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Microbiology of Sewage Lagoons - Effects of Industrial Wastes on Lagoon Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents some of the ecologic changes occurring in sewage lagoons receiving domestic wastes plus potato processing wastes (Grafton), cheese manufacturing wastes (Lakota), and domestic wastes (Harvey). Since each lagoon presents unique operating...

J. W. Vennes H. W. Holm M. W. Wentz K. L. Hanson J. M. Granum



State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available




EPA Science Inventory

This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...


Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Occurrence of Purple Sulfur Bacteria in a Sewage Treatment Lagoon 1  

PubMed Central

The ecology of purple sulfur bacteria in a sewage oxidation lagoon was investigated. Chemical changes in the lagoon were investigated by monitoring biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), sulfide, sulfate, phosphate, total carbohydrates, volatile acids, alkalinity, and pH. Lagoon water temperatures were observed daily. Microbial ecological relationships were deduced by enumerating coliforms, total bacteria other than anaerobes [Tryptone Glucose Extract (TGE) agar], methane formers such as Methanobacterium formicicum, sulfate reducers, purple sulfur bacteria, and algae. Finally, two strains of purple sulfur bacteria were characterized. Two populations, purple sulfur bacteria and total bacteria (TGE agar), reached maximal concentrations in the warmest part of the 1967 summer. Purple sulfur bacteria reached maximal numbers as concentrations of sulfide and volatile acids were depleted, whereas carbohydrates and alkalinity remained unchanged. Low sulfate levels, which were not limiting for sulfate reducers, may be attributable to storage of sulfur within purple sulfur bacteria. No biological, chemical, or physical agent was linked to the removal of coliforms. The increase of algae in the late summer of 1967 may have been related to the low organic content of the lagoon during this period. Although lagoon pH (7.7 to 8.2) was favorable for purple sulfur bacterial growth, temperatures and sulfides were not optimal in the lagoon for these organisms. Chromatium vinosum and Thiocapsa floridana (the predominant lagoon purple sulfur organism in 1967 and 1968) utilized certain carbohydrates, amino acids, volatile acids, and Krebs cycle intermediates. Also purple sulfur bacteria lowered BOD levels as demonstrated by the growth of T. floridana in sterilized sewage.

Holm, H. W.; Vennes, J. W.



Dynamics of pollution-indicator and heterotrophic bacteria in sewage treatment lagoons.  

PubMed Central

The spatio-temporal dynamics of pollution-indicator bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were studied in the sewage treatment lagoons of an urban wastewater center after 26 months of biweekly sampling at eight stations in these lagoons. Robust statistical methods of time-series analysis were used to study successional steps (through chronological clustering) and rhythmic behavior through time (through contingency periodogram). The aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community showed two types of temporal evolution: in the first four stations, it seems mainly controlled by the nutrient support capacity of the sewage input, whereas in the remaining part of the lagoon, it seems likely that the pollution-indicator bacteria are gradually replaced by other bacterial types that are better adapted to this environment. On the other hand, the pollution-indicator bacteria showed an annual cycle which increased in amplitude at distances further from the wastewater source. The main events in this cycle were produced simultaneously at all stations, indicating control of these bacterial populations by climatic factors, which act through physical and chemical factors, and also through other biological components of this ecosystem (phytoplankton and zooplankton). Finally, we use results from this study to suggest a modified design for a future study program. Images

Legendre, P; Baleux, B; Troussellier, M



Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

DOE /NV Operations Office



Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.




Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.




Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU.

US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office



Macroalgae blooms and ? 15N in subtropical coastal lagoons from the Southeastern Gulf of California: Discrimination among agricultural, shrimp farm and sewage effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroalgae blooms of Gracilaria vermiculophylla, Hypnea spinella and Spyridia filamentosa have been found in coastal lagoons in the SE Gulf of California. Agriculture, livestock, shrimp and poultry farms and sewage contribute anthropogenic nitrogen to the systems. The ?15N of these sources, water column and macroalgae were studied in order to identify the N supply for macroalgae blooms. ?15N of three

Alejandra Piñón-Gimate; Martín F. Soto-Jiménez; María Julia Ochoa-Izaguirre; Eynar García-Pagés; Federico Páez-Osuna



Pollutant removal from municipal sewage lagoon effluents with a free-surface wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project was initiated to refine the knowledge available on the treatment of rural municipal wastewater by constructed wetlands. To determine the treatment capacity of a constructed wetland system receiving municipal lagoon effluents, the wetland was monitored over one treatment season, from May 19 to November 3, 2000. The wetland system consisted of a three-cell free-surface wetland, phosphorus adsorption

Kimberley Cameron; Chandra Madramootoo; Anna Crolla; Christopher Kinsley



Insects Associated with Midwestern Oxidation Lagoons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aims of this project were to study intensively the entomological fauna of sewage lagoons including insects, crustacea, mites, spiders, and sowbugs in all sorts of lagoons from the newest, rawest ones to old ones, including primary and secondary lagoon...

W. R. Enns



Pollutant removal from municipal sewage lagoon effluents with a free-surface wetland.  


This research project was initiated to refine the knowledge available on the treatment of rural municipal wastewater by constructed wetlands. To determine the treatment capacity of a constructed wetland system receiving municipal lagoon effluents, the wetland was monitored over one treatment season, from May 19 to November 3, 2000. The wetland system consisted of a three-cell free-surface wetland, phosphorus adsorption slag filters and a vegetated filter strip. Bimonthly water samples at the inlet and outlet of each component of the wetland system were analysed for biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate and nitrite, ammonia and ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), ortho-phosphate (ortho-PO(4)), fecal coliforms (FCs) and Escherichia coli. The free-surface wetland cells treating the lagoon effluents achieved removals as follows: biochemical oxygen demand (34%), ammonia and ammonium (52%), TKN (37%), TSS (93%), TP (90%), ortho-PO(4) (82%), FCs (52%) and E. coli (58%). The wetland cells reduced total nitrogen, TP and biochemical oxygen demand to levels below the maximum permissible levels required for direct discharge to nearby receiving waters (TN<3.0 mg x L(-1), TP<0.3 mg x L(-1), BOD(5)<3.0 mg x L(-1)). The vegetated filter strip treating the effluents from the wetland cells achieved removals as follows: biochemical oxygen demand (18%), ammonia and ammonium (28%), TKN (11%), TSS (22%), TP (5%), FCs (28%) and E. coli (22%). It may therefore serve as an additional treatment stage further reducing the concentrations of these mentioned parameters. The slag filters reduced TP in the lagoon effluents by up to 99%, and, in this study, were concluded to be effective phosphorus adsorbers. PMID:12767284

Cameron, Kimberley; Madramootoo, Chandra; Crolla, Anna; Kinsley, Christopher



Upgrading of sewage treatment plant by sustainable and cost-effective separate treatment of industrial wastewater.  


The Olburgen sewage treatment plant has been upgraded to improve the effluent quality by implementing a separate and dedicated treatment for industrial (potato) wastewater and reject water. The separate industrial treatment has been realized within a beneficial public-private partnership. The separate treatment of the concentrated flows of industrial wastewater and sludge treatment effluent proved to be more cost-efficient and area and energy efficient than a combined traditional treatment process. The industrial wastewater was first treated in a UASB reactor for biogas production. The UASB reactor effluent was combined with the reject water and treated in a struvite reactor (Phospaq process) followed by a one stage granular sludge nitritation/anammox process. For the first time both reactors where demonstrated on full scale and have been operated stable over a period of 3 years. The recovered struvite has been tested as a suitable substitute for commercial fertilizers. Prolonged exposure of granular anammox biomass to nitrite levels up to 30 mg/l did not result in inhibition of the anammox bacteria in this reactor configuration. The chosen option required a 17 times smaller reactorvolume (20,000 m(3) less volume) and saves electric power by approximately 1.5 GWh per year. PMID:20371929

Abma, W R; Driessen, W; Haarhuis, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M



Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This document is an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV-582-Rev. 0. This addendum provides the requested documentation that supports the assertion that contamination above levels of concern does not exist in the abandoned sewer lines. This addendum summarizes the results of the manhole investigation conducted during March 2000. Results of the manhole investigation indicate that no changes to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report are necessary and all other sections of the document shall remain unchanged.




Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

D. S. Tobiason



Macroalgae blooms and delta 15N in subtropical coastal lagoons from the Southeastern Gulf of California: discrimination among agricultural, shrimp farm and sewage effluents.  


Macroalgae blooms of Gracilaria vermiculophylla, Hypnea spinella and Spyridia filamentosa have been found in coastal lagoons in the SE Gulf of California. Agriculture, livestock, shrimp and poultry farms and sewage contribute anthropogenic nitrogen to the systems. The delta(15)N of these sources, water column and macroalgae were studied in order to identify the N supply for macroalgae blooms. delta(15)N of three species of macroalgae (4.3-13.6 per thousand) were enriched compared to the water column (delta(15)N-NO(3)(-) 3.7-6.8 per thousand), probably because of fractioning from the macroalgae. delta(15)N of POM (1.4-10.3 per thousand) was similar to the water column but the relationship was unclear. Depending on the site, macroalgae showed different delta(15)N values since some sites receive more or less influence from one given source of the associated watershed, which is reflected in the different delta(15)N values of the macroalgae of the same system and in the relative contributions of the sources. PMID:19442992

Piñón-Gimate, Alejandra; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F; Ochoa-Izaguirre, María Julia; García-Pagés, Eynar; Páez-Osuna, Federico



Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office



Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office?s selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.




Macroinvertebrates associated with Chara in a tropical coastal lagoon (Imboassica lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imboassica lagoon is an urban coastal lagoon located in the municipality of Macaé (RJ), which has been exposed to a process of artificial eutrophication through the inflow of untreated sewage, as well as artificial openings of the sandbar that separates it from the ocean, provoking drastic modifications in this ecosystem. The sampling for the analysis of the community of macroinvertebrates

Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves



Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of hermaphrodite fish in the lagoons of sewage treatment works led us to hypothesize that sewage effluent might contain a substance, or substances, estrogenic to fish. to test this hypothesis, we placed cages containing rainbow trout in the effluent from sewage-treatment works, and one to three weeks later measured the vitellogenin concentration in the plasma of the fish.

C. E. Purdom; P. A. Hardiman; V. V. J. Bye; N. C. Eno; C. R. Tyler; J. P. Sumpter



A combined system of lagoon and constructed wetland for an effective wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon systems are a common and effective method to purify communal sewage in rural areas. Low costs and high purification rates are some of their advantages. But mostly algae blooms in the lagoon cause a secondary pollution of the following stream. In order to tackle this problem, several tests have been carried out combining both lagoon and filtering system. This

Christian R Steinmann; Sabine Weinhart; Arnulf Melzer



Endocrine disrupting activities in sewage effluent and river water determined by chemical analysis and in vitro assay in the context of granular activated carbon upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of endocrine disruption in catchments (EDCAT) programme, this work aims to assess the temporal and spatial variations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in River Ray, before and after the commissioning of a full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant at a sewage treatment works (STW). Through spot and passive sampling from effluent and river sites, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities

D. P. Grover; J. Balaam; S. Pacitto; J. W. Readman; S. White; J. L. Zhou



Distribution of Coliphages Against Four E. Coli Virotypes in Hospital Originated Sewage Sample and a Sewage Treatment Plant in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of coliphages infecting different Escherichia coli virotypes (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC) and an avirulent strain (K-12) in sewage system of a hospital and a sewage treatment plant\\u000a (STP) was investigated by culture-based agar overlay methods. Coliphages were found in all the samples except stool dumping\\u000a site in the sewage system of the hospital and lagoon of the STP.

Muntasir Alam; Tasmia Farzana; Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan; Mahmuda Yasmin; Jamalun Nessa



Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice  

SciTech Connect

The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. (Department of Environmental Sciences, Venezia (Italy))



Santa Gilla lagoon (Italy): a mercury sediment pollution case study. Contamination assessment and restoration of the site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Santa Gilla lagoon, on the southern coast of the island of Sardinia (Italy), has received industrial discharge of mercury, lead and zinc compounds, as well as municipal untreated sewage for several decades from the urban area of Cagliari (about 400 000 inhabitants). The lagoon, which covers an area of 15 km2 of shallow waters, has always represented an important

S. Degetto; M. Schintu; A. Contu; G. Sbrignadello



Relationships between nutrients and macroalgal biomass in a brazilian coastal lagoon: the impact of a lock construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Piratininga Lagoon is a coastal, choked, and brackish ecosystem in SE Brazil, where uncontrolled discharge of domestic sewage led to eutrophication, increasing massive proliferation of benthic macroalgae, and decrease of the lagoon mean depth. In 1992, a dam was constructed by the local Municipality at its tidal channel aiming at stabilising its water level. Main physico-chemical parameters, together with

Leticia Cotrim da Cunha; Julio Cesar Wasserman



Thermolytical treatment of dried sewage sludge and other biogenic materials—including upgrading of pyrolysis vapours by a cracking catalyst and examination of heavy metals by X-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried sewage sludge from the city of Oldenburg, lacquered wood and linoleum were pyrolyzed in a nitrogen atmosphere (sewage sludge, 600°C; lacquered wood and linoleum, 500°C) in an atmospheric fluidized bed. Each fraction of solid material (feed, solid products) was investigated with X-ray fluorescence in order to estimate, especially, the loss of heavy metals during pyrolysis. Vapour resulting from the

W. Beckers; D. Schuller; O. Vaizert



Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.


Environmental heterogeneity patterns and predictive models of chlorophyll a in a Brazilian coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal patterns of environmental heterogeneity in a Brazilian coastal lagoon were described by means of\\u000a principal component analysis. Carapebus Lagoon has been subject to eutrophication, due to increased nutrient loading from\\u000a domestic and industrial sewage. Spatial variations in the trophic state and temporal variations in the degree of marine influence\\u000a are the major sources of environmental heterogeneity

José Luiz Attayde; Reinaldo Luiz Bozelli



Identifying the source, transport path and sinks of sewage derived organic matter.  


Since sewage discharges can significantly contribute to the contaminant loadings in coastal areas, it is important to identify sources, pathways and environmental sinks. Sterol and fatty alcohol biomarkers were quantified in source materials, suspended sediments and settling matter from the Ria Formosa Lagoon. Simple ratios between key biomarkers including 5beta-coprostanol, cholesterol and epi-coprostanol were able to identify the sewage sources and effected deposition sites. Multivariate methods (PCA) were used to identify co-varying sites. PLS analysis using the sewage discharge as the signature indicated approximately 25% of the variance in the sites could be predicted by the sewage signature. A new source of sewage derived organic matter was found with a high sewage predictable signature. The suspended sediments had relatively low sewage signatures as the material was diluted with other organic matter from in situ production. From a management viewpoint, PLS provides a useful tool in identifying the pathways and accumulation sites for such contaminants. PMID:15840529

Mudge, Stephen M; Duce, Caroline E



Mercury pollution sources in sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study has continued the investigation on distribution of mercury in estuarine sediments of Patos Lagoon which began whilst assessing the after-effect of enormous accidental discharge of sulfuric acid into the estuary. An attempt to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic effluents on mercury pollution in sediments was undertaken. The effluents from Rio Grande City sewages were categorized into four groups

Nicolai Mirlean; Vlad E. Andrus; Paulo Baisch



Lagoon Performance and the State of Lagoon Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phenomenal growth of oxidation lagoons as a form of municipal waste treatment is a reflection of their relatively low cost and ease of maintenance. The widespread acceptance of lagooning was originally predicated on their ability to produce effluent q...

G. Barsom



Revegetation of lagoon ash using the legume species Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala.  


A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of two legume species, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala for growth on ameliorated lagoon ash with or without nitrogen (N(2))-fixing bacteria inoculation. Even though amendments of 30% (w/w) vermiculite or with sewage sludge compost were added to improve the chemical and physical limitations of lagoon ash, significant suppressions in biomass and plant nutrient content were found with ameliorated lagoon ash in comparison to an agricultural soil. The high proportion of clay-sized (<53 microm) ash particles limited root growth. In addition, heavy metal toxicity was a possible factor contributing to poor seedling growth. Higher plant productivity resulted from the sewage sludge compost-amended lagoon ash than with vermiculite due to a greater contribution of plant nutrients in the compost. Nodulation was inhibited in ameliorated lagoon ash but not in agricultural soil. High pH and electrical conductivity and elevated toxic metals may be important parameters that limit bacterial activity. Both species showed potential to establish on amended lagoon ash, with Acacia auriculiformis being the best adapted. PMID:15092915

Cheung, K C; Wong, J P; Zhang, Z Q; Wong, J W; Wong, M H



Bacteriophages active against Bacteroides fragilis in sewage-polluted waters.  

PubMed Central

Twelve strains of different Bacteroides species were tested for their efficiency of detection of bacteriophages from sewage. The host range of several isolated phages was investigated. The results indicated that there was a high degree of strain specificity. Then, by using Bacteroides fragilis HSP 40 as the host, which proved to be the most efficient for the detection of phages, feces from humans and several animal species and raw sewage, river water, water from lagoons, seawater, groundwater, and sediments were tested for the presence of bacteriophages that were active against B. fragilis HSP 40. Phages were detected in feces of 10% of the human fecal samples tested and was never detected in feces of the other animal species studied. Moreover, bacteriophages were always recovered from sewage and sewage-polluted samples of waters and sediments, but not from nonpolluted samples. The titers recovered were dependent on the degree of pollution in analyzed waters and sediments.

Tartera, C; Jofre, J



Odor control in lagoons.  


Lagoons are widely used in rural area for wastewater treatment; however, the odor problem has hampered its application. The root of odor emission from lagoons varies from one to another. The key of controlling the odor is to find out the cause and accordingly provide strategies. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been reported and applied for odor control. Physical technologies such as masking, capturing and sorption are often employed to mitigate the pressure from compliant while not to cut off the problem. Chemical technologies which act rapidly and efficiently in odor control, utilize chemicals to damage the odorant production root or convert odorant to odorless substances. Biological methods such as aeration, biocover and biofiltration control the odor by enhancing aerobic condition or developing methanogens in lagoon, and biologically decomposing the odorants. Comparing to physical and chemical methods, biological methods are more feasible. PMID:23607996

Zhang, X L; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y



Recharging of contaminated aquifer with reclaimed sewage water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 40% of the water supply of Cairo, Egypt, is drawn from a groundwater reservoir located southeast of the Nile Delta. Several thousand shallow wells supply drinking water to the farmers from the same groundwater reservoir, which is recharged by seepage from Ismailia canal, the irrigation canal network, and other wastewater lagoons in the same areas. Sewage water lagoons were located at the high ground of the area, recharging contaminated water into the aquifer. Since the groundwater in this area is used for drinking purposes, it was decided to treat the sewage water recharging the aquifer for health reasons. In this paper a solution to the problem is presented using an injection well recharging good quality water into the aquifer. A pumping well located at a distance downstream is used to pump the contaminated water out of the aquifer. A three-dimensional solute transport model was developed to study the concentration distribution with remediation time in the contaminated zone.

Soliman, M. M.; El-Din, M. Nour; Hassan, N. A.



Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence  

SciTech Connect

Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)



Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in water and sediment of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida - 1977 to 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the Indian River lagoon between Vero Beach, Indian River County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT

T. C. Wang; R. S. Johnson; J. L. Bricker



Fingerprints of lagoonal life: Migration of the marine flatfish Solea solea assessed by stable isotopes and otolith microchemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commercially important marine flatfish common sole (Solea solea) facultatively uses NW Mediterranean lagoons as nurseries. To assess the imprint left by the lagoonal passage, muscle carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope values of S. solea juveniles caught in Mauguio lagoon in spring (shortly after arrival from the sea) and in autumn (before the return to the sea) were compared with values of juveniles from adjacent coastal marine nurseries. In addition, in the lagoon, sole otolith stable isotope (C and oxygen (O)) and elemental (11 elements) composition in spring and autumn, and the stable isotope composition (C and N) of organic matter sources in autumn, were determined. Overall, our data indicate that a distinct lagoonal signature existed. Specifically, lagoon soles showed a strong enrichment in muscle tissue 15N (>6‰) compared to their coastal relatives, likely linked to sewage inputs (see below), and a depletion in 13C (1-2‰), indicative of higher importance of 13C depleted terrestrial POM in the lagoon compared to coastal nurseries. In addition, over the time spent in the lagoon, sole otolith ?13C and ?18O values and otolith elemental composition changed significantly. Analysis of the lagoon sole foodweb based on C and N isotopes placed sediment particulate organic matter (POM) at the base. Seagrasses, formerly common but in decline in Mauguio lagoon, played a minor role in the detritus cycle. The very strong 15N enrichment of the entire foodweb (+7 to +11‰) compared to little impacted lagoons and coastal areas testified of important human sewage inputs. Regarding the S. solea migration, the analysis of higher turnover and fast growth muscle tissue and metabolically inert and slower growth otoliths indicated that soles arrived at least several weeks prior to capture in spring, and that no migrations took place in summer. In the autumn, the high muscle ?15N value acquired in Mauguio lagoon would be a good marker of recent return to the sea, whereas altered otolith ?18O values and elemental ratios hold promise as long-term markers. The combination of several complementary tracers from muscle and otoliths may present the chance to distinguish between fish from specific lagoons and coastal nurseries in the future.

Dierking, Jan; Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille



Benthic foraminifera distribution in a tourist lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a response to anthropogenic impacts.  


Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, located in the Rio de Janeiro City, receives several types of polluted discharges. The knowledge of the sediment microfauna correlated with heavy metal and organic matter concentrations could supply important data about the conditions of the lagoon. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage presented larger diversity and more abundant samples in the lagoon entrance than in the inner area. The Ammonia tepida - Elphidium excavatum foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by dwarf, corroded and weak organisms. Agglutinated species were found only near the entrance. Low abundance values and sterility of five samples in the inner area (north/northeast) can be caused by high levels of heavy metals and organic matter. A. tepida shows negative correlation with increasing heavy metals values. PAHs and coprostanol high indexes, and the absence or low presence of microfauna in samples around the lagoon margin confirm illegal flows from gas stations and domestic sewage. PMID:21871637

Vilela, Claudia Gutterres; Batista, Daniele Silva; Baptista Neto, José Antonio; Ghiselli, Renato Olindo



Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.  


Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low ?g/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R




EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of sewage treatment plants in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes the locations of sewage treatment plants, but not their discharge locations to surface or groundater. The National Pollution Discharge Elimintation Discharge Syste...


LHCb upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The likely discovery of new particles at LHC will be an exciting opportunity to probe physics beyond the Standard Model and will raise new questions that may be elucidated by precision measurements of beauty and charm decays. The LHCb experiment is poised to start this ambitious program when LHC turns on, and is planning to continue it with an upgrade that should enhance its physics sensitivity by at least two orders of magnitude. A new vertex detector is a critical component to achieve this goal. Important requirements are a radiation resistance up to a fluence of about 10^16 neq cm-2 , and a configuration suitable for use in a fast and efficient vertex trigger. The design concept and technology options considered will be reviewed.

Artuso, M.


Composting Dewatered Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test program described was designed to obtain the following basic information concerning the composting of a combination of primary and secondary dewatered sewage sludges: (1) effect of mixing; (2) effect of moisture content; (3) effect of recycling; ...



Responses of fish and macrobenthic assemblages to hydrologic disturbances in Tijuana Estuary and Los Peñasquitos Lagoon, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the assemblages of fishes and benthic macro-invertebrates were evaluated in relation to wastewater inflows at Tijuana\\u000a Estuary and impounded streamflows and mouth closure at Los Peñasquitos Lagoon. Freshwater from sewage spills or winter rains\\u000a lowered water salinities and had major impacts on the channel organisms of both southern California coastal wetlands. Benthic\\u000a infaunal assemblages responded more rapidly to

Christopher S. Nordby; Joy B. Zedler



Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.  


Segara Anakan, a mangrove-fringed coastal lagoon in Indonesia, has a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates and is increasingly affected by human activities. We found > 50 organic contaminants in water, sediment and macrobenthic invertebrates from the lagoon most of which were polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Composition of PACs pointed to petrogenic contamination in the eastern lagoon. PACs mainly consisted of alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oil than parent PAHs. Highest total PAC concentration in sediment was above reported toxicity thresholds for aquatic invertebrates. Other identified compounds derived from municipal sewage and also included novel contaminants like triphenylphosphine oxide. Numbers of stored contaminants varied between species which is probably related to differences in microhabitat and feeding mode. Most contaminants were detected in Telescopium telescopium and Polymesoda erosa. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the risk potential of alkylated PAHs, which has hardly been addressed previously. PMID:21414637

Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Jennerjahn, Tim C; Khrycheva, Polina; Sivatharshan, Yoganathan; Yuwono, Edy; Schwarzbauer, Jan



Evaluation of the anthropogenic influx of metallic pollutants into the Oualidia lagoon, Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies on the impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal water quality have been carried out in the last three decades, focusing mainly on urban expansion and agricultural development in coastal areas. In this study, we assess heavy metal pollution in the superficial and cored sediment of the Oualidia lagoon (Morocco). Superficial and cored sediment samples from the Oualidia lagoon were analyzed for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, Hg and Cd using ICP-MS. Sediments near urban and agricultural areas are commonly contaminated with heavy metals and the concentrations found in surface sediments are significantly higher than those from 50-100 years ago. The concentrations of these elements decrease sharply with depth in the sediment column and the elements are preferentially enriched in the <2 µm-size fraction of the sediment. The enrichment factors (EF) and statistical analyses, demonstrated that heavy metals that might pose a risk (Pb, Cu and Hg) have become largely enriched in the lagoon sediments during the recent period of agricultural intensification. Ni and Cr are the main pollutants originating from urban sewage. Keywords: Coastal land use, heavy metals, sediment pollution, lagoon.

Maanan, Me.; Fattal, P.; Maanan, M.; Ruiz-Fernández, A.-C.; Sahabi, M.



Upgrading Army Sewage Treatment Plant Trickling Filters with Synthetic Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of the more than 100 Army wastewater treatment plants in the U.S. more than half involve some type of trickling-filter system. Many of these plants, which represent a substantial capital investment, are aging and showing signs of physical deterioration. N...

C. P. C. Poon R. J. Scholze J. T. Bandy E. D. Smith




EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...


Upgrading bottleneck constrained forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study bottleneck constrained network upgrading problems. We are given an edge weighted graph G=(V,E) where node v?V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). This upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a good performance.

Sven Oliver Krumke; Madhav V. Marathe; Hartmut Noltemeier; S. S. Ravi; Hans-christoph Wirth



Lake Worth Lagoon conceptual ecological model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Worth Lagoon is a major estuarine water body located in Palm Beach County, Florida whose remaining natural resouces\\u000a need to be protected. The lagoonal ecosystem has been stressed through the past one hundred years due to many anthropogenic\\u000a influences. Altered hydrology of the system allows massive freshwater discharges into the lagoon, which exit via two ocean\\u000a inlets and

Dianne K. Crigger; Greg A. Graves; Dana L. Fike



Biogeochemical responses to nutrient inputs in a Cuban coastal lagoon: runoff, anthropogenic, and groundwater sources.  


Laguna Larga, a coastal lagoon in central Cuba, has been heavily altered by tourism infrastructure construction and sewage disposal. We hypothesize that this has decreased the circulation and caused eutrophication of the lagoon. To assess this, 12 bimonthly samplings were carried out in 2007-2008. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and nitrogen, and phosphorous fractions (inorganic, organic, and total) were determined. Water and salt budgets, as well as biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus were calculated using the LOICZ budget model for the three sections of the lagoon identified by morphological constrains and salinity patterns. Laguna Larga is a choked lagoon with restricted water circulation, low exchange, and high residence times that vary significantly along its sections. Residence time was estimated to be 0.1-0.7 years for the inner section and 1-9 days for the outer one. High levels of total nitrogen (annual means 126-137 ?M, peaks up to 475 ?M) and phosphorus (2.5-4.4 ?M, peaks up to 14.5 ?M) are evidence of eutrophication of Laguna Larga. During 2007, an average precipitation year, Laguna Larga exported water (703 m(3) d(-1)) and was a source of nitrogen (9.026 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) and phosphorus (0.112 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) to the adjacent sea. ?(15)N determinations in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (-1.83 to +3.02?‰) differed significantly between sites in the lagoon and offshore reference sites located W of the inlet, but were similar to those located E of the inlet. ?(15)N determinations in the seaweed Penicillus dumetosus (+1.02 to +4.2) did not show significant differences. PMID:23856810

González-De Zayas, R; Merino-Ibarra, M; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Castillo-Sandoval, F S



Measurement of Coral Thickness at Midway Lagoon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A seismic survey of Midway Lagoon shows that the volcanic rocks beneath the coral had two terraces cut on them before they were covered by the coral atoll. One terrace, under the north half of Midway Lagoon, lies at a depth between 0.63 and 0.71 km; the s...

