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1

Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1976-01-01

2

Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1975-01-01

3

13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

4

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01

5

Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01

6

Wastewater Stabilization Lagoon Effluent Upgrading with Modified Intermittent Sand Filters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field studies were performed to evaluate the use of intermittent sand filters (ISF) modified with an overlay of corn stalk residue for upgrading wastewater lagoon effluent. An unmodified control filter was also evaluated. Hydraulic loading of 4700 m3/ha-d...

D. E. Modesitt G. W. Shaffer

1982-01-01

7

Project summary: Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing 420,000 cubic meters (111 million gallons) of digested sewage sludge stored for up to 50 years. The project consisted of the following major tasks: (1) obtaining approval from regulatory agencies; (2) obtaining cooperation of landowners and farmers; (3) removing, transporting, and applying the lagooned sludge to soil; and (4) monitoring the impact on crops.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01

8

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

9

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

DOE /NV Operations Office

1999-05-01

10

Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

NONE

1997-07-01

11

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

USDOE /NV

1999-05-01

12

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU.

US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

1999-12-23

13

Project Summary: Spreading Lagooned Sewage Sludge on Farm Land: A Case History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing ...

C. M. Robson L. E. Sommers

1995-01-01

14

Microbial Activities During Sewage Treatment in Lagoons. I. Changes in Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria, Actinomycetes, and Fungi. II. Changes in Different Types of Fungi. III. Changes in BOD and Dehydrogenase Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two domestic sewage lagoons were used to study biological oxygen demand (BOD) and dehydrogenase activity changes during one year period. Both BOD and dehydrogenase activity were higher during summer months than winter. BOD in the effluent followed the sam...

K. S. Chahal

1974-01-01

15

Pollutant removal from municipal sewage lagoon effluents with a free-surface wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project was initiated to refine the knowledge available on the treatment of rural municipal wastewater by constructed wetlands. To determine the treatment capacity of a constructed wetland system receiving municipal lagoon effluents, the wetland was monitored over one treatment season, from May 19 to November 3, 2000. The wetland system consisted of a three-cell free-surface wetland, phosphorus adsorption

Kimberley Cameron; Chandra Madramootoo; Anna Crolla; Christopher Kinsley

2003-01-01

16

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

D. S. Tobiason

2001-07-01

17

Sequencing batch reactor technology: the key to a BP refinery (Bulwer Island) upgraded environmental protection system--a low cost lagoon based retro-fit.  

PubMed

BP Refinery (Bulwer Island) Ltd (BP) located on the eastern Australian coast is currently undergoing a major expansion as a part of the Queensland Clean Fuels Project. The associated wastewater treatment plant upgrade will provide a better quality of treated effluent than is currently possible with the existing infrastructure, and which will be of a sufficiently high standard to meet not only the requirements of imposed environmental legislation but also BP's environmental objectives. A number of challenges were faced when considering the upgrade, particularly; cost constraints and limited plot space, highly variable wastewater, toxicity issues, and limited hydraulic head. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) Technology was chosen for the lagoon upgrade based on the following; SBR technology allowed a retro-fit of the existing earthen lagoon without the need for any additional substantial concrete structures, a dual lagoon system allowed partial treatment of wastewaters during construction, SBRs give substantial process flexibility, SBRs have the ability to easily modify process parameters without any physical modifications, and significant cost benefits. This paper presents the background to this application, an outline of laboratory studies carried out on the wastewater and details the full scale design issues and methods for providing a cost effective, efficient treatment system using the existing lagoon system. PMID:11381925

Hudson, N; Doyle, J; Lant, P; Roach, N; de Bruyn, B; Staib, C

2001-01-01

18

Sewage Disposal at Point Barrow, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the Middle Salt Lagoon, Point Barrow, Alaska, the sewage depository of the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory, was initiated. Microbial analyses were carried out on runoff, lagoon water, and bottom sediments throughout the summer. The lagoon as a...

W. L. Boyd B. P. Klubek J. W. Boyd

1972-01-01

19

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

1999-06-10

20

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

D. S. Tobiason

2000-09-01

21

Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. (USGS)

Bobay, K. E.

1988-01-01

22

Reversal of eutrophication following sewage treatment upgrades in the New River Estuary, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New River Estuary consists of a series of broad shallow lagoons draining a catchment area of 1,436 km2, located in Onslow County, North Carolina. During the 1980s and 1990s it was considered one of the most eutrophic estuaries\\u000a in the southeastern United States and sustained dense phytoplankton blooms, bottom water anoxia and hypoxia, toxic outbreaks\\u000a of the dinoflagellatePfiesteria, and

Michael A. Mallin; Matthew R. McIver; Heather A. Wells; Douglas C. Parsons; Virginia L. Johnson

2005-01-01

23

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office?s selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

DOE /NV

2000-04-20

24

PERFORMANCE AND UPGRADING OF WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings contain 18 papers discussing and describing the design, operation, performance, and upgrading of lagoon systems. Performance data for facultative and aerated lagoons collected at numerous sites throughout the USA are presented. Design criteria and the applicabilit...

25

Comparative Study of Wastewater Lagoon with and without Water Hyacinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-year study was conducted on an existing, one-cell, facultative sewage lagoon having a total surface area of 3.6 ha and\\u000a receiving a BOD5 loading rate of 44 kglhald (40 Iblald). The comparative experimental periods ran from July through November for 3 consecutive\\u000a years. During the first period, water hyacinths completely covered the lagoon. The water hyacinth coverage was reduced

Rebecca C. Mcdonald; B. C. Wolverton

1980-01-01

26

Anthropogenic nutrient sources and loads from a Mediterranean catchment into a coastal lagoon: Mar Menor, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mar Menor is a coastal lagoon increasingly threatened by urban and agricultural pressures. The main watercourse draining into the lagoon is the Rambla del Albujón. A fortnightly campaign carried out over one annual cycle enabled us to characterize the treated urban sewage effluents and agricultural sources which contribute to the nutrient fluxes in the watercourse. Multivariate analysis provided information

J. García-Pintado; M. Martínez-Mena; G. G. Barberá; J. Albaladejo; V. M. Castillo

2007-01-01

27

Water Quality Characteristics at the Estuary of Korle Lagoon in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korle lagoon is a major run-off water receptacle and outlet from the city of Accra into the Gulf of Guinea. Uncontrolled discharges of domestic wastes and industrial effluents as well as raw sewage (which are washed into the lagoon during high tides), have led to its environment being seriously degraded. Physico-chemical and bacteriological studies were conducted to measure the

A. Y. Karikari; K. A. Asante; C. A. Biney

28

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

1976-01-01

29

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

30

Effect of coal ash residues on the microbiology of sewage sludge composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline coal ash residues (fly ash, FA, and lagoon ash, LA) which have been used as co-composting materials for sewage sludge to reduce the availability of trace metals, may have an adverse impact on the composting process. It is therefore the aim of the present study to evaluate the effect of FA and LA on the microbial activities of sewage

M. Fang; J. W. C. Wong; G. X. Li; M. H. Wong

1997-01-01

31

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

1984-01-01

32

Comparative study of wastewater lagoon with and without water hyacinth  

SciTech Connect

A facultative sewage lagoon completely covered with water hyacinths had significant improvement in effluent quality. BOD 5 and total suspended solids (TSS) were 23 and b mg/L respectively. Without water hyacinths, the effluent BOD5 and TSS were 52 and 77 mg/L, respectively. The effluent total organic C concentration was reduced from 72 to 40 mg/L with water hyacinth coverage.

McDonald, R.C.; Wolverton, B.C.

1980-01-01

33

Polish experience with sewage sludge utilization in reed beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of utilization and management of sewage sludge originating from small wastewater treatment plants is still unsolved in Poland. One of the waste-free technologies of sludge utilization is the reed bed method. Two experimental facilities of this type have been operating for four years in the Gdansk Region: a reed bed in Darzlubie and a reed lagoon in Swarzewo.

