydraulically motored, 10-MJ, 47-V, 1.02-MA device capable of welding large-section, high-carbon railroad rail. This report considers the design and fabrication of the new rotor, shaft, brush mechanisms, field coil, making switch, busbar system, and control system, as well as the addition of the 31-MPa (4500 psi) hydraulic motoring system. Future applications of the 10-MJ HPG are also discussed.

  7. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This shows the fundamental importance of rapid processing. Rapid thermal conditioning may be incorporated into a wastewater treatment plant where biological treatment is used. For purposes of a concrete example, flow-sheets for the incorporation of the RTC process into the New York City Wards Island WPCP were prepared, and experimental data from the laboratory scale RTC test facility were used to set design parameters. A design incorporating nitrogen removal into the RTC flow sheet was also examined. ASPEN software was used to design the proposed processes and perform economic analyses. Cost estimates for these alternatives show a substantial advantage to implement RTC in comparison to present plant operation. About one third of the current sludge processing cost can be saved by incorporation of RTC into the Wards Island Plant. With nitrogen removal, the economics are even more attractive.

  8. Fish endocrine disruption responses to a major wastewater treatment facility upgrade.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Vajda, Alan M; Douville, Chris; Norris, David O; Writer, Jeffery H

    2012-02-21

    The urban-water cycle modifies natural stream hydrology, and domestic and commercial activities increase the burden of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol, that can disrupt endocrine system function in aquatic organisms. This paper presents a series of integrated chemical and biological investigations into the occurrence, fate, and effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the City of Boulder Colorado's WWTF and Boulder Creek, the receiving stream. Results are presented showing the effects of a full-scale upgrade of the WWTF (that treats 0.6 m(3) s(-1) of sewage) from a trickling filter/solids contact process to an activated sludge process on the removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other contaminants (including nutrients, boron, bismuth, gadolinium, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) through each major treatment unit. Corresponding impacts of pre- and postupgrade effluent chemistry on fish reproductive end points were evaluated using on-site, continuous-flow experiments, in which male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 28 days to upstream Boulder Creek water and WWTF effluent under controlled conditions. The upgrade of the WWTF resulted in improved removal efficiency for many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, particularly 17?-estradiol and estrone, and fish exposed to the postupgrade effluent indicated reduction in endocrine disruption relative to preupgrade conditions. PMID:22300164

  9. Modification of soil porosity after application of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Sort; J. M. Alcañiz

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the application of sewage sludge on soil porosity over 28 months is discussed here. Anaerobic sludges of urban refuse waters were applied on a degraded limestone soil in a mining land by two ways. First, a previous mixture of sludge and soil was carried out; this was then applied to the target land. Second, a direct application

  10. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Adam, C; Peplinski, B; Michaelis, M; Kley, G; Simon, F-G

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes contain P, but also heavy metals. P in the ashes exhibits low bioavailability, a disadvantage in farming. Therefore, in a second thermochemical step, P is transferred into mineral phases available for plants, and heavy metals are removed as well. The thermochemical treatment was investigated in a laboratory-scale rotary furnace by treating seven different sewage sludge ashes under systematic variation of operational parameters. Heavy metal removal and the increase of the P-bioavailability were the focus of the investigation. The present experimental study shows that these objectives have been achieved with the proposed process. The P-bioavailability was significantly increased due to the formation of new mineral phases such as chlorapatite, farringtonite and stanfieldite during thermochemical treatment. PMID:19036571

  11. EFFECTS OF USING SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans develop...

  12. Textile mill effluent decolorization using crude dehydrated sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dhaouadi; F. M’Henni

    2008-01-01

    Crude dehydrated sewage sludge issued from an urban wastewater treatment plant (High-rate aeration, activated sludge process, Monastir, Tunisia) is used as an adsorbent for the decolorization of a textile mill effluent. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the crude material adsorption capability of the dye contained in wastewater. No treatment to modify any of the adsorbent properties

  13. PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD-CHAIN CROPS WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...

  14. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

  15. DEMONSTRATION PHYSICAL CHEMICAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT UTILIZING BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration project in a small residential community in Kentucky was initiated to show the feasibility of treating sewage with a physical-chemical type of wastewater treatment plant with a biological process for nitrification. The 50,000 gallon per day system had unit proc...

  16. Pretreatment to produce ultrapure water from reclaimed sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kee Kean Chin

    1996-01-01

    Reclaiming sewage for industrial process water has been a routine practice since the Jurong Industrial Water Work was completed in 1965. The current water usage amounts to 45,000 m3d. The quality of the reclaimed water in general meets with the quality requirements for general washing and process applications of industries such as paper and textile. As demand for ultrapure water

  17. Biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. Cheng; S. Y. Chen; J. G. Lin

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride to impart flexibility to the product. Because of its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the presence of DEHP in sludge limits the application of sludge as a soil fertilizer. In this study, sludges were collected from three sewage treatment plants and thirteen wastewater treatment plants of different

  18. Removal of DEHP in composting and aeration of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna K Marttinen; Kari Hänninen; Jukka A Rintala

    2004-01-01

    The potential of composting and aeration to remove bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from municipal sewage sludge was studied with two dewatered sludges: raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge. Composting removed 58% of the DEHP content of the raw sludge and 34% of that of the anaerobically digested sludge during 85 days stabilisation in compost bins. A similar removal for the anaerobically

  19. Properties, microstructure and leaching of sintered sewage sludge ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R Cheeseman; C. J Sollars; S McEntee

    2003-01-01

    Sewage sludge incinerator ash has been compacted and fired at different temperatures to produce a range of sintered ceramic materials. The effects of sintering temperature and pressing pressure on density, water adsorption and shrinkage have been determined and the microstructure of material sintered at 1040°C for 1h characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. Sintering produces potentially useful

  20. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia C. Wszolek; Timothy Wachs

    1982-01-01

    Sludge ash residues from four cities that incinerate municipal sewage sludge were analyzed for isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Total amounts of PAHs in the ashes were in the range of 0.1–1µg\\/g. The ash containing the highest amount also exhibited the greatest variety of PAHs.

  1. The thermal conductivity mechanism of sewage sludge ash lightweight materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuen-Sheng Wang; Chung-Jen Tseng; Ing-Jia Chiou; Min-Hua Shih

    2005-01-01

    The foaming reactions and the hydration and Pozzolanic effects of processed sewage sludge ash (SSA) allow it to be used as the main ingredient to make lightweight materials. The thermal conductivity of the SSA lightweight materials (SSALM), the SSA properties and how the mixing ratio of the materials influences the heat insulation properties are investigated. The results show that the

  2. RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline water flow and septic ta...

  3. Removal of estrogenicity in Swedish municipal sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Svenson, Anders; Allard, Ann Sofie; Ek, Mats

    2003-11-01

    The human estrogen receptor alpha-test, hosted in a yeast strain, was used to quantify estrogenicity in three-week composite samples of untreated and treated effluents from 20 Swedish municipal sewage treatment plants. The treatment plants were selected to represent different treatment processes regarding chemical precipitation and microbial procedures. The discharge from Swedish domestic sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic compounds corresponding to <0.1-15 ng estradiol equivalents/L. Low levels of estrogenic activity were also found in a river receiving municipal effluents, 3.5-35 km downstream the outlet from a sewage treatment works. The range of estrogenicity in untreated, raw sewage effluents was found to be 1-30 ng estradiol equivalents/L. Generally, wastewater treatment reduced the estrogenicity and extended biological treatment was most effective in its removal. Activated sludge treatment tended to be more effective than trickling filters, whereas chemical precipitation using iron or aluminium salts without biological treatment showed little effectivity. The study showed that treatment methods in current use are able to eliminate or largely reduce estrogenicity in domestic wastewater. PMID:14511714

  4. Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff

    E-print Network

    Heal, Kate

    321 14 Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff using recovered ochre K © 2004 IWA Publishing. Phosphorus in Environmental Technology: Principles and Applications. Edited by Eugenia Valsami-Jones. ISBN: 1 84339 001 9 #12;322 Phosphorus removal technologies from water and waste

  5. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  6. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  7. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used for operating the incine...