G. G. Shor R. P. Phillips H. K. Kirk



Swine Lagoon Effluent Applied to Coastal Bermudagrass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage y...

P. W. Westerman J. C. Burns L. D. King M. R. Overcash R. O. Evans



Analysis of denitrification in swine anaerobic lagoons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the processes which occur i...


Metabolism of a subtropical Brazilian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total community, planktonic and benthic metabolisms were measured by using the carbon dioxide production and consumption, the ‘diurnal curve' method and the in situ bottle incubation technique over an annual cycle in two sublagoons of the Saquarema Lagoon, Brazil. Metabolic rates of the phytoplankton-based lagoon were characterized by considerable daytime and daily variability in production and respiration, by a seasonal

J. P. Carmouze; B. Knoppers; P. Vasconcelos



Restoration of Sacajawea Park Lagoon, Livingston, Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sacajawea Park Lagoon, Livingston, Montana is a man-made lake formed when the northern (north-westerly) channel of the Yellowstone River was diked off. Associated with the lagoon proper is some 8600 linear feet of stream area which both directs water supp...



Benthic microbial loop functioning in coastal lagoons: a comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal lagoons are highly variable and dynamic systems that have been rarely investigated in terms of benthic microbial loop. We present here the results of a comparative study aimed at investigating factors and benthic processes potentially affecting microbial loop functioning in three lagoon systems (Goro, Lesina and Marsala lagoons). The three lagoons were characterised by different geo-morphological, trophic and ecological

Elena Manini; Carla Fiordelmondo; Cristina Gambi; Antonio Pusceddu; Roberto Danovaro



The numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics of Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional numerical model in finite differences was used to simulate the transport and mixing in Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy. The field data for the boundary conditions and for the conditions within the lagoon are described in an earlier paper by Ramirez and Imberger [Hydrodynamics of a shallow lagoon: Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy, submitted, 2000]. In general, the model reproduced the main

Isabel Ramirez; Jorg Imberger



Organic chemicals in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Summer Rayne Oakes; Matthew Hysell; Anthony Hay



EPIC Computer Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Station's compters. The upgrade will provide the station’s computers with faster processors, more memory and an Ethernet interface for data outputs.

John Kossum



The importance of pathogenic organisms in sewage and sewage sludge.  


Deficient sanitation poses a serious threat to human and animal health, involving complex relationships between environments, animals, refuse, food, pathogens, parasites, and man. However, by sanitizing and stabilizing the organic matter of sewage sludge, agriculture can utilize it to maintain soil, water, and air quality. As ingredients in soil amendments, such bioresidues are a source of nutrients for plants. Stabilization and sanitation of sewage sludge safely couple its recycling and disposal. This coupling becomes increasingly important as economic and environmental constraints make strategies for waste disposal more difficult to apply. The occurrence of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and zooparasites in sewage sludge is reviewed in this article, and consequential epidemiologic concerns that arise from sewage sludge recycling is also addressed. PMID:11417676

Dumontet, S; Scopa, A; Kerje, S; Krovacek, K



209-E Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated a review of the Safeguards and Security systems at the Critical Mass Laboratory with regards to determining appropriate upgrading actions that assure that an effective and efficient Safeguards and Security posture consistent with DOE-RL policies, procedures, and priorities is effected. As a result of this review, PNL has concluded that specific upgrades are required at CML that provide a demonstrated enhancement to the overall security posture of the facility and are based upon prudent expenditures of government funds. It was further concluded that additional recommended upgrades provide minimal improvement to the overall security system at a significant outlay of funds.

Merrill, B.J.; DeMyer, J.J.



Benthic ciliates in Adriatic Sea lagoons.  


Sediment samples were collected from four sandy and muddy bottom sites at both Sacca di Goro lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea) and Lesina lagoon (southern Adriatic Sea) on one occasion in May and one occasion in July in order to make a comparative study of ciliate abundance and diversity. The temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential were measured at the time of collection, the water content of the sediments was determined, and samples subjected to granulometric analysis. The ciliated protozoa in sub-samples from the top centimeter of sediment were identified to genus and species level and enumerated. Ciliates belonging to 38 and 33 species were found in the sediment of Sacca di Goro and Lesina, respectively, the diversity of ciliates varying widely between stations. Total ciliate numbers ranged from 32 to 759 cm(-2) and from 2 to 256 cm(-2) at Sacca di Goro and Lesina, respectively; the ciliate biomass ranged from 1.1 to 30.3 microg C cm(-2) in the samples collected at Sacca di Goro, and from 0.01 to 157 microg C cm(-2) in the samples collected at Lesina lagoon. Aspidisca lynceus, Aspidisca steini, Chilodonella uncinata, Frontonia marina, Pleuronema marinum, Strombidinopsis minimum, Strombidium sp., and Urotricha sp., were observed at the two lagoons but not in all stations; Keronopsis flavicans and Trachelostyla pediculariformis were often numerous at Goro lagoon, A. lynceus, Condylostoma patulum and Tracheloraphis teissieri were the most abundant ciliates observed at Lesina lagoon. PMID:17070761

Madoni, Paolo



The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  


Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W


Hydrodynamic modeling of a coastal lagoon: The Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework of numerical models has been developed and applied to the coastal lagoon of Cabras in Sardinia, Italy. These models consist of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, a radiational transfer module of heat at the water surface and a transport diffusion model.In the first part of the research the hydrodynamic circulation of the lagoon has been simulated taking in account

Christian Ferrarin; Georg Umgiesser




EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...


Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...



Nova Upgrade Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nova Upgrade Facility is being designed to achieve ICF ignition and gain. A baseline design of the laser and experimental facilities has been completed, and a development plan, which includes a fully integrated laser demonstration, has been formulated...

W. H. Lowdermilk E. M. Campbell J. H. Campbell J. T. Hunt J. R. Murray



Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.



Optics upgrade for switchyard  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab



Oxidative methane upgrading.  


The economically viable oxidative upgrading of methane presents one of the most difficult but rewarding challenges within catalysis research. Its potential to revolutionalise the chemical value chain, coupled with the associated supremely challenging scientific aspects, has ensured this topic's high popularity over the preceeding decades. Herein, we report a non-exhaustive account of the current developments within the field of oxidative methane upgrading and summarise the pertaining challenges that have yet to be solved. PMID:22848012

Hammond, Ceri; Conrad, Sabrina; Hermans, Ive



Sewage disposal system and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The system includes transport means to carry sewage to holding pits or tanks in open areas remote from community and delivery from tanks to tunnels plowed in ground. Transport may be by tankers or pipeline. Tender tankers receive batches of sewage from storage tanks and deliver to field where tractors pull frames with depending plow members which produce tunnels in ground with narrow slashes or crevices extending to surface. Frames carry manifolds and discharge conduits to deliver sewage to tunnels. Tender tankers arranged beside tractors have supply conduits connecting them to manifolds, with pumps in conduits to produce continuous flow. Tankers travel in synchronism with tractors and deliver sewage to tunnels as they are formed. Compacting rollers pulled behind frames close crevices directly after they are formed by plow, and sewage is sealed into ground. The sewage provides moisture, nutrients, and humus at a proper sub-surface level to support crop growth for a year or more, and the same ground may be used for repeated disposals at suitable intervals.

Danford, J.D.



Flushing of a coastal lagoon in the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shu'aiba Lagoon (Lat. 20°45'N; Long. 39°28'E) is located on the eastern coast of the Red Sea. It is relatively shallow with an area of approximately 11·7 km 2. The inlet to the lagoon is narrow with a cross-sectional area of about 245 m 2. This lagoon is a future site to develop mariculture. With this objective in view the flushing time scale of the lagoon was calculated, as flushing is an important abiotic factor in lagoon ecology. The average flushing time for the months February to June and September to November is about 20 days. Oceanic inputs play an important part in the process of fertilization of the lagoons. The marine environment in arid zone lagoons is under natural stress due to high temperatures and salinities. However, the flushing time scale of 20 days may not exert intolerable stress on the ecology of the Shu'aiba Lagoon.

Sultan, S. A. R.; Ahmad, F.



Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the publication of the Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (IRLCCMP), more than 100 agencies and local governments with management responsibilities for the Lagoon have agreed on a united strategy to preserve the fragile...



The Patos Lagoon summertime circulation and dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aspects of the summertime circulation and dynamics of the Patos Lagoon, a system located in southern Brazil and considered as one of the world's largest choked coastal lagoons, are studied through the analysis of time series of wind stress, water level and freshwater discharge, combined with the results of a barotropic circulation model. The longitudinal wind component has been verified as the main driving force, generating a set-up/set-down mechanism of oscillation with the nodal line in the midlagoon area. The period of this oscillation coincides with the passages of frontal systems for this region. The sea breeze acts as a secondary effect, being clearly observed in the northern part of the lagoon. Freshwater discharge is expected to cause variations in water level on the seasonal band and to a lesser degree in the 8-15 day time-scale. The tidal signal is of importance only near the exit to the ocean, being strongly reduced in the interior of the lagoon. Model results suggest a wind set-up momentum balance in the longitudinal direction in the deeper parts of the lagoon; near the margins, the longitudinal momentum balance is mostly of frictional form, with the wind stress being balanced by the bottom friction. In the lateral direction, a geostrophic balance is verified in both regions. The wind forced circulation is characterized by the presence of several cells with downwind velocity near the margins and upwind return flow occurring in the central areas.

Moller, Osmar O.; Lorenzzentti, Joa˜o. A.; Stech, JoséL.; Math, Mauricio M.



Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had twofold objectives: 1] quantify denitrification e...


Persistence of Pathogens in Lagoon-Stored Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was fill...

M. D. Little R. C. Badeaux R. S. Reimers T. G. Akers W. D. Henriques



The Effects on Groundwater from Seepage of Livestock Manure Lagoons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three anaerobic swine lagoons in the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina were monitored for two years to determine the effects of lagoon seepage on the groundwater. A series of shallow monitoring wells were installed at each lagoon, mostly on the dow...

R. O. Hegg T. G. King T. V. Wilson



Marine sewage disposal  

SciTech Connect

An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

Sullivan, D.W.



Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling.  


The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality of the end product. The sewage sludge without blending can be directly converted into good quality fertilizer (vermicompost). Vermicomposting resulted in reduction in C/N ratio 25.6 to 6-9, TOC (25%) but increase in electrical conductivity (EC) (47-51%), total nitrogen (TN) (2.4-2.8 times), potassium (45-71%), calcium (49-62%), sodium (62-82%) and total phosphorous (TP) (1.5-1.8 times), which indicated that sewage sludge can be recycled as a good quality fertilizer. The present study also inferred that the application of sewage sludge in the agricultural fields after vermicomposting would not have any adverse effect as the heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are now within the permissible limits. PMID:18515003

Khwairakpam, Meena; Bhargava, Renu



Factors structuring temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities in a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the

Susana Carvalho; Patrícia Pereira; Fábio Pereira; Hilda de Pablo; Carlos Vale; Miguel B. Gaspar



A simple tool for the assessment of water quality in polluted lagoon systems: A case study for Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon systems have particular ecological, morphological and hydrodynamic characteristics and act like transitional zones between inland and open waters. The aim of this study is to develop a Lagoon Water Quality Index (L-WQI) for environmental control of polluted lagoon systems by focusing on primary problems such as increasing stress on aquatic biota, eutrophication and organic pollution. The indicators used in

Mehmet Ümit Taner; Beyza Üstün; Ay?en Erdinçler



33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...307 Untreated sewage. No person shall...discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...



33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel...307 Untreated sewage. No person shall...discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel into the applicable waters of...



The Lagoon Nebula M8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is a well known H h region in the constellation of Sagittarius. It is one of the most studied objects in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and has been examined at all wavelengths from the radio to the gamma ray region. This study will concentrate on the optical region using CCD images taken through filters centered at select wavelengths. These wavelengths are important to understanding the physics of the nebula and include emission lines of the following ions: O(sup ++) at lambda(lambda)4363,5007, N(sup +) at lambda(lambda)5755,6584, S(sup +) at lambda(lambda)6717,6731 and H(sup +) at lambda(lambda)4861,6563. The first two sets of lines are used to determine the electron temperature (Te) of the nebula, the next pair is used to calculate the electron density (Ne) and the final pair is used to determine the amount of light which is scattered due to dust in the nebula. The CCD images used in this study were obtained at San Pedro Matir Observatory in Baja, Mexico, using the 2.12 meter telescope. The images were reduced using the Image Reduction Analysis Facility (IRAF). Corrections to the raw data included bias subtraction, dark subtraction, cosmic ray removal and corrections for flat field differences. Additional steps were necessary to produce the final images, which are Te and Ne maps of the nebula. These steps will be discussed. The maps show variations in temperature and density on a pixel-by-pixel level. The O(sup ++) images clearly show high ionization regions in the nebula near the ionizing stars, as expected, Some of the most dramatic variations can be seen in the sulfur images. Clumps, ridges and arcs of high density material are clear and well defined. These maps are used to better understand the physical conditions in M8 and the chemical abundances in the nebula.

Williams, Anthony



Dewatering behavior of sewage screenings.  


Screenings from municipal sewage treatment plants have increased in importance in recent years, particularly in Germany, where laws prohibit depositing of screenings in landfill. This paper presents basic investigations of sewage screenings, especially the structure and dewatering behavior. Two standard experiments are conducted. First, the relationship between pressure and water content is determined. Secondly the flow resistance as a function of pressure is evaluated. The results help to derive simulation models in order to understand how the material behaves inside a wash press. PMID:23374399

Gregor, H; Rupp, W; Janoske, U; Kuhn, M



Heavy-metal pollution assessment in the coastal lagoons of Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


The Jacarepaguá lagoon receives the waste from 239 industries and domestic sewage. Bottom sediment analysis revealed that metal pollution is not spread over the lagoons but restricted to the discharge areas of the main metal-carrier rivers. Metal concentrations in superficial water showed the following concentrations values in ng/ml: Zn, 9.63+/-3.59; Pb, 0.61+/-0.43; Cu, 0.94+/-0.45; Mn, 12.7+/-8.0. Metal concentration in fish (average of seven different species) presented the following results, in mg/kg wet weight: Cr, 0.08+/-0.01; Cu, 0.4+/-0.15; Zn, 4.6+/-3.4; Fe, 2.4+/-1.3; Mn, 0.4+/-0.3. These results imply, considering fish consumption rate and the RfD (USEPA Reference Dose), that the local population is not exposed to undue health risks. Metal concentrations in the water may, however, increase due to their dissolution induced by pH and redox changes in the sediments. PMID:15091655

Fernandes, H M; Bidone, E D; Veiga, L H; Patchineelam, S R



Upgrading Enterprise Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will describe the process we went through this past year to upgrade our enterprise search tool from a very old version of Inktomi to the latest version of Verity Ultraseek. We started with requirements gathering and then compared requirements against several available products to determine which product to choose. After purchasing the product, we worked through several defined




Upgrading shale oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid products from retorting oil shale are upgraded to a total liquid suited to pipeline transport and containing increased amounts of the premium products of gasoline through distillate fuel. The result is accomplished by an initial hydrotreating of the shale oil to convert sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen derivatives of hydrocarbons to hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and water, while depositing metal from

R. L. Gorring; R. L. Smith



Upgrading shale oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid products from retorting oil shale are upgraded to a total liquid suited to pipeline transport and containing increased amounts of the premium products gasoline through distillate fuel. This is done by hydrotreating of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, and metal constituents. The hydrotreater effluent cascades through a hydrocracking reactor containing a catalyst which is characterized by a crystalline zeolite having a

R. L. Smith; R. L. Gorring



The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov; J. Krane



Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

Musante, Susan



Biochemical upgrading of oils  


A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)



Biochemical upgrading of oils  


A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.




EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils....


SRS control system upgrade requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

Hill, L.F.



Evaluation of Estuarine Site Development Lagoons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large number of estuarine site development lagoon systems have been constructed along the New Jersey shore with little, if any, knowledge regarding the true nature of the system being created and its impact on the existing natural estuarine system. A co...

G. F. Walton G. H. Nieswand S. J. Toth C. W. Stillman J. R. Westman



Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent publications of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and high levels of potential surficial oxygen transfer indicated that large amounts of nitrogen may be removed via denitrification in anaerobic lagoons. If this denitrification is occurring via classical denitrification, the denitrification...


Incineration system for sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incineration system consists of a sludge dryer, a cyclone separator unit, an incomplete combustion incinerator, a complete combustion incinerator with a heat exchanger, a heat exchanger and so forth and comprises gas circulation passage involving the units above in order to burn sewage sludge economically without any additional fuel except for starting up thereof, with stable heat balancing in




Seasonal Berm Behavior on a Coastal Lagoon Pocket Beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoon beaches are typically characterized by a seasonal berm that separates the lagoon mouth from the open ocean during summer months and is temporarily breached and eroded offshore as a result of higher wave energy during winter months. Seasonal morphodynamic changes on a coastal lagoon pocket beach in Santa Cruz, California were monitored from August 2010 to April 2011. Monthly total station GPS surveys were conducted on Younger Lagoon Reserve beach in conjunction with monthly grain size analyses. A time series comparison of beach profiles extracted from shore-normal transects reveals that the berm fronting the lagoon mouth did not erode with increasing wave energy during the winter months as expected, but either stayed fixed while the foreshore steepened or migrated horizontally across shore. Berm height is likely maintained by wave overtopping of the berm crest at the lagoon mouth during high tides or storm events. Foreshore steepening occurs in conjunction with an increase in coarse sediment fraction and is consistent with increasing wave energy and turbulent swash interaction. Cross-shore sediment transport in the foreshore fronting the lagoon mouth is likely enhanced by infiltration and exfiltration of water on the shoreface due to the position of the water table with respect to the maximum swash runup. Coastal lagoon beach berm behavior and the subsequent extent of lagoon-ocean mixing has important implications for coastal water quality and lagoon ecosystem dynamics.

Harden, L.



A comprehensive upgrade of LLNL's (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's) wastewater control program  

SciTech Connect

The sewage from LLNL and from Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (Sandia) is combined in the LLNL sewer system and discharged through a common sewer outfall into the city of Livermore's community sewer system. The sewage flows to the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP) where it is mixed with city wastewater. LLNL sewage is about 10% of the total. The mixed waters are treated and the effluent is either released through a pipeline to San Francisco Bay or used as irrigation water for the municipal golf course adjacent to the LWRP. A comprehensive approach to control of sewer discharges is essential for facilities of the size and diversity found at LLNL and Sandia. The upgrades currently under way at LLNL in sewer monitoring, diversion, and source location will enhance the controls already in place and provide greater assurance to the Laboratory and the Livermore community that we will know about any unacceptable sewer discharges and will be able to keep the material onsite for appropriate handling. The key component of the upgrade, the sewer-monitoring system, is a unique state-of-the-art system that may well prove to be a precedent that will be useful for other plants around the country. The Laboratory will continue to upgrade its sewer-monitoring capabilities with both commercial systems and LLNL-developed systems to meet its special requirements. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Grandfield, C.H.; Rueppel, D.W.; Sims, J.M.



The LHCb Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The operation and the results obtained from the data collected 2011 and 2012 demonstrate that the detector is robust and functioning very well. However, the limit of (1)fb-1 of data per year cannot be overcome without improving the detector. We therefore plan for an upgraded spectrometer by 2018 with a 40MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system that will increase the data rate as well as the efficiency specially in the hadronic channels. Here we present the LHCb detector upgrade plans.

Eisenhardt, Stephan; Lhcb Collaboration




SciTech Connect





The VIMOS upgrade programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high multiplex advantage of VIMOS, the VLT visible imager and multi-object/integral-field spectrometer, makes it a powerful instrument for large-scale spectroscopic surveys of faint sources. Following community input and recommendations by ESO's Science and Technology Committee, in 2009 it was decided to upgrade the instrument. This included installing an active flexure compensation system and replacing the detectors with CCDs that have a far better red sensitivity and less fringing. Significant changes have also been made to the hardware, maintenance and operational procedures of the instrument with the aim of improving availability and productivity. Improvements have also been made to the data reduction pipeline. The upgrade will end in 2012 and the results of the program will be presented here.

Hammersley, Peter; Dekker, Hans; Selman, Fernando; Bristow, Paul; Bourget, Pierre; Brast, Roland; Castillo, Roberto; Downing, Mark; Garcia-Dabo, Cesar E.; Haddad, Nicholas; Hilker, Michael; Izzo, Carlo; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Lucuix, Christian; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Mieske, Steffen; Popovic, Dan; Reinero, Claudio; Rejkuba, Marina; Rojas, Chester; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Smette, Alain; Urrutia Del Rio, Josefina; Valenzuela, Javier; Wolff, Burkhard




SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operates with either ions or polarized protons. After increasing the heavy ion luminosity by two orders of magnitude since its commissioning in 2000, the current luminosity upgrade program aims for an increase by another factor of 4 by means of 3D stochastic cooling and a new 56 MHz SRF system. An Electron Beam Ion Source is being commissioned that will allow the use of uranium beams. Electron cooling is considered for collider operation below the current injection energy. For the polarized proton operation both luminosity and polarization are important. In addition to ongoing improvements in the AGS injector, the construction of a new high-intensity polarized source has started. In RHIC a number of upgrades are under way to increase the intensity and polarization transmission to 250 GeV beam energy. Electron lenses will be installed to partially compensate the head-on beam-beam effect.

Fischer, W.



Genetic diversity of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human noroviruses cause gastroenteritis in humans, leading to high virus loads in sewage. Norovirus concentrations in raw and treated sewage samples from two sewage treatment plants (STP) were studied, along with virus removal and genetic diversity. Over one year, the average norovirus concentrations in raw sewage were approximately 105 pcr detectable units (pdu) per liter compared with 103 pdu\\/l of treated sewage.

Harold van den Berg; Willemijn Lodder; Wim van der Poel; Harry Vennema; Ana Maria de Roda Husman



The D0 upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P{sub T} physics using precision measurements of e`s, {mu}`s, jets, and missing E{sub T}. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5{mu}s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P{sub T} physics menu, but also the low P{sub T} physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

Tuts, P.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; The D0 Collaboration



The D0 upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P[sub T] physics using precision measurements of e's, [mu]'s, jets, and missing E[sub T]. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10[sup 31] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1], and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5[mu]s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10[sup 32] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1] and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P[sub T] physics menu, but also the low P[sub T] physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

Tuts, P.M. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.)



Spatial and seasonal variation of water quality in an impacted coastal lagoon (Obidos Lagoon, Portugal).  


The spatial distribution of silicate, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen in Obidos lagoon was obtained by surveying five sites in eight campaigns, between October 2004 and October 2006. A confined inner branch of the lagoon showed higher availability of ammonium (1.2-81 micromol l(-1)), phosphate (1.9-17 micromol l(-1)), silicate (0.85-86 micromol l(-1)) and chlorophyll a (0.30-18 microg l(-1)) than other sites (0.47-25 micromol l(-1), 0.10-3.9 micromol l(-1), 0.47-25 micromol l(-1), 0.25-11 microg l(-1), respectively). According to several trophic classification tools, that branch is considered eutrophic to polytrophic, emphasising its deteriorated conditions, while the rest of the lagoon is of better quality. In autumn/winter nutrients were inversely correlated to salinity (r > 0.93) reflecting the freshwater inputs enriched in nitrogen and phosphorous compounds to the inner branch. In warmer periods, dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped during the night, and sediments of the branch become an important source of ammonium and phosphate. The low DIN:P ratio (median = 10) obtained in the branch, which suggests an excess of phosphate, that increased in warmer periods and changed the limiting nutrient in the entire lagoon. These results emphasize the spatial heterogeneity of water quality in Obidos lagoon, its seasonal variability, and the importance of recognising these distributions before defining homogenous water body on the scope of Water Framework Directive. PMID:18512123

Pereira, Patrícia; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Franco, Vanda; Nogueira, Marta



St. Lucie Estuary and Indian River Lagoon conceptual ecological model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The St. Lucie Estuary is one of the largest brackish water bodies on the east coast of Florida, USA and a major tributary\\u000a to southern Indian River Lagoon. The Indian River Lagoon is a biogeographic transition zone, rich in habitats and species,\\u000a with the greatest species diversity of any estuary in North America. Habitats and species diversity in the lagoon

Patti Sime



Benthic Fluxes of Radium in Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine three radium isotopes (224Ra, 223Ra and 226Ra) as a sediment-water interface tracer in upper Indian River Lagoon. Benthic fluxes are estimated using lagoon budgets, benthic chambers and pore water profiles. The lagoon budget approach estimates range from ~20 dpm\\/m2-d for 224Ra to ~7 dpm\\/ m2-d for 223Ra to zero for 226Ra. Benthic Chamber flux estimates determined over an

J. M. Smoak; P. W. Swarzenski; J. E. Cable; J. B. Martin



Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the Lagoon of Venice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic\\u000a Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control\\u000a of the hydraulic dynamics of the laggon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon

A. Sfriso; B. Pavoni; A. Marcomini; A. A. Orio



Sewage sludge treatment with lime.  


The article describes the application of lime as a method for treatment and hygienisation of sewage sludges with lime products such as quicklime, slake lime and dolomitic lime. As a result of the increase in temperature and pH-value during sludge and lime mixing most pathogenic vectors of disease (i.e. bacteria, worms, viruses and parasites) are reduced in concentration and viability to manufacture a safe product for further application on agricultural land. PMID:10842835

Herbst, B



Event preservation in lagoonal reef systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleontological data suggest that coral populations in the Caribbean were consistently healthy for the past 2 3 k.y. Beginning in the 1980s, however, disease outbreaks, bleaching episodes, hurricanes, and other perturbations caused catastrophic coral mortality and regional turnover. An alternative hypothesis, based on historical sources, posits that coral populations were already declining more than a century ago. These hypotheses can be distinguished only if turnover events are reliably preserved in the Holocene record of coral reefs. Push-cores extracted from uncemented lagoonal reefs in Belize showed that a direct hit by Hurricane Iris in 2001 did not disrupt the signature of the recent turnover event, which entered the subfossil record essentially intact. Cores from lagoonal systems in several areas of the Caribbean do not support the hypothesis that corals declined before the 1980s.

Aronson, Richard B.; MacIntyre, Ian G.; Precht, William F.



Upgrading of TREAT experimental capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The TREAT facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is being upgraded to provide capabilities for fast-reactor-safety transient experiments not possible at any other experimental facility. Principal TREAT Upgrade (TU) goal is provision for 37-pin size experiments on energetics of core-disruptive accidents (CDA) in fast breeder reactor cores with moderate sodium void coefficients. this goal requires a significant enhancement of the capabilities of the TREAT facility, specifically including reactor control, hardened neutron spectrum incident on the test sample, and enlarged building. The upgraded facility will retain the capability for small-size experiments of the types currently being performed in TREAT. Reactor building and crane upgrading have been completed. TU schedules call for the components of the upgraded reactor system to be finished in 1984, including upgraded TREAT fuel and control system, and expanded coverage by the hodoscope fuel-motion diagnostics system.

Dickerman, C.E.; Rose, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.



Heavy metal inputs evolution to an urban hypertrophic coastal lagoon, Rodrigo De Freitas Lagoon, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the temporal variation of metal concentrations in a hypertrophic coastal lagoon located in the metropolitan\\u000a area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The lagoon watershed includes one of the mostly densely urbanized areas of the city but without\\u000a industrial activities. Six sediment cores were collected in the lagoon between May and July 2003 and analyzed for the concentration

Daniel Dias Loureiro; Marcos A. Fernandez; Friedrich W. Herms; Luiz D. Lacerda



Diagnostic upgrades on MTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MTX experiment diagnostic capabilities have been recently upgraded with the addition of five new diagnostics. A second beamline was added on the existing Michelson ECE waveguide to accommodate the new polychromator. This provides four orders of magnitude higher time resolution (1-2 microsec) than the Michelson with an improved spectral resolution (5 GHz) using up to nine separate channels. A new four-channel ECE microwave receiver system using both an inside and outside hom placed on the inner tokamak wall allows us to measure the hot electron emission generated from gyrotron and FEL heating. A 15-channel interferometer on MTX has recently been upgraded with the addition of polarimetry to provide measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. This upgrade uses a new technique that determines the Faraday rotation by measuring the phase of a rapidly rotating polarization ellipse. The novel high-speed rotating optics (greater than 60 K rpm) used to produce this state of polarization is reviewed. A new two-channel O-mode reflectometer spanning 75-105 GHz is being added to measure the movements of the cutoff layer. By varying the frequency of this diagnostic, we are able to measure fluctuations deep within the plasma. Finally, a new particle probe diagnostic currently under construction will measure the FEL electric field strength inside the tokamak plasma. Here, we will inject a helium neutral beam into the center of the plasma and excite it with a high power excimer laser, thus, producing a Stark effect emission that is dependent on the FEL electric field strength.