W. Zwara; H. Obarska-Pempkowiak

34

Brazil The Duck Lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) which reaches peak production during summer. Sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) can be found in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is restricted to Central America). MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

35

Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

Kjerfve, Bjorn

1986-01-01

36

Chemical and Microbiological Studies of the Middle Salt Lagoon, Barrow, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mddle Salt Lagoon, adjacent to the Chukchi Sea, at Barrow, Alaska, is the depository for sewage from the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory. It is covered with ice for most of the year (9-10 months), and during 1972 the salinity reached a maximum of 106...

W. L. Boyd J. W. Boyd

1974-01-01

37

Lagoon-sea exchanges, nutrient dynamics and water quality management of the Ria Formosa (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical data from the Ria Formosa lagoon are classified according to the EEA 2001 guidelines to provide a frame of reference to evaluate the effect of management during the implementation of the environmental legislative Directives. Water samples from the Ria Formosa lagoon were significantly enriched in nitrogen (NH 4+ NO 2- and NO 3-) with respect to the adjacent coastal waters indicating that inputs from sewage, agricultural runoff and benthic fluxes were not fully assimilated within the lagoon. Tidal flushing was insufficient in the inner areas of the lagoon to remove or effectively dilute these inputs. Enrichment was most severe close to the urban centres of Faro and Olhão, as well as in the Gilão Estuary and the shallow extremities. Dissolved oxygen undersaturation (mean 75% during daylight hours) was associated with the area close to the sewage outlets of Faro. In the shallow west end of the lagoon during summer, dissolved oxygen supersaturation reached 140% during the day but fell to 50% at night. Classification using the EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is "poor" or "bad" with respect to phosphate concentrations for the majority of the year and "poor" in nitrogen contamination during the autumn rainy period. Due to the high overall nitrogen load in the lagoon, there is a net export to the coastal waters, especially during November and December, and phosphate only becomes limiting briefly during the spring bloom (April). Therefore, substantial phytoplankton populations may be supported year-round in the lagoon. The consequences of water quality deterioration in the Ria Formosa would negatively affect the lagoon as a regional resource, important for its ecological, economic and recreational value. The industries most affected would be tourism, fisheries and aquaculture. Management options include Urban Waste Water Treatment, dredging, artificial inlets, limits on urban development and changes in agricultural practices.

Newton, Alice; Mudge, Stephen M.

2005-02-01

38

Dynamic modelling of nitrification in an aerated facultative lagoon.  

PubMed

Faced with the need to improve ammonia removal from lagoon wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated in Quebec, Canada, mechanistic modelling has been proposed as a tool for explaining the seasonal nitrification phenomenon and to evaluate optimization and upgrade scenarios. A lagoon model that includes a modified activated sludge biokinetic model and that assumes completely mixed conditions in the water column and sediments has been applied to simulate 3 years of consecutive effluent data for a lagoon from the Drummondville WWTP. Successful prediction of results from this plant indicates that the seasonal nitrification is determined by temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the water column and washout driven by a well-mixed water column. Results also indicate that sediments contribute to the ammonia load in the lagoon effluent, particularly in spring and early summer. Sensitivity analyses performed with the model indicate that the nitrification period could be prolonged by increasing DO concentrations in the lagoon and that bioaugmentation would be particularly effective in spring and early summer. Limitations of the model are discussed, as well as ways to improve the hydraulic model. PMID:17689585

Houweling, Dwight; Kharoune, Lynda; Escalas, Antoni; Comeau, Yves

2008-01-01

39

Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

1991-01-01

40

Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence  

SciTech Connect

Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

41

Sewage Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

1987-01-01

42

A Preliminary Survey of the Nitrogen and Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Fish from the Lagoons of Egypt’s Nile Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data (?15N and ?13C) from four large (63–400 km2), shallow (?1 m) coastal lagoons on Egypt’s Nile Delta. While the lagoons all receive sewage and agricultural drainage, the\\u000a magnitude of loading varies. In this preliminary survey, we document wide variability in the ?15N and ?13C isotope values of major fish groups among these

Autumn Oczkowski; Scott Nixon; Steve Granger; Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed; Mark Altabet; Richard McKinney

2008-01-01

43

CDF upgrade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a general purpose detector used to study the world's highest energy p(anti p) collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron. Upgrades to CDF to enable it to function as the Tevatron evolves are described. The upgrade plans...

C. Newman-Holmes

1996-01-01

44

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF KILMICHAEL LAGOON  

EPA Science Inventory

A three-cell facultative lagoon at Kilmichael, Mississippi has been evaluated for performance in relation to design criteria and secondary treatment standards for municipal wastewater facilities throughout all seasons of the year. This report covers sampling equipment installatio...

45

Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

1992-01-01

46

Hydrological heterogeneity, nutrient dynamics and water quality of a non-tidal lentic ecosystem (Lesina Lagoon, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the Lesina coastal lagoon (Italy) in terms of nutrients, phytoplankton and chemical-physical parameters were evaluated, together with their functional relationships with freshwater inputs, in order to identify ecosystem responses to changes in driving forces in a Mediterranean non-tidal lentic environment. Lesina Lagoon is a shallow coastal environment characterised by limited exchange with coastal waters, which favours enrichment of nutrients and organic matter and benthic fluxes within the system. Lagoon-sea exchanges are influenced by human management. There is a steep salinity gradient from East to West. High nitrogen and silica values were found close to freshwater inputs, indicating wastewater discharges and agricultural runoff, especially in winter. Dissolved oxygen was well below saturation (65%) near sewage and runoff inputs in the western part of the lagoon during summer. Classification in accordance with EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is of "poor" or "bad" quality in terms of nitrogen concentrations in the eastern zone during the winter rainy period. In terms of phosphate concentrations, the majority of the stations fall into the "good" category, with only two stations (close to the sewage and runoff inputs) classed as "bad". In both cases, the raw nitrogen levels make the lagoon a P-limited system, especially in the eastern part. There was wide space-time variability in chlorophyll a concentrations, which ranged from 0.25 to 56 ?g l -1. No relationships between chlorophyll a and nutrients were found, suggesting that autotrophic biomass may be controlled by a large number of internal and external forcing factors driving eutrophication processes. Water quality for this type of environment depends heavily on pressure from human activities but also on the management of sewage treatment plants, agricultural practices and the channels connecting the lagoon with the sea.

Roselli, Leonilde; Fabbrocini, Adele; Manzo, Cristina; D'Adamo, Raffaele

2009-10-01

47

ALICE Upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While groundbreaking measurements on the properties of strongly interacting matter in p+p, p+Aand A+A collisions at the LHC are being performed, it is clear that many important questions in heavy-ion physics will remain unanswered in this first phase of beam times up to 2017. The ALICE collaboration is setting up a program of detector upgrades to be installed in the LHC shutdown planned for 2017/18, to address the new scientific challenges. We will discuss examples of the scientific frontiers and upgrade projects understudy for the ALICE experiment.

Peitzmann, Thomas

2013-11-01

48

Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal

Antonis A Zorpas; Dimitris Arapoglou; Karlis Panagiotis

2003-01-01

49

Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2012-01-01

50

Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons  

PubMed Central

Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Diez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2012-01-01

51

Sewage sludge combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current review paper, various issues related to the combustion of sewage sludge are discussed. After briefly explaining the formation and treatment of sewage sludge, current and future sludge production are discussed. Thereafter, the four sludge disposal methods which are currently used, i.e. recycling in agriculture, landfilling, dumping into sea and incineration, are examined, and the future trend presented

J. Werther; T. Ogada

1999-01-01

52

Sewage sludge additive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (inventors)

1980-01-01

53

Upgraded UKIRT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3.8 m UK Infrared Telescope has been the focus of a program of upgrades intended to deliver images which are as close as possible to the diffraction limit at (lambda) equals 2.2 micrometers (FWHM equals 0.'12). This program is almost complete and many benefits are being seen. A high-bandwidth tip-tilt secondary mirror driven by a Fast Guider sampling at

Timothy G. Hawarden; Nicholas P. Rees; Charles P. Cavedoni; Timothy C. Chuter; Antonio C. Chrysostomou; Donald G. Pettie; Richard J. Bennett; Eli Ettedgui-Atad; John W. Harris; Brian Mack; Eckhart Pitz; Andreas Glindemann; Stefan Hippler; Ralf-Rainer Rohloff; Karl Wagner

1998-01-01

54

Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small fres...