  8. HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

  9. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, G A; Kapila, S; Kelkar, V B; Negi, S; Modi, V V

    1987-01-01

    The survival of certain bacterial cultures suspended in sewage sludge and exposed to gamma-radiation was studied. The inactivation patterns of most of the organisms were significantly different when irradiation was performed using sewage samples collected in the summer and monsoon seasons. The summer sample collected from the anaerobic digestor afforded significant protection to both Gram negative and Gram positive organisms. This was evident by the increase in dose required to bring about a 6 log cycle reduction in viable count of the bacterial cultures, when suspended in sewage samples instead of phosphate buffer. The observations made using monsoon digestor samples were quite different. This sewage sludge greatly enhanced inactivation by gamma-radiation in most cases. The effects of certain chemicals on the inactivation patterns of two organisms-Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri-were examined. Arsenate, mercury and lead salts sensitised S. typhi, while barium acetate and sodium sulphide protected this culture against gamma-radiation. In the case of Sh. flexneri, barium acetate and iodacetamide proved to be radioprotectors. The effects of some chemicals on the inactivation pattern of Sh. flexneri cells irradiated in sludge are also discussed. PMID:15092791

  10. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  11. Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Brick Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Fong Lin; Chih-Huang Weng

    2001-01-01

    Brick manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay is investigated. The results of Atterberg limits tests of molded ash-clay mixtures indicated that both plastic index and dry shrinkage decrease with an increasing amount of ash in the mixture. Results of tests indicated that the ash proportion and firing temperature were the two key factors determining the quality of brick.

  12. DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

  13. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  14. Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.L.

    1998-11-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Performance Expectation exists to update, revise, and/or cancel seven onsite SARPS during FY 1999. It is the U.S. Department of Energy's desire that 100% of the SARPs (which existed at the beginning of the PHMC Contract) be upgraded, revised, and/or canceled by the end of the five year contract. This plan is a ''living'' document and is used as a management tool.

  15. Modelling water discharges and nutrient inputs into a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France). Impact on phytoplankton production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plus, M.; La Jeunesse, I.; Bouraoui, F.

    2003-04-01

    The lagoon of Thau (French Mediterranean coast), is a large (75 km2) and rather deep coastal lagoon (mean depth 4 m), connected to the sea by its two extremities (residence time: about 3 months). Besides its ecological interest as a breeding and transit zone for some sea fish species, the lagoon has a notable economic importance due to shellfish cultivation with an annual oyster production of about 15 000 tons. This considerable production depends to a large extent on nutrient inputs into the ecosystem, supplied mainly from fresh water. The catchment area is about 280 Km2, including agriculture (mainly vineyards), industrial activities and urban waste. Due to the low water renewal and to the intensive shellfish farming activities the Thau lagoon is particularly sensitive to any modification in watershed outputs. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of watershed outputs on the lagoon ecosystem. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model) has been applied to the Thau lagoon catchment area in order to simulate water discharges and nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, and phosphates) inputs into the lagoon on a 10 years period (1989-1999). The model has been calibrated and validated using measured data available for the two main rivers of the watershed, representing about 50% of total freshwater inputs. The model predictions compared favourably with the measurements concerning water quantity as well as major water quality determinants (ammonium, nitrate, phosphates, and suspended matter). Then, several scenarios (e. g. changes in agricultural practices) have been run and the simulated results were used as forcing variables in a lagoon ecosystem model, previously developed for Thau. The latter is a three-dimensional model coupling both hydrodynamical and biological processes. The following state variables are simulated in the model biological part: ammonia, nitrates, phytoplankton, zooplankton, detritus, oyster biodeposits and oxygen. In addition to the inputs from the watershed, other forcing variables are: air temperature and humidity, nebulosity, wind speed and direction, oyster farming and macrophyte community. Results are presented and discussed, focusing on the impact of catchment outputs on the lagoon phytoplankton production.

  16. Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, S; Ouillon, S; Brinkman, R; Falter, J; Douillet, P; Wolk, F; Smith, R; Garen, P; Martinez, E; Laurent, V; Lo, C; Remoissenet, G; Scourzic, B; Gilbert, A; Deleersnijder, E; Steinberg, C; Choukroun, S; Buestel, D

    2006-10-01

    A workshop organized in French Polynesia in November 2004 allowed reviewing the current methods to model the three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation in semi-enclosed atoll lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source of income for South Pacific countries such as French Polynesia or Cook Islands. This aquaculture now requires a better understanding of circulation patterns to improve the spatial use of the lagoons, especially to define the best area to set larvae collectors. The pelagic larval duration of the relevant species (<20 days) and the size of the semi-closed lagoons (few hundreds of km2) drive the specifications of the model in terms of the spatial and temporal scale. It is considered that, in contrast with fish, mollusk larvae movements are limited and that their cycle occurs completely in the lagoon, without an oceanic stage. Atolls where aquaculture is productive are generally well-bounded, or semi-closed, without significant large and deep openings to the ocean. Nevertheless part of the lagoon circulation is driven by oceanic water inputs through the rim, ocean swells, tides and winds. Therefore, boundary conditions of the lagoon system are defined by the spatial structure of a very shallow rim (exposition and number of hoas), the deep ocean swell climate, tides and wind regimes. To obtain a realistic 3D numerical model of lagoon circulation with adequate forcing, it is thus necessary to connect in an interdisciplinary way a variety of methods (models, remote sensing and in situ data collection) to accurately represent the different components of the lagoon system and its specific boundary conditions. We review here the current methods and tools used to address these different components for a hypothetical atoll of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), representative of the semi-closed lagoons of the South Pacific Ocean. We hope this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies elsewhere and we provide guidelines in terms of costs for all the different stages involved. PMID:16987532

  17. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    PubMed

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco State, and it also constitutes the more complete reference on the detailed size composition of a set of dominant species in a coastal lagoon in the central Mexican Pacific. PMID:24912349

  18. Analysis of Lagoonal Ecosystems in the Po River Delta Associated with Intensive Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

    1999-03-01

    Observations on structure and functioning of coastal lagoon ecosystems experiencing a high level of eutrophication impact were accomplished in three lagoons of Ca'Pisani integrated within an experimental aquaculture enterprise variously fertilized by waste effluents discharged from and intensive fish culture plant. During August and early September an extremely dense bloom of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensewas recorded in these lagoons with the density of phytoplankton up to 190 g m -3of wet biomass, and primary production 2 to 6 mg Cl -1 day -1. The diel dissolved oxygen fluctuations in water column during the bloom reached 15-20 mg O 2 l -1. The wet biomass of bacterioplankton in the lagoons attained 5-9 g m -3. The microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates with biomass 1 to 19 g m -3. The daytime mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid copepods with a biomass 0·05-0·25 g m -3, while the biomass of the demersal zooplankton at night attained 2 to 14 g m -3. In the lagoon of Ocaro, the phototrophic plankton was dominated by the symbiotic ciliate Mesodinium.The labile sulphides content in the upper layer of the bottom attained over 1 g S dm -3of wet silt. The rate of microbial sulphate reduction was 5-10 mg S dm -3day -1. The data are generalized within the energy balance in these specific anthropogenically transformed pelagic communities.

  19. Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R.; Monfort, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard. PMID:23770313

  20. Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon.

    PubMed

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Meissner, Benjamin M; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally toward total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer. PMID:24144340

  1. Late-Quaternary paleoenvironmental evolution of Lesina lagoon (southern Italy) from subsurface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci Lucchi, Marianna; Fiorini, Flavia; Luisa Colalongo, Maria; Vittorio Curzi, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Integrated sedimentological and micropaleontological (foraminifers and ostracods) analyses of two 55 m long borehole cores (S3 and S4) drilled in the subsurface of Lesina lagoon (Gargano promontory—Italy) has yielded a facies distribution characteristic of alluvial, coastal and shallow-marine sediments. Stratigraphic correlation between the two cores, based on strong similarity in facies distribution and AMS radiocarbon dates, indicates a Late Pleistocene to Holocene age of the sedimentary succession. Two main depositional sequences were deposited during the last 60-ky. These sequences display poor preservation of lowstand deposits and record two major transgressive pulses and subsequent sea-level highstands. The older sequence, unconformably overlying a pedogenized alluvial unit, consists of paralic and marine units (dated by AMS radiocarbon at about 45-50,000 years BP) that represent the landward migration of a barrier-lagoon system. These units are separated by a ravinement surface (RS1). Above these tansgressive deposits, highstand deposition is characterised by progradation of the coastal sediments. The younger sequence, overlying an unconformity of tectonic origin, is a 10 m-thick sedimentary body, consisting of fluvial channel sediments overlain by transgressive-regressive deposits of Holocene age. A ravinement surface (RS2), truncating the transgressive (lagoonal and back-barrier) deposits in core S4, indicates shoreface retreat and landward migration of the barrier/lagoon system. The overlying beach, lagoon and alluvial deposits are the result of mid-Holocene highstand sedimentation and coastal progradation.