Nilson, D.; Casper, T.; Foote, J.; Lasnier, C.; Lopez, P.; Rice, B.; Stever, R.; Hoshino, K.; Odajima, K.; Oda, T.



Organotin speciation in Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia).  


For the first time, organotins have been assessed in samples collected from Bizerte lagoon, in Tunisia, during two seasons (summer and winter). The organotin distribution was studied in marine sediments and mussels tissues of this lagoon. Butyl-, phenyl- and octyltins were determined using a rapid speciation analytical method based on one-step ethylation/extraction with sodium tetraethylborate in aqueous phase. Simultaneously to the ethylation, the extraction was performed by either liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) or head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) was used to perform quantitative determination. The technique has been validated using biological and sediment reference materials. The different samples from Bizerte lagoon were found to be moderately contaminated, especially by butyltins. This pollution was attributed to industrial activities, which are very important in this area. Organotins appeared accumulated in both sediments and mussels, while significant degradations of triorganotins to monosubstituted ones was observed in water. PMID:16198682

Mzoughi, N; Lespes, G; Bravo, M; Dachraoui, M; Potin-Gautier, M



Upgrading Enterprise Search  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will describe the process we went through this past year to upgrade our enterprise search tool from a very old version of Inktomi to the latest version of Verity Ultraseek. We started with requirements gathering and then compared requirements against several available products to determine which product to choose. After purchasing the product, we worked through several defined phases of implementation and customization, with initial rollout late January 2004. Finally, we will show you where we are today and describe future search plans.

McDunn, R



LHC detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

Dan Green



Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes



The upgraded DØ detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; de, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de La Taille, C.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; Demaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.



The Bevalac Upgrade Project  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact.

Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.; Frias, R.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.R.; Hunt, D.B.; Krebs, G.F.; Krupnick, J.T.; Lewis, S.A.



Research ships upgraded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two research vessels, operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., are undergoing scientific upgrading and engineering modifications costing $15 million each. The improvements will prepare them to take lead roles in major future ocean research efforts.Research vessel Knorr (operated by WHOI) entered the McDermott Shipyard in Amelia, LA., on February 15. It will receive new engines and a propulsion system, and its length will be increased from 245 to 279 feet. The R/V Melville (operated by SIO) is scheduled for the same 10-month remodeling to begin in mid-November.


The upgraded arecibo observatory.  


Arecibo Observatory's giant spherical reflector antenna has undergone a massive upgrading over the past 3 years. The surface of the reflector has been replaced with aluminum panels to obtain an accuracy of 3.2 mm r.m.s. over the reflector surface. The superstructure has been stabilized and modified to permit operation at S-band frequencies. A high-power S-band radar transmitter has been added to the existing UHF system. These additions and improvements provide the observatory with new and promising research capabilities in the fields of radio and radar astronomy. PMID:17782009

Lalonde, L M



SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert



Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in freshwater lagoons and among marine migrant species.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María



TMX upgrade experimental operating plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the operating plan for the TMX Upgrade experiment. This plan covers the period from November 1981 to March 1983 and describes how the TMX will be brought into operation, our schedules and milestones, and how we will determine if the TMX Upgrade program milestones have been met.

Coensgen, F.H.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.




EPA Science Inventory

A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...


Linking NPZD and foodweb models of an estuarine lagoon ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among aquatic ecosystems, estuarine lagoons are generally more complex than inland waters because of the combined effect of the land and the sea. These systems are under the influence of land through the rivers and have a restricted and temporally variable water exchange with the seas or the oceans. Estuarine lagoons are generally productive ecosystems which offer habitats for many

Ali Ertürk; A. Razinkovas; P. Zemlys; R. Pilkaityte; Z. Gasiunaite



Hydrology And Water Chemistry In A Lagoon At Waiopae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to detect anthropogenic Nitrate. Our site was a basaltic lagoon at Waiopae, on the island of Hawaii. The highest concentrations of Nitrate detected was at the surface layer during low tide. Nitrate concentrations negatively correlated with Chloride\\/Salinity and Bromide within the lagoon. The data suggest that freshwater and Nitrate moved from upland to the ocean. Water samples

Ryan Okano; Kaeo Duarte



EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...



EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...


Inventory of Estuarine Site Development Lagoon Systems: New Jersey Shore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An inventory of estuarine site development lagoon systems along the New Jersey shore was developed for that portion of the shoreline extending from Sandy Hook to Cape May Point. Lagoon systems were identified by a visual inspection of air photo index shee...

G. H. Nieswand C. W. Stillman A. J. Esser




EPA Science Inventory

This report covers nutrient control in a serially arranged, multicell aerated lagoon system over a three year period. The objective was to develop reliable technology for reducing phosphorus and for converting ammonia-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen. A six-cell lagoon was modified i...



EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of a two year study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 143 MG facultative lagoon for treating combined sewer overflow and polishing secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent. The lagoon performance was evaluated for changes in the deg...


Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg



Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public

Herman Bouwer; Emanuel Idelovitch




PubMed Central

Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal.

Weston, Robert Spurr



Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr



Revisiting Methanotrophic Communities in Sewage Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

The methanotrophic potential in sewage treatment sludge was investigated. We detected a diverse aerobic methanotrophic community that potentially plays a significant role in mitigating methane emission in this environment. The results suggest that community structure was determined by conditions specific to the processes in a sewage treatment plant.

Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter



Seismic upgrades of healthcare facilities.  


Before 1989 seismic upgrading of hospital structures was not a primary consideration among hospital owners. However, after extensive earthquake damage to hospital buildings at Loma Prieta in Northern California in 1989 and then at Northridge in Southern California in 1994, hospital owners, legislators, and design teams become concerned about the need for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. Because the damage hospital structures sustained in the earthquakes was so severe and far-reaching, California has enacted laws that mandate seismic upgrading for existing facilities. Now hospital owners will have to upgrade buildings that do not conform to statewide seismic adequacy laws. By 2030, California expects all of its hospital structures to be sufficiently seismic-resistant. Slowly, regions in the Midwest and on the East Coast are following their example. This article outlines reasons and ways for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. PMID:10168656

Yusuf, A



Mortality among Paris sewage workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the mortality of Paris sewage workers. Methods A cohort of all Paris sewage workers since 1970 was established and followed up in mortality until 1999. The causes of death were determined by matching with a national database. The mortality rates were compared to the rates of a local reference population. Results A large excess in mortality (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)?=?1.25; 530 cases, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.36) and in particular mortality from cancer (SMR?=?1.37, 235 cases) was detected which was particularly important in the subgroup of subjects who had left employment because they resigned or were laid off (SMR?=?1.77; 50 cases). The excess mortality is to a large extent due to alcohol related diseases (SMR?=?1.65, 122 cases) especially malignant (SMR?=?1.85, 16 cases) and non?malignant (SMR?=? 1.68, 38 cases) liver diseases, lung cancer (SMR?=?1.47, 68 cases), and infectious diseases (SMR?=? 1.86, 25 cases). The SMRs for some diseases (all cancers, cancers of the oesophagus and lung, all alcohol related diseases) seem to increase with duration of employment as a sewage worker. Other than lung cancer, smoking related diseases were not in excess. Conclusion The increased mortality by both malignant and non?malignant liver diseases is probably due to excessive alcohol consumption, but could be partially the result of occupational exposure to chemical and infectious agents and interactions of these factors. The excess lung cancer is unlikely to be due to an increased smoking prevalence.

Wild, P; Ambroise, D; Benbrik, E; Tiberguent, A; Massin, N



Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available



Persistence of enteroviruses in sewage sludge*  

PubMed Central

Sewage from residential areas often contains viruses pathogenic for man and significant amounts are probably associated with solids in sewage sludge. Information on the survival of viruses in sewage sludge is necessary in order to develop guidelines for recycling programmes that involve spreading the sludge on land. In the present study, a number of enteroviruses were added to sewage sludge and the artificially contaminated sludges were tested for viruses at intervals over a 12-week period. Most of the viruses survived for many weeks at room temperature. It is clear that sewage sludge destined for land application should be adequately treated for virus inactivation. In interpreting these results, it should be borne in mind that the survival of hepatitis A virus might be similar. Recent reports about the reappearance of poliomyelitis in regions with immunization programmes should also be taken into consideration.

Subrahmanyan, T. P.



Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  


A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)



Upgrade isobutane to isobutylene  

SciTech Connect

Light hydrocarbon gases such as propane and butanes can be thermally cracked into olefins in the presence of steam. This paper reports that when isobutane is cracked as such, significant yields of isobutylene and propylene are formed. KTI's Butacracking process makes use of the capacity to upgrade isobutanes into isobutylene. This component in turn can be converted into various valuable derivatives, including gasoline blending components, such as MTBE, ETBE and alkylates. KTI claims the process is the only process capable of providing MTBE as well as propylene in significant quantities to cover each other in times of temporary weakness of either one. Such a process may be used to produce lower-emission, clean fuels.

Monfils, J.L.; Barendregt, S.; Kapur, A.; Woerde, H.M. (Kinetics Technology International B.V., Zoetermeer (NL))



The FNAL injector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The present FNAL H{sup -} injector has been operational since the 1970s and consists of two magnetron H{sup -} sources and two 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerators. In the upgrade, both slit-type magnetron sources will be replaced with circular aperture sources, and the Cockcroft-Waltons with a 200 MHz RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole). Operational experience at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable, improve beam quality and require less manpower than the present system. The present FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) injector has been operational since 1978 and has been a reliable source of H{sup -} beams for the Fermilab program. At present there are two Cockcroft-Walton injectors, each with a magnetron H{sup -} source with a slit aperture. With these two sources in operation, the injector has a reliability of better than 97%. However, issues with maintenance, equipment obsolescence, increased beam quality demands and retirement of critical personnel, have made it more difficult for the continued reliable running of the H{sup -} injector. The recent past has also seen an increase in both downtime and source output issues. With these problems coming to the forefront, a new 750 keV injector is being built to replace the present system. The new system will be similar to the one at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) that has a similar magnetron source with a round aperture and a 200MHz RFQ. This combination has been shown to operate extremely reliably.

Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A.; /Fermilab



Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in water and sediment of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida--1977-78.  


Water and sediment samples collected during 1977-78 from the Indian River lagoon between Vero Beach, Indian River County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppb sigma DDT and 0.5 ppb PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppb to 0.63 ppm Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppb to 0.081 ppm sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations then did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the Indian River Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce. PMID:6770334

Wang, T C; Johnson, R S; Bricker, J L



Lagoonal sedimentation at Aitutaki and Manuae in the Cook Islands: A reconnaissance survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of aerial photographs, bathymetric charts and sedimentation patterns show that the lagoons of Aitutaki and Manuae, in the Southern Cook Group, are much shallower than average Pacific atoll lagoons and that movement of present-day sediment into the lagoons is burying coral knolls which probably formed during the post-glacial rise in sea level; both lagoons are steadily silting up.

C. P. Summerhayes



Recovery of the Macrozoobenthic Community after Severe Dystrophic Crises in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Orbetello, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbetello lagoon, one of the largest Western Mediterranean lagoons, was affected by high algal blooms and severe anoxic crises in 1992 and 1993, with fish mortality throughout most of the lagoon and a drastic reduction of benthic species. Many measures were undertaken between 1994 and 1996 to remove the severe eutrophication of this lagoon. Such measures included harvesting of

C Lardicci; S Como; S Corti; F Rossi



Smithsoniarhynches, a new genus of interstitial Gnathorhynchidae (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia) from Mosquito Lagoon and Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus of marine, interstitial schizorhynch (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia) is described from sediment collected in Mosquito Lagoon and Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Smithsoniarhynches is char- acterized by the presence of proboscis hooks constructed of ten individual spine-like teeth that emerge separately from a basal plate. Histology and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to reveal addi- tional details of

Rick Hochberg



Factors Affecting the Abundance of Phytoplankton in a Restricted Subtropical Lagoon, the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton dynamics in the Indian River Lagoon was examined from the point of view of several key controlling factors, including: nutrient limitation, light availability, temperature, wind, hydrodynamic restriction and grazing. Water was collected at eight sampling sites in the lagoon on a monthly basis for a two and a half year period. Samples were analysed for nutrient content and phytoplankton

E. J. Phlips; S. Badylak; T. Grosskopf



To upgrade or not to upgrade: impact of online upgrades across multiple administrative domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online software upgrades are often plagued by runtime behaviors that are poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. For example, the interactions among multiple versions of the software expose the system to race conditions that can introduce latent errors or data corruption. Moreover, industry trends suggest that online upgrades are currently needed in large-scale enterprise systems, which often span multiple administrative

Tudor Dumitras; Priya Narasimhan; Eli Tilevich



Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 ?g Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 ?g C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.



Fisheries in coastal lagoons: An assumed but poorly researched aspect of the ecology and functioning of coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are considered to be among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Many of them support important fisheries, and some of them maintain intensive and extensive aquacultural exploitations. Their particular features, such as shallowness, relative isolation and protection from the sea, and the presence of boundaries with strong physical and ecological gradients help explain this high productivity. Despite the fact that coastal lagoons are among the most studied ecosystems in the world, our knowledge on fisheries in coastal lagoons or why some lagoons capable of maintaining profitable fisheries seem inadequate for intensive aquaculture remains limited. Scarce, too, is our knowledge of the characteristics of target species, their exploitation status, and the ecological processes that are affected by fisheries or that influence them, including the impact of human activities or climatic change. Here, we review present day knowledge on lagoon fisheries and analyse gaps in the science, stressing the need for adequate management of these important resources.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción



Intestinal parasite carriage in workers exposed to sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in sewage and the very low minimal infective doses of parasites suggest an occupational risk for workers exposed to sewage. The objective of this study was to assess this risk in a group of raw sewage–exposed workers. The relationship between sewage exposure and intestinal parasite carriage was estimated by a multiple cross-sectional

Olivier Schlosser; Dany Grall; Marie-Noëlle Laurenceau



Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage and its fractions was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed a high potential of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage

T. A. Elmitwalli; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga



Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti


Nutrient composition of Kansas swine lagoons and hoop barn manure.  


A total of 312 samples in two experiments were analyzed to determine mean nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons and hoop barns in Kansas. First, in a retrospective study (Exp. 1), we obtained 41 sample analyses from the Kansas Department of Agriculture of sow, nursery, wean-to-finish, finish, and farrow-to-finish operations in 1999. The average total N concentration was 899 ppm (SD = 584 ppm), while the total P concentration was 163 ppm (SD = 241 ppm). In an attempt to reduce the variation, we conducted a prospective experiment standardizing collection procedure, laboratory techniques, phase of production, and season of year to more accurately determine the nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons in Kansas. In Exp. 2, we used 236 lagoon and 35 hoop barn manure samples taken in 2000 from Kansas swine operations to determine the impacts of production phase and season of the year on nutrient concentration. The different operations with swine lagoons were: 1) sow; 2) nursery; 3) wean-to-finish; 4) finish; and 5) farrow-to-finish, with a total of 9, 8, 7, 10, and 8 lagoons sampled from each phase of production, respectively. The total N and P concentrations from lagoons were 1,402 and 204 ppm, respectively, averaged over all samples. Concentrations of total N were higher in wean-to-finish and finishing lagoons (P < 0.05) compared with sow and farrow-to-finish lagoons. Lagoon analyses also revealed that N concentrations decreased (linear, P < 0.05) during the summer and fall compared with winter and early spring. The concentration of P was greater (P < 0.05) for wean-to-finish compared with farrow-to-finish lagoons. Phosphorus concentrations for all lagoons increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) from February until June, but then declined steady throughout the remainder of the year. Average total N and P in hoop barns were 8,678 and 4,364 ppm, respectively. No seasonal changes in N and P concentrations were observed in manure from hoop barns. Season and type of production phase affect the nutrient content of Kansas swine lagoons, and producers will benefit from obtaining individual analyses from their lagoons when developing nutrient management plans rather than utilizing published reference values. PMID:12211372

DeRoucheys, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Murphy, J P



The RHIC polarized source upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.



Monitoring organic contaminants in small French coastal lagoons: comparison of levels in mussel, passive sampler and sediment.  


In this study, the distribution of organic contaminants was investigated in the particular context of three Mediterranean coastal lagoons, where pollution input was hypothesised to come mainly from sediments resuspension. Mussels and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were exposed to the water column for one month and then their content in estrogen-, benzo[a]pyrene- and dioxin-like substances as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls and alkylphenols was determined with biological and chemical analyses. PAH concentration was high in sediments (up to 1028 ng g(-1) dry weight), however the aqueous PAH concentrations estimated from SPMD data could be considered below the levels inducing adverse effects according to the environmental quality standards proposed by the Water Framework Directive. Dioxin-like activity was observed in sediments but not in mussels and SPMDs. In the two sewage-impacted lagoons, nonylphenols could be quantified in sediments, SPMDs and mussels. Nonylphenol concentrations in mussels were among the highest found in the literature. However, since nonylphenols contributed only to a small part of the estrogenic activities observed, natural or synthetic steroids originating from wastewater discharges could be also implicated in these responses in sediments. PMID:20523919

David, Arthur; Gomez, Elena; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Bachelot, Morgane; Rosain, David; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène



Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.  


The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25MJkg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid. PMID:24059978

Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu



Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi


Survival of enteroviruses and coliform bacteria in a sludge lagoon.  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses associate with aerobically and anaerobically digested sludge were determined before the addition of the sludge to a sludge lagoon. The fate of sludge-associated viruses was followed during detention of sludge in the lagoon and after application of sludge to land for disposal. While digested sludge was being added to the lagoon, enteroviruses were readily detected in grab samples of sludge from the lagoon. Sludge-associated viruses dropped to low or undetectable levels after disposal of sludge on land and during periods when addition of digested sludge to the lagoon was suspended. Changes in the levels of fecal coliforms in the lagooned sludge paralleled changes in the numbers of enteroviruses. Enteroviruses were not detected in water from deep wells located on the sludge disposal site or near the lagoon. During the initial part of the study, poliovirus serotypes accounted for greater than 90% of the viruses identified. Later, poliovirus serotypes comprised less than 40% of the virus isolates, and echoviruses and Coxsackieviruses were the most common enteroviruses identified.

Farrah, S R; Bitton, G; Hoffmann, E M; Lanni, O; Pancorbo, O C; Lutrick, M C; Bertrand, J E



Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. (Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universitaria (Mexico)); Sharma, V.K. (Texas A M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States))



Temperature variability in a shallow, tidally isolated coral reef lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature data collected in the shallow, tidally isolated reef flat/lagoon of Lady Elliot Island off Queensland, Australia, show marked variability under solar and tidal forcing. Sea level drops below the height of the protective lagoon rim for a few hours during low tide, effectively isolating the remaining water. Because the lagoon is shallow, its temperature change (from diurnal solar forcing and cooling) is amplified. We develop a simple analytical model to predict the time evolution of mean lagoon temperature, beginning with a well-mixed control volume. This approach highlights the asymmetric flood/ebb physics of tidally isolated lagoons. After discussing the response of this model, we compare it with results from two idealized numerical simulations that illustrate differing aspects of lagoon temperature variability under "potential flow" and "prevailing current" situations. The conceptual model captures the essence of lagoon temperature variability and underscores the importance of solar-lunar phasing. However, because of the well-mixed assumption, it cannot reproduce sudden temperature transitions associated with new incoming water masses. Observations show that a slowly progressing thermal wave inundates the lagoon on rising tides. This wave is similar to our "potential flow" simulation in that it is approximately radially symmetric. On the other hand, it appears to advectively replace resident lagoon water, similar to our "prevailing current" simulations. We attempt to account for this behavior with a simple "frontal" modification to our conceptual model. Results show that this frontal model is able to capture the sudden temperature transitions present in the data and offers improved predictive capabilities over the well-mixed model.

McCabe, R. M.; Estrade, P.; Middleton, J. H.; Melville, W. K.; Roughan, M.; Lenain, L.



Distribution of Coliphages in Hong Kong Sewage  

PubMed Central

Coliphage content of sewage collected from 11 different localities in Hong Kong was determined. The number of plaque-forming units (PFU) ranged from 0.036 × 103 to 15.9 × 103 per ml. In general, urban sewage tended to be richer than rural sewage both in PFU count as well as plaque morphological variation. Seventy-seven isolates were subjected to a host range study. Fifty per cent of these were able to grow on Escherichia coli K-12 as well as E. coli B. Approximately 32% were found to be male specific, and the remaining 18% were K-12 specific although sex-indifferent.

Dhillon, T. S.; Chan, Y. S.; Sun, S. M.; Chau, W. S.



Naphtha upgrading process  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for upgrading a paraffinic naphtha including major amounts of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ components to produce gasoline boiling range products of improved octane number, which comprises (i) hydrocracking the naphtha over a hydrocracking catalyst comprising zeolite beta and a hydrogenation-dehydrogenation component under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure and in the presence of hydrogen and at a conversion of not more than 25 volume percent to C/sub 5-/ products. This is done to effect a partial, preferential hydrocracking of the paraffins of relatively longer chain length in the naphtha and a concurrent isomerization of n-paraffins, to form a hydrocracking effluent comprising isobutane and higher boiling materials; (ii) fractionating the hydrocracked effluent to form (i) an isobutane stream, (ii) a relatively low boiling stream having a boiling range of approximately C/sub 5/ to 200/sup 0/F. and comprising C/sub 5/ to C/sub 7/ iso-paraffins, and (iii) a relatively higher boiling stream having an initial boiling point of approximately 200/sup 0/F., and (iii) reforming the relatively high boiling point stream to form a gasoline boiling range product of improved octane rating.

Mc Guiness, M.P.; Mitchell, K.M.; Ware, R.A.



Upgrade Training for Employed Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focused on upgrade training for nonsupervisory and nonprofessional employees, people whose work falls under a wide range of classifications such as skilled crafts workers, clerical personnel, sales or customer service workers, service employees,...

M. Kane A. S. Meltzer




SciTech Connect

We present in this paper a method for evaluating explicitly the contribution of nuclear material accountability upgrades to risk reduction at nuclear facilities. The method yields the same types of values for conditional risk reduction that physical protection and material control upgrades yield. Thereby, potential material accountability upgrades can be evaluated for implementation in the same way that protection and control upgrades are evaluated.




Upgrading in an Industrial Setting. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project objectives were: (1) to assess existing industrial upgrading practices in an Atomic Energy Commission contractor organization, (2) to design new alternative upgrading methods, (3) to experiment with new upgrading methods, (4) to plan for utilization of proven upgrading programs, and (5) to document and disseminate activities. A twelve…

Russell, Wendell


NCSU PULSTAR Reactor instrumentation upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University initiated an upgrade program at the NCSU PULSTAR Reactor in 1990. Twenty-year-old instrumentation is currently undergoing replacement with solid-state and current technology equipment. The financial assistance from the United States Department of Energy has been the primary source of support. This interim report provides the status of the first two phases of the upgrade program.

Perez, P.B.; Bilyj, S.J.



Setting priorities for safeguards upgrades  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an analytic approach and a computer program for setting priorities among safeguards upgrades. The approach provides safeguards decision makers with a systematic method for allocating their limited upgrade resources. The priorities are set based on the upgrades cost and their contribution to safeguards effectiveness. Safeguards effectiveness is measured by the probability of defeat for a spectrum of potential insider and outsider adversaries. The computer program, MI$ER, can be used alone or as a companion to ET and SAVI, programs designed to evaluate safeguards effectiveness against insider and outsider threats, respectively. Setting the priority required judgments about the relative importance (threat likelihoods and consequences) of insider and outsider threats. Although these judgments are inherently subjective, MI$ER can analyze the sensitivity of the upgrade priorities to these weights and determine whether or not they are critical to the priority ranking. MI$ER produces tabular and graphical results for comparing benefits and identifying the most cost-effective upgrades for a given expenditure. This framework provides decision makers with an explicit and consistent analysis to support their upgrades decisions and to allocate the safeguards resources in a cost-effective manner.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.



Setting priorities for safeguards upgrades  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an analytic approach and a computer program for setting priorities among safeguards upgrades. The approach provides safeguards decision makers with a systematic method for allocating their limited upgrade resources. The priorities are set based on the upgrades cost and their contribution to safeguards effectiveness. Safeguards effectiveness is measured by the probability of defeat for a spectrum of potential insider and outsider adversaries. The computer program, MI$ER, can be used alone or as a companion to ET and SAVI, programs designed to evaluate safeguards effectiveness against insider and outsider threats, respectively. Setting the priority requires judgments about the relative importance (threat likelihoods and consequences) of insider and outsider threats. Although these judgments are inherently subjective, MI$ER can analyze the sensitivity of the upgrade priorities to these weights and determine whether or not they are critical to the priority ranking. MI$ER produces tabular and graphical results for comparing benefits and identifying the most cost-effective upgrades for a given expenditure. This framework provides decision makers with an explicit and consistent analysis to support their upgrades decisions and to allocate the safeguards resources in a cost-effective manner.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.



Sewage and the fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

This article very briefly describes a phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant installed by the New York Power Authority at a wastewater treatment plant. The facility is the first in the world to use anaerobic digester gas (ADG), a natural byproduct of sewage treatment, as fuel. ADG is partially utilized and partially flared at the plant. The PAFC captures a portion of the otherwise flared ADG and uses it as fuel to produce approximately 200kW of electricity and heat for plant use. The U.S. Department of Energy, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Electric Power Research Institute are helping the power authority finance the project.

Zelingher, S. [New York Power Authority`s Energy Efficiency Unit, NY (United States); Kishinevsky, Y.



Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.  


Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf



User and Performance Impacts from Franklin Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The NERSC flagship computer Cray XT4 system"Franklin" has gone through three major upgrades: quad core upgrade, CLE 2.1 upgrade, and IO upgrade, during the past year. In this paper, we will discuss the various aspects of the user impacts such as user access, user environment, and user issues etc from these upgrades. The performance impacts on the kernel benchmarks and selected application benchmarks will also be presented.

He, Yun (Helen)



Sewage Sludge Pathogen Transport Model Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, ra...

J. F. Dawson K. E. Hain B. McClure R. E. Sheridan J. G. Yeager



Sewage Sludge Incinerator Fuel Reduction, Hartford, Connecticut.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel u...

A. J. Verdouw E. W. Waltz P. F. Gilbert



Reducing the Vulnerability of Sewage Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide describes characteristics of typical modern sewage treatment plants in the United States, reviews their relative vulnerability to nuclear effects and considers protective measures. For this guide, OCD has established the effects of 2, 5, and 10...




EPA Science Inventory

Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...


A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended.

Connop, Peter J.



Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lagoons are important tools for manure management in dairy and livestock operations but are potential sources of transmission of human or animal pathogens and present potential environmental hazards from release of nitrogen and phosphorus. Electroflotation technology utilizes electrolytic gas genera...


Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling of nitrogen is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms which produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). For denitrification,...



EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...



EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...


Quantitative SPLITT fractionation of lagoon sediments.  


In this work, SPLITT Fractionation (split flow thin cell) is used to sort hydrodynamically sedimented particles coming from the Sacca di Goro, a lagoon-like system close to the Po River delta (Italy). First the possibility of performing quantitative mass separations with a SPLITT cell apparatus was checked on a standard silica sample of known particle size distribution (PSD). Environmental sediment samples and relative SPLITT sub-fractions were subject to Inductive Coupled Plasma--Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) characterization for the following elements: Al, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn. The distribution of these metals by particle size fractions has been investigated. The accuracy of the entire separation procedure has been also evaluated. PMID:15506612

Blo, Gabriella; Conato, Chiara; Contado, Catia; Fagioli, Francesco; Dondi, Francesco


Impacts of temperature and nutrients on coastal lagoon plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the independent and interactive effects of nutrient loading and summer water temperature on phytoplankton,\\u000a drift macroalgae, and eelgrass (Zostera marina) in a coastal lagoon mesocosm experiment conducted from May through August 1999. Temperature treatments consisted of controls\\u000a that approximated the 9-yr mean daily temperatures for Ninigret and Point Judith Lagoons in Rhode Island (United States) and\\u000a treatments approximately

Joanne C. Bintz; Scott W. Nixon; Betty A. Buckley; Stephen L. Granger



Relative sea level rise and Venice lagoon wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past century, the Venice lagoon has experienced a high rate of wetland loss and a strong net export of sediments;\\u000a currently the local Authority is running several projects for beneficial use of dredging materials. From March 1993 until\\u000a March 1995 the accretionary response of wetlands in the lagoon to changing water levels was studied. Vertical accretion, short\\u000a term

J. W. Day; D. Are; G. Cecconi




Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies (1980-88) on the Albufera of Valencia show that this shallow oligohaline coastal lagoon is an ecosystem under stress. Domestic and industrial waters loaded with phosphorus and ammonium reach the lagoon from the northern side. Nitrate-rich agricultural waters arrive mainly from the southern side. The estimated nutrient loadings are: Total P - 39 g m-2yr-1, dissolved P = 14

E. Vicente; R. Miracle


Macroalgae and phytoplankton competition in the central Venice lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence?absence of macroalgae and\\/or phytoplankton in some areas of the Venice lagoon and the factors controlling the prevailing of one over the other were tested by monitoring two critical sites over March?December 1990. One, Sacca Sessola [B1], was the lagoon area more densely populated by macroalgae, vice versa the other, namely Fusina [D] displayed only phytoplankton blooms. For this

A. Sfriso; B. Pavoni



Environmental heterogeneity and benthic macroinvertebrate guilds in italian lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoons are ecotones between freshwater, marine and terrestrial biotopes, characterized by internal ecosystem heterogeneity, due to patchy spatial and temporal distribution of biotic and abiotic components, and inter-ecosystem heterogeneity, due to the various terrestrial-freshwater and freshwater -marine interfaces. 2 - Here, we carried out an analysis of environmental heterogeneity and benthic macro-invertebrate guilds in a sample of 26 Italian lagoons

Alberto Basset; Nicola Galuppo; Letizia Sabetta


The macrobenthic fauna at two point sources of pollution in estuarine Lagos lagoon of southwestern Nigeria.  