1995-01-01

55

Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Segara Anakan, a mangrove-fringed coastal lagoon in Indonesia, has a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates and is increasingly affected by human activities. We found > 50 organic contaminants in water, sediment and macrobenthic invertebrates from the lagoon most of which were polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Composition of PACs pointed to petrogenic contamination in the eastern lagoon. PACs mainly consisted of alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oil than parent PAHs. Highest total PAC concentration in sediment was above reported toxicity thresholds for aquatic invertebrates. Other identified compounds derived from municipal sewage and also included novel contaminants like triphenylphosphine oxide. Numbers of stored contaminants varied between species which is probably related to differences in microhabitat and feeding mode. Most contaminants were detected in Telescopium telescopium and Polymesoda erosa. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the risk potential of alkylated PAHs, which has hardly been addressed previously. PMID:21414637

Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Jennerjahn, Tim C; Khrycheva, Polina; Sivatharshan, Yoganathan; Yuwono, Edy; Schwarzbauer, Jan

2011-04-01

56

Guidelines for Land Disposal of Feedlot Lagoon Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines are provided for feedlot operators who dispose of lagoon, water on agricultural lands. The design of lagoon, pumps, and irrigation systems are not discussed. Because lagoon water contains such plant nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potass...

W. L. Powers R. L. Herpich L. S. Murphy D. A. Whitney H. L. Manges

1974-01-01

57

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXISTING LAGOONS, PETERBOROUGH, NEW HAMPSHIRE  

EPA Science Inventory

Although wastewater treatment lagoons are used extensively, little operational data is currently available for evaluating the performance capabilities of lagoons. This report presents data gathered during a one-year period of monitoring the lagoon system at Peterborough, New Hamp...

58

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the partial oxidation of sewage sludge. It comprises: shearing without heating a concentrated aqueous slurry of sewage sludge obtained from sewage.; dewatering the sheared pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to a solids content in the rage of about 25 to 50 wt. %; mixing the pumpable sheared aqueous slurry of sewage sludge with a supplemental solid fuel and reacting the pumpable aqueous sewage sludge-coal and/or petroleum coke slurry in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800{degrees} F. to 2800{degrees} F.

McMahon, M.A.; Suggitt, R.M.; McKeon, R.J.; Brent, A.

1990-06-12

59

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

1991-07-01

60

Experimental evidence of the effect of nutrient enrichment on the zooplankton in a Brazilian coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

Non-treated sewage disposal is one of the main impacts to which Imboassica Lagoon has been subjected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a potential increase in the artificial enrichment on the environmental conditions and zooplankton of this system. To this end, an experimental study was conducted in mesocosms where nutrients were added daily. Bacterial numbers, chlorophyll-a, and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria densities showed an increase with the availability of nutrients. Bacterio- and phytoplankton seemed to be regulated by the rotifers Brachionus rotundiformis and Hexarthra brandorffi. PMID:12659035

Kozlowsky-Suzuki, B; Bozelli, R L

2002-11-01

61

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PUBLIC PARTICIPATION INITIATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of public involvement within the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program (IRLNEP) was to develop the public consensus necessary to ensure long-term support for, and implementation of, the Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan (CCMP). Consens...

62

SWINE LAGOON EFFLUENT APPLIED TO COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS  

EPA Science Inventory

The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage yield and quality, soil nu...

63

Swine Lagoon Effluent Applied to Coastal Bermudagrass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage y...

P. W. Westerman J. C. Burns L. D. King M. R. Overcash R. O. Evans

1983-01-01

64

TCS Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The original TCS experiment has demonstrated the robust ability to form and sustain FRCs in steady-state using Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF). Radiation levels, which are due in large part to Oxygen, are seen to increase dramatically after the initial formation phase ( ˜0.5 msec), causing a severe drop in the plasma temperature. Since the RMF magnitude and frequency determine the plasma density, as the temperature is limited, so is the FRC's external field and energy confinement time. In order to improve temperatures and flux levels, TCS is being extensively upgraded. All o-ring sealed flanges will be replaced with wire sealed flanges, and heating blankets installed to bake the system to 200 C. Internal flux rings, shielded with Tantalum, will be installed to shield the quartz and stainless steel vacuum wall from the plasma. Unique aspects of this design are related to the interface between the quartz section needed to allow penetration of the RMF from the external antennas and the adjacent stainless steel vacuum chambers. Wall conditioning will include glow discharge, Ti gettering, siliconization, and/or boronization. The total system will be described.

Grossnickle, J. A.; Miller, K. E.

2004-11-01

65

SEST Upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) has been in operation successfully for close to 10 years, the first scheduled observations having taken place in April 1988. It has served not only the Swedish-ESO community, but 10% of the Swedish observing time has been used by Finnish astronomers and, recently, Australia has signed an agreement with Sweden, also for 10% of Swedish observing time. The SEST receivers have been upgraded on a regular basis during the past decade, but the original control system is still in place. However, during the past couple of years an in-house project to replace this control system as well as the old computers has been in progress, while continuing normal observations. The project is being carried out by the SEST engineers with assistance from the staff at Onsala Space Observatory and will be completed during 1998. This article will describe the present instrumentation, the new control system and give a brief overview of the plans for the SEST during the coming years.

Nyman, L.-Å.; Tieftrunk, A.

1998-03-01

66

Sewage Facilities Construction 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual report of 'Sewage Facilities Construction 1969' is published as one part of the basic data program required and authorized in Public Law 680. The data published in the report provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as...

K. H. Jenkins J. L. Lewis T. Pandolfi

1974-01-01

67

PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

68

TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

69

Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

70

Temporal and spatial fluctuations of phytoplankton in a tropical coastal lagoon, southeast Brazil.  

PubMed

Spatial and temporal variability of the phytoplankton community in the tropical coastal Imboassica lagoon, an environment naturally isolated from the ocean by a narrow sandbar, was analysed every two weeks for 19 months by sampling three sites. During this study, the lagoon received direct input of marine water three times, resulting in remarkable salinity, nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass variations in both temporal and spatial aspects. The phytoplankton biomass presented relatively low values ranging, on average, from 0.54 mg x L(-1) in the station closest to the sea (station 1) to 1.34 mg x L(-1) in the station close to a macrophyte bank (station 3). Diatoms and cryptomonads dominated in stations 1 and 2 (located relatively close to station 1, yet receiving the runoff of domestic sewage), and euglenoids, cryptomonads and dinoflagellates at station 3. Stations 1 and 2 usually presented the same dominant species but station 2 presented a higher phytoplankton biomass. On the other hand, station 3 showed more similar results concerning phytoplankton biomass with station 2, however the dominant species were usually different. The high fluctuations of salinity and the reduced nutrient availability are pointed out as the main factors structuring the dynamics of the phytoplankton community at the Imboassica lagoon. PMID:18094830

Melo, S; Bozelli, R L; Esteves, F A

2007-08-01

71

Sewage sludge treatment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

72

Cryogenics in BEPCII Upgrade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents cryogenic design for upgrading the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC) at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing. The upgrade involves three new superconducting facilities, the interaction region quadrupole magnet...