  2. Get a winning Oracle upgrade session using the quarterback approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrades, upgrades... too much customer down time. Find out how we shrunk our production upgrade schedule 40% from our estimate of 10 days 12 hours to 6 days 2 hours using the quarterback approach. So your upgrade is not that complex, come anyway. This approach is scalable to any size project and will be extremely valuable.

  3. Seamless Access Router Upgrades through IP/Optical Integration

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Kathleen

    Seamless Access Router Upgrades through IP/Optical Integration Susan R. Bailey* , Vijay ISP to upgrade access routers supporting thousands of customers. OCIS codes: (060.4250) Networks; (060 and common occurrence, operators struggle to provide seamless router upgrades. Most network upgrades

  4. Detection and Quantification of Group C Rotaviruses in Communal Sewage?

    PubMed Central

    Meleg, Edina; Bányai, Krisztián; Martella, Vito; Jiang, Baoming; Kocsis, Béla; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Béla; Sz?cs, György

    2008-01-01

    Group C rotaviruses have been recognized as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, cattle, and swine, although the true epidemiologic and clinical importance of this virus in these hosts has not yet been fully established. A real-time PCR assay based on a broadly reactive primer pair was developed and used to quantitatively determine the viral load of group C rotaviruses in environmental samples. A total of 35 raw and 35 treated sewage samples collected at the same sampling time in four Hungarian sewage treatment plants during a survey in 2005 were tested for the presence of group C rotaviruses. The overall detection rates were 91% (32 of 35) for the influent and 57% (20 of 35) for the effluent samples. Molecular characterization of the amplified partial VP6 gene revealed the cocirculation of human and animal (i.e., bovine and porcine) strains that were easily distinguishable by melting curve analysis. Human strains yielded relatively high viral loads (mean, 1.2 × 107; median, 6.9 × 105 genome equivalents per liter influent sewage) and appeared to display seasonal activity over the study period, whereas animal strains appeared to circulate throughout the year at much lower average titers (bovine strains mean, 9.9 × 104; median, 3.0 × 104; porcine strains mean, 3.9 × 104; median, 3.1 × 104 genome equivalents per liter influent sewage). Our findings suggest that monitoring of communal sewage may provide a good surrogate for investigating the epidemiology and ecology of group C rotaviruses in humans and animals. PMID:18390677

  5. Mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses detected in raw sewages.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the "high risk" oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies. PMID:23341898

  6. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

    2011-08-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ?20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5?-cholestan-3-?-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg(?-?1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

  7. Detection and Characterization of Waterborne Gastroenteritis Viruses in Urban Sewage and Sewage-Polluted River Waters in Caracas, Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rodriguez-Diaz; L. Querales; L. Caraballo; E. Vizzi; F. Liprandi; H. Takiff; W. Q. Betancourt

    2009-01-01

    The detection and molecular characterization of pathogenic human viruses in urban sewage have been used extensively to derive information on circulating viruses in given populations throughout the world. In this study, a similar approach was applied to provide an overview of the epidemiology of waterborne gastroenteritis viruses circulating in urban areas of Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela in South

  8. Evaluation of sewage sludge and slow pyrolyzed sewage sludge-derived biochar for adsorption of phenanthrene and pyrene.

    PubMed

    Zieli?ska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by sewage sludges and sewage sludge-derived biochars. The organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (logKOC for Cw=0.01 Sw) for the sewage sludges ranged from 5.62Lkg(-1) to 5.64Lkg(-1) for PHE and from 5.72Lkg(-1) to 5.75Lkg(-1) for PYR. The conversion of sewage sludges into biochar significantly increased their sorption capacity. The value of logKOC for the biochars ranged from 5.54Lkg(-1) to 6.23Lkg(-1) for PHE and from 5.95Lkg(-1) to 6.52Lkg(-1) for PYR depending on temperature of pyrolysis. The dominant process was monolayer adsorption in the micropores and/or multilayer surface adsorption (in the mesopores), which was indicated by the significant correlations between logKOC and surface properties of biochars. PYR was sorbed better on the tested materials than PHE. PMID:26093256

  9. Determinants of community structure for coral reef fishes in isolated coral heads at lagoonal and reef slope sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter F. Sale; Rand Dybdahl

    1978-01-01

    Ten small isolated corals were selected as units, of habitat in each of two nearby reef sites-a lagoon and a reef slope. On six occasions over two years we collected all fishes resident in each of these corals. Collections yielded 827 fishes of 64 species from the lagoon and 525 fishes of 66 species from the slope, but at each

  10. Modelling partitioning and distribution of micropollutants in the lagoon of Venice: a first step towards a comprehensive ecotoxicological model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Carrer; G. Coffaro; M. Bocci; A. Barbanti

    2005-01-01

    The model presented in this paper integrates a large amount of recent and ad hoc collected data concerning environmental contamination from micropollutants in the lagoon of Venice. This model represents the first step in setting up of an ecotoxicological model for the Venice lagoon, to simulate fate of contaminants from abiotic matrices to organisms. Distribution and partitioning of organic and

  11. Improved process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons under varying wind speeds and gas bubbling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the lagoon water total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model using a...

  12. Aquatic birds as bioindicators of trophic changes and ecosystem deterioration in the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Martínez Fernández; Miguel Angel Esteve Selma; Francisco Robledano Aymerich; María Teresa Pardo Sáez; María Francisca Carreño Fructuoso

    2005-01-01

    The Mar Menor is the largest coastal lagoon in the Western Mediterranean and it is an important site for wintering and breeding waterfowl. During recent decades several hydrological and land-use changes in the watershed have increasingly threatened the conservation of the lagoon due to the development of urban areas, tourism and agriculture. A dynamic system model has been developed at

  13. International Symposium on Coastal Lagoons. (Bordeaux, France, September 8-14, 1981). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Lagoons and their characteristic coastal bay-mouth bars represent 15 percent of the world coastal zone. They are among the most productive ecosystems in the biosphere, this productivity resulting from the interplay of ocean and continent. An International Symposium on Coastal Lagoons (ISCOL) was held to: assess the state of knowledge in the…

  14. Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Coelho; Sofia Gamito; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small

  15. Agrochemical residues in the Altata?Ensenada del Pabellon coastal lagoon (Sinaloa, Mexico): A need for integrated coastal zone management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Carvalho; S. W. Fowler; l. d. Mee; J. W. Readman

    1996-01-01

    An in?depth survey of agrochemical residues was carried out in the Altata?Ensenada del Pabellon lagoon, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. A wide variety of residues originating from the surrounding agricultural lands were found in lagoon sediments, water, and biota samples. Persistence, cycling and fate of the most common pesticides were investigated using C labelled compounds in microcosms and mesocosms

  16. A GIS for the Assessment of the Spatio-Temporal Changes of the Kotychi Lagoon, Western Peloponnese, Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Kalivas; V. J. Kollias; G. Karantounias

    2003-01-01

    Kotychi lagoon, located at the northwestern coast of Peloponnese, Greece, is a biotope of great ecological and financial importance,protected by the Ramsar International Convention. Kotychi lagoon hasbeen severely degraded and transformed during the past 50 years, due to agricultural activities in the surrounding areas and watercourse alterations after the construction of Pinios river dam in the late 60's. Restoration works

  17. The upgraded scheme of Hefei Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei-min, Li; Hong-liang, Xu; Lin, Wang; Guang-yao, Feng; Shan-cai, Zhang; Hao, Hao

    2010-06-01

    To enhance the performance of Hefei Light Source, which was designed and constructed two decades ago, an upgrade project would be carried out in the near future. The detail upgrade scheme was described in this paper. Firstly, the magnet lattice of storage ring should be reconstructed with 4 DBA cells, whose advantages are lower beam emittance and more straight section available for insertion devices. Secondly, the beam diagnostics, main power supply, transverse and longitudinal multi-bunch feedback, beam control and manipulation system would be upgrade to improve the beam orbit stability. Finally, the injection system of storage ring and injector, which is composed of electron linac and beam transfer line, would be updated in order to assure smooth beam accumulation process under new low emittance lattice. With above improvement, it is hopeful to increase the brilliance of Hefei Light Source by two orders approximately. After three-year upgrade project, the performance of HLS would meet the demands of advanced SR users.