Benthic, water and sediment samples were collected at Okobaba, a sawmill site, and Iddo, a sewage dumpage site, in an open estuarine lagoon, in southwestern Nigeria during two periods (December 1999-May 2000 and April 2002-September 2002). Air, surface and bottom water temperatures were high (23.9-32.0 degrees C). Dissolved oxygen (DO) was between 3.4-5.3 mg/l, while biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) varied between 18.0 and 30.0 mg/l at Iddo and, 7.5 and 8.6 mg/l at Okobaba. The pH was alkaline throughout the sampling period at the two sites (7.3-8.6) while, rainfall was between 0.00 and 372.1 mm. Sediment ranged from mud, sandy mud, muddy sand to sandy type. Density and diversity of macrobenthic fauna were low and representative of Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. Factors affecting the dynamics and reduction of species in the two communities were discussed. PMID:16334268

Ogunwenmo, Christiana A; Okuonghae, Omoruyi; Olofin, Imole; Chilaka, Gerald



VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects [3] are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes [1] This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects. [2] Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later. [3] Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D



Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of concerns regarding health, safety, and aesthetics, a test that identifies the presence of sewage sludge or its products (biosolids) in commercial materials such as soil conditioners and composts would be useful. This test could also trace the effluent plume from a sewage treatment plant. We have discovered that synthetic fibers serve as such an indicator. Synthetic fibers are

Daniel Habib; David C. Locke; Leonard J. Cannone



Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah


Prevention of Sewage Pollution by Stabilization Ponds Sewage Pollution & Stabilization Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It

J. S. S. Lakshminarayana



Node weighted network upgrade problems  

SciTech Connect

Consider a network where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v can be upgraded at an expense of cost(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v by a fixed factor x, where 0 < x < 1. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a spanning tree in which edge is of delay at most a given value {delta}. The authors provide both hardness and approximation results for the problem. They show that the problem is NP-hard and cannot be approximated within any factor {beta} < ln n, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME(n{sup log log n}), where n is the number of nodes in the network. They then present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem. For the general case, the approximation algorithm comes within a factor of 2 ln n of the minimum upgrading cost. When the cost of upgrading each node is 1, they present an approximation algorithm with a performance guarantee of 4(2 + ln {Delta}), where {Delta} is the maximum node degree. Finally, they present a polynomial time algorithm for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ravi, S.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science



Influence of Groundwater Seepage on Water Quality and Ecological Health of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Southern Portugal (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater seepage from coastal aquifers has recently been recognized as an overlooked major source of nutrients (N, P) and contaminants to the coastal environment (Biddanda et al., 2009; Fear, Paerl and Braddy, 2007; Kluge et al., 2007; Kroeger and Charette, 2008). Nutrient and contaminants concentrations in groundwater are often much higher than those in river water, compensating for the lower flux of groundwater relative to the lagoon surface water. The Ria Formosa is a coastal lagoon located in the south of Portugal (Algarve, Faro) and surrounded by an intensely farmed area. We hypothesize that water quality and ecological health of the Ria Formosa environments are influenced by past and on-going contamination of terrestrial groundwaters with nutrients from fertilizer, sewage and industry. According to Leote, Ibanhez and Rocha (2005) estimated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the lagoon to be 3.6 m3 day-1 per linear meter of coastline with freshwater contributions (per volume) ranging from 10% to 50%. SGD as an important nutrient source to the Ria Formosa, estimating annual loads of 36.2 mol (0.507 kg) of Nitrogen, 1.1 mol (0.034 kg) of Phosphorus and 18.6 mol (0.522 kg) of Silicon per meter of coastline. Based on these results, it was suggested that SGD is a potential contributor to the observed nutrification status of the Ria Formosa lagoon. We are testing the following two hypotheses: (1) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of inorganic nutrients in groundwater will be characterized by higher density of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) distribution, and higher chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site; (2) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of contaminants in groundwater will be characterized by lower AIS dispersal and colonization, and lower chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site. By processing data and performing interdisciplinary study of groundwater seepage, concentration of contaminants and distribution of AIS in the Ria Formosa, we achieved an easily-measured set of indicators (Lauritsen, Mozley and White, 1985) that can be implementing in the future to gauge changes in the Ria Formosa ecosystem.

Kontar, A. Y.; Newton, A.



Major Ion Chemistry in a Freshwater Coastal Lagoon from Southern Brazil (Mangueira Lagoon): Influence of Groundwater Inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper characterizes major ion distributions and investigates whether groundwater exerts a major control on the chemical\\u000a functioning of Mangueira Lagoon, a large (90 km long), shallow (?4–5 m deep), and fresh coastal lagoon in southern Brazil.\\u000a Water volumes equivalent to ?80% of the total annual input are used in the summer for irrigating nearby rice plantations,\\u000a the most important regional economic

Isaac R. Santos; Maria I. Machado; Luis F. Niencheski; William Burnett; Idel B. Milani; Carlos F. F. Andrade; Richard N. Peterson; Jeffrey Chanton; Paulo Baisch



Factors Affecting the Abundance of Phytoplankton in a Restricted Subtropical Lagoon, the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoplankton dynamics in the Indian River Lagoon was examined from the point of view of several key controlling factors, including: nutrient limitation, light availability, temperature, wind, hydrodynamic restriction and grazing. Water was collected at eight sampling sites in the lagoon on a monthly basis for a two and a half year period. Samples were analysed for nutrient content and phytoplankton abundance. Site measurements of salinity and light extinction were made at all sites. Regional data on rainfall, wind and water temperature was obtained for correlation analyses. Bioassays were performed to determine nutrient limiting status and a series of preliminary grazing experiments were carried out on selected samples. The results indicate that the Indian River Lagoon is a nutrient-rich environment where phytoplankton standing crops are often held below their potential by several key loss functions, including hydraulic flushing and grazing. Spatial patterns of phytoplankton abundance generally reflected the degree of restriction to water turnover in different regions of the lagoon, with higher mean abundances in restricted regions. Spatial and temporal patterns of nutrient content and limitation suggest that patterns of external nutrient loading also play a significant role in phytoplankton dynamics. High phosphorus levels in the southern portion of the lagoon contribute to the predominance of nitrogen limitation in the region. In contrast, relatively high N/P ratios in the northern portions of the lagoon contribute to greater potential for phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth. As might be expected from the subtropical location of the lagoon, temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance appear to be less strictly dependent on season than in temperate habitats, and more closely linked to variations in weather conditions, like rainfall (including storm events). The latter considerations bring into play issues like temporal variation in salinity and wind-induced mixing. The high light flux and shallow depth in the lagoon also presents the potential for photoinhibition.

Phlips, E. J.; Badylak, S.; Grosskopf, T.



Identifying the Source of Nutrient Contamination in a Lagoon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations within watercourses are often associated with the input of sewage or the runoff of fertilizers. Due to population increases, there has been a dramatic rise in the amount of fertilizer applied to land, as well as in the further development of sewage treatment plants (STPs), both of which can lead to significant discharges with associated eutrophication risks in

D. Wayland; D. P. Megson; S. M. Mudge; J. D. Icely; A. Newton



Optimised method for the treatment and energetic upgrading of urban and industrial sludge purifying plants  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention concerns an optimized method for the treatment and energetic upgrading of urban and industrial sewage sludge. It consists of a <> combination of known and tested equipment, forming a compact assembly with six functions which are: anaerobic sludge digestion (1) and biogas production, mechanical dehydration (2) up to 22-24% of dry solid, a gas turbine installation (3) burning the biogas into <>, thermal drying (4) of the sludge up to 92% of dry solid consisting of a thin-layer dryer and a vibrated dryer/cooler with fluid bed (4b), condensation of the vapors (5) for heating the digester and the premises, and optimized energetic upgrading (6) of the dried sludge as booster fuel capable of being stored and fed into the household refuse incinerating boiler-furnaces. The method according to the invention is also applicable to the treatment and transformation of liquid manure into granulated and bagged fertilizer.



Metagenomics-based analysis of viral communities in dairy lagoon wastewater.  


Microbial populations, especially those of viruses, are poorly studied in dairy wastewater treatment operations. Here we report signature nucleic acid metagenomic sequences obtained by pyrosequencing viromes of virus-like particles that were extracted from two dairy waste treatment lagoons. The lagoons are operated in series, with Lagoon I being used as the primary stage and Lagoon II as the secondary stage of wastewater treatment. An average of 2000 sequences was obtained from each lagoon. More than 300 signatures from each lagoon matched sequences in the virus database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). We utilized a bioinformatics approach and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the viral diversity and presence of potential viral pathogens within the lagoons. Our results showed differences in viral community compositions between Lagoon I and Lagoon II, suggesting that the viral community changes significantly in the transition of water between the two lagoons. Furthermore, the diverse viral community in the lagoon samples contained signature sequences of a variety of bacterial, plant, and animal viruses. Bacteriophage sequences dominated the viral community metagenomes in both lagoons. Ultimately these results can be used to identify viral bioindicators to rapidly assess wastewater treatment quality and the potential impacts of dairy operations on watersheds. Our viral metagenomic sequences have been submitted to GenBank (GPID 65805) and can provide insight into the composition and structure of viral communities within wastewaters of dairy lagoon systems. PMID:23220059

Alhamlan, F S; Ederer, M M; Brown, C J; Coats, E R; Crawford, R L



Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.  


An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively. PMID:21036608

Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod



Argonne's atlas control system upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research, which focuses primarily on heavy-ion physics. The accelerator as well as its control system are evolutionary in nature, and consequently, continue to advance. In 1998 the most recent project to upgrade the ATLAS control system was completed. This paper briefly reviews the upgrade, and summarizes the configuration and features of the resulting control system.

Munson, F.; Quock, D.; Chapin, B.; Figueroa, J.



Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  


This study evaluated the heavy metal pollution level of tannery effluent-affected lagoon and canal water in the southwestern Dhaka, Bangladesh. The measured physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, pH, SO²??, PO³??, Cl-, and NO??) and metals (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were subjected to principal component (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses, and examining correlation matrix as well in order to explain the behavior and sources of the parameters/metals. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the lagoon and canal water were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the standard limits recommended by the Bangladesh Government. The following elemental associations were obtained from PCA and CA: Ca-Cd-Cr-Fe-K-Mn-Pb-Zn, Co-Cu-Ni, and As, which could be linked to anthropogenic sources (i.e., processes of the tannery and paint industries with some contributions from the municipal waste system). Potassium, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Cd occurred as important anthropogenic markers in the lagoons and lower part of the canal. Copper, Co, and Ni were importantly distributed in the lower part of the canal, which also received metal inputs from the municipal waste and other industrial sources, including paint industry. GIS-based factor score maps, generated to show the spatial controls of the major processes affecting surface water hydrochemistry, suggest that the activities of paint and tannery industries and municipal sewage are pervasive processes in the area, whereas the contribution from pesticides (used for tanning and disinfecting hides) has localized effects. This study has provided the evidence that effluents discharged from the tannery and auxiliary industries and urban sewage system are the main sources of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon and canal water systems in the Hazaribagh area of southwestern Dhaka. The high mean concentrations (in mg/l) of Cr (5.27), Pb (0.81), As (0.59), and Cd (0.13) observed in the water samples may have serious public health and potential environmental hazard implications. PMID:20544274

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Suruvi, Nahid I; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Quraishi, Shamshad B; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Suzuki, Shigeyuki



12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID


Effects of Sewage on the Marine Biota: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains 108 references to articles concerning marine waste disposal, marine sewage pollution, and the effects of sewage on the marine environment. The bibliography was originally intended to be a complete survey of the effects of pollut...

R. R. Corey M. M. Bundy




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Ejector, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA


Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates in a restricted Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were investigated in the restricted Bizerte Lagoon in 2002 and 2004. The\\u000a 2002 study, carried out at one station from January to October, showed significant seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics.\\u000a High growth rates (0.9–1.04 day?1), chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (6.6–6.8 ?g l?1) and carbon biomass (392–398 ?g C l?1) were recorded in summer (July), when several chain-forming diatoms had intensively proliferated and

A. Sakka Hlaili; B. Grami; Hassine Hadj Mabrouk; M. Gosselin; D. Hamel



Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenc...

P. A. Schmalzer



Continuous fill intermittent decant type sequencing batch reactor application to upgrade the UASB treated sewage.  


The performance of continuous flow intermittent decant type sequencing batch (CFID) reactor treating the effluent of an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater and operated at 8 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) was investigated. The CFID was operated at three different HRTs (22, 8 and 6 h) and three different dissolved oxygen (DO) patterns (<0.5, 2.5-3.5 and 3.5-4.5 mg/L). The highest effluent quality was observed at the 8 h HRT and 2.5-3.5 mg/L DO concentration. At this operational condition, the average BOD, TSS, ammonia nitrogen and fecal coliform removal efficiencies were 83, 90, 74 and 99 %, respectively. The CFID is a promising post-treatment option for existing UASB systems, with a final effluent quality that comply with receiving water and effluent reuse criteria. PMID:23117522

Khan, Abid Ali; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Diamantis, Vasileios; Lew, Beni; Mehrotra, Indu; Kazmi, A A



Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this task was to upgrade to the existing severe weather database by adding observations from the 2010 warm season, update the verification dataset with results from the 2010 warm season, use statistical logistic regression analysis on the data...

L. Watson



FITL upgrade: Evolution versus revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current perceptions are that an evolutionary approach is required for fiber-in-the-loop (FITL) deployment, but such suppositions make implicit assumptions about the rate of new service uptake. An alternative scenario is one of discontinuous change, termed network revolution. Both options are considered, together with the conditions which will encourage their realization. Technologies for network upgrade, their relative costs and implementation timescales

S. R. Mallinson; S. Unagami



Preparing the ALICE DAQ upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2009, after 15 years of design and installation, the ALICE experiment started to detect and record the first collisions produced by the LHC. It has been collecting hundreds of millions of events ever since with both proton and heavy ion collisions. The future scientific programme of ALICE has been refined following the first year of data taking. The physics targeted beyond 2018 will be the study of rare signals. Several detectors will be upgraded, modified, or replaced to prepare ALICE for future physics challenges. An upgrade of the triggering and readout systems is also required to accommodate the needs of the upgraded ALICE and to better select the data of the rare physics channels. The ALICE upgrade will have major implications in the detector electronics and controls, data acquisition, event triggering and offline computing and storage systems. Moreover, the experience accumulated during more than two years of operation has also lead to new requirements for the control software. We will review all these new needs and the current R&D activities to address them. Several papers of the same conference present in more details some elements of the ALICE online system.

Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Kiss, T.; Rauch, W.; Rubin, G.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Von Haller, B.



Quantification of Water, Salt and Nutrient Exchange Processes at the Mouth of A mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing

Georgios K. Sylaios; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis; Christos Akratos; Kiriaki Haralambidou



Tidal and nontidal flushing of Florida’s Indian River Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flushing of Florida’s Indian River Lagoon is investigated as a response to tidal and low-frequency lagoon-shelf exchanges\\u000a in the presence of freshwater gains and losses. A one-dimensional computer model uses the continuity equation to convert water-level\\u000a variations into both advective transport within the lagoon and lagoon-shelf exchanges. The model also incorporates transport\\u000a by longitudinal diffusion. Flushing is quantified by

Ned P. Smith



Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

Anderson, Stephen P.


Bioluminescent method in studying the complex effect of sewage components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition of bacterial luminescence has been used in testing industrial enterprises sewage. The toxicity of the sewage is less than the total toxicity of separate components due to neutralization of quinone products of polyphenol oxidation in the reactions with the other phenol components of sewage. Toxicity increase is due to their influence on the cell membrane. Studies of cell

Devard I. Stom; Tatyana A. Geel; Alla E. Balayan; Galina I. Shachova; Aleksandr M. Kuznetsov; Svetlana E. Medvedeva



Sewage Treatment Control System Design Based on Industry Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing attention has been paid to environment protection by government, sewage treatment works is becoming more and more concerned. There are many equipments and complicated process in the project of sewage disposal. The paper discussed the application of PLC and network in the sewage treatment plant. Through the combination of the industrial automatic control technology, computer technology, network

Zhang Hongwei; Wang Xinhuan; Yan Youyun; Zhang Tao



Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo



Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the

Baruch Weber; Yoram Avnimelech; Marcelo Juanico



Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil



Biorefineries for biofuel upgrading: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews the biofuel valorization facilities as well as the future importance of biorefineries. Biomass can be converted into useful biofuels and bio-chemicals via biomass upgrading and biorefinery technologies. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. Biomass upgrading processes include fractionation, liquefaction, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, fermentation, and gasification. Upgraded

M. Fatih Demirbas



Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL



Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.  


This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam. PMID:23644798

Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G



Longitudinal transport in a coastal lagoon*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional, finite difference numerical model is used to describe longitudinal transport through a transverse cross section into and out of the northern segment of Indian River lagoon, along the Atlantic coast of Florida. The model uses four layers to represent the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, and two layers in the shallow waters east and west of the waterway to quantify transport. Simulations during a 161-day period from late June through late November 1983 include a seasonal shift in the longitudinal component of the wind. Transport is in the same sense throughout the cross section 32% of the time. Relatively subtle lateral shear, however, has a profound effect on long-term net transport. For most of the study, cumulative net transport in the shallow areas on either side of the waterway follows the cumulative along-channel windstress, but it is directed upwind in the lower half of the Intracoastal Waterway. Four numerical experiments examine the relative importance of terms in the momentum equation and components of the database. Results suggest that time-varying baroclinic forcing is an important component of the pressure gradient. Simulations which ignore water-level variations at the open end of the model differ substantially from those which incorporate water-level fluctuations.

Smith, Ned P.



Geomorphological evolution and environmental reclamation of Fusaro Lagoon (Campania Province, southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of morphological, geological and environmental characteristics of the Fusaro Lagoon has shown the present degraded condition of the lagoon and the perilagoon area. The lagoon developed during the mid-Holocene within a wide marine bay confined between the coastal volcanic structures of Mt. Cuma to the north and Torregaveta to the south in the western part of the Phlegrean Fields.

Tommaso De Pippo; Carlo Donadio; Doriana Grottola; Micla Pennetta



The distribution of phosphate in sediments and its relation with eutrophication of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem of the Mediterranean coastal lagoons is an excessive input of nutrients (i.e. N and P), causing eutrophic conditions in summer. The sediments of these lagoons can serve as a reservoir by fixing phosphate, or as a source when this phosphate is released under certain conditions. Knowledge of nutrient sources and fluxes is needed if coastal lagoons are

V. Mesnage; B. Picot



A description of Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. BADYLAK ,K. K ELLEY AND E.J. PHLIPS. 2004. A description of Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Phycologia 43: 000-000. The primary focus of this paper is to provide a detailed description of Pyrodinium bahamensefrom the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Recent reports of saxitoxin production by P. bahamense from the Indian River lagoon has heightened

Susan Badylak; Karen Kelley; Edward J. Phlips



Evolution and vitality of seagrasses in a Mediterranean lagoon.  


Despite their registration on the list of the Ramsar convention sites, the Mediterranean lagoons rarely beneficiate of an effective protection, and are particularly sensitive to environmental quality. A control of these wetlands needs the creation of an inventory of knowledge for the concerned environment. In this perspective, the seagrass beds were followed up in the coastal lagoon of Urbino (Corse, France) since 1990. A cartographic study was carried out by remote sensing of aerial photography. Temporal evolution of the seagrass beds (Cymodocea nodosa principally) allows to determine the vitality of these structures. A comparison of the surface areas occupied by Cymodocea nodosa, between 1990 and 1999, did not allow seeing any significant evolution. However, some variations appear like biotopes all more fragile and coveted as the Mediterranean coastal fringe is straight and is the privileged site of appear in the localization of the beds, due to the modification of environmental conditions in the lagoon. PMID:12929800

Ferrat, Lila; Fernandez, C; Pasqualini, V; Pergent, G; Pergent-Martini, C



Spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae in a subtropical coastal lagoon, Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the variation in abundance, distribution and composition of ichthyoplankton in a lagoon in southern Brazil through the year and at different stations within the lagoon. Ibiraquera Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon connected to the sea by a semi-permanent sandbar. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected monthly from December 2003 to December 2004, with a 200 µm mesh net

Luis C. P. Macedo-Soares; Alesandra B. Birolo; Andrea S. Freire



In-situ caustic generation from sewage: The impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.  


Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ?3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ?3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. PMID:23938119

Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo



Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

Petrik, Milivoj



Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of dewatered, anaerobically digested sewage sludge were determined from soil laboratory tests. The sludge material is largely composed of organic clay sized-particles, a sizable fraction of which is in an active state of biological digestion which can continue over many years under field conditions. Moderately digested sludge material was found to have a typical specific gravity of

Brendan C. O’Kelly



Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  


This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.




EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...



EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...


Seasonal occurrence of rotavirus in sewage.  

PubMed Central

A seasonal distribution was observed for rotaviruses in sewage by using indirect immunofluorescence. Levels were low from May through September and generally higher during winter and spring. In contrast, no seasonal pattern was observed for total enteroviruses. Limitations of the indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay for environmental samples are discussed.

Hejkal, T W; Smith, E M; Gerba, C P



Sewage and Water Works Construction, 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report of 'Sewage and Water Works Construction 1968' is published to provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as to how successfully the national needs in municipal water supply and pollution control are being met thr...




EPA Science Inventory

As a result of a demonstration project partly sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, realized a 34% fuel savings for sewage sludge incineration. At the sa...


Sewage sludge incinerator fuel reduction, Hartford, Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel efficient burning procedures and operator training further reduced that amount 51%. The Hartford plant originally used 122

A. J. Verdouw; E. W. Waltz; P. F. Gilbert




EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...


LHCb detector status and upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment is a specialized experiment for B and D physics at the CERN LHC. The layout of the experiment and the various components are described, with an overview of their performance. Global running conditions and performance are also shown. The motivation for the foreseen detector upgrade is presented, together with the proposed new detectors, to be installed during Long Shutdown 2, in 2018.

Callot, O.



RIPS upgrade and physics programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upgrade of RIPS has been proposed in the phase-II program of RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) project. In this upgrade, the former fragment separator RIPS will be equipped with a new beam line that delivers beams of 115A-MeV heavy io ns extracted from the IRC cyclotron by skipping the final acceleration of SRC. This beam energy is high enough to produce radioactive isotope beams (RIBs) via the projectile-fragmentation reaction. Thus, compared with RIBs produced in the present AVF-RRC acceleration scheme, their production yield are drastically increased by this upgrade, especially in the mass region heavier than Kr. Remarkably, RIPS further enhances research opportunities on spin-related subjects such as nuclear structure studies through electromagnetic nuclear moments: it has been revealed that RIBs produced at this energy can be spin-oriented independently of their atomic and chemical properties. Also, the research subjects include not only nuclear moments but also material science by means, e.g., of the ?-NMR, ?-PAD, ?-PAC, laser, and in-beam M"ossbauer methods, because RIBs of this energy allow for a scheme to implant them into sample materials with limited thickness and thus stopped-RI type experiments will be conveniently carried out.

Ueno, Hideki; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Asahi, Koichiro



Material Transport in ASDEX Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today carbon is the most common first wall material in fusion experiments, whereas the first wall of the next step device will consist of a mixture of elements. Especially tungsten has been shown to be an alternative to low-Z materials. However, even with 40% of tungsten coated plasma facing components, carbon is still the dominant impurity at ASDEX Upgrade. A consistent picture of the carbon migration in ASDEX Upgrade has been achieved. Primary carbon sources are the protection limiters at the low field side of the main chamber. Eroded carbon is distributed all over the main chamber. So, the initially tungsten coated central column acts as the main carbon source during discharges, even though a considerable amount of tungsten surfaces persists. Carbon coverage of the central column can significantly change on a shot to shot basis. The divertor target plates act as a strong carbon sink. Deposits are found at the inner and outer divertor, which may be re-eroded forming precursors for layer production at remote areas. In ASDEX Upgrade, deposits on the subdivertor structure are formed by hydro-carbons with a high effective sticking coefficient. A parasitic plasma at these locations may enhance the surface loss probability by surface activation. At more remote areas, such as the pump ducts, a very small deposition is found. Non sticking hydro-carbons are effectively pumped by the cryopump and turbo molecular pumps.

Rohde, V.; Dux, R.; Mayer, M.; Neu, R.; PA~ 1/4 tterich, T.; Schneider, W.; ASDEX Upgrade-Team,


Comparative bioaccumulation of trace metals using six filter feeder organisms in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (of the central-east Gulf of California).  


The Tobari Lagoon, located in the central-east coast of the Gulf of California, receives effluents from the Yaqui Valley, one of the most extensive agricultural areas of México. The Tobari Lagoon also receives effluents from nearby shrimp farms and untreated municipal sewage. Surface sediment samples and six different species of filter feeders (Crassostrea corteziensis, Crassostrea gigas, Chione gnidia, Anadara tuberculosa, Chione fluctifraga, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians) were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons and analyzed to determine concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Seasonal variations in metal concentrations in sediment were evident, especially for Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn. The total and bioavailable concentrations of the five metals are not elevated in comparison to other areas around the world. The percentages of bioavailable respect to total concentrations of the metals varied from 0.6 % in Hg to 50.2 % for Cu. In the organisms, Hg showed the lowest concentrations (ranged from 0.22 to 0.65 ?g/g) while Zn showed the highest (ranged from 36.6 to 1,702 ?g/g). Linear correlations between the levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soft tissues of C. fluctifraga and C. gnidia, and A. tuberculosa and C. gnidia were found. Seasonal and interspecies variations in the metal levels in filter feeders were found; F. dentivarians, C. corteziensis, and C. gigas exhibited the highest levels, could be used as biomonitors of metals contamination in this area. PMID:22527455

Jara-Marini, M E; Tapia-Alcaraz, J N; Dumer-Gutiérrez, J A; García-Rico, L; García-Hernández, J; Páez-Osuna, F



Anthropogenic disturbance and spatial heterogeneity of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages in coastal lagoons: the study case of Pialassa Baiona (northern Adriatic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution patterns of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages at different spatial scales and in relation to natural and anthropogenic disturbance gradients were investigated in the Pialassa Baiona, a eutrophic and polluted brackish coastal lagoon located along the Italian coast of the northern Adriatic Sea. This coastal lagoon shows a complex physiography with several shallow water ponds and channels separated by discontinuous artificial embankments. Environmental variables and macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages showed higher heterogeneity at small spatial scale (i.e. within channels and ponds). Distinction between channels and ponds is only weakly supported by the distribution patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. Depth was the major factor in structuring benthic communities within ponds, while species distributions along the channels were strongly correlated with the anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Anthropogenic disturbance mainly affected species richness, which was inversely correlated with the organic carbon contents in the sediments and the water surface temperature, which is affected by the input of cooling water from two thermal power plants. Some opportunistic species, like the polychaetes Streblospio shrubsolii and Capitella capitata, were more abundant in the southern polluted areas. In particular, the abundance of S. shrubsolii significantly increased with organic carbon contents in the sediments and water surface temperature, while C. capitata was more abundant in the warmed sites and close to sewages. Conversely, the abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum was inversely related to organic carbon contents.

Ponti, Massimo; Casselli, Chiara; Abbiati, Marco



D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade on Cryogenic Lines at Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

This is an upgrade to the thermal contraction analysis sound in D0 Engineering Note: 3823.115-EN-426. In this new design, a portion of the transfer lines are consolidated into one 6-inch vacuum jacket. Since all four transfer lines follow the same path and are of equal lengths, the stress analysis is performed on only one transfer line using the design system ALGOR{reg_sign}. The GHe Cooldown Supply line is analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight and all the stresses were below the allowable stress limit of 25,050 psi.

Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab



Subtidal Variability in the Virginia Coast Reserve Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virginia Coastal Reserve (VCR) lagoon is a ~ 65 km X 15 km body of water (depth 1-2 m) west of Chesapeake Bay, and bounded by solid land on the west and a barrier island chain to the east. Inlets between the barrier islands allow communication with the Atlantic continental shelf. We examine data from four water level gauges

R. P. Mied; R. Handler; C. Snow; R. Fusina; J. Porter



Analysis of Shoreline Change At Little Lagoon, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Alabama, the term 'coastal shoreline' applies to the gulf shoreline and the shorelines of estuaries, bays, and sounds connected to the Gulf of Mexico and subject to its tides. However, Alabama shoreline studies have yet to include Little Lagoon, which ...

G. R. Gibson



The ecology of Mugu Lagoon, California: An estuarine profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mugu Lagoon is significant as one of the least disturbed and best protected estuaries in southern California; thus this small estuarine system can serve as a baseline model for the region. This report summarizes and synthesizes scientific data on the ecological structure and functioning of the estuary, including discussions of climate, hydrology, geology, physiography, biotic assemblages, and ecological processes and




Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent.  


Although land application of swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance in swine lagoon bacteria from sow, nursery, and finisher farms in the southeastern United States. Effluents from 37 lagoons were assayed for the presence of Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer swab method for 12 antibiotics comprising eight classes. Statistical analyses indicated that farm type influenced the amount and type of resistance, with nurseries and sow farms ranking as most influential, perhaps due to use of more antibiotic treatments. Finisher farms tended to have the least amount of antibiotic class resistance, signaling an overall healthier market pig, and less therapeutic or prophylactic antibiotic use. Many bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalosporin, and tetracycline class antibiotics, while nearly all were susceptible to quinolone antibiotics. It appeared that swine farm type had a significant association with the amount of resistance associated with bacterial genera sampled from the lagoons; nurseries contributed the largest amount of bacterial resistance. PMID:19875799

Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R



Integrated coastal management in the Venice lagoon and its watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venice Lagoon (VL) is a complex ecosystem in which public participation and area-based management has often been neglected by administrative bodies involved in the planning of coastal projects and public works. In this area, the analysis of the local situation highlighted a substantial absence of coordination among the various administrative bodies in charge of planning and management at various

Daniel Suman; Stefano Guerzoni; Emanuela Molinaroli




EPA Science Inventory

Indigenous enteric virus removal from raw wastewater was examined in facultative and partially aerated treatment lagoon systems at paired sites in the southwest, southeast, and north central regions of the U.S. The virus samples were concentrated from large wastewater volume usin...


Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.



Rhodoliths and coralliths of Muri Lagoon, Rarotonga, Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living massive and branching spheroidal growths (about 5 cm diameter) of calcareous red algae (rhodoliths) and corals (coralliths) occur in abundance on the sea bed of shallow Muri Lagoon on Rarotonga's reef flat. The rhodoliths are composed of one or more species of Neogoniolithon, Lithophyllum, Tenarea, and Porolithon; the coralliths are Pavona varians (Verrill) and Porites lutea (Milne-Edwards and Haime).

Terence P. Scoffin; David R. Stoddart; Alexander W. Tudhope; Colin Woodroffe



Variability of Organic Matter Processing in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of plant organic matter processing was studied experimentally in a shallow coastal lagoon (Tancada lagoon, average depth: 37 cm, area: 1.8 km2) in the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain). To determine the effect of hydrology and sediment characteristics on plant organic matter processing, leaves of Phragmites australis at the end of its vegetative cycle and whole plants of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, just abscised, were enclosed in litter bags. Two different mesh sizes (100 m and 2 mm) were used to study the effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition. The bags were placed in the water column and approximately 15 cm above the sediment at 6 different locations in the lagoon. The experiment was performed twice, in autumn-winter and spring-summer. The effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition rate was not significant in Tancada lagoon. Breakdown rates showed spatial differences only in spring-summer. In the autumn-winter experiment, the effect of strong wind masked the effects of environmental variables and hydrology on decomposition rate. In the spring-summer experiment, characterised by high stability of the water column, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in the water column and organic matter in the sediment were the main factors determining the variability of organic matter processing. A positive relationship was calculated between P. australis decomposition rate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in spring-summer (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). (

Menéndez, Margarita; Hernández, Oliver; Sanmartí, Neus; Comín, Francisco A.



Benthic Invertebrates in Tidal Estuaries and Coastal Lagoons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distributions of benthic populations in the Hadley Harbor area, Massachusetts, form the basis for a model study of benthic ecosystems which can be applied to coastal lagoons in temperate and tropical regions. The Hadley Harbor area covers one-third Km2 an...

R. H. Parker



Evaluation of eutrophication in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria Formosa is a shallow mesotidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal, with natural biogeochemical cycles essentially regulated by tidal exchanges at the seawater boundaries and at the sediment interface. Existing data on nutrients in the water column and the sediment, together with chlorophyll a and oxygen saturation in the water column, are compared using different models for

A. Newton; J. d. Icely; M. Falcao; A. Nobre; J. p. Nunes; J. g. Ferreira; C. Vale



Fuzzy prediction of the algal blooms in the Orbetello lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,

Stefano Marsili-libelli



Numerical modeling of the Patos Lagoon coastal plume, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Brazilian Shelf (SBS) is a freshwater-influenced region, but studies on the dynamics of coastal plumes are sparse and lack in space-time resolution. Studies on the dynamics of the Patos Lagoon plume are even more limited. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the principal physical forcing for the formation and behavior of the Patos

W. C. Marques; E. H. Fernandes; I. O. Monteiro; O. O. Möller



Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to

David H. Ward; Carl J. Markon; David C. Douglas



Antifungal defenses of seagrasses from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the antifungal chemical defenses and physiological responses of five seagrasses collected from nearshore seagrass beds from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, against a panel of co-occurring marine fungi isolated from nearby coastal communities. Whole plant tissues from Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme prevented overgrowth by three of the seven fungi used in this study. Organic extracts

Cliff Ross; Melany P. Puglisi; Valerie J. Paul



Landsat Imagery of the Venetian Lagoon: A Multitemporal Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner images from 1975 to 1979 to determine pollution dispersion in the central basin of the lagoon under varying tidal conditions is described. Images taken during the late spring and representing both short and long ra...

L. Alberotanza A. Zandonella



An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k–? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function

Binxin Wu; Zhenbin Chen



Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

Zak, B.D. (ed.)



Isolation of salmonella bacteriophages from swine effluent lagoons.  


Bacteriophages (phages) associated with Salmonella were collected from nine swine manure lagoons in Mississippi. Phages were isolated by an enrichment protocol or directly from effluent. For enrichment, chloroform-treated samples were filtered (0.22 mum) and selectively enriched by adding a cocktail of Salmonella strains in trypticase soy broth. After overnight incubation at 35 degrees C, chloroform was added and samples stored at 5 degrees C. Enriched samples were tested by double agar layer (DAL) plaque assay against individual Salmonella isolates. Phage titers of 2.9 x 10(8) to 2.1 x 10(9) plaque forming units (pfu) per mL were produced, but estimation of phage titers in lagoons was not possible. For direct isolation, effluent was clarified by centrifugation, filtered (0.22 microm), and used in DAL plaque assays to select single-plaque isolates for 15 Salmonella strains. Plaque counts varied among Salmonella strains and lagoons. The most sensitive strain for direct phage recovery was ATCC 13311. Phage titers estimated by direct isolation with ATCC 13311 ranged among lagoons from 12 to 148 pfu per mL. In limited host range tests, 66 isolates recovered by the enrichment protocol produced plaques only on Enteritidis and Typhimurium strains of Salmonella and none produced plaques on lagoon isolates of Citrobacter, Escherichia, Proteus, Providencia, or Serratia. Electron microscopy (EM) showed purified enrichment isolates had Podoviridae morphology (tailless 50-nm icosahedral heads with tail spikes). Electron microscopy of clarified concentrated effluent showed 5.5:1 tailless to tailed phages. The isolated phages have potential as typing reagents, specific indicators, and biocontrol agents of Salmonella. PMID:16455853

McLaughlin, M R; Balaa, M F; Sims, J; King, R



Upgrading coal liquefaction recycle bottoms  

SciTech Connect

Studies were carried out using subbituminous Wyodak and bituminous Kentucky coal to determine the effect of upgrading coal liquefaction recycle bottoms. In the liquefaction experiments, the reactor was charged with recycle solvent, solvent-refined coal (SRC) or SRC fraction and coal in a 1:1:1 weight ratio, and the reaction was carried out at 714/sup 0/K under hydrogen pressure. The results obtained indicated the importance of solvent composition on the coal liquefaction reaction. Maximum conversion seemed to be achieved with some degree of hydrogenation of the SRC, but the severity of the hydrogenation process was not clearly defined. Solvent fractionation may also result in increased distillate yields. (BLM)

Silver, H.F.; Miller, R.L.; Corry, R.G.; Hurtubise, R.J.



Biological upgrading of coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present progress to date on the biological upgrading of coal liquids. This three-year study focuses on surveying of known microorganisms for S, N, and O removal and aromaticity reduction. Isolates from natural sources will also be sought for these reactions. The performance of these cultures will be optimized and evaluated individually and as a mixed culture. The best cultures will be selected for performance evaluation in continuous submerged culture experiments in constant-stirring bioreactors. Reactor design and product removal processes will be projected and the economics of this technology compared with conventional methods. (VC)

Not Available



The Upgraded D0 detector  

SciTech Connect

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS



In situ metabolic budget for the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi in a tropical brackish water lagoon (Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous measurements of respiration, excretion and production rates were carried out several times over a year period at five representative stations of the Ebrié Lagoon. Assuming a constant assimilation efficiency rate of 69.4%, we derived metabolic budgets for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Daily specific ingestion rates calculated were rather generally high, and ranged between 54 and 159% of body carbon,

M. Pagano; L. Saint-Jean



The occurrence of potentially toxic dinoflagellates and diatoms in a subtropical lagoon, the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of potentially toxic phytoplankton species was examined over a 5-year period in a region of the Indian River Lagoon in Florida that has recently been subject to ecologically significant events, putatively related to algal toxins. The results of the study reveal a significant presence of two species of phytoplankton that have been shown to be toxic in Florida

E. J. Phlips; S. Badylak; S. Youna; Karen Kelley



Anaerobic degradation of phenol in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic phenol degrading consortia were selected in sewage sludge and culture conditions were improved to allow maximum degradation rates of 0.9 g\\/l·d. Phenol had to be added in two portions of 0.45 g\\/l at intervals of 12 h to keep the fermentation at stable conditions. From U-14C-phenol little benzoate and acetate were formed as intermediates under a N2:CO2 gas phase.

G. Knoll; J. Winter



Gold and platinoids in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges from German municipal wastewater treatment plants possess high gold concentrations (280 to 56,000 ?g\\/kg in dry matter) similar to some ore deposits which are being mined for gold. In addition, the sludges exhibit elevated platinum (<10 to 1,070 ?g\\/kg) and palladium values (38 to 4,700 ?g\\/kg), and low osmium (<3 to <51 ?g\\/kg), iridium (0.6 to 26.5 ?g\\/kg),

Bernd G. Lottermoser



40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7...



7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...public parties to treat sewage or supply bulk water shall have written...



7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780...Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. ...public parties to treat sewage or supply bulk water shall have written...



33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharge of treated sewage or graywater...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...discharge treated sewage or graywater from...the applicable waters of Alaska unless...the applicable waters of Alaska, treated sewage and...



33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharge of treated sewage or graywater...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...discharge treated sewage or graywater from...the applicable waters of Alaska unless...the applicable waters of Alaska, treated sewage and...



33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. 159.315 Section 159.315 Navigation... Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While operating in the applicable...legible Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book with the vessel's name and...



Future evolution of a tidal inlet due to changes in wave climate, Sea level and lagoon morphology (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal inlets are extremely dynamic, as a result of an often delicate balance between the effects of tides, waves and other forcings. Since the morphology of these inlets can affect navigation, water quality and ecosystem dynamics, there is a clear need to anticipate their evolution in order to promote adequate management decisions. Over decadal time scales, the position and size of tidal inlets are expected to evolve with the conditions that affect them, for instance as a result of climate change. A process-based morphodynamic modeling system is validated and used to analyze the effects of sea level rise, an expected shift in the wave direction and the reduction of the upper lagoon surface area by sedimentation on a small tidal inlet (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal). A new approach to define yearly wave regimes is first developed, which includes a seasonal behavior, random inter-annual variability and the possibility to extrapolate trends. Once validated, this approach is used to produce yearly time series of wave spectra for the present and for the end of the 21st century, considering the local rotation trends computed using hindcast results for the past 57 years. Predictions of the mean sea level for 2100 are based on previous studies, while the bathymetry of the upper lagoon for the same year is obtained by extrapolation of past trends. Results show, and data confirm, that the Óbidos lagoon inlet has three stable configurations, largely determined by the inter-annual variations in the wave characteristics. Both sea level rise and the reduction of the lagoon surface area will promote the accretion of the inlet. In contrast, the predicted rotation of the wave regime, within foreseeable limits, will have a negligible impact on the inlet morphology.

Bruneau, Nicolas; Fortunato, André B.; Dodet, Guillaume; Freire, Paula; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier



Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts.

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M



Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith



Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be carefully monitored so that appropriate responses can be timely to mitigate the impacts from global change. References: Eisenreich, S.J. (2005). Climate Change and the European Water Dimension - A report to the European Water Directors. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Comission-Joint Research Centre. Ispra, Italy. 253pp. Kerr, R. (2008). Global warming throws some curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 322, 515. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., Miller, H. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Lloret, J., Marín, A., Marín-Guirao, L. (2008). Is coastal lagoon eutrophication likely to be aggravated by global climate change? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78, 403-412. Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T., Niazi, S. (2008). Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 77, 206-213.

Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.



Risk factors for colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.  


Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48 hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48 hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings. PMID:21977048

Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S



Risk Factors for Colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48?hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48?hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings.

Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A.; Reif, John S.



Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in water and sediment of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida - 1977 to 1978  

SciTech Connect

Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the Indian River lagoon between Vero Beach, Indian River County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT and 0.5 ppB PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppB to 0.63 ppM Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppB to 0.081 ppM sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations than did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the Indian River Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce.

Wang, T.C.; Johnson, R.S.; Bricker, J.L.



Alleviation of Environmental Pollution Using Nuclear Techniques Recycling of Sewage Water and Sludge in Agriculture: a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture soil has always been the disposal site for sewage effluent and solid sewage sludge. In Egypt, the use of raw sewage effluent as a source of irrigation and fertilization has been practiced for almost 80 years at ElGabal ElAsfar farm. At Helwan sewage effluent has started to be used in agriculture since 1992. Raw sewage sludge and sewage water

Rawia A. El-Motaium


Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana



Los Alamos upgrade in metallographic capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Wing 9 hot cell metallographic sample preparation and examination capability is being upgraded. The present capability to grind, polish, and etch samples from reactor fuels and materials has been in operation for 18 years. Upgraded capabilities in the sodium distillation unit and the grinding and polishing facilities and innovations in blister design for microstructural examinations are described in the paper.

Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.



The D[O] upgrade silicon tracker  

SciTech Connect

A large silicon strip tracking detector is planned for the upgrade of the D0 experiment at Fermilab. This detector is designed to gag secondary vertices, to measure the momenta of charged particles and to operate in the high rate environment of the upgraded Tevatron. Details of the detector design are presented here.

Heinson, A.P.



The D{O} upgrade silicon tracker  

SciTech Connect

A large silicon strip tracking detector is planned for the upgrade of the D0 experiment at Fermilab. This detector is designed to gag secondary vertices, to measure the momenta of charged particles and to operate in the high rate environment of the upgraded Tevatron. Details of the detector design are presented here.

Heinson, A.P.; For the D0 Collaboration



Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades  

SciTech Connect

This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420.




Design of ion source for LANSCE upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Facility will require high intensity H- beams. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been contracted by Los Alamos to develop an H- ion generator that will meet the LANSCE upgrade requirements. H- current is to be increased from the present 18 mA to 40 mA. The current LANSCE ion source

M. Williams; R. Gough; K. Leung; R. Low; C. Matuk; R. Thomae; S. Wilde



Upgrading the Keck AO wavefront controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the recent upgrade performed on the W. M. Keck Observatory Adaptive Optics (AO) systems, in which the wavefront sensors and wavefront controllers were replaced with components based on new technology. The performance of the upgraded system has yielded an increase in limiting guide star magnitude, an increased Strehl ratio for both Laser Guide Star (LGS) and Natural

Erik M. Johansson; Marcos A. van Dam; Paul J. Stomski; James M. Bell; Jason C. Chin; Roger C. Sumner; Peter L. Wizinowich; Roberto Biasi; Mario Andrighettoni; Dietrich Pescoller



Upgrading the Keck AO wavefront controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the recent upgrade performed on the W. M. Keck Observatory Adaptive Optics (AO) systems, in which the wavefront sensors and wavefront controllers were replaced with components based on new technology. The performance of the upgraded system has yielded an increase in limiting guide star magnitude, an increased Strehl ratio for both Laser Guide Star (LGS) and Natural

Erik M. Johansson; Marcos A. van Dam; Paul J. Stomski; James M. Bell


Upgrading Application Software: Problems and Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers 10 guidelines for librarians responsible for making decisions on whether to upgrade application software. Examines the Internet, client/server LAN (local area network) architecture, developments in contemporary stand-alone systems, and graphic user interfaces to determine their impact on the upgrading process. (AEF)

Corbly, James E.



Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement.  


This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO(3) and SiO(4) concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters when rainfall and river discharge was maximal in summer. Continuous year round discharge of sewage effluent resulted in high NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbour (VH) and its vicinity. In winter, spring and fall, the water column at all stations was moderately mixed by winds and tidal currents, and phytoplankton biomass was relatively low compared to summer. In summer, the mean surface phytoplankton chl biomass was generally > 9 microL(-1) in most areas as a result of thermohaline stratification, and high nutrients, light, and water temperature. In summer, the potential limiting nutrient is PO(4) in the most productive southern waters and it seldom decreased to limiting levels ( approximately 0.1 microM), suggesting that phytoplankton growth may be only episodically limiting. The mean bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) remained > 3.5 mg L(-1) at most stations, indicating that the eutrophication impact in HK waters was not as severe as expected for such a eutrophic area. After the implementation of chemically enhanced primary sewage treatment in 2001, water quality in VH improved as indicated by a significant decrease in NH(4) and PO(4) and an increase in bottom DO. In contrast, there were an increase in chl a and NO(3), and a significant decrease in bottom DO in southern waters in summer, suggesting that hypoxic events are most likely to occur in this region if phytoplankton biomass and oxygen consumption keep increasing and exceed the buffering capacity of HK waters maintained by monsoon winds, tidal mixing and zooplankton grazing. Therefore, future studies on the long-term changes in nutrient loading from PRE and HK sewage discharge will be crucial for developing future strategies of sewage management in HK waters. PMID:18514234

Ho, Alvin Y T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong; Yuan, Xiangcheng; He, Lei; Jiang, Yuelu; Lee, Joseph H W; Anderson, Donald M; Harrison, Paul J



Quantification of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Feedlot Lagoons by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

levels (r 2 0.50, P < 0.001; n 18), with the geometric means of individual resistance concentrations ranging from 4- to 8.3-fold greater in lagoon samples with above-median tetracycline levels (>1.95 g\\/liter by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay techniques) than in below-median lagoon samples. Of the three Tc r genes tested, tet(W) and tet(Q) were more commonly found in lagoon water

Marilyn S. Smith; Richard K. Yang; Charles W. Knapp; Yafen Niu; Nicholas Peak; Margery M. Hanfelt; John C. Galland; David W. Graham



Relationships between fecal indicators and pathogenic microorganisms in a tropical lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon is an urban ecosystem undergoing accelerated degradation, therefore selected as a model for microbiological\\u000a quality studies of tropical lagoons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the abundance and the spatial distribution of fecal\\u000a pollution indicators and pathogenic microorganisms in the lagoon. The relationships between microbial groups and abiotic measurements\\u000a were also determined to evaluate

Alessandra M. Gonzalez; Rodolfo Paranhos; Márcia S. Lutterbach



Fish-assemblage dynamics in Malibu Lagoon, a small, hydrologically altered estuary in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malibu Lagoon, California, USA, is a small estuary that has been substantially altered by habitat loss and increased freshwater\\u000a input from development in its watershed. The lagoon’s fish assemblage was sampled at nine stations on 32 occasions between\\u000a July 1993 and August 1994 on at least a monthly basis using beach seines and fish traps. Thirteen fish species represented\\u000a by

Richard F. Ambrose; Douglas J. Meffert



Modeling Interaction of Fluid and Salt in an Aquifer\\/Lagoon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to simulate the dynamic interaction between a saline lagoon and a ground water system, a numerical model for two-dimensional, variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, coupled flow and solute transport (SIFEC) was modified to allow the volume of water and mass of salt in the lagoon to vary with each time step. The modified SIFEC allows the stage of a lagoon to

Katsuyuki Fujinawa; Takahiro Iba; Yohichi Fujihara; Tsugihiro Watanabe



Fiji's Great Astrolabe Lagoon: baseline study and management issues for a pristine marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Astrolabe Lagoon (18°45?S,178°32?E), located some 70km south of Suva, the capital of Fiji, is a marine environment in relatively pristine condition, impacted only by low human populations on small islands. The Great Astrolabe Reef which encloses the Lagoon is a barrier reef composed of oceanic ribbon reefs. A baseline study of the Lagoon was carried out in 1989–92

R. J. Morrison; Milika R. Naqasima



Spatiotemporal Variation of Bacterial Community Composition and Possible Controlling Factors in Tropical Shallow Lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal\\u000a lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the\\u000a BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio\\u000a de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was

Thaís Laque; Vinicius F. Farjalla; Alexandre S. Rosado; Francisco A. Esteves



Prokaryotic diversity in one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in\\u000a this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of\\u000a this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota.\\u000a In lagoon water,

M. M. Clementino; R. P. Vieira; A. M. Cardoso; A. P. A. Nascimento; C. B. Silveira; T. C. Riva; A. S. M. Gonzalez; R. Paranhos; R. M. Albano; A. Ventosa; O. B. Martins



Spatial and temporal dynamic of trophic relevant parameters in a subtropical coastal lagoon in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal lagoons are ecologically and economically important environments but a relative low number of studies were carried\\u000a out in subtropical and permanently closed coastal lagoons. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial dynamic\\u000a of trophic relevant water quality parameters in the small, deep and freshwater Peri coastal lagoon, South Brazil. During the\\u000a 19 sampled months (March\\/2008–September\\/2009) spatial

Mariana Coutinho Hennemann; Mauricio Mello Petrucio


Hydrological characteristics of three North African coastal lagoons: insights from the MELMARINA project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological and hydrodynamic characteristics are important controls in all wetlands including coastal lagoons. Enhanced understanding\\u000a of lagoon functioning can be obtained through the acquisition and interpretation of hydrological, meteorological and related\\u000a data. The MELMARINA Project investigated links between hydrological and ecological conditions within North African coastal\\u000a lagoons. It employed three primary sites: Merja Zerga in Morocco, Ghar El Melh in

J. R. Thompson; R. J. Flower; M. Ramdani; F. Ayache; M. H. Ahmed; E. K. Rasmussen; O. S. Petersen



Factors structuring temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities in a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal).  


The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the effects of the organic loadings into the lagoon may be reflected until this area. This transitional feature was corroborated by biological data, with macrobenthic assemblages displaying characteristics of down- and upstream areas. Macrobenthic abundance peaked in winter, which was associated with a higher nutrient availability (mainly ammonium) and the proliferation of green macroalgae in mid-lower and inner lagoon areas. However, massive macroalgae growth resulted in a sharp decrease of macrobenthic diversity and abundance in spring, particularly where the higher amounts of decaying algae were detected. Higher dissimilarities between assemblages were detected during winter (and spring, for trophic composition), while in summer, differences were highly attenuated. The least contaminated area (close to the sea inlet) experienced smaller temporal variations for environmental variables, as well as the lowest temporal biological variability. This area was dominated by carnivores, which were related with increased salinity. Deposit-feeders were numerically dominant in the lagoon, being generally spread within organically enriched sandy and muddy areas. The high concentration of chlorophyll a and suspended particulate matter in water was reflected in the abundance of deposit-feeders/suspension-feeders, taking benefit of the high primary productivity. On the other hand, deposit-feeders/herbivores responded to the decay of macroalgae mats in the sediment. Biological associations varied with the biological data used (taxonomic versus trophic group composition; abundance versus biomass), highlighting the relevance of the combination of different data analysis' approaches. In general, BIOENV analysis indicated total phosphorus, biomass of Ulva, metals and organic carbon and nitrogen as being significantly influencing benthic patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies in ecological behaviours of some taxa were also detected in the present study stressing the need for additional studies on the relationships between macrobenthic communities and environmental variables. Implications of the present results for monitoring studies are discussed. PMID:21236484

Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Patrícia; Pereira, Fábio; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Gaspar, Miguel B



An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons.  


A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July. PMID:21339067

Wu, Binxin; Chen, Zhenbin



Spatiotemporal variation of bacterial community composition and possible controlling factors in tropical shallow lagoons.  


Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was sampled monthly for 1 year and eight lagoons were sampled once for temporal and spatial analysis, respectively. BCC was evaluated by bacteria-specific PCR-DGGE methods. Great variations were observed in limnological conditions and BCC on both temporal and spatial scales. Changes in the BCC of Visgueiro lagoon throughout the year were best related to salinity and concentrations of NO (3) (-) , dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a, while changes in BCC between lagoons were best related to salinity and dissolved phosphorus concentration. Salinity has a direct impact on the integrity of the bacterial cell, and it was previously observed that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in these lagoons. Therefore, we conclude that great variations in limnological conditions of coastal lagoons throughout time and space resulted in different BCCs and salinity and nutrient concentration, particularly dissolved phosphorus, are the main limnological factors influencing BCC in these tropical coastal lagoons. PMID:20217404

Laque, Thaís; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Rosado, Alexandre S; Esteves, Francisco A



Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year�¢����s average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

Kara Berst; Maria Howeth



Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.



The role of freshwater inflow in lagoons, rivers, and bays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different freshwater inflow volumes on benthic communities and water column\\u000a dynamics in different estuary classes. Benthic and water column spatial dynamics were contrasted in lagoons (with no direct\\u000a inflow sources), tidal rivers that empty directly into the Gulf of Mexico, and bar-built bay systems (with direct inflow sources)\\u000a along

Terence A. Palmer; Paul A. Montagna; Jennifer Beseres Pollack; Richard D. Kalke; Hudson R. DeYoe



Phosphorus diagenesis in sediment of the Thau Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the depth distribution of phosphorus in relation to the distribution of major redox species (dissolved O2, NO3?, NH4+, Mn, and Fe, and particulate S, organic C, reactive Mn- and Fe-oxides) in modern sediments of two stations in the Thau Lagoon. Sediments close to the oyster bank zone are enriched in organic carbon and are highly bioturbated, while those

Pierre Anschutz; Gwénaëlle Chaillou; Pascal Lecroart



Heavy metals distribution in sediments of Nador lagoon (Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nador lagoon is a paralic system, located North-East of Morocco. At the present time this ecosystem undergoes an anthropic stress induced by urban, industrial and agricultural releases, and also by fishery activity which enriches this ecosystem in organic and inorganic wastes. A geochemical study has been undertaken, first to define the areas contaminated by heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr and V), and second to caracterize the different mineral phases, which trap these elements. Sediment samples were collected on twenty-eight stations scattered all over the lagoon, and each core (30 cm) was subdivided in two horizons (surface and depth). Mineralogical analyses as well as major and trace elements analyses were performed on surface and deep sediments. The results on major element analyses (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, P) show an enrichment in halite and phosphates in the surface sediments. This highlights on one hand, low water exchange rates between the lagoon and the Mediterranean sea, and on the other hand, an increase in organic releases related to the urban, agricultural and fishery activities. The highest concentrations in inorganic micro-pollutant were recorded N-E of the lagoon and close to Nador city. With reference to the geochemical background, it can be concluded that there is a slight contamination in heavy metals. Moreover, enrichment factor calculations (EF) for heavy metals point out an increase in metal elements as following: Zn>Co>Cr>V>Cu. Sequential extractions were performed to determine the behaviour of these micro-pollutants. Thus, it was shown that carbonates, oxides and phosphates are the preferential mineral phases for trapping these heavy metals.

Bloundi, K.; Duplay, J.