L. Jia L. Wang S. Li

2002-01-01

73

Quantum leap cluster upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes upgrading a running high availability cluster while applications are still running. The whole software stack can be upgraded including operating system, cluster software, volume manager software, application software etc with almost zero downtime. This is done by splitting the cluster in two partitions and upgrading one at a time. This method is different from other split mode

Tirthankar Das; Ellard T. Roush; Pramod Nandana

2009-01-01

74

Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb. Representatives of both groups were recovered from almost every part of the sewage treatment plant but not in the control ponds nor in human samples, which suggests that specific multiresistant Aeromonas clones are able to persist and spread throughout the entire purification process. PMID:19459063

Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

2009-10-01

75

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and

Ellen Z. Harrison; Summer Rayne Oakes; Matthew Hysell; Anthony Hay

2006-01-01

76

Sewage treatment works odour measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public concern over odours from sewage treatment works is increasing. More people are being exposed to odours, due to development around existing works or the construction of new works. Raised awareness of both the environment and individual rights has meant people are now more likely to complain. Odour abatement and control is a major issue for sewage works operators. To

P. Gostelow; S. A. Parsons

77

Hydrographic measurements in Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jökulsárlón lagoon is an enclosed lake bordering the retreating Breidamerkurjökull glacier which flows down from the Vatnajökull ice cap. As the glacier calves most of the ice it releases decays within the lake and the addition of the stored fresh water modifies the water local properties. The lake itself is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean through a narrow channel only ~80 m wide, and all tidal and residual flows in and out of the lake are through this channel. In April 2012 (early spring) we conducted four hydrographic sections from a small boat to determine the early season hydrographic structure of the lake. We conducted two hydrographic sections from the entrance of the channel to sea across the lagoon to the Breidamerkurjökull glacier, one across the centre of the lagoon, and one along, and close to the glacier face. Four months of time series hydrographic data from the channel show that the oceanic tidal pulse into the lagoon is short in duration. The water that enters the lagoon is warm and saline enough to descend rapidly to the greatest depths within the lagoon. With our CTD measurements we have mapped the properties of water across the lake. These reveal the pathway of the Atlantic derived water towards the ice face. The warmest water measured within the lagoon was just below the surface and only adjacent to the glacier face. Whilst this warm water was created from solar input, its location and concentration reveal the complex density driven circulation patterns close to the ice face. Calculated oceanic driven melt rates from the ice face show enhanced oceanographic melting in this near surface layer which contributes to the more substantial deeper melting.

Brandon, M. A.; Hodgkins, R.; Björnsson, H.; Ólaffson, J.

2013-12-01

78

Sewage treatment method  

DOEpatents

The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

Fassbender, Alex G. (4407 Laurel Dr., West Richland, WA 99352)

1995-01-01

79

The fate of Mediterranean lagoons under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model (SHYFEM) has been applied to 10 Mediterranean lagoons and a comparison study between the lagoons has been carried out. The lagoons are the lagoons of Venice, Marano-Grado, Varano and Lesina in the Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, and the lagoons of Ganzirri and Faro in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain and the Nador lagoon in Morocco. These lagoons give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. The lagoons range from a leaky type of lagoons to a choked type. The number of inlets ranges from just one in the Nador lagoon to 6 in the case of the Marano-Grado lagoons. Tidal range is from nano-tidal to micro-tidal. The depth ranges from an average depth of 1 m to up to 40 meters. The model is a finite element model, especially suited to shallow water basins with complicated geometric and morphologic variations. The model can compute the basic hydrodynamics, dispersion of tracers, temperature and salinity evolution, sediment transport and ecological parameters. Building on an earlier study that focused on the classification of Mediterranean lagoons based on hydrodynamics, exchange rates and renewal time, this study is concerned with the changes in physical parameters under climate change. Data from IPCC has been used to simulate the changes in renewal time, salinity and temperature of all lagoons, with respect to the control simulation. Whenever possible downscaled data for the Mediterranean basin have been used. Sea level rise scenarios are taken from the last IPCC report. The model has been applied in its 3D version and the chosen setup allows a comparison between results in the different lagoons. Results indicate that the differences of renewal time between all studied lagoons become smaller. This means that leaky lagoons become less leaky and choked lagoons less choked. What concerns temperature and salinity, changes occurring in the sea are amplified inside lagoons. All lagoons show an increase of temperature higher than the one found outside in the sea. Salinity changes are also enhanced. This study shows how numerical modeling can be a useful tool to study the hydrodynamic changes forecasted to happen in transitional water bodies like lagoons.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Bellafiore, Debora; Bajo, Marco

2014-05-01

80

TLRS-3 system upgrades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes the upgrades to the Transportable Laser Ranging Systems serial number three (TLRS-3), and the impact that these upgrades will have on the TLRS-3 performance in the field. The four major areas of system upgrades are the HP-380 computer, the Optical Attenuation Mechanism (OAM), the upgraded spatial, spectral and temporal filtering for improved daylight ranging capability, and the software upgrade to enable the system to track the Etalon satellites. The TLRS-3 was returned to the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) in December 1991 for system upgrades in preparation of the TOPEX/POSEIDON campaign scheduled to begin in the summer of 1992. Many system upgrades were incorporated into the system while interleaving planned facility maintenance making TLRS-3 a more versatile and more dependable laser ranging system. The TLRS-3 was initially baselined with the MOBLAS-7 via simultaneous satellite ranging on the LAGEOS, Ajisai, Starlette, and ERS-I satellites. During the upgrades and following completion of the system upgrades intercomparisons with the MOBLAS-7 were made to verify the integrity and accuracy of the system changes. Several other groups of personnel participated in the TLRS-3 upgrade and they are: the Survey Section, the Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory, the Architectural and Engineering Services Department, the Precision Timing Section, and the station personnel at TLRS-3 and MOBLAS-7.

Eichinger, Richard; Cheng, Grace; Crawford, William; Cresswell, Don; Crooks, Henry A.; Donovan, Howard; Edge, David R.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Heinick, J. Michael

1993-01-01

81

[Factors involved in coastal lagoons formation in Colombian southwest Caribbean].  

PubMed

Based on origin, geomorphological evolution and environmental characteristics, four of the main types of coastal lagoons were identified in colombian southwest Caribbean. The following are examples of each type: (1) Terrigenous sediment inputs in delta environment (Lagoons from Sinu River Delta, Cordoba Department), (2) Shore sand bars in coastal flat (Tesca Lagoon, Bolivar Deparment), (3) bar built by organisms such as coral reefs, (Isla Grande Lagoons, Bolivar Deparment) and, (4) bars controlled by tectonism (Cartagena Bay, Bolivar Deparment). PMID:15916172

Alvarez-León, Ricardo; Mendoza-Mazzeo, Luis Alberto; Vernette, Georges

2003-01-01

82

Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small rivers. Sampling took place in three stations along a gradient of marine influence from June 2001 to July 2002. During summer and autumn, the water in the lagoon was low, influencing positively water temperature, salinity, total solids in suspension (TSS), orthophosphates, total phosphorus (TP) and pH. In winter and spring, there was an increase of nitrates, nitrites, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and N:P ratio with the raise of water level in the lagoon. Chlorophyll a and phaeo-pigments concentrations were positively related to the previous parameters. Phytoplankton density was low and switching in dominant taxa was observed along time but the community was mainly dominated by Dinophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae were related to higher TSS and lower DIN, salinity and TP; Cyanophyceae were stimulated by the opposite conditions. The decrease of water level jointly with the raise of salinity and TP influenced positively pico-nano flagellate algae. Cryptophyceae were positively correlated with the same factors and also TSS. Several trophic state indexes and water quality indicators have been applied and an overall analysis pointed out to a coastal lagoon with mesotrophic characteristics. During the studied period no serious eutrophication events occurred, however there were some situations of nutrient enrichment due to human activities, such as agriculture and non-treated sewage discharges, which might have favoured the development of potentially toxic phytoplankton species, namely Prorocentrum minimum.

Coelho, Susana; Gamito, Sofia; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

2007-01-01

83

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

84

Persistence of Pathogens in Lagoon-Stored Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was fill...

M. D. Little R. C. Badeaux R. S. Reimers T. G. Akers W. D. Henriques

1989-01-01

85

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING LAGOON SYSTEM AT EUDORA, KANSAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The wastewater lagoons at Eudora, Kansas, consist of three cells in series and were placed into operation in May, 1972. These lagoons were designed for a population of 4000. Currently, the sewered population of Eudora is 2200. The lagoons were studied in detail from September, 19...

86

PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. ach lagoon was filled with 7.56 m3 of anaerob...

87

The D0 Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe the approved DO Upgrade detector, and its physics capabilities. The DO Upgrade is under construction and will run during the next Fermilab collider running period in early 1999 (Run II). The upgrade is designed to work at the higher luminosities and shorter bunch spacings expected during this run. The major elements of t he upgrade are: a new tracking system with a silicon tracker, scintillating fiber tracker, a 2T solenoid, and a central preshower detector; new calorimeter electronics; new muon trigger and tracking detectors with new muon system electronics; a forward preshower detector; new trigger electronics and DAQ improvements to handle the higher rates.

Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

1995-07-01

88

Do human activities affect the picoplankton structure of the Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)?  

PubMed

The spatial variations of the picoplankton (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms) in the Ahe atoll lagoon were studied in May and October 2008 to assess whether they were affected by human activities along the atoll. Spatial patterns were studied using 10 sampling stations chosen according to the location of the anthropogenic activities (pearl farming, harbor). Experiments were also carried out to determine whether bacterial growth, with or without predators, was limited by inorganic (N and P) substrates. The results showed that heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance was superior to the photoautotrophic organisms, especially in May. Significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in May after 24 h incubation with +P and +N (but not in October). All samples complied with the quality levels for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) defined by the European Union and there was no evidence that human sewage had any impact on picoplankton over the whole atoll. PMID:22306310

Bouvy, Marc; Dupuy, Christine; Pagano, Marc; Barani, Aude; Charpy, Loic

2012-01-01

89

1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

90

Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, ?18O and ?D data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from Malibu Lagoon through the sand berm at the mouth of the Lagoon contributed FIB to the adjacent beach at low tide. Similar increases in FIB concentrations did not occur at beaches adjacent to unsewered residential development, although wastewater indicator compounds and radon-222 (indicative of groundwater discharge) were present. High FIB concentrations at high tide were not related to groundwater discharge, but may be related to FIB associated with debris accumulated along the high-tide line.

Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

2012-01-01

91

Partial oxidation of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.

1993-07-27

92

Exploring new issues for coastal lagoons monitoring and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal lagoons are productive and highly vulnerable ecosystems, but their management is still problematic mostly because they constitute transitional interface between terrestrial and marine domains. The "4th European Conference on Coastal Lagoon Research - Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems, South North comparisons", was focused on the scientific research on coastal lagoons and the management for their conservation and sustainable use. Selected contributions were considered in this special issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science "Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems" as they deal with three important aspects for coastal lagoons management: (1) the design of monitoring programmes using biological compartments, (2) the ecosystem functioning and the impacts of perturbations and (3) ecosystem trajectories particularly after ecosystem restoration. Here we introduce the selected papers published in this issue, place these contributions in the perspective of the science-management interface and discuss new issues for coastal lagoon management.

Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; De Wit, Rutger

2012-12-01

93

Shuttle Upgrade Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Space Shuttle upgrade plan, including details on safety enhancements, reliability and maintainability improvements, investment protection (mission life remaining), Next Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle technologies, HEDS exploration strategic goals, and upgrades for safety and supportability.

2000-01-01

94

Herpetofaunal communities at Muni Lagoon in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A herpetofaunal survey of Muni-Pomadze Lagoon, during the main rainy season (May–June), recorded a total of 32 species (13 amphibians and 19 reptiles). Three species are the first records for coastal habitats in Ghana: Kinixys homeana, Calabaria reinhardti, and Bothrophthalmus lineatus. None of the surveyed species are restricted to Ghana. The most diverse herpetofaunal community occurs in grassland thicket, with

Christopher J. Raxworthy; Daniel K. Attuquayefio

2000-01-01

95

Sediment Nitrogen Trapping in a Mangrove Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the inputs, transformations and outputs of nitrogenous species in the sedimentary environment of Joyuda lagoon, a mangrove-lined coastal lagoon on the west coast of Puerto Rico, indicates a nitrogen mineralization rate equivalent to 6·5% of the total input to the sediment. Sedimentation of particulate matter provides a nitrogen flux of c . 855 ?moles N m -2 h -1. Nitrogen fixation in the sediments provides an additional 22 ?moles N m -2 h -1. Ammonium diffusion to the water column removes 50 ?moles N m -2 h -1 from the mineralized fraction, while only 5 ?moles N m -2 h -1 are removed from the system via denitrification. Overall, the data presented here indicate that oxidative bacterial metabolism (mineralization and nitrification) in Joyuda Lagoon is severely limited. Our results lend support to the hypothesis which describes the role of tropical coastal lagoons as nutrient and carbon traps, probably a requisite for the well-being of seagrasses and coral reefs prone to degradation by uncontrolled nutrient inputs.

Morell, J. M.; Corredor, J. E.

1993-08-01

96

Hypertrophic lagoon management by sediment disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental control of eutrophication in a small coastal lagoon was attempted by means of sediment disturbance. A specially designed boat was used to resuspend the top 3cm of sediment by a jets of air–water directed towards the bottom. This disturbance was carried out for 3months in each of two areas with a surface area of 24 and 20 hectares respectively.

Mauro Lenzi; Francesca Birardi; Roberto Calzolai; Maria Grazia Finoia; Francesco Marcone; Stefano Nocciolini; Rugiada Roffilli; Sergio Sgroi; Duccio Solari

2010-01-01

97

INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

In, 1996, Florida Governor Lawton Chiles And USEPA Administrator Carol Browner officially adopted the Indian River Lagoon CCMP. In it are dozens of actions, that if implemented would help maintain and improve the ecological integrity of the IRL. To evaluate the progress towards i...

98

Upgrading the Household Worker.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Willmart Services, Inc. was established in the District of Columbia to upgrade the status of the household worker and to give this occupation new dignity and protection. The agency developed an experimental program which combined attitudinal training, tra...

1969-01-01

99

Black Island telecommunications upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Black Island telecommunications upgrade Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : July 22, 1993 File : opp93107 OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT SECTION 202/357-7766 MEMORANDUM Date: July 22, 1993 From: Acting Environmental Officer Subject: Environmental Action Memorandum (Black Island Telecommunications Facility Upgrade) To: Director, Office of Polar Programs Manager, Polar Operations Section Safety and Health Officer Electronics Engineer Facilities Engineering Projects ...

100

Optics upgrade for switchyard  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

2005-08-01

101

Oxidative methane upgrading.  

PubMed

The economically viable oxidative upgrading of methane presents one of the most difficult but rewarding challenges within catalysis research. Its potential to revolutionalise the chemical value chain, coupled with the associated supremely challenging scientific aspects, has ensured this topic's high popularity over the preceeding decades. Herein, we report a non-exhaustive account of the current developments within the field of oxidative methane upgrading and summarise the pertaining challenges that have yet to be solved. PMID:22848012

Hammond, Ceri; Conrad, Sabrina; Hermans, Ive

2012-09-01

102

Characterization of Salmonella Bacteriophages Isolated from Swine Lagoon Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Salmonella bacteriophages that had been originally isolated from swine manure lagoons were characterized and compared to each other\\u000a and to well-known Salmonella phages P22 and Felix 01. Host ranges of the lagoon phages were similar to each other in spot tests on reference strains of\\u000a Salmonella, but differed slightly from each other on a panel of Salmonella lagoon strains.

Michael R. McLaughlin; Rodney A. King

2008-01-01

103

Nutrient fluxes and net metabolism in Lobos coastal lagoon, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of nutrients and net metabolism were estimated in coastal lagoon Lobos, a semi-arid subtropical lagoon from Gulf of California, Mexico. Sampling runs were carried out during summer and winter, seawater samples for nutrients were collected in coastal lagoon, offshore and a channel waste-water, physico-chemical parameters were measured in situ. Fluxes of nutrients and net metabolism were estimated using LOICZ

Valenzuela-Siu Mónica; Arreola-Lizárraga José Alfredo; Sánchez-Carrillo Salvador; Padilla-Arredondo Gustavo

2007-01-01

104

Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in a sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

The occurrence and fate of eight pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) during sewage treatment has been studied in a pilot-scale treatment plant, comprising a primary settler (2.85 m(3)), an aeration tank (1.845 m(3)) and a secondary clarifier (0.5 m(3)), placed on site at a wastewater treatment works in the north west of the UK. It was fed both with raw sewage and the return liquor produced after sludge centrifugation, thus representing the most common configuration for a municipal sewage treatment plant based on the activated sludge process. Samples were taken at six different locations, including the return liquor stream, and analysed for musk fragrances and pharmaceutically active compounds belonging to various therapeutic groups such as anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and antiepileptics. Mass balances were conducted for those PPCPs that were quantifiable. The fate of the PPCPs was found to differ according to their physical-chemical characteristics. Anti-inflammatories underwent a degradation process and were almost completely removed from sewage during the biological treatment step. Musk fragrances were only partially removed, through adsorption onto the primary suspended solids and the biomass in the aerobic process, due to their strong lipophilic characteristics. The results of this study provide increasing evidence that the partial removal of these substances through the sewage treatment process contribute to the environmental occurrence of PPCPs. Consequently, existing STPs should be upgraded in order to attenuate the release of these substances into the aquatic environment. PMID:21057683

Reif, Rubén; Santos, Ana; Judd, Simon J; Lema, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

2011-01-01

105

Dewatering behavior of sewage screenings.  