  18. The upgraded scheme of Hefei Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Li Weimin; Xu Hongliang; Wang Lin; Feng Guangyao; Zhang Shancai; Hao Hao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory of University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China)

    2010-06-23

    To enhance the performance of Hefei Light Source, which was designed and constructed two decades ago, an upgrade project would be carried out in the near future. The detail upgrade scheme was described in this paper. Firstly, the magnet lattice of storage ring should be reconstructed with 4 DBA cells, whose advantages are lower beam emittance and more straight section available for insertion devices. Secondly, the beam diagnostics, main power supply, transverse and longitudinal multi-bunch feedback, beam control and manipulation system would be upgrade to improve the beam orbit stability. Finally, the injection system of storage ring and injector, which is composed of electron linac and beam transfer line, would be updated in order to assure smooth beam accumulation process under new low emittance lattice. With above improvement, it is hopeful to increase the brilliance of Hefei Light Source by two orders approximately. After three-year upgrade project, the performance of HLS would meet the demands of advanced SR users.

  19. Capacity upgrade in WDM submarine cable system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Shibano; Hidenori Taga; Toshio Kawazawa; Koji Goto

    1999-01-01

    The capacity upgrade from 20 Gbit\\/s to 160 Gbit\\/s in a WDM submarine cable system has been designed based on the experimental study of the dependency of the repeater output power and the number of wavelength

  20. Economic Options for Upgrading Waste Heat 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    There are at least six major types of equipment that upgrade waste heat: (1) thermocompressor; (2) electric drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat...

  1. Facilities Upgrade and Retrofit. Strategies for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Provides three articles on the subject of educational facility upgrading and retrofiting that address setting guidelines for classroom acoustics, making sports facilities brighter and more energy-efficient, and cutting energy bills and protecting interiors. (GR)

  2. RECOVERY ACT: TAPOCO PROJECT: CHEOAH UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Paul

    2013-02-28

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  3. Initial performance of upgraded Tevatron cryogenic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, B.L.

    1996-09-01

    Fermilab began operating a re-designed satellite refrigerator systems in November 1993. Upgrades were installed to operate the Tevatron at a magnet temperature of 3.5 K, approximately 1K lower than the original design. Refrigerator upgrades included new valve boxes, larger reciprocating expanders, the installation of cold vapor compressors, new sub-atmospheric instrumentation and an entirely new distributed controls system. Cryogenic system reliability data for Colliding Physics Run 1B is presented emphasizing a failure analysis for each aspect of the upgrade. Comparison to data for Colliding Physics Run 1A (previous to upgrade) is presented to show the impact of a major system overhaul. New operational problems and their solutions are presented in detail.

  4. Plans for an upgraded CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, A.; CMS Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The CMS inner pixel detector system is planned to be upgraded during the first phase of LHC upgrades. The plans call for an ultra low mass system with four barrel layers and with three disks on either end. With the expected increase in particle rates, the electronic readout chain will be changed for fast digital signals. There are constraints due to the services available. However, expectations are that there will be improved tracking performance.

  5. BNL ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    MALONE,R.; BEN-ZVI,I.; WANG,X.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.

  6. Page 1 of 17 NSTX Upgrade Project

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    INFORMATION Project Title: NSTX Upgrade Project at PPPL Total Project Cost (TPC) Range: $74.7M to $92.9M CD-0 Range 2.1 Total Project Cost Range The preliminary total project cost (TPC) range is $74.7M - $92.9M. 2Page 1 of 17 NSTX Upgrade Project Acquisition Strategy April 5, 2010 #12;Page 2 of 17 Change Log

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-09

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Upgrade Plan reflects a SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A performance agreement has been assigned, beginning in FY 1997, to update, revise, and/or cancel 20 percent of the existing onsite SARPS, so that 100 percent are reviewed and within current standards by the completion of the Project Hanford Management Contract (five-year period).

  8. Steady state advanced scenarios at ASDEX Upgrade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A C C Sips; R Arslanbekov; C Atanasiu; W Becker; G Becker; K Behler; K Behringer; A Bergmann; R Bilato; D Bolshukhin; K Borrass; B Braams; M Brambilla; F Braun; A Buhler; G Conway; D Coster; R Drube; R Dux; S Egorov; T Eich; K Engelhardt; H-U Fahrbach; U Fantz; H Faugel; M Foley; K B Fournier; P Franzen; J C Fuchs; J Gafert; G Gantenbein; O Gehre; A Geier; J Gernhardt; O Gruber; A Gude; S Günter; G Haas; D Hartmann; B Heger; B Heinemann; A Herrmann; J Hobirk; F Hofmeister; H Hohenöcker; L Horton; V Igochine; D Jacobi; M Jakobi; F Jenko; A Kallenbach; O Kardaun; M Kaufmann; A Keller; A Kendl; J-W Kim; K Kirov; R Kochergov; H Kollotzek; W Kraus; K Krieger; B Kurzan; P T Lang; P Lauber; M Laux; F Leuterer; A Lohs; A Lorenz; C Maggi; H Maier; K Mank; M-E Manso; M Maraschek; K F Mast; P McCarthy; D Meisel; H Meister; F Meo; R Merkel; D Merkl; V Mertens; F Monaco; A Mück; H W Müller; M Münich; H Murmann; Y-S Na; G Neu; R Neu; J Neuhauser; J-M Noterdaeme; I Nunes; G Pautasso; A G Peeters; G Pereverzev; S Pinches; E Poli; M Proschek; R Pugno; E Quigley; G Raupp; T Ribeiro; R Riedl; S Riondato; V Rohde; J Roth; F Ryter; S Saarelma; W Sandmann; S Schade; H-B Schilling; W Schneider; G Schramm; S Schweizer; B Scott; U Seidel; F Serra; S Sesnic; C Sihler; A Silva; E Speth; A Stäbler; K-H Steuer; J Stober; B Streibl; E Strumberger; W Suttrop; A Tabasso; A Tanga; G Tardini; C Tichmann; W Treutterer; M Troppmann; P Varela; O Vollmer; D Wagner; U Wenzel; F Wesner; R Wolf; E Wolfrum; E Würsching; Q Yu; D Zasche; T Zehetbauer; H-P Zehrfeld; H Zohm

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments at ASDEX Upgrade have achieved advanced scenarios with high ?N (>3) and confinement enhancement over ITER98(y, 2) scaling, HH98y2 = 1.1–1.5, in steady state. These discharges have been obtained in a modified divertor configuration for ASDEX Upgrade, allowing operation at higher triangularity, and with a changed neutral beam injection (NBI) system, for a more tangential, off-axis beam deposition.

  9. Amount and type of derelict gear from the declining black pearl oyster aquaculture in Ahe atoll lagoon, French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, Serge; Thomas, Yoann; Lo, Cedrik

    2014-06-15

    Pearl oyster aquaculture is a major activity in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. After the economic decline that characterized the last decade, concerns recently rose about discarded installations and materials that supported aquaculture practices and by facilities abandoned after they had to close their activities. In May 2013, a first inventory of the type and amount of pearl farms derelict gear (PFDG) was achieved on 47 sites in Ahe lagoon. Surveys were conducted within and outside the boundaries of aquaculture concessions. Twenty types of PFDG littered the lagoon floor and the water column. The most impacted areas were near abandoned grafting houses with up to nine types of PFDG. Forty-five percent of the sites were impacted, including outside concessions. While management authorities are fully aware of the problem, this first assessment is a wake-up call to stimulate the cleaning of lagoons, enhance awareness among farmers, and identify potential ecological consequences on lagoon ecosystems. PMID:24759510