The macroinfaunal community of a tropical estuarine lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benthic macroinfauna of Lagunal Joyuda, a coastal lagoon in Puerto Rico, was surveyed for two years. Seven hundred fifty\\u000a core samples yielded 23 macrobenthic taxa. The oligochaeteThalassodrilides gurwitschi comprised 43.4% of the number of individuals collected. Polychaetes comprised 35.4% of the individuals, includingCapitella cf.capitata, Dasybranchus lumbricoides, andSteninonereis martini in approximately equal numbers. The amphipodGrandidierella bonnieroides made up 11.5% of

A. W. Stoner; C. Acevedo



Coastal lagoons: “transitional ecosystems” between transitional and coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a well differentiated typology of water bodies on the basis of scientific\\u000a and biological criteria. For coastal waters, such criteria have long been established, while for transitional waters they\\u000a are still under discussion. One of the difficulties when applying the WFD to coastal lagoons is to include them in only one\\u000a of these

Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Concepción Marcos; Isabel María Pérez-Ruzafa; María Pérez-Marcos


Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons  

SciTech Connect

An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.



Benthic nutrient remineralization in a coastal lagoon ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements of the exchange of ammonia, nitrate plus nitrite, phosphate, and dissolved organic phosphorus between sediments\\u000a and the overlying water column were made in a shallow coastal lagoon on the ocean coast of Rhode Island, U.S.A. The release\\u000a of ammonia from mud sediments in the dark (20–440 ?mol per m2 per h) averaged ten times higher than from

Barbara L. Nowicki; Scott W. Nixon



Microbial mats associated with bryozoans (Coorong Lagoon, South Australia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Bryostromatolites are laminated carbonate rocks composed of bryozoan zoarial laminae. The laminated texture is frequently\\u000a caused by patterns of bryozoan self overgrowth as a regular defensive tactic against microbial fouling. In the Coorong Lagoon\\u000a (South Australia), another type of bryostromatolite is present where the laminated growth of the weakly calcifying bryozoan\\u000a speciesConopeum aciculata is postmortally stabilized by cyanobacterial mats at

Katarzyna A. Palinska; Joachim Scholz; Katja Sterflinger; Gisela Gerdes; Yvonne Bone



Integrated modelling in coastal lagoons: Sacca di Goro case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled 3D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was developed and implemented for the Sacca di Goro coastal lagoon. The model\\u000a considers nutrient and oxygen dynamics in water column and sediments. Among the biological elements, phytoplankton, zooplankton,\\u000a bacteria, Ulva sp. and commercial shellfish (Tapes philippinarum) were taken into consideration. Nutrients fluxes from the watershed and open sea, as well as atmospheric inputs, heat

D. Marinov; J. M. Zaldívar; A. Norro; G. Giordani; P. Viaroli



Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much

C. T. Perry; K. G. Taylor; P. G. Machent



Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5km wide), deep (up to 56m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the

Christopher T. Perry; Kevin G. Taylor; Philip G. Machent



Sulfide sensitivity in fishes of the Indian River lagoon, Florida.  


Lagoon fishes, in netted holding cages, were placed in an impounded salt marsh and submitted to a gradient of sulfide-rich artesian well water. Near the well head, all specimens of 13 species died within 5-45 min, while all individuals of 5 species survived. More distant from the well, survival time increased sufficiently to rank species in approximate order of sensitivity to sulfide. PMID:1583499

Greene, L E; Van Handel, E



The Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics during an El Niño event (1998)  

Microsoft Academic Search

TELEMAC-2D, a two-dimensional depth-averaged finite element flow model, has been chosen for modelling the hydrodynamics of the Patos Lagoon during the 1998 El Niño event. The model is initially calibrated against measurements carried out between 20 and 29\\/10\\/98, and good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted longitudinal velocities. Model validation is carried out by comparing measurements and predictions for

E. H. L. Fernandes; K. R. Dyer; O. O. Moller; L. F. H. Niencheski



From sewage water treatment to wastewater reuse. One century of Paris sewage farms history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irrigation fields of Paris have been used for 100 years. Their soils mainly contain heavy metals in the topmost layer. Metals come from raw sewage as well as from digested sludge of biological treatment plants which have been diluted for years in raw water. Vegetables that are cultivated in the irrigation fields concentrate metals but their average contents, however,

B. Védry; M. Gousailles; M. Affholder; A. Lefaux; J. Bontoux


Human Enteropathogen Load in Activated Sewage Sludge and Corresponding Sewage Sludge End Products?  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrated a significant reduction in the concentrations of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and spores of human-virulent microsporidia in dewatered and biologically stabilized sewage sludge cake end products compared to those of the respective pathogens in the corresponding samples collected during the sludge activation process.

Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Lucy, Frances E.; Tamang, Leena; Miraflor, Allen



The ecology of Mugu Lagoon, California: An estuarine profile  

SciTech Connect

Mugu Lagoon is significant as one of the least disturbed and best protected estuaries in southern California; thus this small estuarine system can serve as a baseline model for the region. This report summarizes and synthesizes scientific data on the ecological structure and functioning of the estuary, including discussions of climate, hydrology, geology, physiography, biotic assemblages, and ecological processes and interactions. The estuary exhibits extreme variability in freshwater inputs, being at times totally marine and at other times flushed by stormwater runoff from the watershed. Major storms in 1978 and 1980 resulted in sedimentation that drastically altered benthic communities and resulted in changes in the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation and benthos, and fish and shorebird use of these food resources. Mugu Lagoon is part of a naval base and therefore not subject to the development pressures facing many other southern California estuaries. Storm-produced sedimentation remains a management concern, as well as closure of the mouth of the lagoon due to littoral drift of sand along the barrier spit.

Onuf, C.P.



Coastal lagoons and their evolution: A hydromorphological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a geoscience perspective, coastal lagoons are essentially ephemeral features which are part of a continuum of coastal environments. Their natural hydromorphological evolution is seldom if ever permitted to take place as a consequence of human action; either directly by engineering interventions, to maintain or create navigable inlets, or indirectly due to activities within their catchment areas. The hydromorphological impacts of historical, contemporary and proposed engineering activities in coastal lagoons around in the world are reviewed and from these a powerful exemplar is that of the Aveiro system in Portugal. Here, two centuries of channelization, jetty and breakwater construction and progressive dredging have transformed a then fluvially dominant system into one that is today tidally dominant. Both the tidal range and tidal prism have increased along with the extent of saline intrusion. The associated stresses imposed by increased tidal currents have, in turn, led to important changes in the sedimentary regime and to the loss of almost all seagrass species which were once abundant in the system. This, along with observations from other related case studies, raises important questions regarding the concept of lagoon ecosystem 'health' and the baseline or reference conditions to which it is assessed.

Duck, Robert W.; da Silva, José Figueiredo



Benthic Fluxes of Radium in Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine three radium isotopes (224Ra, 223Ra and 226Ra) as a sediment-water interface tracer in upper Indian River Lagoon. Benthic fluxes are estimated using lagoon budgets, benthic chambers and pore water profiles. The lagoon budget approach estimates range from ~20 dpm/m2-d for 224Ra to ~7 dpm/ m2-d for 223Ra to zero for 226Ra. Benthic Chamber flux estimates determined over an 8 hour time period are statistically no different than zero for all three isotopes. Pore water profile flux estimates are low with 0.5 dpm/m2-d for 224Ra to 0.2 dpm/m2-d for 223Ra and zero for 226Ra. Benthic flux estimates correlate with the regeneration rates of the individual isotopes. Radium-224 has the largest flux value and is the isotope with the fastest regeneration rates due to a short half-life. The isotope with the slowest regeneration rate (226Ra) due to a 1600-year half-life, cannot be distinguished from zero in any of the estimates. The short half-life of 224Ra and 223Ra, allow for the examination of exchange processes at the sediment-water interface that cannot be achieved with the long-lived radium isotope (226Ra).

Smoak, J. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.



Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon.  


The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea. PMID:11999620

Caliceti, M; Argese, E; Sfriso, A; Pavoni, B



Algal Growth Response in Two Illinois Rivers Receiving Sewage Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) primarily enters streams in Illinois as effluent released from sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural fields. As a result, water quality can be affected and large amounts of algal growth are possible. We determined the growth of periphytic algae (as chla) relative to differing amounts of P (factor of 10) released in sewage effluent in two rivers.

Linda M. Jacobson; Mark B. Davida; Corey A. Mitchell



Optimization study on sewage sludge conditioning using Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge is a main problem faced by local municipalities in Malaysia. Sludge conditioned with chemical polymer often termed as undesirable use for land application. However, using natural polymer will help to reduce the impact of this problem. In this study, optimization using Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural polymer in sewage sludge conditioning is highlighted. An earlier

Wai Kien Tat; Azni Idris; Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor; Thamer A. Mohamed; Abdul Halim Ghazali; Suleyman A. Muyibi



Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc rivularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. rivularis). Not only the number of cells was

A. E. El-Enany; A. A. Issa



Effect of flooding with sewage water on three wetland sedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of three wetland sedges, Carex vesicaria, C. rostrata, and C. gracilis, were subjected to flooding with diluted pig farm sewage water in a sand-culture experiment lasting for one growing season (20 weeks). Sewage water application altered growth dynamics and accumulation of dry matter in all three species; it shifted the distribution of dry matter in favor of above-ground parts;

Hana Kon?alová; Jan Kv?t; Jan Pokorný; Václav Hauser



Biological Degradation of Cyclophosphamide and Its Occurrence in Sewage Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic and cancerogenic antineoplastic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is released into sewage water by cancer patient excretion. To assess the biological degradability of CP two standardized test systems, the Zahn–Wellens\\/EMPA test (OECD 302B) and a laboratory scale sewage treatment plant, were used. In both test systems the agent exhibited only poor degradability. To verify the expected occurrence of CP in

T. Steger-Hartmann; K. Kümmerer; A. Hartmann



Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage

R. P. Signoretti; K. C. Sonoda; E. Ferraz



Removal of dissolved estrogen in sewage effluents by ?-cyclodextrin polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substances with estrogenic activity are found in effluents of municipal sewage plants and dairy farms. These effluents have the potential to induce feminization in male fish. In this study, cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs) that are insoluble in both polar and non-polar solvents were selected for the removal of dissolved estrogens in the effluent of a municipal sewage plant. The removal capacity

Kyoko Oishi; Ayumi Moriuchi



Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering Treatment—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanpää Mika; Isosaari Pirjo



Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a

Leena Sahlström; Verena Rehbinder; Ann Albihn; Anna Aspan; Björn Bengtsson



Use of composted sewage sludge in growth media for broccoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a binary component with peat (P) in growth media for a horticultural crop, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Botryti cv. Marathon), was evaluated. Four treatments were established, based on the addition of increasing quantities of composted sewage sludge to peat (0%, 15%, 30% and 50%, v\\/v). Physical, physico-chemical and chemical

M. D. Perez-Murcia; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; A. Perez-Espinosa; C. Paredes



Endocrine disrupting chemicals accumulate in earthworms exposed to sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter endocrine function in exposed animals. Such critical effects, combined with the ubiquity of EDCs in sewage effluent and potentially in tapwater, have led to concerns that they could be major physiological disruptors for wildlife and more controversially for humans. Although sewage effluent is known to be a rich source of EDCs, there is as

Shai Markman; Irina A. Guschina; Sara Barnsley; Katherine L. Buchanan; David Pascoe; Carsten T. Müller




Microsoft Academic Search

Dewatering of sewage sludge is an important part of proper sludge management practice. It is becoming a challenging issue for water industries as new regulations on sludge disposal are being imposed. In this paper, the application of mechanical thermal expression (MTE) to dewater sewage sludge and the conditioning of sludge by mixing with brown coal prior to MTE are investigated.

K. B. Thapa; S. A. Clayton; A. F. A. Hoadley



EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...


[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  


"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai



Effects of sewage sludge application method on corn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of land application of municipal sewage sludge to agricultural land in Upper Cumberland Region of the Tennessee valley. Treatments included single and annual applications of sewage sludge both surface applied and injected into the soil. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effects of different land application methods of

R. W. Cripps; S. K. Winfree; J. L. Reagan



Energy Generation by a Renewable Source - Sewage Biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will present two projects related to energy generation using sewage biogas as fuel and different engines, one is a Otto cycle engine and the other is a microturbine. The first one had as project proposal the sewage biogas use as fuel in an 18 kva Otto cycle generator, to produce electric energy, which development was a commitment of

Sílvia Maria Stortini González; Orlando Cristiano; Osvaldo Stella Martins; Fernando Castro


Coxiella burnetii in sewage water at sewage water treatment plants in a Q fever epidemic area.  


During 2007-2010, over 4000 persons in The Netherlands contracted Q-fever, a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Goats and sheep are the main reservoir of C. burnetti and infected animals shed the bacterium with their urine, faeces and birth products. Human infections may occur through direct contact with infected animals, or through inhalation of contaminated dust particles or aerosols. Discharge of waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may result in the presence of C. burnetii in sewage water and aerosols at sewage water treatment plants (SWTPs) which may pose a health risk for workers or neighbouring residents. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of C. burnetii at SWTPs and to optimize available detection methods. In March-July 2011, sewage influent and aeration tank samples from four SWTPs receiving discharge from Q fever positive goat farms were examined by using a multiplex real-time PCR detecting C. burnetii DNA by targeting IS1111 and com1 genes. Influent (44%; n=16/36) and active sludge (36%; n=13/36) samples were positive with low C. burnetii DNA content. Percentage positive samples per SWTP were 28-61%. Positive samples were most frequent in March 2011 and least frequent in May 2011. The presence of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water samples suggests that SWTPs receiving waste water from Q fever contaminated goat farms may contribute to the spread of C. burnetii to the environment. The low levels of C. burnetii DNA in sewage water during the decline of the Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands in 2011 indicate a low health risk for SWTP workers and residents. PMID:23347968

Schets, F M; de Heer, L; de Roda Husman, A M



Groundwater and porewater as a major source of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by radon) and shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1. Both sources of TA were important on a reef wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependant on the time of day. On a daily basis, groundwater can contribute approximately 70% to 80% of the TA taken up by corals within the lagoon. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water-column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.




EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...


Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.



Hydrology and Salt Balance in a Large, Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline coastal lagoon as a result of semi-arid climate conditions, a small drainage basin and a choked entrance channel. The lagoon has been continuously hypersaline for at least 4·5 centuries, but the mean salinity has varied substantially. It has recently decreased from 57 to 52 as indicated by density (salinity) measurements between 1965 and 1990. Analysis of more than 20 years of salinity time series data, in addition to monthly lagoon cruises to measure the spatial salinity distribution, indicate that the lagoon salinity largely fluctuates in response to the difference between evaporation and precipitation. The major factor explaining the long-term trend of decreasing salinity in the lagoon is the constant pumping of 1 m 3s -1of freshwater to the communities surrounding the lagoon from an adjacent watershed, and subsequent discharge of this water into Lagoa de Araruama. The net salt budget is primarily a balance between the advective import of salt from the coastal ocean and eddy diffusive export of salt to the ocean, although the extensive mining of salt from the lagoon during past decades is also a small but significant contribution to the salt budget. The flushing half-life is proposed as a useful time scale of water exchange, is calculated based on a combination of hydrological and tidal processes, and is excellent for comparison of lagoons and assessing water quality changes. The flushing half-life measures 83·5 days for Lagoa de Araruama, considerably longer than for most other coastal lagoons. The proposed dredging of a second ocean channel to Lagoa de Araruama is probably not a good idea. It is likely to accelerate the decrease of lagoon salinity and somewhat improve the lagoon water exchange. At the same time, this will eliminate the apparent buffering capacity provided by the hypersaline environment, and thus may potentially cause water quality problems.

Kjerfve, Björn; Schettini, C. A. F.; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Lessa, Guilherme; Ferreira, H. O.



Environmental Study of the Sewage Outfall Area at San Clemente Island. An Open-Ocean Sewage Disposal Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An environmental-impact study of the San Clemente Island sewage discharge site was used as a model to predict the effects of dumping raw sewage into the open ocean. Coliform bacterial counts, used to assess water sanitary quality, showed that the water at...

P. R. Kenis M. H. Salazar J. A. Tritschler



Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Performance Expectation exists to update, revise, and/or cancel seven onsite SARPS during FY 1999. It is the U.S. Department of Energy's desire that 100% of the SARPs (which existed at the beginning of the PHMC Contract) be upgraded, revised, and/or canceled by the end of the five year contract. This plan is a ''living'' document and is used as a management tool.




Partitioning, bioavailability and origin of heavy metals from the Nador Lagoon sediments (Morocco) as a basis for their management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nador Lagoon sediments show low trace element concentrations, and, in relation to the lagoon geochemical baseline, only some\\u000a anomalies for As, Cd, Cu and Pb in the NW of the lagoon deserve to be outstanding. The distribution of major, minor and trace\\u000a elements in the lagoon allows a breakdown in four zones. Between “Beni Ensar” and “Atelouane” (zone A), a quite

I. González; E. Águila; E. Galán



Stable isotopes in fish otoliths discriminate between lagoonal and oceanic residents of Taiaro Atoll (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fully enclosed Taiaro lagoon is hypersaline (42.5 psu) and non-tidal; constant salinity and water level result from strong\\u000a evaporation balanced by low percolation through the lagoon floor. Seawater can flow over the atoll rim during exceptionally\\u000a high seas and may then replenish lagoonal communities with propagules of oceanic origin. The distinctive water chemistry of\\u000a the lagoon suggests a possible

V. Dufour; C. Pierre; J. Rancher



Characterizing Ammonia Emissions from Swine Farms in Eastern North Carolina: Part 1—Conventional Lagoon and Spray Technology for Waste Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia (NH3) fluxes from waste treatment lagoons and barns at two conventional swine farms in eastern North Carolina were measured. The waste treatment lagoon data were analyzed to elucidate the temporal (seasonal and diurnal) variability and to derive regression relationships between NH3 flux and lagoon temperature, pH and ammonium content of the lagoon, and the most relevant meteorological parameters. NH3

Viney P. Aneja; S. Pal Arya; D.-S. Kim; Ian C. Rumsey; H. L. Arkinson; H. Semunegus; K. S. Bajwa; D. A. Dickey; L. A. Stefanski; L. Todd; K. Mottus; W. P. Robarge; C. M. Williams; D.-S. Kim; Carsten Skjøth; Thomas Ellermann; Ole Hertel; Steen Gyldenkærne; Mette Mikkelsen; Susan Schiffman; Brevick Graham; Chris Henry; Peter Watts; Peter Nicholas; Yael Laor; Jacek Koziel; Lingshuang Cai; Uzi Ravid; Stephen Goetz; Yang Zhang; Chris Occhipinti; William Showers; Dev Niyogi; Linda Geiser; Anne Ingersoll; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Scott Copeland; Stefania Korontzi; Jessica McCarty; Christopher Justice; Semra Tuncel; Nur Oztas; M. Erduran



Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The closed ASDEX Upgrade Divertor II, `LYRA', is capable of handling heating powers of up to 20 MW or P/R of 12 MW/m, owing to a reduction of the maximum heat flux to the target plates by more than a factor of 2 compared with the open Divertor I. This reduction is caused by high radiative losses from carbon and hydrogen inside the divertor region and is in agreement with B2-EIRENE modelling predictions. At medium densities in the H mode, the type I ELM behaviour shows no dependence on the heating method (NBI, ICRH). ASDEX Upgrade-JET dimensionless identity experiments showed compatibility of the L-H transition with core physics constraints, while in the H mode confinement, inconsistencies with the invariance principle were established. At high densities close to the Greenwald density, the MHD limited edge pressures, the influence of divertor detachment on separatrix parameters and increasing edge transport lead to limited edge densities and finally to temperatures below the critical edge temperatures for H mode. This results in a drastic increase of the H mode threshold power and an upper H mode density limit with gas puff refuelling. The H mode confinement degradation approaching this density limit is caused by the ballooning mode limited edge pressures and `stiff' temperature profiles relating core and edge temperatures. Repetitive high field side pellet injection allows for H mode operation well above the Greenwald density; moreover, higher confinement than with gas fuelling is found up to the highest densities. Neoclassical tearing modes limit the achievable ? depending on the collisionality at the resonant surface. In agreement with the polarization current model, the onset ? is found to be proportional to the ion gyroradius in the collisionless regime, while higher collisionalities are stabilizing. The fractional energy loss connected with saturated modes at high pressures is about 25%. A reduction of neoclassical mode amplitude and an increase of ? have been demonstrated by using phased ECRH and ECCD in the O point of islands. Advanced tokamak operation with internal transport barriers for both ions and electrons has been achieved with flat shear profiles and q0 > 1 or with reversed shear and qmin > 2. With flat shear a stationary H mode scenario was maintained for 40 confinement times and several internal skin times with ?N = 2 and HITERL-89P = 2.4, where fishbones keep q0 at 1. ?N is limited by either neoclassical tearing modes in the case of flat shear or kink modes with reversed shear.

Gruber, O.; Bosch, H.-S.; Günter, S.; Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Krieger, K.; Lackner, K.; Mertens, V.; Neu, R.; Ryter, F.; Schweinzer, J.; Stäbler, A.; Suttrop, W.; Wolf, R.; Asmussen, K.; Bard, A.; Becker, G.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Borrass, K.; Braams, B.; Brambilla, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Braun, F.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brückner, R.; Brüsehaber, B.; Büchl, K.; Buhler, A.; Callaghan, H. P.; Carlson, A.; Coster, D. P.; Cupido, L.; de Peña Hempel, S.; Dorn, C.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Egorov, S.; Engelhardt, W.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fantz, U.; Feist, H.-U.; Franzen, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Fussmann, G.; Gafert, J.; Gantenbein, G.; Gehre, O.; Geier, A.; Gernhardt, J.; Gubanka, E.; Gude, A.; Haas, G.; Hallatschek, K.; Hartmann, D.; Heinemann, B.; Herppich, G.; Herrmann, W.; Hofmeister, F.; Holzhauer, E.; Jacobi, D.; Kakoulidis, M.; Karakatsanis, N.; Kardaun, O.; Khutoretski, A.; Kollotzek, H.; Kötterl, S.; Kraus, W.; Kurzan, B.; Kyriakakis, G.; Lang, P. T.; Lang, R. S.; Laux, M.; Lengyel, L. L.; Leuterer, F.; Lorenz, A.; Maier, H.; Manso, M.; Maraschek, M.; Markoulaki, M.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P. J.; Meisel, D.; Meister, H.; Merkel, R.; Meskat, J. P.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Napiontek, B.; Neu, G.; Neuhauser, J.; Niethammer, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pinches, S.; Raupp, G.; Reinmüller, K.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Röhr, H.; Roth, J.; Salzmann, H.; Sandmann, W.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schlögl, D.; Schmidtmann, K.; Schneider, H.; Schneider, R.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schweizer, S.; Schwörer, R. R.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Sesnic, S.; Sihler, C.; Silva, A.; Speth, E.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Thoma, A.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Tsois, N.; Ullrich, W.; Ulrich, M.; Varela, P.; Verbeek, H.; Vollmer, O.; Wedler, H.; Weinlich, M.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Wunderlich, R.; Xantopoulos, N.; Yu, Q.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.; Zohm, H.; Zouhar, M.



Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).  


Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency. PMID:17919895

Franz, M




Microsoft Academic Search

The Vaccarès lagoon in the diked Rhône delta is the only lagoon in southern France out of 28 lagoons where a large population of YOY (young of the year) shad occurs every year from June-July to November-March depending on the year. This peculiar case can be explained on one hand by the nearby spawning ground in the River Rhône and




Late Quaternary history of the Nouméa lagoon (New Caledonia, South West Pacific) as depicted by seismic stratigraphy and multibeam bathymetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barrier reef tract of New Caledonia is the second largest in the world enclosing lagoons of variable width. The Late Quaternary evolution of these barrier reefs and lagoons is poorly known. A recent high resolution seismic and multibeam bathymetry survey was carried out in the south-western lagoon from shoreline to open ocean across the barrier reef pass systems to

P. Le Roy; G. Cabioch; B. Monod; Y. Lagabrielle; B. Pelletier; B. Flamand



Evidence of North Africaâ??s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...


Human impacts and the status of water quality in the Bundala RAMSAR wetland lagoon system in Southern Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish coastal wetlands in the Bundala National Park, the only RAMSAR site of southern Sri Lanka, are an important waterfowl habitat and economic zone. Bundala Lagoon, one of the three key lagoons of the Bundala wetlands, remains largely intact and relatively pristine, but the other two interconnected lagoons, namely, Embilikala and Malala, are impacted by drainage from 25.6 km2

S. C. Piyankarage; A. P. Mallawatantri; Y. Matsuno; K. A. S. Pathiratne



The zooplankton and other limnological features of a humic coastal lagoon (Lagoa Comprida, Macé, R.J.) in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprida lagoon is a shallow lagoon separated from the sea by a sand barrier. It has a brown-coloured freshwater with a high concentration of humic compounds. Its zooplankton community and limnological features were studied from March 1992 to December 1995. The lagoon was characterized by low transparency, acid water and relative constant physical–chemical features, except during sporadic marine entrances. The

Christina W. C. Branco; Francisco de Assis Esteves; Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki



Evidence of habitat fragmentation affecting fish movement between the Patos and Mirim coastal lagoons in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communication between the Patos and Mirim lagoon systems occurs via a natural channel called São Gonçalo. In 1977, a dam was built in this channel to prevent entrance of saline waters from Patos Lagoon estuary into the Mirim Lagoon. Our results showed an abrupt discontinuity in salinity and fish species distribution along the study sites. Sites below the dam

Marcelo D. M. Burns; Alexandre M. Garcia; João P. Vieira; Marlise A. Bemvenuti; David M. L. Motta Marques; Vinicius Condini



Spatiotemporal Variation in Shallow-Water Freshwater Fish Distribution and Abundance in a Large Subtropical Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patos Lagoon is located off the southern Brazilian coast and represents one of the largest coastal lagoons in the world. We estimated hydrological and physicochemical conditions associated with spatial variation in the abundance and diversity of freshwater fishes along the lagoon, and inter-annual variability in abundances of freshwater fishes occurring in its estuarine zone. During our study, the region experienced

Alexandre M. Garcia; Marcelo B. Raseira; João P. Vieira; Kirk O. Winemiller; Alice M. Grimm




EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...


Safety upgrades plug car leaks  

SciTech Connect

To lessen the chance of a chemical leak occurring during rail transport, some companies are improving tank car sturdiness and safety by adding such features as top-loading valves, on-board monitoring devices, and thicker, more impact-resistant hulls. Results include a dramatic drop in the number of rail incidents and leak tank cars. Chemicals Division of Olin Corporation (Stamford, Connecticut) has assigned its name to a new fleet of chlorine, caustic soda and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) tank cars. Each car carries the company's Care[trademark]Car registered trademark. The upgrade is part of a company-wide quality improvement process started in 1986. The company requires acoustic emissions (AE) testing on all hazardous materials tank cars. If an area has a defect, it expands and makes a slight sound when subjected to stress. In an AE test, cars are subject to simulated bumps and jolts as in rail shipment. Electronic sensors transfer any stress noises onto a computer screen, where an operator can pinpoint the trouble source.

Not Available



Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP(Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to up grade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported. Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system ''on line'' while still saving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided.

Munson, F. H.



Initial performance of upgraded Tevatron cryogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab began operating a re-designed satellite refrigerator systems in November 1993. Upgrades were installed to operate the Tevatron at a magnet temperature of 3.5 K, approximately 1K lower than the original design. Refrigerator upgrades included new valve boxes, larger reciprocating expanders, the installation of cold vapor compressors, new sub-atmospheric instrumentation and an entirely new distributed controls system. Cryogenic system reliability data for Colliding Physics Run 1B is presented emphasizing a failure analysis for each aspect of the upgrade. Comparison to data for Colliding Physics Run 1A (previous to upgrade) is presented to show the impact of a major system overhaul. New operational problems and their solutions are presented in detail.

Norris, B.L.



Status of the ATLAS control system upgrade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certain components of the ATLAS control system are two generations behind today's technology. It has been decided to upgrade the control system. in part, by replacing Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11 computers with present-day VAX technology. Tw...

F. H. Munson M. Ferraretto B. Rutherford



Intrabeam scattering in the Tevatron collider upgrade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report explores the effects of intrabeam scattering on the integrated luminosity for some conditions under consideration for the early stages of the Tevatron collider upgrade. This report concludes that intrabeam scattering effects, although they are...

D. Finley



Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the Ku-band communications gear aboard the station.