PubMed

Screenings from municipal sewage treatment plants have increased in importance in recent years, particularly in Germany, where laws prohibit depositing of screenings in landfill. This paper presents basic investigations of sewage screenings, especially the structure and dewatering behavior. Two standard experiments are conducted. First, the relationship between pressure and water content is determined. Secondly the flow resistance as a function of pressure is evaluated. The results help to derive simulation models in order to understand how the material behaves inside a wash press. PMID:23374399

Gregor, H; Rupp, W; Janoske, U; Kuhn, M

2013-04-01

106

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

1991-07-01

107

Sewage and Water Works Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report of 'Sewage and Water Works Construction 1966' is published to provide a continuing and ready source of information and reference as to how successfully the national needs in municipal water supply and pollution control are being met thr...

1966-01-01

108

Use of Sewage in Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research has shown that industrial sewage, as a rule, can be used for irrigation and that the limits to its use are dictated not so much by its content as by the absence of the necessary treatment as well as by natural-geographic and organizational-techni...

V. M. Novikov K. K. Bityukov V. T. Dodolina L. B. Doliva-Dobrovolskii A. I. Efimova

1975-01-01

109

Organic chemicals in sewage sludges.  

PubMed

Sewage sludges are residues resulting from the treatment of wastewater released from various sources including homes, industries, medical facilities, street runoff and businesses. Sewage sludges contain nutrients and organic matter that can provide soil benefits and are widely used as soil amendments. They also, however, contain contaminants including metals, pathogens, and organic pollutants. Although current regulations require pathogen reduction and periodic monitoring for some metals prior to land application, there is no requirement to test sewage sludges for the presence of organic chemicals in the U. S. To help fill the gaps in knowledge regarding the presence and concentration of organic chemicals in sewage sludges, the peer-reviewed literature and official governmental reports were examined. Data were found for 516 organic compounds which were grouped into 15 classes. Concentrations were compared to EPA risk-based soil screening limits (SSLs) where available. For 6 of the 15 classes of chemicals identified, there were no SSLs. For the 79 reported chemicals which had SSLs, the maximum reported concentration of 86% exceeded at least one SSL. Eighty-three percent of the 516 chemicals were not on the EPA established list of priority pollutants and 80% were not on the EPA's list of target compounds. Thus analyses targeting these lists will detect only a small fraction of the organic chemicals in sludges. Analysis of the reported data shows that more data has been collected for certain chemical classes such as pesticides, PAHs and PCBs than for others that may pose greater risk such as nitrosamines. The concentration in soil resulting from land application of sludge will be a function of initial concentration in the sludge and soil, the rate of application, management practices and losses. Even for chemicals that degrade readily, if present in high concentrations and applied repeatedly, the soil concentrations may be significantly elevated. The results of this work reinforce the need for a survey of organic chemical contaminants in sewage sludges and for further assessment of the risks they pose. PMID:16750559

Harrison, Ellen Z; Oakes, Summer Rayne; Hysell, Matthew; Hay, Anthony

2006-08-31

110

The LHCb VELO upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment at the LHC plans to massively increase its data taking capabilities by running at a higher luminosity with a fully upgraded detector around 2016. This scheme is independent of (but compatible with) the plans for the SLHC upgrades. The silicon detector will be upgraded to provide a 40 MHz readout and to be able to cope with the increased radiation environment. This paper describes the options currently under consideration. A highlight of the R&D so far undertaken is a beam test during summer 2009 using the Timepix chip to track charged particles. Preliminary results are presented, including a measurement of the resolution achieved by the 55?m pitch pixel array of better than 9.5?m for perpendicular tracks and 55?m for angled tracks.

Collins, P.; Akiba, K.; Alexander, M.; Artuso, M.; Bayer, F.; van Beuzekom, M. G.; Blusk, S.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Coco, V.; Crossley, M.; Dumps, R.; Eklund, L.; Esperante, D.; Ferre Llin, L.; Gallas, A.; Gandelman, M.; Gersabeck, M.; Gligorov, V.; Huse, T.; John, M.; Kucharczyk, M.; Llopart, X.; Maneuski, D.; Michel, T.; Mountain, R.; Nichols, M.; Papadelis, A.; Parkes, C.; Plackett, R.; Poikela, T.; Rodrigues, E.; Tlustos, L.; Wang, J. C.; Whitehead, M.; Xing, Z.

2011-04-01

111

The LHCb VELO upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb experiment plans to have a fully upgraded detector and data acquisition system in order to take data with instantaneous luminosities up to 5 times greater than currently. For this reason the first tracking and vertexing detector, the VELO, will be completely redesigned to be able to cope with the much larger occupancies and data acquisition rates. Two main design alternatives, micro-strips or pixel detectors, are under consideration to build the upgraded detector. This paper describes the options presently under consideration, as well as a few highlights of the main aspects of the current R&D. Preliminary results using a pixel telescope are also presented.

Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi

2013-12-01

112

Participation and Sustainable Management of Coastal Lagoon Ecosystems: The Case of the Fosu Lagoon in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation as a tool has been applied as a social learning process and communication platform to create awareness among stakeholders in the context of resource utilisation. The application of participatory processes to aquatic ecosystem management is attracting a growing body of literature. However, the application of participation as a tool for sustainable management of coastal lagoon ecosystems is recent. This

Frederick A. Armah; David O. Yawson; Alex N. M. Pappoe; Ernest K. A. Afrifa

2010-01-01

113

FIELD STUDY OF NUTRIENT CONTROL IN A MULTICELL LAGOON  

EPA Science Inventory

This report covers nutrient control in a serially arranged, multicell aerated lagoon system over a three year period. The objective was to develop reliable technology for reducing phosphorus and for converting ammonia-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen. A six-cell lagoon was modified i...

114

Urban Waste Pollution in the Korle Lagoon, Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korle Lagoon in Accra, Ghana, has become one of the most polluted water bodies on earth. It is the principal outlet through which all major drainage channels in the city empty their wastes into the sea. Large amounts of untreated industrial waste emptied into surface drains has led to severe pollution in the lagoon and disrupted its natural ecology.

Kwasi Owusu Boadi; Markku Kuitunen

2002-01-01

115

CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

116

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

117

Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 ?g Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 ?g C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.

2010-09-01

118

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOEpatents

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1999-01-12

119

The BES upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) detector is a general purpose solenoid detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) in Beijing, China, that has collected large numbers of J\\/?, ??, Ds, D and ? events. In this paper, we describe the recent upgrade of the initial BES detector (BESI) to the improved BESII detector.