  10. Enhanced stabilization of digested sludge during long-term storage in anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Lukicheva, Irina; Pagilla, Krishna; Tian, Guanglong; Cox, Albert; Granato, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this work was to study changes in anaerobically stored digested sludge under different lengths of storage time to evaluate the quality of final product biosolids. The analyses of collected data suggest the organic matter degradation occurrence in the anaerobic environment of the lagoon approximately within the first year. After that, the degradation becomes very slow, which is likely caused by unfavorable environmental conditions. The performance of lagoon aging of digested sludge was also compared to the performance of lagoon aging of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge. It was concluded that both of these processes result in biosolids of comparative quality and that the former provides more economical solution to biosolids handling by eliminating the need for mechanical dewatering. PMID:24851324

  11. Assessment of ecological quality of coastal lagoons with a combination of phytobenthic and water quality indices.

    PubMed

    Christia, Chrysoula; Giordani, Gianmarco; Papastergiadou, Eva

    2014-09-15

    Coastal lagoons are ecotones between continents and the sea. Coastal lagoons of Western Greece, subjected to different human pressures, were classified into four different types based on their hydromorphological characteristics and monitored over a three year period for their biotic and abiotic features. Six ecological indices based on water quality parameters (TSI-Chl-a, TSI-TP, TRIX), benthic macrophytes (E-MaQI, EEI-c) and an integrated index TWQI, were applied to assess the ecological status of studied lagoons under real conditions. The trophic status ranged from oligotrophic to hypertrophic according to the index applied. The ecological quality of transitional water ecosystems can be better assessed by using indices based on benthic macrophytes as changes in abundance and diversity of sensitive and tolerant species are the first evidence of incoming eutrophication. The multi-parametric index TWQI can be considered appropriate for the ecological assessment of these ecosystems due to its robustness and the simple application procedure. PMID:25080857

  12. uc(Pegasus) Facility Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. C.; Lewicki, B. T.; Burke, S. P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Ford, B. A.; Garstka, G. D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Winz, G. R.

    2003-10-01

    Extensive new capabilities have been installed on the uc(Pegasus) ST facility. A new laboratory configuration allows separation of all power systems from the experimental hall. Data acquisition, control, and support facilities have been improved. New magnetic field power supplies utilize unique high-power 2700V IGCT switch modules to provide bipolar waveform control for the high-stress solenoid magnet, while 900V IGBTs provide uni/bipolar control of the PF and TF systems. The coil sets are independently controlled by pulse-width-modulated circuits developed by the HIT group. Capacitor charging, dumping, and monitoring are controlled by a PCI-based multichannel data acquisition and control system. These upgrades will provide: 1) increased V-s and loop voltage control for higher plasma current and suppression of MHD modes; 2) increased toroidal field with fast-ramp capability for improved access to the low-q, high ?t regime; and 3) flexible equilibrium field control for radial position and modest shape control.

  13. ETA-II accelerator upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, D.G.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hibbs, S.M.; Sampayan, S.E.; Petersen, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements to the ETA-II linear induction electron accelerator. The accelerator`s cells have been carefully reconditioned to raise the maximum accelerating gap voltage from approximately 100 kV to 125 kV. Insulators of Rexolite plastic in a new ``zero-gap`` arrangement replaced the alumina originals after several alternative materials were investigated. A new multi-cable current feed system will be used to eliminate pulse reflection interactions encountered in earlier experiments. Improved alignment fixtures have been installed to help minimize beam perturbation due to poorly aligned intercell magnets between 10-cell groups. A stretched wire alignment technique (SWAT) has been utilized to enhance overall magnetic alignment, and to characterize irreducible alignment errors. These changes are in conjunction with an expansion of the accelerator from a 20-cell to a 60-cell configuration. When completed, the upgraded accelerator is expected to deliver 2.5 kA of electron beam current at 7.5 MeV in bursts of up to fifty 70-ns pulses at a 5-kHz repetition rate. A 5.5-meter-long wiggler will convert the energy into 3-GW microwave pulses at 140 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX).

  14. ETA-II accelerator upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, D.G.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hibbs, S.M.; Sampayan, S.E.; Petersen, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements to the ETA-II linear induction electron accelerator. The accelerator's cells have been carefully reconditioned to raise the maximum accelerating gap voltage from approximately 100 kV to 125 kV. Insulators of Rexolite plastic in a new zero-gap'' arrangement replaced the alumina originals after several alternative materials were investigated. A new multi-cable current feed system will be used to eliminate pulse reflection interactions encountered in earlier experiments. Improved alignment fixtures have been installed to help minimize beam perturbation due to poorly aligned intercell magnets between 10-cell groups. A stretched wire alignment technique (SWAT) has been utilized to enhance overall magnetic alignment, and to characterize irreducible alignment errors. These changes are in conjunction with an expansion of the accelerator from a 20-cell to a 60-cell configuration. When completed, the upgraded accelerator is expected to deliver 2.5 kA of electron beam current at 7.5 MeV in bursts of up to fifty 70-ns pulses at a 5-kHz repetition rate. A 5.5-meter-long wiggler will convert the energy into 3-GW microwave pulses at 140 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX).

  15. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.

  16. Food web structure of two Mediterranean lagoons under varying degree of eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, Antoine; Riera, Pascal; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Bodiou, Jean-Yves; Desmalades, Martin; Grémare, Antoine

    2008-11-01

    The food web structure and functioning of two north-western Mediterranean lagoons exhibiting contrasting degrees of eutrophication and marine influences were compared through ?13C and ?15N analysis of major potential food sources and consumers. The Lapalme Lagoon is well preserved and has kept a natural and temporary connection with the open sea. Conversely, the Canet Lagoon is heavily eutrophicated and its water exchange with the open sea has been artificially reduced. In Lapalme, all potential food sources and consumers exhibited ?15N values indicative of pristine coastal areas. Suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment organic matter (SOM) pools seemed to constitute the main food sources of most primary consumers. Both primary producers and all consumers were much more 15N-enriched (by ˜ 10‰) and more 13C-depleted in Canet than in Lapalme. This reflected: (1) the assimilation of important amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen in the food web, and (2) a marked and uniform influence of 13C-depleted allochtonous sources of carbon. Based on the mean ?15N of primary consumers, we found rather similar food web lengths in both lagoons with top consumers at trophic levels 3.6 and 4.0 in Canet and Lapalme, respectively. However, the eutrophication of the Canet Lagoon resulted in a simplification of the food web structure (i.e., a single trophic pathway from a 15N-enriched fraction of the SOM pool to top predators) compared to what was observed in Lapalme Lagoon where additional 13C-enriched food sources played a significant trophic role. Moreover, some consumers of Canet tended to exploit primary producers to a larger extent (and thus to exhibit lower trophic levels) than in Lapalme.

  17. How will shallow coastal lagoons respond to climate change? A modelling investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Ana C.; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2012-10-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are important ecosystems in terms of their high ecological relevance. They act as buffers of the land-sea interface, providing valuable ecosystem services such as nutrient recycling, decomposition of organic matter and removal of pollutants. Lagoons are regions of restricted exchange, subject to anthropogenic pressures that result in problems such as eutrophication. Because they are shallow, submerged primary producers play a prominent role in lagoon system metabolism. Furthermore, coastal lagoons are particularly vulnerable to global climate change and may act as 'sentinel systems'. Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons. Recent observations and studies have shown that a global climate change, especially the warming of the climate system and the sea level rise is unequivocal (IPCC, 2007). Therefore, the dCSTT-MPB model, which deals with nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations in the water column and within the sediments, was used to explore a range of scenarios that aimed at representing these changes. The tendency of the light limitation due to the sea level rise is the potential degradation of the microphytobenthos community. This reduction would lead to stronger nitrogen fluxes from pore water to the water column, increasing significantly the nitrogen concentrations. No increase in the phytoplankton community was found because it is mainly influenced by the resuspension of microphytobenthos. High nitrogen concentration may be the first indication of an eutrophication event. Nonetheless, nitrogen may be exported to the sea and cause problems in the adjacent coastal waters. The increase in temperature did not lead to significant differences.