Gerald T Wright



The upgraded scheme of Hefei Light Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enhance the performance of Hefei Light Source, which was designed and constructed two decades ago, an upgrade project would be carried out in the near future. The detail upgrade scheme was described in this paper. Firstly, the magnet lattice of storage ring should be reconstructed with 4 DBA cells, whose advantages are lower beam emittance and more straight section available for insertion devices. Secondly, the beam diagnostics, main power supply, transverse and longitudinal multi-bunch feedback, beam control and manipulation system would be upgrade to improve the beam orbit stability. Finally, the injection system of storage ring and injector, which is composed of electron linac and beam transfer line, would be updated in order to assure smooth beam accumulation process under new low emittance lattice. With above improvement, it is hopeful to increase the brilliance of Hefei Light Source by two orders approximately. After three-year upgrade project, the performance of HLS would meet the demands of advanced SR users.

Wei-Min, Li; Hong-Liang, Xu; Lin, Wang; Guang-Yao, Feng; Shan-Cai, Zhang; Hao, Hao



Water Quality during Development and Apportionment of Pollution from Rivers in Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon, Taiwan. Factor analysis was conducted to explain the characteristics and the variation in the quality of water during the disassembly of oyster frames and fishery boxes. The result shows that the most important latent factors in Tapeng Lagoon are the ocean factor, primary productivity factor, and the fishery pollution factor. Canonical

Shao-Wei Liao; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Jia-Yuh Sheu; Chang-Gai Lee



Late-Summer Abundance and Distribution of Marine Birds in Kasegaluk Lagoon, Chukchi Sea, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas drilling programs in the Alaska Chukchi Sea were carried out on leases offshore from Kasegaluk Lagoon in 1989-91, and further exploration and development activities in this area are likely in future years. We conducted aerial surveys between late July and early September 1989-91 to determine the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Kasegaluk Lagoon area.



Wind-Driven Surficial Oxygen Transfer and Dinitrogen Gas Emission from Treatment Lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surficial oxygen transfer plays an important role, when analyzing the complex biochemical and physical processes responsible for ammonia and dinitrogen gas emission in animal waste treatment lagoons. This paper analyzes if currently known nitrogen biochemical pathways can explain the enigmatic dinitrogen gas emissions recently observed from the treatment lagoons, based on the amount of wind-driven oxygen that can be transferred

K. S. Ro; P. G. Hunt; M. E. Poach



Identification of pollution of Tapeng Lagoon from neighbouring rivers using multivariate statistical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon and three neighbouring rivers (the Kaoping River, Tungkang River and Lingbeng River) in Taiwan, Republic of China. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to identify the source of pollution in neighbouring rivers outside Tapeng Lagoon. The two constructed discriminant functions showed a marked contribution to all discriminant variables, and the total nitrogen,

Shao-Wei Liao; Hwa-Sheng Gau; Wen-Liang Lai; Jen-Jeng Chen; Chang-Gai Lee



Assessment of the environmental quality of French continental Mediterranean lagoons with oyster embryo bioassay.  


In order to better understand environmental disturbances in the French coastal Mediterranean lagoons, we used an ecotoxicological approach based on the measurement of the toxicity of the sediments using oyster embryo bioassay that provides a basis for assessing the effects on the fauna of contaminants adsorbed on the sedimentary particles. The study covers all of the main lagoons of the French Mediterranean coasts of Languedoc Roussillon, Camargue, and Provence (Berre and Bolmon lagoons), where 188 stations were sampled. The toxicity tests provide evidence of variable levels of toxicity in sediments. Contaminated lagoons such as La peyrade, Le canet, and Ingrill and locally affected lagoons such as Bages-Sigean, Vaccares, Bolmon, and Berre have sampling stations with 100% of larval abnormalities during 24-h development. In all of the lagoons, the toxicity was mainly located close to local harbors and rivers. Salses Leucate (Languedoc roussillon) lagoon was found very clean, with no important toxicity. The results are discussed in terms of environmental disturbances of the coastal lagoons and with regard to the long-term monitoring of the impact of contaminants on the coastal environment. PMID:19288037

Galgani, F; Senia, J; Guillou, J L; Laugier, T; Munaron, D; Andral, B; Guillaume, B; Coulet, E; Boissery, P; Brun, L; Bertrandy, M C



Atmospheric and riverine inputs of metals, nutrients and persistent organic pollutants into the lagoon of Venice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric deposition in the lagoon of Venice and river inputs from the watershed were collected and analysed from 1998 to 1999 using the same analytical methods. The input from riverine sources largely prevails (>70%) over that from the atmosphere for As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, nitrogen and phosphorus. Equivalent amounts of Hg, Pb, PCBs, HCB are discharged into the lagoon

Cinzia Bettiol; Flaviano Collavini; Stefano Guerzoni; Emanuela Molinaroli; Paolo Rossini; Luca Zaggia; Roberto Zonta



Dynamics of copper and zinc sedimentation in a lagooning system receiving landfill leachate.  


This study characterises the sediment dredged from a lagooning system composed of a settling pond and three lagoons that receive leachates from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in France. Organic carbon, carbonate, iron oxyhydroxides, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were measured in the sediment collected from upstream to downstream in the lagooning system. In order to complete our investigation of sedimentation mechanisms, leachates were sampled in both dry (spring) and wet (winter) seasonal conditions. Precipitation of calcite and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and sedimentation of organic matter occurred in the settling pond. Since different distributions of Zn and Cu concentrations are measured in sediment samples collected downstream in the lagooning system, it is suggested that these elements were not distributed in a similar way in the leachate fractions during the first stage of treatment in the settling pond, so that their sedimentation dynamics in the lagooning system differ. In the lagoons, it was found that organic carbon plays a major role in Cu and Zn mobility and trapping. The presence of macrophytes along the edges provided an input of organic matter that enhanced Cu and Zn scavenging. This edge effect resulted in a two-fold increase in Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediment deposited near the banks of the lagoons, thus confirming the importance of vegetation for the retention of Cu and Zn in lagooning systems. PMID:23810321

Guigue, Julien; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Denimal, Sophie; Steinmann, Marc; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Grisey, Hervé



Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass

J. Rapaglia; C. Ferrarin; L. Zaggia; G. Umgiesser; G. Zuppi; G. Manfe



Microbialites in a modern lagoonal environment: nature and distribution, Tikehau atoll (French Polynesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbialites, including stromatolitic structures, gelatinous masses and mats develop in Tikehau lagoon (Tuamotu, French Polynesia), on the flanks and slopes of numerous pinnacles and ‘motu’ islets between 0 and 25 m deep, on coral colonies, algal tufts or on lagoonal sediments. Individual stromatolitic structures consist of hemispherical domes and are produced by monospecific populations of filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to three

S. Sprachta; G. Camoin; S. Golubic; Th. Le Campion



Controlling a combined lagoon\\/reed bed system using the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon systems achieve good and stable effluent data in regard to organic pollutants, but they charge the receiving waters with relatively high ammonium loads. Therefore an existing lagoon-plant was extended by a vertical flow reed-bed for the special purpose of nitrification. This paper presents the efficiency of the combination plant as well as the possibility to monitor and control the

K. Kayser; S. Kunst; G. Fehr; H. Voermanek


A mechanistic model of runoff-associated fecal coliform fate and transport through a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coastal lagoons or marshes can also be a source of high indicator organism concentrations in coastal waters. We asked for a Mediterranean-type climate,

B. M. Steetsa; Donald Bren


Ecological implications of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of Burullus Lagoon of Nile Delta, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Ni) from three short sediment cores collected from Burullus lagoon of the Nile delta, Egypt. 210Pb and 137Cs measurement is applied to understand sedimentation rate and related chronology. Remarkably low isotopic activities and intensive bioturbation in the lagoonal sediments rendered age

Zhongyuan Chen; Alaa Salem; Zhuang Xu; Weiguo Zhang



Analysis of macrozoobenthic community structure after severe dystrophic crises in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrozoobenthic assemblages of the Orbetello lagoon was studied in 1994. This basin, one of the widest western Mediterranean lagoons, showed, at the end of 1970s, very rich and highly structured communities, mainly due to the heterogeneity of its habitats and also presented large prairies of marine phanerogams. An increase in organic pollution over recent years has progressively brought about

C. Lardicci; F. Rossi; A. Castelli



Using floating vegetation to remove nutrients from an anaerobic swine wastewater lagoon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing in the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...


Heavy metals in clams from a subtropical coastal lagoon associated with an agricultural drainage basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bivalves molluscs have been used to assess the levels of contamination in coastal ecosystems, and certain genera and species, notably mussels and oysters, have been extensively studied in temperate waters (Goldberg et at 1983; Gault et at 1983; Olafsson 1986). In the particular case of the AltataEnsenada del Pabellon lagoon system, an extensive (360 Km 2) coastal lagoon located in

F. Paez-Osuna; J. I. Osuna-Lopez; G. Izaguirre-Fierro; H. M. Zazueta-Padilla




Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia chemistry of the lagoon and interfacial transport characteristics between air and water. This improved model incorporated the effect of internal bubble production and

K. S. Ro; A. A. Szogi; M. B. Vanotti; K. C. Stone


Assessment of Coastal Lagoon Quality with Taxonomic Diversity Indicesof Fish, Zoobenthos and Macrophyte Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoons and marshes account for more than 50% of the coastal area in the Languedoc Roussillon region (South of France, Mediterranean Sea). The lagoons are very different in their physical and chemical characteristics, eutrophication level and resource exploitation mode. In this study, different levels of taxonomic diversity and two indices (?+ and ?+) based on macrophyte, zoobenthos and fish communities

David Mouillot; Julie Laune; Jean-Antoine Tomasini; Catherine Aliaume; Patrice Brehmer; Eric Dutrieux; Thang Do Chi



Recent and past anthropogenic impact on a Mediterranean lagoon: Lead isotope constraints from mussel shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the variations of past and present anthropogenic impact on a coastal lagoon (Thau, S. France) using mussel shells as indicators. The concentrations and isotopic compositions of Pb in recent shells from the edge and the center of a lagoon and in ancient shells (bronze age and 1st–6th century) have been determined to

Maylis Labonne; Dalila Ben Othman; Jean-Marc Luck



Sustainability assessment of traditional fisheries in Cau Hai lagoon (South China Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overfishing and progressive environmental degradation of the Vietnamese Cau Hai coastal lagoon appear to be threatening the ecological integrity and water quality of the largest estuarine complex of Southeast Asia. This study assessed the relationships between the density of traditional fisheries and organic matter sedimentary contents in Cau Hai lagoon. Data revealed that the density of stake traps (the most

Michele Marconi; Massimo Sarti; Fausto Marincioni




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emission from swine waste lagoons presents a serious environmental challenge to pork producers. Semi-permeable swine waste lagoon biocovers have been developed to serve as a physical barrier and as an attachment site for biofilm development, but microbial analysis of the biocover technology...


Responses of coastal lagoon plant communities to different forms of nutrient enrichment—a mesocosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out an enrichment experiment to quantify the effects of different forms of nutrients on the plant communities characteristic of lagoons common along the north east coast of the USA. ‘Lagoon’ mesocosms were enriched with phosphate alone, nitrate alone, nitrate plus phosphate, or ammonium plus phosphate. Nitrogen and phosphorus were added at loadings of 8200 ?mol m?2 day?1 and

D. I. Taylor; S. W. Nixon; S. L. Granger; B. A. Buckley; J. P. McMahon; H.-J. Lin



Ecologic Stress in a Subtropical Coastal Lagoon: Lake St. Lucia, Zululand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lake St. Lucia is the largest of several coastal lagoons that lie behind the massive sand barriers forming the Zululand Coast, South Africa. Following the Flandrian transgression, this lagoon covered 912 sq km, forming a body of water 112 km long and more...

A. R. Orme



Reversing Water Exchange Patterns at the Entrance to a Semiarid Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water velocity and density profiles were obtained in late-spring and late-winter to document reversing mean circulation patterns at the entrance to a semiarid coastal lagoon, the Bay of Guaymas, in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The lagoon is shallow but the bathymetry at its entrance is similar to that of temperate estuaries with an asymmetrically positioned channel flanked by shoals.

A. Valle-Levinson; J. A. Delgado; L. P. Atkinson



A mechanistic model of runoff-associated fecal coliform fate and transport through a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coastal lagoons or marshes can also be a source of high indicator organism concentrations in coastal waters. We asked for a Mediterranean-type climate,

B. M. Steets; P. A. Holden



The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion…

Barajas, Frank P.



Methanogenesis in an impacted and two dystrophic coastal lagoons (Macaé, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the methanogenic activity in sediment of the Imboacica (human impacted), Cabiúnas and Comprida coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). Methane was not detected in water and sediment samples from the three lagoons. The measured nutrient concentrations in the pore-water indicated that methanogens activity was not limited by nutrients. Methanogenic activity was not detected under in

André Luiz dos Santos Furtado; Peter Casper; Francisco de Assis Esteves



Community-based management and technical advice in Patos Lagoon estuary (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Forum of Patos Lagoon, a multi-partner entity, was established in 1996 to organize the fishery sector of the estuary of Patos Lagoon (Brazil). Through the Forum, a strong link between fishermen and researchers has been established. Some research projects are being developed according to the needs of the fishermen. To develop research projects related to community needs means to

F D’Incao; E. G Reis



Straining and advection contributions to the mixing process in the Patos Lagoon estuary, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estuarine area of coastal lagoons and freshwater-influenced regions presents periodically stratified and destratified conditions. The Patos Lagoon, one of the most important hydrological resources in South America, is located in the southernmost part of Brazil and exhibits such variable conditions. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of straining and advection to the modulation of

Wilian C. Marques; Elisa H. L. Fernandes; Luiz A. O. Rocha



Chemistry and distribution of trace elements in the Patos lagoon, South Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reports a thorough study of the geochemistry of some metals in the sediments of the Patos lagoon, one of the biggest coastal lagoons in the world (and the biggest in Brazil). After a screening study of the sediments, which considered the granulometry, organic carbon, organic nitrogen and sulphur contents, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations of more than

Paulo Roberto Baisch; Julio Cesar Wasserman



Zooplankton responses to sandbar opening in a tropical eutrophic coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a disturbance by sandbar opening on the zooplankton community were evaluated through a long-term study in an eutrophic and oligohaline system, Imboassica Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Zooplankton samples and limnological data were collected monthly from March 2000 to February 2003. Before the sandbar was opened in February 2001, the lagoon showed eutrophic conditions, with high mean

Jayme M. Santangelo; Adriana de M. Rocha; Reinaldo L. Bozelli; Luciana S. Carneiro; Francisco de A. Esteves



Submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients to the ocean along a coastal lagoon barrier, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patos–Mirim Lagoon system along the southern coast of Brazil is linked to the coastal ocean by a narrow mouth and by groundwater transport through a Holocene barrier. Although other groundwater systems are apparently active in this region, the hydraulic head of the lagoon, the largest in South America, drives groundwater transport to the coast. Water levels in wells placed

L. Felipe H. Niencheski; Herbert L. Windom; Willard S. Moore; Richard A. Jahnke



Cu and Fe associated with humic acids in sediments of a tropical coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of Cu and Fe associated with humic acids was estimated in five sediment cores from a tropical coastal lagoon (Piratininga Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Core samples were analysed for humic acid contents, total Fe and Cu content. Fe and Cu associated with humic acids were also measured. Results show amounts of humic acids ranging from 0.7 to

Julio Cesar Wasserman; Fernanda B. L Oliveira; Mônica Bidarra



Chemistry and distribution of trace elements in the Patos lagoon, South Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reports a thorough study of the geochemistry of some metals in the sediments of the Patos lagoon, one of the biggest coastal lagoons in the world (and the biggest in Brazil). After a screening study of the sediments, which considered the granulometry, organic carbon, organic nitrogen and sulphur contents, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations of more than

Paulo Baisch; Julio Cesar Wasserman


Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and production in a Brazilian coastal lagoon and in two German lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterioplanktonic abundance, biomass, and production within a tropical lagoon (Cabiúnas, Brazil) and two temperate lakes (Stechlin and Dagow, Germany) were compared. Bacterial abundance and production were significantly different among the three water bodies. The lowest bacterial production (0 .8µ gCl -1 d -1 ) was observed in the tropical Cabiúnas Lagoon despite its higher mean temperature and dissolved organic




Nutrient budgets and trophic state in a hypersaline coastal lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline lagoon with salinity varying spatially from 45 to 56. We collected water samples during monthly cruises throughout the lagoon, and along the streams feeding the system, from April 1991 to March 1992. Nutrients and other water quality parameters exhibited great spatial and temporal variations. Mass balance

Marcelo F. L. Souza; Björn Kjerfve; Bastiaan Knoppers; Weber F. Landim de Souza; Raimundo N. Damasceno



Wind and freshwater influence over hydrocarbon dispersal on Patos Lagoon, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-dimensional barotropic, hydrodynamic and transport model MOHID is applied to the Patos Lagoon system using a nested modelling approach to reproduce both the lagoon and estuary hydrodynamics. A new Lagrangian oil spill model is presented and used to simulate a hypothetical oil spill in the estuary. Hydrodynamic fields are validated and used to force the oil model. Results show

João Janeiro; Elisa Fernandes; Flávio Martins; Rodrigo Fernandes



Hydrology and Salt Balance in a Large, Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline coastal lagoon as a result of semi-arid climate conditions, a small drainage basin and a choked entrance channel. The lagoon has been continuously hypersaline for at least 4·5 centuries, but the mean salinity has varied substantially. It has recently decreased from 57 to 52 as indicated

Björn Kjerfve; C. A. F. Schettini; Bastiaan Knoppers; Guilherme Lessa; H. O. Ferreira



Effects of the Sand Bar Breaching on Typha domingensis (PERS.) in a Tropical Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal lagoons are usually subjected to several kinds of human impacts, especially eutrophication. The breaching of the sand bar, which separates the lagoon from the ocean, by human action, is a common process used to decrease the negative effects of eutrophication. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of the artificial sand bar breaching on the populations

Anderson M. dos Santos; André M. Amado; Murilo Minello; Vinicius F. Farjalla; Francisco A. Esteves



Tides and currents in a two-inlet coastal lagoon: Laguna de Terminos, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laguna de Terminos, the largest coastal lagoon in Mexico with a surface area of ZOO km2, is connected to the Gulf of Mexico via two major ocean inlets. Fifty percent of the lagoon water volume is renewed every 9 days, mostly as a function of tidal exchange. Two month-long field measurement periods indicate that the tide is mostly mixed, mainly

Bjorn Kjerfvea


Watershed scale assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in the Indian River Lagoon basin, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing evidence that the ecological and biological integrity of the lagoon has declined during the last 50 years, probably due to the decline in water quality. Establishment of a watershed scale seagrass-based nutrient load assessment is the major aim of water quality management in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Best estimate loadings incorporate wet and dry deposition,

Gilbert C. Sigua; Wendy A. Tweedale



Vegetation dynamics in impounded marshes along the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the vegetation dynamics of two impounded marshes along the Indian River Lagoon, in east-central Florida, USA. Vegetation in one of the marshes (IRC 12) was totally eliminated by overflooding and by hypersaline conditions (salinities over 100 ppt) that developed there in 1979 after the culvert connecting the marsh with the lagoon was closed. Over 20% recovery

Jorge R. Rey; Roy A. Crossman; Tim R. Kain



A Fault Model for Upgrades in Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies, and a large body of anecdotal evidence, suggest that upgrades are unreliable and often end in failure, causing downtime and data-loss. While this is sometimes due to software defects in the new version, most upgrade- failures are the result of faults in the upgrade procedure, such as broken dependencies. In this paper, we present data on upgrade failures

Tudor Dumitras; Soila Kavulya; Priya Narasimhan


D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade Piping Loads on Cleanroom Roof  

SciTech Connect

The proposed piping layout for the DO upgrade will run along the south wall of DAB. The cryogenic service pipe runs above the upper and lower cleanroom roofs and will need to be supported by the roofs beams. Calculations were done to determine the stresses in the I-beams created by the existing and additional loads due to the upgrade. Refer to drawing no. 3823.115-ME-317283 for drawings of the piping layout. Figure 1 shows the 'plan view' portion of this drawing. The weight of the individual lines were calculated in figure 2 assuming a pipe density of O.28 lbm/in{sup 3} for stainless steel (0.12% C) and a fluid density (assuming LN2 at 1 atm) of 0.03 lbm/in{sup 3}. The weights of the corrugated steel flooring, assembly hall feed cans, support beams, and roof hatch were also included in the analysis. These loads are calculated on pgs. 5-6. A floor load of 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} was also added in order to maintain the existing floor load limit in addition to the added piping loads. Measurements of the dimensions of the I-beams determined that the nominal sizes of the beams were W8 x 21 for the lower roof and W14 x 26 for the upper roof. Pipe lengths were determined from the drawing for each of the lines on pgs. 1-2 of the calculations (refer to all piping by line numbers according to figure 2). A total weight was calculated for lines 3-9 along the south wall and lines 1-2 running along the north wall of the lower cleanroom roof. To simplify the calculations these weights were assumed to be evenly distributed on the 5 I-beam supports of the lower cleanroom roof 2.5 feet in from the south wall. The stress analysis was done using FrameMac, a 2-D finite element program for the Macintosh. Beam 3 was not included in the analysis because it is structurally equivalent to beam 1. The program outputted maximum values for shear stress, bending stress, shear force, and moments in each of the beams analyzed. These values were then compared to the allowable stresses as per the specifications and codes stated in the AISC: Manual of Steel Construction. The stresses on the roof beams needed to be determined in a number of different places. The first was in the beam itself which included the flange and web sections. The second place was at the ends of the beams where the flanges were removed to make the perpendicular connections to the other beams on the lower roof. The final point was the framed beam connection which included the bolt analysis. FrameMac calculated stresses only for the beams which included the sections where the flanges were removed to make the end connections. To analyze the connections, the allowable bending and shear stresses were solved for allowable shear and moments. This was done because FrameMac does not have the capability to analyze the dimensions for the bolts and angles used in the connections were known and the program outputted values for reaction forces and moments at the ends of the beams. Multiplying the allowable shear stress for the bolts and angle connections by their respective areas gave the allowable shear force. The allowable moment for the angle connection was calculated by multiplying the section modulus of the angle by the allowable bending stress. These allowable loads are calculated on pgs. 7-8. The allowable and maximum calculated stresses by FrameMac are summarized in a table. In conclusion, the cleanroom roofs will be able to safely support the weight of the upgrade cryogenic piping, feed cans, corrugated flooring and a 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} floor load with the addition of diagonal braces at the ends of beams 1,2,3,4, and 8. The location and size of these diagonal braces are shown in fig. 4. Also, the piping supports and feed cans will all need to be placed directly above the I-beam supports. These supports will consist of unistrut structures that will be detailed and specified separate to this analysis. The output and input data from FrameMac and the drawings used in the analysis follow the calculation pages.

Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab



Millimetre Science with the Upgraded Australia Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new astronomical window into the southern skies has been opened with the high-frequency upgrade to the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which allows radio-interferometric mapping of sources at wavelengths as short as 3mm. In anticipation of the upgrade's completion, a two-day workshop was held at the University of Melbourne in November 2001. The workshop covered a diverse range of

T. Wong; A. Melatos



The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960's), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed\\/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the nontimed

Michael Oothoudt; Stuart Schaller; Eric Bjorklund; Mary Burns; Gary Carr; John Faucett; David Hayden; Matthew Lusk; Robert Merl; Jerry Potter; Jerome Reynolds; Dolores Romero; F. E. Shelley



Control upgrade study for Huntley Unit 65  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis conducted to support the Control Upgrade Project. The study's principal objective was to determine the potential benefits of upgrading the Huntley Unit 65 control system. Other study objectives included technology transfer and the identification of the main contributors to plant unavailability. The project used CAFTA software to model the plant. The RAM analysis was supplemented with a human factors evaluation. 15 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

Barber, S.H.; Colasanti, R.; Marko, R. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (USA)); Lassahn, P.L.; Brown, B.B.; House, W.E.; Rumble, E.T. III; Koren, J.M.; Grote, T.A.; Fray, R.R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))



Pulsed power supply for Nova Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes work carried out at the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT). A baseline design of the Nova Upgrade has been completed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Nova Upgrade is an 18 beamline Nd:glass laser design utilizing fully relayed 4 x 4 30 cm aperture segmented optical components. The laser thus consists of 288 independent beamlets nominally producing 1.5 to 2.0 MJ of 0.35 micron light in a 3 to 5 ns pulse. The laser design is extremely flexible and will allow a wide range of pulses to irradiate ICF targets. This facility will demonstrate ignition/gain and the scientific feasibility of ICF for energy and defense applications. The pulsed power requirements for the Nova Upgrade are given. CEM-UT was contracted to study and develop a design for a homopolar generator/inductor (HPG/inductor) opening switch system which would satisfy the pulsed power supply requirements of the Nova Upgrade. The Nd:glass laser amplifiers used in the Nova Upgrade will be powered by light from xenon flashlamps. The pulsed power supply for the Nova Upgrade powers the xenon flashlamps. This design and study was for a power supply to drive flashlamps.

Bacon, J. L.; Kajs, J. P.; Walls, A.; Weldon, W. F.; Zowarka, R. C.


Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewages of different composition and the effluents of four sewage treatment plants (STPs), plus sewage sludges were analysed for semivolatile organic priority pollutants. Furthermore, 11 landfill leachates were analysed to evaluate their contribution to sewage pollutants when co-treated. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the pollutant occurring at highest concentrations (up to 122 ?g\\/l) and it was present in all sewages and

Sanna K Marttinen; Riitta H Kettunen; Jukka A Rintala



Consistency of temporal and habitat-related differences among assemblages of fish in coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consistency of habitat-related differences in coastal lagoon fish assemblages was assessed across different spatial and temporal scales. Multimesh gillnets were used to sample assemblages of fish on a monthly basis for 1-year in three habitats (shallow seagrass, shallow bare and deep substrata) at two locations (>1 km apart), in each of two coastal lagoons (approximately 500 km apart), in southeastern Australia. A total of 48 species was sampled with 34 species occurring in both lagoons and in all three habitats; species caught in only one lagoon or habitat occurred in low numbers. Ten species dominated assemblages and accounted for more than 83% of all individuals sampled. In both lagoons, assemblages in the deep habitat consistently differed to those in the shallow strata (regardless of habitat). Several species were caught more frequently or in larger numbers in the deep habitat. Assemblages in the two shallow habitats did not differ consistently and were dominated by the same species and sizes of fish, possibly due to habitat heterogeneity and the scale and method of sampling. Within each lagoon, very few between location differences in assemblages within each habitat were observed. Consistent differences in assemblages were detected between lagoons for the shallow bare and deep habitats, indicating there were some intrinsic differences in ichthyofauna between lagoons. Assemblages in spring differed to those in summer, which differed to those in winter for the shallow bare habitat in both lagoons, and the deep habitat in only one lagoon. Fish-habitat relationships are complex and differences in the fish fauna between habitats were often temporally inconsistent. This study highlights the need for greater testing of habitat relationships in space and time to assess the generality of observations and to identify the processes responsible for structuring assemblages.

Gray, Charles A.; Rotherham, Douglas; Johnson, Daniel D.



Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different environmental factors acting upon the shell assemblages. These results suggest that tsunamigenic shell deposits can be identified based on their taphonomic characteristics when compared to beach and storm deposits in the same setting. Our data indicates that the following diagnostic taphonomic characteristics may indicate a tsunamigenic deposit: 1) presence/absence of articulated bivalves, 2) increased percentage of fragmented valves, 3) increased percentage of angular fragments, and 4) the large number of offshore bivalves in the lagoon. This study highlights the potential benefits and opportunity for using bivalve taphonomy as a useful indicator of paleotsunami deposits, particularly in protected coastal embayments in arid regions where stratified deposits might not readily preserve. This technique holds potential, as shell deposits are easy to identify in the field by non-experts, is very low cost, and analysis uses simple, easily applicable and recognizable taphonomic characteristics. Furthermore, this proxy can be used for risk assessment purposes in coastal areas with a seismic history but lacking a paleotsunami record. Further testing of this hypothesis should be conducted along the Omani coastline, particularly in the lagoons along the Eastern promontory. Key Words: tsunami, taphonomy, Oman, bivalve

Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.



Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

Frank, R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.



IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.




The Advanced Light Source Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The ALS, a third-generation synchrotron light source at Berkeley Lab, has been operating for almost a decade and is generating forefront science by exploiting the high brightness of a third-generation source in three areas: (1) high resolving power for spectroscopy; (2) high spatial resolution for microscopy and spectromicroscopy; and (3) high coherence for experiments such as speckle. However, the ALS was one of the first third-generation machines to be designed, and accelerator and insertion-device technology have significantly changed since its conception. As a result, its performance will inevitably be outstripped by newer, more advanced sources. To remain competitive and then set a new standard, the performance of the ALS, in particular its brightness, must be enhanced. Substantial improvements in brightness and current have always been feasible in principle, but they incur the penalty of a much reduced lifetime, which is totally unacceptable to our users. Significant brightness improvements can be realized in the core soft x-ray region by going to top-off operation, where injection would be quasi-continuous and the lifetime objections disappear. In top-off mode with higher average current, a reduced vertical emittance and beta function, and small-gap permanent-magnet or superconducting insertion devices, one to two orders of magnitude improvement in brightness can be had in the soft x-ray range. These improvements also extend the high energy range of the undulator radiation beyond the current limit of 2000 eV. Descriptions of the upgrade and the important new science achievable are presented.