J. Z. Bai; H. C. Bao; I. Blum; Z. W. Chai; G. P. Chen; H. F. Chen; J. Chen; Y. Chen; Y. Q. Chen; B. S. Cheng; X. M. Chu; X. Z. Cui; H. L. Ding; W. Y. Ding; L. Y. Dong; Y. Y. Du; Z. Z. Du; W. Dunwoodie; J. Fang; W. Z. Fang; C. S. Gao; M. L. Gao; S. Q. Gao; P. Gratton; J. H. Gu; S. D. Gu; W. X. Gu; Y. N. Guo; H. G. Han; S. W. Han; F. A. Harris; Y. Han; J. He; M. He; Y. K. Heng; D. G. Hitlin; G. Y. Hu; H. B. Hu; H. M. Hu; J. L. Hu; Q. H. Hu; T. Hu; X. Q. Hu; G. S. Huang; J. D. Huang; Y. Z. Huang; J. M. Izen; C. H. Jiang; Y. Y. Jiang; Y. Jin; B. D. Jones; X. Ju; Z. J. Ke; M. H. Kelsey; B. K. Kim; D. Kong; Y. F. Lai; P. F. Lang; A. Lankford; C. G. Li; F. Li; H. B. Li; J. Li; P. Q. Li; Q. Li; R. B. Li; W. Li; W. G. Li; X. H. Li; X. N. Li; H. M. Liu; J. Liu; Jun Liu; Q. Liu; R. G. Liu; Y. Liu; Z. X. Liu; J. S. Lou; X. C. Lou; B. Lowery; H. Y. Lu; J. G. Lu; H. Luo; S. Q. Luo; X. L. Luo; E. C. Ma; J. M. Ma; R. Malchow; M. Mandelkern; H. S. Mao; Z. P. Mao; X. C. Meng; X. H. Mo; L. G. Mu; H. L. Ni; J. Nie; S. L. Olsen; J. Oyang; D. Paluselli; L. J. Pan; J. Panetta; F. Porter; N. D. Qi; X. R. Qi; C. D. Qian; J. F. Qiu; Y. H. Qu; Y. K. Que; G. Rong; M. Schernau; B. Schmid; J. Schultz; Y. Y. Shao; B. W. Shen; D. L. Shen; H. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; H. Z. Shi; X. F. Song; J. Standifird; D. Stoker; F. Sun; H. S. Sun; S. J. Sun; Y. Sun; Y. P. Tan; S. Q. Tang; W. Toki; G. L. Tong; G. S. Varner; Z. R. Wan; F. Wang; J. F. Wang; L. Wang; L. Z. Wang; Meng Wang; P. Wang; S. M. Wang; T. J. Wang; Y. Y. Wang; M. Weaver; C. L. Wei; D. M. Xi; X. M. Xia; X. Xiao; P. P. Xie; Q. Xie; Y. Xie; W. J. Xiong; C. C. Xu; Z. Q. Xu; S. T. Xu; J. Yan; W. G. Yan; B. Yang; C. M. Yang; C. S. Yang; C. Y. Yang; D. J. Yang; G. A. Yang; H. X. Yang; J. Yang; X. F. Yang; W. Yang; W. L. Yao; M. H. Ye; C. S. Yu; C. X. Yu; Y. H. Yu; Z. Q. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; Y. Yuan; B. Y. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; Dehong Zhan; H. L. Zhang; J. Zhang; Lin. Zhang; L. Zhang; P. Zhang; Q. J. Zhang; S. Q. Zhang; Y. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; H. W. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; M. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; J. P. Zheng; L. S. Zheng; S. C. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; C. C. Zhong; B. Q. Zhou; G. P. Zho; H. S. Zhou; L. Zhou; X. F. Zhou; K. J. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang

2001-01-01

120

Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

Musante, Susan

2011-01-01

121

The Fermilab ACNET upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network (ACNET) upgrade consists of a new physical medium (IEEE 802.5 token ring), additions to the calling sequence and added processor support. ACNET is the accelerator control backbone network for all data communication. A proprietary network was replaced by an IEEE standard enabling an open network with excellent characteristics for the control system. The calling sequence

Charlie Briegel; Glenn Johnson; Lin Winterowd

1990-01-01

122

Tevatron detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

123

The upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward

V. M. Abazov; B. Abbott; M. Abolins; B. S. Acharya; D. L. Adams; M. Adams; T. Adams; M. Agelou; J.-L. Agram; S. N. Ahmed; S. H. Ahn; M. Ahsan; G. D. Alexeev; G. Alkhazov; A. Alton; G. Alverson; G. A. Alves; M. Anastasoaie; T. Andeen; J. T. Anderson; S. Anderson; B. Andrieu; R. Angstadt; V. Anosov; Y. Arnoud; M. Arov; A. Askew; B. Åsman; A. C. S. Assis Jesus; O. Atramentov; C. Autermann; C. Avila; L. Babukhadia; T. C. Bacon; F. Badaud; A. Baden; S. Baffioni; L. Bagby; B. Baldin; P. W. Balm; P. Banerjee; S. Banerjee; E. Barberis; O. Bardon; W. Barg; P. Bargassa; P. Baringer; C. Barnes; J. Barreto; J. F. Bartlett; U. Bassler; M. Bhattacharjee; M. A. Baturitsky; D. Bauer; A. Bean; B. Baumbaugh; S. Beauceron; M. Begalli; F. Beaudette; M. Begel; A. Bellavance; S. B. Beri; G. Bernardi; R. Bernhard; I. Bertram; M. Besançon; A. Besson; R. Beuselinck; D. Beutel; V. A. Bezzubov; P. C. Bhat; V. Bhatnagar; M. Binder; C. Biscarat; A. Bishoff; K. M. Black; I. Blackler; G. Blazey; F. Blekman; S. Blessing; D. Bloch; U. Blumenschein; E. Bockenthien; V. Bodyagin; A. Boehnlein; O. Boeriu; T. A. Bolton; P. Bonamy; D. Bonifas; F. Borcherding; G. Borissov; K. Bos; T. Bose; C. Boswell; M. Bowden; A. Brandt; G. Briskin; R. Brock; G. Brooijmans; A. Bross; N. J. Buchanan; D. Buchholz; M. Buehler; V. Buescher; S. Burdin; S. Burke; T. H. Burnett; E. Busato; C. P. Buszello; D. Butler; J. M. Butler; J. Cammin; S. Caron; J. Bystricky; L. Canal; F. Canelli; W. Carvalho; B. C. K. Casey; D. Casey; N. M. Cason; H. Castilla-Valdez; S. Chakrabarti; D. Chakraborty; K. M. Chan; A. Chandra; D. Chapin; F. Charles; E. Cheu; L. Chevalier; E. Chi; R. Chiche; D. K. Cho; R. Choate; S. Choi; B. Choudhary; S. Chopra; J. H. Christenson; T. Christiansen; L. Christofek; I. Churin; G. Cisko; D. Claes; A. R. Clark; B. Clément; C. Clément; Y. Coadou; D. J. Colling; L. Coney; B. Connolly; M. Cooke; W. E. Cooper; D. Coppage; M. Corcoran; J. Coss; A. Cothenet; M.-C. Cousinou; B. Cox; S. Crépé-Renaudin; M. Cristetiu; M. A. C. Cummings; D. Cutts; H. da Motta; M. Das; B. Davies; G. Davies; G. A. Davis; W. Davis; K. de; P. de Jong; S. J. de Jong; E. De La Cruz-Burelo; C. De La Taille; C. De Oliveira Martins; S. Dean; J. D. Degenhardt; F. Déliot; P. A. Delsart; K. Del Signore; R. Demaat; M. Demarteau; R. Demina; P. Demine; D. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; S. Desai; H. T. Diehl; M. Diesburg; M. Doets; M. Doidge; H. Dong; S. Doulas; L. V. Dudko; L. Duflot; S. R. Dugad; A. Duperrin; O. Dvornikov; J. Dyer; A. Dyshkant; M. Eads; D. Edmunds; T. Edwards; J. Ellison; J. Elmsheuser; J. T. Eltzroth; V. D. Elvira; S. Eno; P. Ermolov; O. V. Eroshin; J. Estrada; D. Evans; H. Evans; A. Evdokimov; V. N. Evdokimov; J. Fagan; J. Fast; S. N. Fatakia; D. Fein; L. Feligioni; A. V. Ferapontov; T. Ferbel; M. J. Ferreira; F. Fiedler; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; H. E. Fisk; I. Fleck; T. Fitzpatrick; E. Flattum; F. Fleuret; R. Flores; J. Foglesong; M. Fortner; H. Fox; C. Franklin; W. Freeman; S. Fu; S. Fuess; T. Gadfort; C. F. Galea; E. Gallas; E. Galyaev; M. Gao; C. Garcia; A. Garcia-Bellido; J. Gardner; V. Gavrilov; A. Gay; P. Gay; D. Gelé; R. Gelhaus; K. Genser; C. E. Gerber; Y. Gershtein; D. Gillberg; G. Geurkov; G. Ginther; B. Gobbi; K. Goldmann; T. Golling; N. Gollub; V. Golovtsov; B. Gómez; G. Gomez; R. Gomez; R. Goodwin; Y. Gornushkin; K. Gounder; A. Goussiou; D. Graham; G. Graham; P. D. Grannis; K. Gray; S. Greder; D. R. Green; J. Green; H. Greenlee; Z. D. Greenwood; E. M. Gregores; S. Grinstein; Ph. Gris; J.-F. Grivaz; L. Groer; S. Grünendahl; M. W. Grünewald; W. Gu; J. Guglielmo; A. Gupta; S. N. Gurzhiev; G. Gutierrez; P. Gutierrez; A. Haas; N. J. Hadley; E. Haggard; H. Haggerty; S. Hagopian; I. Hall; R. E. Hall; C. Han; L. Han; R. Hance; K. Hanagaki; P. Hanlet; S. Hansen; K. Harder; A. Harel; R. Harrington; J. M. Hauptman; R. Hauser; C. Hays; J. Hays; E. Hazen; T. Hebbeker; C. Hebert; D. Hedin; J. M. Heinmiller; A. P. Heinson; U. Heintz; C. Hensel; G. Hesketh; M. D. Hildreth; R. Hirosky; J. D. Hobbs; B. Hoeneisen; M. Hohlfeld; S. J. Hong; R. Hooper; S. Hou; P. Houben; Y. Hu; J. Huang; Y. Huang; V. Hynek; D. Huffman; I. Iashvili; R. Illingworth; A. S. Ito; S. Jabeen; Y. Jacquier; M. Jaffré; S. Jain; V. Jain; K. Jakobs; R. Jayanti; A. Jenkins; R. Jesik; Y. Jiang; K. Johns; M. Johnson; P. Johnson; A. Jonckheere; P. Jonsson; H. Jöstlein; N. Jouravlev; M. Juarez; A. Juste; A. P. Kaan; M. M. Kado; D. Käfer; W. Kahl; S. Kahn; E. Kajfasz; A. M. Kalinin; J. Kalk; S. D. Kalmani; D. Karmanov; J. Kasper; I. Katsanos; D. Kau; R. Kaur; Z. Ke; R. Kehoe; S. Kermiche; S. Kesisoglou; A. Khanov; A. Kharchilava; Y. M. Kharzheev; H. Kim; K. H. Kim; T. J. Kim; N. Kirsch; B. Klima; M. Klute; J. M. Kohli; J.-P. Konrath; E. V. Komissarov; M. Kopal; V. M. Korablev; A. Kostritski; J. Kotcher; B. Kothari; A. V. Kotwal; A. Koubarovsky; A. V. Kozelov; J. Kozminski; A. Kryemadhi; O. Kouznetsov