  18. Evaluation of the utility of water quality based indicators of estuarine lagoon condition in NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanes, Peter; Coade, Geoff; Doherty, Maria; Hill, Ross

    2007-08-01

    Environmental indicators must have a predictable relationship with stressors to be of value in ecological assessments. We evaluated the information provided by commonly implemented monitoring indicators as a means of assessing of the level of ecological impact experienced by coastal lagoons in New South Wales, Australia. Existing data for environmental variables in coastal lagoons were correlated with independent estimates of catchment disturbance. There were few relationships between the monitoring variables (particularly water chemistry) and nutrient loads and catchment land use. Data from NSW catchments and lagoons were compared to analogous data from published northern hemisphere studies and it was clear that stressor variables were up to one to two orders of magnitude smaller in NSW, potentially explaining the lack of relationships with recognised indicators. Our study has highlighted the importance of using a range of indicators to assess trends in ecological condition of an estuarine ecosystem, particularly where stressor levels are not great. Using water quality as the sole means of determining lagoon condition was simply inadequate in NSW lagoons. We recommended that ecological outcome indicators such as algal abundance (macro and micro) and turbidity were most likely to show interpretable patterns at low to moderate nitrogen loadings (<40 kg Ha -1 yr -1) and that these should form the basis of estuarine trend monitoring in NSW lagoons. The demonstrated value of seagrass and macroalgal monitoring in estuaries with moderate to high nutrient loadings suggests that these indicators should not be overlooked when planning monitoring programs, recognising, however, they will not have strong discrimination at lower catchment loadings.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  20. Fingerprinting of sediment transport processes in coastal lagoon: An environmental magnetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badesab, F. K.; von Dobeneck, T. F.; Briggs, R. M.; Just, J.; Bryan, K. R.; Müller, H.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment transport in a coastal lagoon is highly complex and is controlled by various processes (mixing, sorting, erosion, transport, deposition) that govern the distribution of sediments between sources and sinks. In this study, we explore the potential of environmental magnetism in combination with sedimentological methods to magnetically fingerprint sediment transport processes in New Zealand's largest barrier enclosed mesotidal estuarine lagoon. Measurements of bulk magnetic susceptibility and grain sizes of surficial samples collected from various parts of Tauranga Harbour including rivers, the estuary, and nearshore zone helped to identify and differentiate the sedimentary processes in and off the lagoon. The sediments were mainly dominated by variable proportion of titanomagnetite and yield different grain sizes. A general trend (NW - SE) of increasing magnetite concentration and decreasing physical grain sizes indicates the variability in sediment inputs and transport energy of flow. Higher values of SIRM / ? indicate the dominance of fine grained magnetite within riverine sediments. The low enriched fine-grained riverine sediments entering the basin are mostly flushed out to the open sea, while medium-coarse grained magnetite rich sediments gets trapped into the southern lagoonal basin forming enriched zones as inferred from the magnetic data. Within the lagoon, the intense mixing and sorting causes fractionation of heavy (magnetic) minerals which further leads to magnetic enhancement and coarsening of magnetic grain sizes within the tidal channel network of the southern basin. We observed two different patterns in sediment grain sizes. The northern lagoonal basin sediments are dominated by fine sand (~ 200 ?m), while the southern basin sediments are composed of mixed grain sizes (300-500 ?m). This suggests much calmer hydrodynamics conditions in the northern basin favoured accumulation of fine grained sediment while as outlined above transport is more dynamic in the southern basin. Off Tauranga Harbour, active coast- parallel transport of fine sediments results in formation of nearshore magnetite-rich belt. The fining in magnetic grain size followed by decrease in volume of fine sand mirrors NW directed alongshore sediment transport.

  1. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and associated taxa were distributed throughout the spectrum of sites surveyed. Implications for the identification and conservation of saline lagoons are discussed.

  2. A Trophic Model of a Sandy Barrier Lagoon at Chiku in Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.-J.; Shao, K.-T.; Kuo, S.-R.; Hsieh, H.-L.; Wong, S.-L.; Chen, I.-M.; Lo, W.-T.; Hung, J.-J.

    1999-05-01

    Using the ECOPATH 3.0 software system, a balanced trophic model of a sandy barrier lagoon with intensive fishery activities at Chiku in tropical Taiwan was constructed. The lagoon model comprised 13 compartments. Trophic levels of the compartments varied from 1·0 for primary producers and detritus to 3·6 for piscivorous fish. Hanging-cultured oysters accounted for 39% of the harvestable fishery biomass and were the most important fishery species. The most prominent group in terms of biomass and energy flow in the lagoon was herbivorous zooplankton. Manipulations of the biomass of herbivorous zooplankton would have a marked impact on most compartments. Both total system throughput and fishery yield per unit area were high when compared to other reported marine ecosystems. This appears mainly due to high planktonic primary production, which is probably promoted by enriched river discharges draining mangroves and aquaculture ponds. Consequently, more than half of the total system throughput originates from primary producers in the lagoon. Although half of the primary production was not immediately used by upper trophic levels and flowed into the detrital pool, most of the detritus was directly consumed, passed up the food web and was exported to the fishery. Thus only a small proportion of energy was recycled through detritus pathways. This mechanism produces short pathways with high trophic efficiencies at higher trophic levels. The high fishery yield in the lagoon is due to high primary production and short pathways. This is the first model of a tropical sandy barrier lagoon with intensive fishery activities and thus may serve as a basis for future comparisons and ecosystem management.

  3. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade Piping Loads on Cleanroom Roof

    SciTech Connect

    Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

    1995-08-28

    The proposed piping layout for the DO upgrade will run along the south wall of DAB. The cryogenic service pipe runs above the upper and lower cleanroom roofs and will need to be supported by the roofs beams. Calculations were done to determine the stresses in the I-beams created by the existing and additional loads due to the upgrade. Refer to drawing no. 3823.115-ME-317283 for drawings of the piping layout. Figure 1 shows the 'plan view' portion of this drawing. The weight of the individual lines were calculated in figure 2 assuming a pipe density of O.28 lbm/in{sup 3} for stainless steel (0.12% C) and a fluid density (assuming LN2 at 1 atm) of 0.03 lbm/in{sup 3}. The weights of the corrugated steel flooring, assembly hall feed cans, support beams, and roof hatch were also included in the analysis. These loads are calculated on pgs. 5-6. A floor load of 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} was also added in order to maintain the existing floor load limit in addition to the added piping loads. Measurements of the dimensions of the I-beams determined that the nominal sizes of the beams were W8 x 21 for the lower roof and W14 x 26 for the upper roof. Pipe lengths were determined from the drawing for each of the lines on pgs. 1-2 of the calculations (refer to all piping by line numbers according to figure 2). A total weight was calculated for lines 3-9 along the south wall and lines 1-2 running along the north wall of the lower cleanroom roof. To simplify the calculations these weights were assumed to be evenly distributed on the 5 I-beam supports of the lower cleanroom roof 2.5 feet in from the south wall. The stress analysis was done using FrameMac, a 2-D finite element program for the Macintosh. Beam 3 was not included in the analysis because it is structurally equivalent to beam 1. The program outputted maximum values for shear stress, bending stress, shear force, and moments in each of the beams analyzed. These values were then compared to the allowable stresses as per the specifications and codes stated in the AISC: Manual of Steel Construction. The stresses on the roof beams needed to be determined in a number of different places. The first was in the beam itself which included the flange and web sections. The second place was at the ends of the beams where the flanges were removed to make the perpendicular connections to the other beams on the lower roof. The final point was the framed beam connection which included the bolt analysis. FrameMac calculated stresses only for the beams which included the sections where the flanges were removed to make the end connections. To analyze the connections, the allowable bending and shear stresses were solved for allowable shear and moments. This was done because FrameMac does not have the capability to analyze the dimensions for the bolts and angles used in the connections were known and the program outputted values for reaction forces and moments at the ends of the beams. Multiplying the allowable shear stress for the bolts and angle connections by their respective areas gave the allowable shear force. The allowable moment for the angle connection was calculated by multiplying the section modulus of the angle by the allowable bending stress. These allowable loads are calculated on pgs. 7-8. The allowable and maximum calculated stresses by FrameMac are summarized in a table. In conclusion, the cleanroom roofs will be able to safely support the weight of the upgrade cryogenic piping, feed cans, corrugated flooring and a 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} floor load with the addition of diagonal braces at the ends of beams 1,2,3,4, and 8. The location and size of these diagonal braces are shown in fig. 4. Also, the piping supports and feed cans will all need to be placed directly above the I-beam supports. These supports will consist of unistrut structures that will be detailed and specified separate to this analysis. The output and input data from FrameMac and the drawings used in the analysis follow the calculation pages.