Chemla, Daniel S.; Feinberg, Benjamin; Hussain, Zahid; Krebs, Gary F.; Padmore, Howard A.; Robin, David S.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Smith, Neville V.



PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application.  


Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g(-1) dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g(-1) dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC-NCI-MS, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC(soil) values compared to the relative PNEC(soil) for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:22230090

Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria



Sedimentation rates and erosion processes in the lagoon of Venice.  


Since the early 1990s in the lagoon of Venice, especially in the central basin, the surface sediment underwent high re-suspension and sedimentation changes and water turbidity increased both because of the disappearance of the macroalgal coverage and the harvesting of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve, which had rapidly colonised the bottom free of macrophytes. Clams are harvested with hydraulic and mechanical dredges which remove and re-suspend surface sediments causing the transport and loss of the finest materials. Sediment transport and re-deposition in the lagoon have been monitored with sediment traps placed onto the bottoms near the Malamocco mouth (st. A), the Lido watershed (st. B) and the mainland (sts. C and D). From 1989-1993 to 1998-1999 sedimentation rates increased significantly at st. A (from 41 to 228 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)), st. B (from 65 to 760 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)) and st. C (from 140 to 721 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)), while at st. D sedimentation rates increased only by ca. 20%. In parallel sediment grain-size changed with a loss of the finest fraction especially near the mainland. The erosion or sedimentation status, acquired by utilizing sedimentation devices placed onto the bottoms, showed that sts. B, C, D were affected by sediment losses, while st. A, populated by seagrasses and characterised by seasonal variations which depend on the shoot development, did not show any significant bathymetric change on an annual basis. The highest sediment erosion was recorded at st. D (ca. 3.6 cm year(-1)) whereas a loss of ca. 1.5 and 0.5 cm year(-1) was found at sts. C and B, respectively, which accounted for a mean loss in the central lagoon of ca. 1.2 million tonnes year(-1). Those data agree with the previous indirect estimation of sediment loss which was based on the number of fishing boats operating in the lagoon on an annual basis. PMID:16083960

Sfriso, Adriano; Adriano, Sfriso; Facca, Chiara; Chiara, Facca; Marcomini, Antonio; Antonio, Marcomini



Organocopper complexes during roxarsone degradation in wastewater lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Organoarsenical-containing animal feeds that promote growth and resistance to parasites are mostly excreted unchanged, ending\\u000a up in nearby wastewater storage lagoons. Earlier work documented the partial transformation of organoarsenicals, such as,\\u000a 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) to the more toxic inorganic arsenate [As(V)] and 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic\\u000a acid (3-AHPAA). Unidentified roxarsone metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass

Syam S. Andra; Konstantinos C. Makris; Shahida Quazi; Dibyendu Sarkar; Rupali Datta; Stephan B. H. Bach



Algal fossils from a late precambrian, hypersaline lagoon.  


Organically preserved algal microfossils from the Ringwood evaporite deposit in the Gillen Member of the Bitter Springs Formation (late Precambrian of central Australia) are of small size, low diversity, and probable prokaryotic affinities. These rather primitive characteristics appear to reflect the stressful conditions that prevailed in a periodically stagnant, hypersaline lagoon. This assemblage (especially in comparison with the much more diverse assemblages preserved in the Loves Creek Member of the same formation) illustrates the potential utility of Proterozoic microbiotas for basin analysis and local stratigraphic correlation and demonstrates the need to base evolutionary considerations and Precambrian intercontinental biostratigraphy on biotas that inhabited less restricted environments. PMID:17790847

Oehler, D Z; Oehler, J H; Stewart, A J



Fish endocrine disruption responses to a major wastewater treatment facility upgrade.  


The urban-water cycle modifies natural stream hydrology, and domestic and commercial activities increase the burden of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol, that can disrupt endocrine system function in aquatic organisms. This paper presents a series of integrated chemical and biological investigations into the occurrence, fate, and effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the City of Boulder Colorado's WWTF and Boulder Creek, the receiving stream. Results are presented showing the effects of a full-scale upgrade of the WWTF (that treats 0.6 m(3) s(-1) of sewage) from a trickling filter/solids contact process to an activated sludge process on the removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other contaminants (including nutrients, boron, bismuth, gadolinium, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) through each major treatment unit. Corresponding impacts of pre- and postupgrade effluent chemistry on fish reproductive end points were evaluated using on-site, continuous-flow experiments, in which male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 28 days to upstream Boulder Creek water and WWTF effluent under controlled conditions. The upgrade of the WWTF resulted in improved removal efficiency for many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, particularly 17?-estradiol and estrone, and fish exposed to the postupgrade effluent indicated reduction in endocrine disruption relative to preupgrade conditions. PMID:22300164

Barber, Larry B; Vajda, Alan M; Douville, Chris; Norris, David O; Writer, Jeffery H



Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that the viral universe is far more vast and diverse than previously suspected.

Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.



Spatial variability in fish species assemblage and community structure in four subtropical lagoons of the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The species assemblage and community structure of four lagoons was assessed through time series data collected between 2001 and 2005 in the Okavango Delta. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of lagoons as fish habitats in the Delta. Therefore, this study assessed the importance of these habitats through determining fish species diversity, composition, relative abundance, and community structure between the lagoons. Forty six species belonging to 11 families and five orders were collected over the study period. Main results showed that Cichlidae was the most important family and had the highest species richness in the lagoons. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in species richness, faunal composition, and diversity among some of the lagoons. Moreover, there were also variations in species composition, and also significant differences in mean length and weight of some selected fish species in the four lagoons. This study showed that lagoons are important repositories of food fish to local communities. Moreover, a management of the fish stocks based on restricting fishing in some lagoons as protected areas is not feasible because of these significant differences in species assemblages between lagoons. Furthermore, lagoons are subject to multiple where most of the lodges are constructed, which makes subsequently makes them vulnerable to pollution. Therefore, the integrity of lagoon habitats needs to be maintained so that their ecosystem functioning (i.e. fish repositories) is maintained.

Mosepele, K.; Mosepele, B.; Bokhutlo, T.; Amutenya, K.


High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa.  


Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (?(15)N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of 'reproducibility', incorporating 'taxonomic replication' in the measurement of ?(15)N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects. PMID:23602260

Connolly, Rod M; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S; Kildea, Timothy N; Schlacher, Thomas A




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...



EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...


Sewage Sludge Incinerator Fuel Reduction at Nashville, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report on the sewage sludge incineration fuel reduction program at the Nashville-Davidson County Metropolitan Government wastewater treatment plant in Nashville, Tennessee. Fuel usage was reduced over 40 percent by reprogramming the methods used...

A. J. Verdouw E. W. Waltz



Preliminary Investigation of Sewage Sludge Dumping off Delaware Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Requests from Region II Water Supply and Sea Resources Program, the shellfish sanitation agencies in the states of Region II, the shelfish industry and others interested in the pollution potential of sewage sludge, chemical wastes and other wastes being d...

R. W. Buelow B. H. Pringle J. L. Verber



Effects of Irrigation of Municipal Sewage Effluent on Spoil Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The discharge of increasing volumes of sewage effluent from waste water treatment plants as a result of increasing population and urbanization has accentuated water pollution problems in the eastern United States. Such effluents are relatively rich in min...

W. E. Sopper



Agricultural Utilization of Sewage Effluent and Sludge. An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effluent and sewage sludge from municipal and industrial treatment plants is a source of water and nutrients for agricultural uses. Considering its potential, only a few instances of agricultural uses of waste water in crop production have been record...

J. P. Law




EPA Science Inventory

This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...


Use of Coal to Enhance Metabolic Treatment of Sewage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A newly proposed sewage treatment process in which coal particulates are suspended in mixed liquor and recirculated with activated sludge has been investigated. The premise that the suspended coal particles concentrate nutrients and organic matter by phys...



Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) power, by installing 2 × 8 internal magnetic perturbation coils, and by improving the ion cyclotron range of frequency compatibility with the tungsten wall. With the perturbation coils, reliable suppression of large type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) could be demonstrated in a wide operational window, which opens up above a critical plasma pedestal density. The pellet fuelling efficiency was observed to increase which gives access to H-mode discharges with peaked density profiles at line densities clearly exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit. Owing to the increased ECRH power of 4 MW, H-mode discharges could be studied in regimes with dominant electron heating and low plasma rotation velocities, i.e. under conditions particularly relevant for ITER. The ion-pressure gradient and the neoclassical radial electric field emerge as key parameters for the transition. Using the total simultaneously available heating power of 23 MW, high performance discharges have been carried out where feed-back controlled radiative cooling in the core and the divertor allowed the divertor peak power loads to be maintained below 5 MW m-2. Under attached divertor conditions, a multi-device scaling expression for the power-decay length was obtained which is independent of major radius and decreases with magnetic field resulting in a decay length of 1 mm for ITER. At higher densities and under partially detached conditions, however, a broadening of the decay length is observed. In discharges with density ramps up to the density limit, the divertor plasma shows a complex behaviour with a localized high-density region in the inner divertor before the outer divertor detaches. Turbulent transport is studied in the core and the scrape-off layer (SOL). Discharges over a wide parameter range exhibit a close link between core momentum and density transport. Consistent with gyro-kinetic calculations, the density gradient at half plasma radius determines the momentum transport through residual stress and thus the central toroidal rotation. In the SOL a close comparison of probe data with a gyro-fluid code showed excellent agreement and points to the dominance of drift waves. Intermittent structures from ELMs and from turbulence are shown to have high ion temperatures even at large distances outside the separatrix.

Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Äkäslompolo, S.; Amdor, C.; Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bardin, S.; Barrera Orte, L.; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottereau, C.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Brochard, T.; Brüdgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Casson, F. J.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I. G. J.; Coenen, J. W.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Curran, D.; da Silva, F.; de Marné, P.; D'Inca, R.; Douai, D.; Drube, R.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Fünfgelder, H.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gál, K.; García Muñoz, M.; Geiger, B.; Giannone, L.; Görler, T.; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; Härtl, T.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Höhnle, H.; Hölzl, M.; Hopf, C.; Houben, A.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kantor, M.; Käsemann, C.-P.; Kallenbach, A.; Kálvin, S.; Kantor, M.; Kappatou, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kasparek, W.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H.-J.; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kubic, M.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Lazaros, A.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lindig, S.; Lisgo, S.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Maraschek, M.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuwirth, D.; Nocente, M.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Plöckl, B.; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polozhiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Püschel, M. J.; Pütterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reimold, F.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Rooij, G. v.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Santos, J.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sommer, F.; Stäbler, A.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Tala, T.; Tardini, G.; Teschke, M.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Tsalas, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Varela, P.; Veres, G.; Vicente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Viola, B.; Vorpahl, C.; Wachowski, M.; Wagner, D.; Wauters, T.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Würsching, E.; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.



Metal sorption on soils as affected by the dissolved organic matter in sewage sludge and the relative calculation of sewage sludge application  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the influences of sewage sludge-derived organic matters on metal sorption and on the resultant sludge loading estimates, a batch experiment was conducted to compare the sorption of Ni, Cu and Pb in sewage sludge filtrates (1:20 sewage sludge to water) on eight soils and the adsorption of metals in a reference solution which had the same matrix as

Xiaoli Liu; Shuzhen Zhang; Wenyong Wu; Honglu Liu



Aminopropanone as a marker for raw sewage in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminopropanone has been identified in raw sewage. Its presence at high concentrations (up to 60 ?mol l?1) in several samples from the Mersey Estuary (UK) and Port Erin Bay (Isle of Man) is consistent with the contamination at those sites. The lifetime of the ketone is sufficiently long (t12ca 8–10 days in raw sewage) for it to be useful as

Mark F. Fitzsimons; M. Kamil Abdul Rashid; John P. Riley; George A. Wolff



Molecular Detection of Norwalk-Like Caliciviruses in Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Norwalk-like virus (NLV) RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in sewage water concentrates. Sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products revealed identical sequences in stools of patients and related sewage samples. In 6 of 11 outbreak-unrelated follow-up samples, multiple NLV genotypes were present. Levels as high as 10 7 RNA-containing particles per liter were found. These




Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae



Toxicity evaluation of sewage sludges in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobically digested sewage sludges collected from four wastewater treatment plants located in Sha Tin, Tai Po, Yuen Long, and Shek Wu Hui in Hong Kong were subjected to chemical characterization and toxicity testing to provide preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. All sewage sludges were slightly alkaline with pH range of 8.3–8.7. Electrical conductivity (EC; 0.69 dS m?1)

J. W. C Wong; K Li; M Fang; D. C Su



Extractabilities of heavy metals in chemically-fixed sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically-fixed sewage sludges, including lime-treated sludge (LS), lime–sodium silicate-treated sludge (LSS), cement-treated sludge (CS), and cement–sodium silicate-treated sludge (CSS), were produced from sewage sludge by bench processes using lime, cement, and sodium silicate as additives. The extractabilities of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) in these chemically-fixed sludges were studied using sequential extraction and single extraction. For comparative objectives,

Ping-Chin Hsiau; Shang-Lien Lo



The CDF level 2 calorimetric trigger upgrade  

SciTech Connect

CDF II upgraded the calorimeter trigger to cope with the higher detector occupancy due to the increased Tevatron instantaneous luminosity ({approx} 2.8 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}). While the original system was implemented in custom hardware and provided to the L2 trigger a limited-quality jet clustering performed using a reduced resolution measurement of the transverse energy in the calorimeter trigger towers, the upgraded system provides offline-quality jet reconstruction of the full resolution calorimeter data. This allows to keep better under control the dependence of the trigger rates on the instantaneous luminosity and to improve the efficiency and purity of the trigger selections. The upgraded calorimeter trigger uses the general purpose VME board Pulsar, developed at CDF II and already widely used to upgrade the L2 tracking and L2 decision systems. A battery of Pulsars is used to merge and send the calorimeter data to the L2 CPUs, where software-implemented algorithms perform offline-like clustering. In this paper we review the design and the performance of the upgraded system.

Bhatti, A.; /Rockefeller U.; Canepa, A.; /Pennsylvania U.; Casarsa, M.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore; Convery, M.; /Fermilab; Cortiana, G.; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua; Dell'Orso, M.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore; Donati, S.; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore; Flanagan, G.; /Purdue U.; Frisch, H.; /Chicago U., EFI; Fukun, T.; /Chicago U., EFI; Krop, D.; /Chicago U., EFI /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore



Improving spanning trees by upgrading nodes  

SciTech Connect

We study budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. A general problem in this setting is the following. We are given an edge weighted graph G = (V, E) where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has the best performance with respect to some measure. We consider the problem under two measures, namely, the weight of a minimum spanning tree and the bottleneck weight of a minimum bottleneck spanning tree. We present approximation and hardness results for the problem. Our results are tight to within constant factors. We also show that these approximation algorithms can be used to construct good approximation algorithms for the dual versions of the problems where there is a budget constraint on the upgrading cost and the objectives are minimum weight spanning tree and minimum bottleneck weight spanning tree respectively.

Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science] [and others



Lagooning of wastewaters favors dissemination of clinically relevant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  


The significance of wastewater treatment lagoons (WWTLs) as point sources of clinically relevant Pseudomonas aeruginosa that can disseminate through rural and peri-urban catchments was investigated. A panel of P. aeruginosa strains collected over three years from WWTLs and community-acquired infections was compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Forty-four distantly related PFGE profiles and four clonal complexes were found among the WWTL strains analyzed. Some genotypes were repeatedly detected from different parts of WWTLs, including the influent, suggesting an ability to migrate and persist over time. MLST showed all investigated lineages to match sequence types described in other countries and strains from major clinical clones such as PA14 of ST253 and "C" of ST17 were observed. Some of these genotypes matched isolates from community-acquired infections recorded in the WWTL geographic area. Most WWTL strains harbored the main P. aeruginosa virulence genes; 13% harbored exoU-encoded cytoxins, but on at least six different genomic islands, with some of these showing signs of genomic instability. P. aeruginosa appeared to be highly successful opportunistic colonizers of WWTLs. Lagooning of wastewaters was found to favor dissemination of clinically relevant P. aeruginosa among peri-urban watersheds. PMID:23792168

Petit, Stéphanie M-C; Lavenir, Raphaël; Colinon-Dupuich, Céline; Boukerb, Amine M; Cholley, Pascal; Bertrand, Xavier; Freney, Jean; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne; Nazaret, Sylvie; Laurent, Frédéric; Cournoyer, Benoit



Estuarine and lagoon biodiversity and their natural goods and services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing and monitoring ecosystem quality status and service provision of aquatic ecosystems is an increasingly important area of scientific, socio-economical and political interest. Contributions from two related meetings organized by the Estuarine & Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and the Euro-Mediterranean Lagoon Federation (EUROMEDLAG) address this area of interest in estuaries and lagoons, dominant types of transitional waters, by an integration of holistic and reductionistic approaches. In this context, we synthesise the key points raised by the contributions given at the two meetings to emphasise that transitional waters have emergent properties, which support their classification as an aquatic realm different from both freshwater and marine ones. They provide crucial ecosystem services, such as food provision and support for nutrient cycling, whose value and underlying mechanisms have been addressed with particular reference to estuarine ecosystems. The experimental studies show the mechanistic relationships and the responses of ecosystem functions and biodiversity to contrasting/changing environmental conditions with human activities as key drivers affecting both biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision.

Basset, A.; Elliott, M.; West, R. J.; Wilson, J. G.



Modeling interaction of fluid and salt in an aquifer/lagoon system.  


To simulate the dynamic interaction between a saline lagoon and a ground water system, a numerical model for two-dimensional, variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, and coupled flow and solute transport (saltwater intrusion by finite elements and characteristics [SIFEC]) was modified to allow the volume of water and mass of salt in the lagoon to vary with each time step. The modified SIFEC allows the stage of a lagoon to vary in accordance with a functional relation between the stage and water volume of the lagoon, and also allows the salt concentration of the lagoon to vary in accordance with the salt budget of the lagoon including chemical precipitation and dissolution of salt. The updated stage and salt concentration of the lagoon are in turn used as transient boundary conditions for the coupled flow and solute transport model. The utility of the modified model was demonstrated by applying it to the eastern Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey for assessing impacts of climate change on the subsurface environment under scenarios of sea level rise, increased evaporation, and decreased precipitation. PMID:18715262

Fujinawa, Katsuyuki; Iba, Takahiro; Fujihara, Yohichi; Watanabe, Tsugihiro



Mercury in lagoons: An overview of the importance of the link between geochemistry and biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow-water lagoons, which are common features along coastlines, are important sites for elemental cycling in this environmentally-sensitive terrestrial-marine interface. Factors governing mercury (Hg) cycling in these lagoons are poorly characterized, but critical to understanding the links between sources and higher trophic levels, that are ultimately vectors of human exposure in lagoon environments. This article discusses the processes controlling the fate of Hg from various sources, including methylation of Hg, demethylation of methylmercury, and benthic fluxes of Hg species in three of the most thoroughly studied lagoons worldwide, namely Thau (France), Venice (Italy) and Marano and Grado (Italy). Although each lagoon system experiences differences in sources of Hg and details of how Hg is transformed and transported, Hg in each system is strongly affected by biogeochemical transformations of other elements, especially redox sensitive, microbially important elements such as sulphur, iron and manganese, and their interaction with organic matter. The shallow nature of lagoons and the rapid rates of microbially mediated organic matter decomposition result in seasonally dynamic processes that influence Hg bioavailability. Despite considerable work to date, the current understanding of Hg dynamics in lagoon ecosystems, through Hg distribution, MeHg production and degradation, and trophic transfer, is still limited and more research is needed to link all subparts into a general coherent picture.

Faganeli, Jadran; Hines, Mark E.; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Giani, Michele



Spatial and temporal dynamic of trophic relevant parameters in a subtropical coastal lagoon in Brazil.  


Coastal lagoons are ecologically and economically important environments but a relative low number of studies were carried out in subtropical and permanently closed coastal lagoons. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial dynamic of trophic relevant water quality parameters in the small, deep and freshwater Peri coastal lagoon, South Brazil. During the 19 sampled months (March/2008-September/2009) spatial homogeneity (horizontal and vertical) was registered in all seasons for all variables, a condition related to the strong wind influence and low human occupation in the lagoon watershed. Seasonal variations of the water quality could be observed and they can be explained mainly by variation on temperature, wind forces and direction and rainfall, characteristic from the subtropical weather. Comparing this study with two others conducted in Peri lagoon in 1996 and 1998, no critical differences that evidence alteration in the water quality were found, but climate differences may have influenced in some small variations observed. The use of four trophic state indices indicated that indices designed for temperate lakes are inappropriate for the subtropical Peri lagoon. The lagoon was classified as oligotrophic for nutrients concentrations and meso-eutrophic for transparency and chlorophyll-a, which can be explained by the high densities and monodominance of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and the high recycling rates observed in warmer water bodies, when compared to the temperate ones. PMID:21190080

Hennemann, Mariana Coutinho; Petrucio, Mauricio Mello



A comparative study of the pollution status of Sakumo II and Muni lagoons in Ghana.  


The pollution status of Sakumo II and Muni Lagoons and Mamahuma and Gbagbla Ankonu feeder streams, which feed Sakumo II along the coast of Ghana, were assessed and compared. As expected of saline waters, pH values of both lagoons fell within a slightly neutral to saline range whilst, the feeder streams were moderately saline. Conductivity distribution also showed saline (>5.0 mS cm(-1)) characteristics of the lagoons, while, the feeder streams are brackish (1.5-5.0 mS cm(-1)). DO concentrations in both lagoons indicated a wide variation. Relatively high BOD and nutrients content of Sakumo II and the feeder streams suggested that, Sakumo II and its feeder streams are moderately to grossly polluted. However, Muni Lagoon was characterized by relatively low BOD and nutrients content suggesting relatively low anthropogenic impact. The ionic dominance patterns for Sakumo II and Muni Lagoons were: Na(+) > Mg(2 + ) > Ca(2 + ) and Cl(-) > HCO(3)(-) > SO(4)(2-), Na(+) > Ca(2 + ) > Mg(2 + ) and Cl(-) > HCO(3)(-) > SO(4)(2-), respectively. Using water quality index (WQI), Sakumo II was found to be grossly polluted and requires mitigation measures, while, Muni Lagoon was of fairly good quality and requires monitoring. PMID:20818047

Tay, Collins; Asmah, Ruby; Biney, Charles A



Impact of tidal inlet and its geomorphological changes on lagoon environment: A numerical model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphological changes of a tidal inlet are governed by complex interactions of tidal currents, waves and sediments. Tidal inlet(s) of the Chilika lagoon (19° 28?-19° 54? N; 85° 06?-85° 35? E) on the east coast of India and its geomorphological changes is linked to the contemporary phase of lagoon transformation such as sedimentation (from riverine discharge, land drainage and decay of macrophytes), choking of the outer channel, northward shifting, closing and opening of inlet(s). These transformations are responsible for decrease in salinity, depth and weak lagoon-sea interaction, which in turn are responsible for decline in water area, increase in vegetated area (macrophyte growth) and decrease in fish productivity. The present study investigates the past and present geomorphological changes of Chilika inlet(s) using historical data, satellite data, field observations and numerical modelling techniques. A numerical model was used to simulate the hydrodynamic conditions and salinity distribution in the lagoon for one inlet and multiple inlets and the results are calibrated with observations. The study suggests that tidal inlet(s) and its geomorphological changes have significant impacts on ebb and flood currents at the inlet(s), salinity distribution in the lagoon, sediment and water exchange between the lagoon and sea. Possible impacts of inlet(s) on ecological conditions of the lagoon environment are discussed.

Panda, U. S.; Mohanty, P. K.; Samal, R. N.



Functional ecological patterns and the effect of anthropogenic disturbances on a recently restored Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Needs for a sustainable restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a detailed case study on the lessons learned after a restoration process of a natural ecosystem, which can be considered as an ecological experiment. Senillar de Moraira is a brackish water small coastal lagoon located in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. It is separated from the sea by a sand bar and a beach, and is regularly fed by groundwater. Mostly due to the strong anthropogenic pressure this lagoon was degraded, and a restoration process, consisting mostly on the rebuilt of hydrogeomorphological features, was accomplished about a decade ago. After the restoration project, ecological monitoring was performed to reveal the recovery of the ecological integrity of the ecosystem, mainly focusing on the restoration of ecological processes and biological communities. Biological communities, rates of autotrophic (primary production) and heterotrophic (respiration) processes, sediment inputs and wash-out, and other ecological features were monitored during one and half year, two years after the restoration works finished, and the ecological patterns of the current functioning of this ecosystem were determined in order to suggest management strategies for its conservation.The maintenance of most anthropogenic pressures hardly allows the sustainability of natural processes to preserve the ecological health of the ecosystem. According to our results, the success of the restoration process is strongly compromised by the maintenance of most pressures, and subsidies are needed to allow the preservation of a somewhat natural condition of the ecosystem. Though many typical species and functional groups and processes re-established after the restoration, a progressive degradation was observed, especially reflected in the decline of submerged macrophytes that are essential to the maintenance of the ecological health of the system. The decline of these macrophytes was caused by a combination of impacts and risks that were not totally removed when restoration works were accomplished, namely the risk of occasional sewage inputs, increased salinity by groundwater overexploitation, enhanced siltation caused by deforestation in the catchment, and increased pressure of exotic species. This also resulted in a change of the functioning of the lagoon, from the dominance of autotrophic processes driven by macrophytes, to that of heterotrophic processes mediated by increased organic matter and inorganic nutrient inputs, and to the dominance of phytoplanktonic primary production, as revealed by the statistical analyses of the obtained data. This offers the lesson that attempts for ecological restoration without removing the causes of degradation result in the lack of self-sustainability of ecosystem functioning and drive to a perennial need for maintenance measures.

Camacho, Antonio; Peinado, Raquel; Santamans, Anna C.; Picazo, Antonio



[National survey of urban sewage reuse in China].  


On the basis of the national survey of the urban sewage treatment, the survey of 2007 national urban sewage reuse was conducted under the charge of the Ministry of Water Resources. The survey results indicated that the amount of urban sewage reuse was 17.9 x 10(8) m3 x a(-1), mainly used for industry, landscape, agriculture forestry, animal husbandry, urban non-potable water, and groundwater recharge. The urban sewage reuse rate was 5.23%. There were 127 sewage reclaiming plants in China, of which the production capacity of reclaimed water reached 347.75 x 10(4) m3 x d(-1), which produced 5.74 x 10(8) m3 reclaimed water in 2007. The total investment of sewage reclaiming plants was 56.44 x 10(8) Yuan, in which the central government investment, local fiscal investment and other investments accounted for 16%, 26% and 58%, respectively. The reclaimed water price varied greatly with the purposes or areas. PMID:23323420

Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Zhen-Min



Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available



Assessing hydrological effects of human interventions on coastal systems: numerical applications to the Venice Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological consequences of historical, contemporary and future human activities on a coastal system were investigated by means of numerical models. The changes in the morphology of the Lagoon of Venice during the last century result from the sedimentological response to the combined effects of human interventions on the environment and global changes. This study focuses on changes from 1927 to 2012 and includes the changes planned for the protection of the city of Venice from storm surges and exceptional tides under future sea level rise scenarios. The application of a hydrodynamic model allowed for the analysis of the morphological effects on the lagoon circulation, the interaction with the sea and the internal mixing processes. The absolute values of the exchange between the lagoon and sea increased from 1927 to 2002 (from 3900 to 4600 m3 s-1), while the daily fraction of lagoon water volume exchanged decreased. At the same time, the flattening of the lagoon and loss of morphological heterogeneity enhanced the internal mixing processes driven by the tide and wind, reducing thus the overall water renewal time from 11.9 days in 1927 to 10.8 days in 2002. Morphological changes during the last decade reduced the water exchange through the inlets and induced an increase of the basin-wide water renewal time of 0.5 day. In the future, Venice Lagoon will evolve to a more restricted environment due to sea level rise, which increases the lagoon volume, and periodical closure of the lagoon from the sea during flooding events, which reduces the communication with the open sea. Therefore, the flushing capacity of the lagoon will decrease considerably, especially in its central part. Furthermore, some considerations on the impact of the hydromorphological changes on the ecological dynamics are proposed.

Ferrarin, C.; Ghezzo, M.; Umgiesser, G.; Tagliapietra, D.; Camatti, E.; Zaggia, L.; Sarretta, A.



Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.



Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct mar