  4. Marine diatoms sustain growth of bivalves in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet, Fabrice; Malet, Nathalie; Pastoureaud, Annie; Vaquer, André; Quéré, Claudie; Dubroca, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    Carbon stable isotopes and fatty acids were measured in the suspended particulate organic matter (POM) of the Thau lagoon to study its qualitative temporal changes in relation to environmental factors and to identify the food sources of bivalves over a one-yr-cycle in relation to their growth. Reciprocally, the impact of shellfish farming on POM was also studied. Oysters and mussels were sampled and measured for biometry, stable isotopes and fatty acid composition. Water samples were collected at two sites, both inside and outside of the shellfish farming area, to determine concentrations in POM, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and stable isotopes. Carbon isotopes and fatty acids in bivalves reflected seasonal changes in food sources, which varied consistently with the environment. Seasonal changes in ?13C and fatty acids in the bivalves suggested that dietary phytoplankton contribution varied according to season. Terrestrial organic matter and bacteria can contribute to the diet of bivalves during non-bloom periods. Mussels seemed to rely more on diatoms and less on terrestrial organic matter and bacteria than oysters did, particularly when phytoplankton biomass was low during the summer. Although one- and two-yr-old oysters showed similar ?13C, their fatty acid dynamics differed slightly. Periods of high growth rate in bivalves were mainly fuelled by diatoms, thus highlighting the importance of seasonal blooms of microphytoplankton during the critical period of bivalve growth and gamete production. Although there was no significant effect of shellfish farms on Chl a and POM ?13C, consistent differences indicate that stable isotopes could be used successfully to investigate the effects of bivalve aquaculture.

  5. On the Eastern Baltic environment changes: a case study of the Curonian Lagoon area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustelnikovas, Olegas

    2008-01-01

    Sea level fluctuation, neotectonic movement, variation of sedimentation conditions, human impact play an important role in sea development. Water level fluctuation and vertical movements determine the rates of the long-term sedimentation process. The sea level rises (sinking of coasts south of 56° N), and its amplitude increases from 1.5 mm y-1 (in the beginning of the 20th century) to 3-4 mm y-1 (predicted for the 22nd century). The rise of coasts (sinking of sea level) and uplift is evident in the central and especially northern Baltic (1-9 mm y-1). These factors speed up the erosion of shallow areas, eutrophication and rapid accumulation of sedimentary matter in local lagoons. The latter processes complicate the ecological situation in the shallow (mouth) areas. Human activity takes place in the river areas, lagoons and geochemical barriers. The mentioned factors modifity the rates of sedimentation (0.6-15 mm y-1) in the Baltic Sea basin, which reach their maximum in the shallow lagoons of the Eastern Baltic (2.5-15.0 mm y-1). A synthesis of the data obtained by the author and information contained in references made it possible to make a many-sided forecast regarding a more than a thousand-year development of the Curonian Lagoon and the Eastern Baltic. A rapid transformation of coasts will take place, the nearshore basins - Viainameri (Estonia), the Gulf of Riga, the Curonian and Vistula lagoons, the Puck Bay - will shallow. Nearby new shallow lagoons will appear in the place of these basins. The Eastern Baltic lagoons (Curonian and Vistula) in future will become similar to the present state of the Polish Pomeranian coastal zone where the Leba, Gardno and other lakes which used to be vast lagoons are in the final stage of degradation. The predicted development of the Eastern Baltic will take place if the range of tectonic movements and sea level changes remains the same and there will be no human invasion with supermodern technologies into the natural processes.

  6. Eutrophication, water management, and the functioning of dutch estuaries and coastal lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Nienhuis, P.H. (Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Yerseke (Netherlands))

    1992-12-01

    A number of European rivers (especially the Rhine) have a prevailing influence on the nutrient cycling of most Dutch estuaries. Owing to the increased loading of the estuaries with nitrogen and phosphorous compounds, effects of eutrophication on the biological communities are most evident in the tidal Western Wadden Sea and in a nontidal brackish lagoon, Veerse Meer. Whether the relation between changed nutrient loadings and changed biomass and production of primary and secondary producers in the turbid tidal Dutch ecosystems should be considered as a causal relation is questionable. The very widespread practice of lagoon modification confuses the effects of nutrient loading. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenced by hydrology, salinity, soil characteristics, and fire, as well as periodic freezes. Marshes of the IRL have been greatly modified since the 1940s. Despite significant modifications, marsh plant species have not been lost from the region, but community and landscape patterns have been greatly modified and ecosystem processes altered.

  8. Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    Circumstellar disks of gas and dust play a crucial role in the formation of stars and planets. Until now, high-resolution images of such disks around young stars within the Orion Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) constituted the most direct proof of their existence. Now, another circumstellar disk has been detected around a star in the Lagoon Nebula - also known as Messier 8 (M8) , a giant complex of interstellar gas and dust with many young stars in the southern constellation of Sagittarius and four times more distant than the Orion Nebula. The observations were carried out by an international team of scientists led by Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany) [1] who used telescopes located at the ESO La Silla observatory and also observations from the HST archive. These new results are paving the road towards exciting research programmes on star formation which will become possible with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The harsh environment of circumstellar disks The existence of circumstellar disks has been inferred from indirect measurements of young stellar objects, such as the spectral energy distribution, the analysis of the profiles of individual spectral lines and measurements of the polarisation of the emitted light [2]. Impressive images of such disks in the Orion Nebula, known as proplyds (PROto-PLanetarY DiskS), have been obtained by the HST during the recent years. They have confirmed the interpretation of previous ground-based emission-line observations and mapping by radio telescopes. Moreover, they demonstrated that those disks which are located close to hot and massive stars are subject to heating caused by the intense radiation from these stars. Subsequently, the disks evaporate releasing neutral gas which streams off. During this process, shock fronts (regions with increased density) with tails of ionised gas result at a certain distance between the disk and the hot star. These objects appear on photos as tear-drop shaped, bright-rimmed areas with the cusps of the ionised regions aligned towards the exciting star. Such a region is also a very compact source of radio emission. Clearly, the harsh environment in which these disks reside does not favour planet formation. These findings were facilitated by the fact that, at a distance of `only' 1500 lightyears (about 450 parsec), the Orion Nebula is the closest site of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, many circumstellar disks around stars in this nebula are seen in silhouette against a bright and uniform background and are therefore comparatively easy to detect. The Lagoon Nebula In principle, similar phenomena should occur in any giant molecular cloud that gives rise to the birth of massive stars. However, the detection of such disks in other clouds would be very difficult, first of all because of their much larger distance. The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is located four times further away than the Orion Nebula and it is also a site of recent high-mass star formation. Its brightest part constitutes a conspicuous region of ionised hydrogen gas (an `HII-region') dubbed `The Hourglass' because of the resemblance. The gas in this area is ionised by the action of the nearby, hot star Herschel 36 (Her 36) . High-resolution radio maps show that the emission from the ionised gas peaks at 2.7 arcsec southeast of Her 36. An early explanation was that this emission is due to an unseen, massive star that is deeply embedded in the gas and dust and which is causing an ultra-compact HII-region (UCHR), catalogued as G5.97-1.17 according to its galactic coordinates. High-resolution images from ESO During a detailed investigation of such ultra-compact HII regions, Bringfried Stecklum and his colleagues found that, unlike ordinary UCHRs, this particular object is visible on optical images obtained with the HST Wide-Field Planetary Camera (HST-WFPC). This means that, contrary to the others, it is not deeply embedded in the nebula - its light reaches us directly without suffering a high degree of absorption. They subsequently obtai

  9. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0.01 respectively and corresponding unsettled ratios were 1.8 ± 0.5, 30.77 ± 6.8 and 0.04 ± 0 respectively. Thus, treatability by the 3-stage BNR system appears highly feasible for nitrogen and is likely to be complex for phosphorous. Fractionation of COD, TP and TN is recommended to appropriately advise further steps to optimise the plant operations.

  10. Upgrade of the data acquisition and control system of the ASDEX upgrade microwave reflectometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Combo; A. Silva; P. Varela; M. Manso; J. Sousa; C. Correia; C. A. F. Varandas

    2006-01-01

    Microwave reflectometry is an important diagnostic to characterize the plasma electron density in fusion experiments. The broadband frequency swept microwave reflectometry system of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak covers the frequency range of 16 to 100 GHz. In order to fully exploit the diagnostic capabilities it is mandatory to upgrade the data acquisition and control system. It should comply with shorter

  11. The toxicity to plants of the sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jo?ko, Izabela; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an outer diameter <10 nm (CNT10) or 40-60 nm (CNT60) to Lepidium sativum (cress), Sorghum saccharatum (sorgo), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). CNTs were also incubated in sewage sludge for 7 or 31 days to determine the effect of CNT aging on sewage sludge phytotoxicity. The influence of CNTs on 4 different sewage sludges was tested. The CNTs' influence on sludge toxicity varied with respect to the CNTs' outer diameter, type of sewage sludges and the plants tested. No significant influence of CNT concentration on phytotoxicity was noted. In the case of two sludges, a positive influence of CNTs on seed germination and root growth was observed. Depending on the CNTs' outer diameter, CNT aging decreased (CNT10) or increased (CNT60) sewage sludge phytotoxicity. PMID:21145166

  12. Presence of antibiotic resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant in Thibodaux, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Naquin, Anthony; Shrestha, Arsen; Sherpa, Mingma; Nathaniel, Rajkumar; Boopathy, Raj

    2015-07-01

    Increasing uses and disposals of antibiotics to the environment have increased emergence of various antibiotic resistance. One of the sources for the spread of antibiotic resistance is wastewater treatment plant, where bacteria and antibiotics can come in contact and can acquire antibiotics resistance. There are very few studies on this subject from a small town sewage treatment plant. Therefore, this study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a sewage treatment plant in Thibodaux in rural southeast Louisiana in USA. Samples were collected monthly from the Thibodaux sewage treatment plant and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was monitored. The study showed the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in both raw and treated sewage in every month of the study period. The genetic transformation assay showed the successful transformation of methicillin resistant gene, mecA to an antibiotic sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, which became antibiotic resistant within 24h. PMID:25662190

  13. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. PMID:23777667

  14. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohm, H.; Adamek, J.; Angioni, C.; Antar, G.; Atanasiu, C. V.; Balden, M.; Becker, W.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bertoncelli, T.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottino, A.; Brambilla, M.; Braun, F.; Brüdgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Chankin, A.; Classen, I.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; de Marné, P.; D'Inca, R.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fattorini, L.; Fink, J.; Fischer, R.; Flaws, A.; Foley, M.; Forest, C.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gál, K.; García Muñoz, M.; Gemisic Adamov, M.; Giannone, L.; Görler, T.; Gori, S.; da Graça, S.; Granucci, G.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hahn, D.; Harhausen, J.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hicks, N.; Hobirk, J.; Hölzl, M.; Holtum, D.; Hopf, C.; Horton, L.; Huart, M.; Igochine, V.; Janzer, M.; Jenko, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Kálvin, S.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Kick, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H.-J.; Koscis, G.; Kollotzek, H.; Konz, C.; Krieger, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Langer, B.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Leuterer, F.; Likonen, J.; Liu, L.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maggi, C. F.; Manini, A.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Mantsinen, M.; Maraschek, M.; Martin, P.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P.; McCormick, K.; Meister, H.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Meyer, H.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, H.-W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Poli, E.; Potzel, S.; Püschel, M.; Pütterich, T.; Pugno, R.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reiter, B.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Sandmann, W.; Santos, J.; Sassenberg, K.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schirmer, J.; Schmid, A.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schustereder, W.; Schweinzer, J.; Schweizer, S.; Scott, B.; Seidel, U.; Sempf, M.; Serra, F.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sips, A. C. C.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Stadler, R.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Treutterer, W.; Tröster, C.; Urso, L.; Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.; Varela, P.; Vermare, L.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, D.; Wigger, C.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Würsching, E.; Yadikin, D.; Yu, Q.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zilker, M.

    2009-10-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with a fully W-covered wall in 2007 and 2008. Stationary H-modes at the ITER target values and improved H-modes with H up to 1.2 were run without any boronization. The boundary conditions set by the full W wall (high enough ELM frequency, high enough central heating and low enough power density arriving at the target plates) require significant scenario development, but will apply to ITER as well. D retention has been reduced and stationary operation with saturated wall conditions has been found. Concerning confinement, impurity ion transport across the pedestal is neoclassical, explaining the strong inward pinch of high-Z impurities in between ELMs. In improved H-mode, the width of the temperature pedestal increases with heating power, consistent with a \\beta_{pol,ped}^{1/2} scaling. In the area of MHD instabilities, disruption mitigation experiments using massive Ne injection reach volume averaged values of the total electron density close to those required for runaway suppression in ITER. ECRH at the q = 2 surface was successfully applied to delay density limit disruptions. The characterization of fast particle losses due to MHD has shown the importance of different loss mechanisms for NTMs, TAEs and also beta-induced Alfven eigenmodes (BAEs). Specific studies addressing the first ITER operational phase show that O1 ECRH at the HFS assists reliable low-voltage breakdown. During ramp-up, additional heating can be used to vary li to fit within the ITER range. Confinement and power threshold in He are more favourable than in H, suggesting that He operation could allow us to assess H-mode operation in the non-nuclear phase of ITER operation.

  15. PSL Icing Facility Upgrade Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Thomas A.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Lizanich, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) was recently upgraded to perform engine inlet ice crystal testing in an altitude environment. The system installed 10 spray bars in the inlet plenum for ice crystal generation using 222 spray nozzles. As an altitude test chamber, the PSL is capable of simulating icing events at altitude in a groundtest facility. The system was designed to operate at altitudes from 4,000 to 40,000 ft at Mach numbers up to 0.8M and inlet total temperatures from -60 to +15 degF. This paper and presentation will be part of a series of presentations on PSL Icing and will cover the development of the icing capability through design, developmental testing, installation, initial calibration, and validation engine testing. Information will be presented on the design criteria and process, spray bar developmental testing at Cox and Co., system capabilities, and initial calibration and engine validation test. The PSL icing system was designed to provide NASA and the icing community with a facility that could be used for research studies of engine icing by duplicating in-flight events in a controlled ground-test facility. With the system and the altitude chamber we can produce flight conditions and cloud environments to simulate those encountered in flight. The icing system can be controlled to set various cloud uniformities, droplet median volumetric diameter (MVD), and icing water content (IWC) through a wide variety of conditions. The PSL chamber can set altitudes, Mach numbers, and temperatures of interest to the icing community and also has the instrumentation capability of measuring engine performance during icing testing. PSL last year completed the calibration and initial engine validation of the facility utilizing a Honeywell ALF502-R5 engine and has duplicated in-flight roll back conditions experienced during flight testing. This paper will summarize the modifications and buildup of the facility to accomplish these tests.

  16. The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, John [National Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark)]. E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Strandgade 29, DK-1401 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

  17. Residual perfluorochemicals in the biochar from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyo; Ok, Yong Sik; Choi, Geun-Hyoung; Park, Byung-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Biochar has been recently considered as a candidate for soil amendment and soil remediation. Some pollutants have been screened in the biochar for safety purposes except for perfluorochemicals (PFCs). In this study, the contamination of biochars from plant residues and sewage sludge with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was examined. The total residual concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the sludge biochar were 15.8-16.9ng/g and these values did not decrease significantly after pyrolysis. On the other hand, these PFCs were not found in the biochar from plant sources. In conclusion, the use of the sludge biochar in the agricultural environment should be re-evaluated, since the concentrations of PFCs in the sewage sludge showed no significant decrease after thermal process. PMID:25989522

  18. Nutrient-flux evaluation by the LOICZ Biogeochemical Model in Mediterranean lagoons: the case of Cabras Lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Padedda; A. Lugliè; G. Ceccherelli; F. Trebini; N. Sechi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) budgeting procedure was used to evaluate the main nutrient pathways and ecosystem functions within Cabras Lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia, Italy) in 2004. The results of a simple one-box and one-layer model showed that nutrient accumulation prevailed over mobilisation for both dissolved inorganic phosphorus (annual mean of 675.69 mol d) and dissolved inorganic

  19. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  20. Effect of Ultrasound on Dewaterability of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Uk; Kim, Byoung-Il

    2003-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of ultrasound on the dewaterability of sewage sludge. The investigation involves laboratory experiments, which were conducted under a broad range of conditions, including energy levels of ultrasonic waves, treatment time, and pH. Results of the study show that ultrasound enhances dewaterability significantly. The degree of enhancement varies with sonication energy, treatment time, and the amount of treated sludge.