2006-01-01

124

Impact of fishing on fish assemblages in tropical lagoons: the example of the Ebrie lagoon, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon fish communities often consist of complex assemblages of numerous species, difficult to manage with conventional stock assessment models. Useful data are still lacking for evaluating the importance of man-made disturbance and reference situations are missing, especially in developing countries. As a consequence, by analysing data collected 20 years ago in two of the six sectors of the Ebrie lagoon

Jean-Jacques Albaret; Raymond Laë

2003-01-01

125

Holocene sea-level and climatic fluctuations: Pulicat lagoon - A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulicat lagoon situated in the Palar Basin, is the se c- ond largest lagoon on the east coast of India. The north-western margin of the desiccated lagoon is an irregular and elevated hard surface. Palynological studies were carried out in sedime ntary soil samples from four pits dug across this part of the lagoon. Vegetational reconstruction from peat beds at

Anjum Farooqui; G. G. Vaz

126

Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

Sharman, Ronald M.

127

SRS control system upgrade requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

Hill, L.F.

1998-08-04

128

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants  

MedlinePLUS

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

129

National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) (SAS Transport Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Sewage Sludge Survey (NSSS) consists of two tapes: the Analytical Assessment of Sewage Sludge at Final Disposal and the 1988 Sewage Sludge Use and Disposal Questionnaire Survey. The Analytical Assessment tape contains data from samples collec...

C. White

1989-01-01

130

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

131

Activated carbons from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons of different characteristics have been prepared from dried sewage sludge using CO2, air and KOH as activating agents. The adsorption capacity of the resulting materials has been checked using 4-chlorophenol as a target compound in aqueous solution. CO2 and air-activation led to carbons of low BET area which increased with the activation temperature but did not reach 100m2\\/g

Victor Manuel Monsalvo; Angel Fernandez Mohedano; Juan Jose Rodriguez

2011-01-01

132

Nonionic surfactants in municipal sewage in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonionic surfactants are a significant factor in the municipal sewages profile, which, in turn, affects the efficiency of\\u000a sewage-treatment processes and determines the possibility of sewage-water reuse. Hard (nonbiodegradable), nonionic surfactants\\u000a are the most commonly used nonionics in Israel, which probably has no parallel in other western industrial countries. In view\\u000a of the increased share of nonionic surfactants at the

U. Zoller; R. Romano

1984-01-01

133

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations\\u000a were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to\\u000a the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives\\u000a major waste inputs,

Kissao Gnandi; Seunghee Han; M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon; Magali Porrachia; Dimitri D. Deheyn

2011-01-01

134

AOSTRA's upgrading demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

In Summary this has been a year of achievement for AOSTRA (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority) and its partners in demonstrating a variety of upgrading technologies. This has been the culmination of over six years of work on studies, plans, proposals and negotiations. Three major demonstration tests have been undertaken. Over 3800 m/sup 3/ or 64 jumbo tank cars of Alberta feedstock has been sent across the continent and overseas. AOSTRA has provided over $16 million to fund these tests. This has significantly improved the choices of proven upgrading process technology now available for application in Alberta. The demonstration tests should provide both a data base for design and process guarantees as well as the confidence that the processes do work as advertised.

Bailey, R.T.

1987-01-01

135

CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.  

SciTech Connect

THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

2002-07-22

136

The Ultimate Upgrade Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers, as everyone knows, seems to get cheaper every day. Many users find that they can now buy twice the computer for half the money they spent a few years ago. A brand new computer, however, may not be the only answer for users wishing for better performance or simply a level playing field, as prices for computer components have kept pace with whole computers. This new report from PC Magazine Online is designed to help users decide if and how to upgrade their present hardware to get a few more years out of their original investment. The report is composed of three main sections (Core Components, Multimedia, and Internet and I/O Connections), each of which analyzes the merits and prices of various upgrades, and offers tips and instructions for installation.

137

The LHCb detector upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, with its installation scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will transform the data acquisition and processing architecture to a triggerless readout at 40 MHz with subsequent software-based event selection in a CPU farm. In this contribution, an overview of the detector technology options under consideration and the associated challenges is given and selected highlights of the ongoing R&D programme are presented.

Schindler, H.

2013-12-01

138

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over the next 2 decades.

Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

2014-05-01

139

The D0 upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P{sub T} physics using precision measurements of e`s, {mu}`s, jets, and missing E{sub T}. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5{mu}s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P{sub T} physics menu, but also the low P{sub T} physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

Tuts, P.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; The D0 Collaboration

1992-10-01

140

The D0 upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P[sub T] physics using precision measurements of e's, [mu]'s, jets, and missing E[sub T]. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10[sup 31] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1], and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5[mu]s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10[sup 32] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1] and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P[sub T] physics menu, but also the low P[sub T] physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

Tuts, P.M. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.)

1992-10-01

141

Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully converted SS to AC and further modified it to improve absorption. SSMAC has large specific surface areas based on the BET technique. Batch adsorption results indicate that metal adsorption for SSMAC > SSAC, with adsorption occurring within the first 5 minutes of contact. Comparison of the adsorptivity of various sorbents such as commercial activated carbon (CAC), mineral sorbents such as perlite, clinoptilolite and illite indicates that SSMAC × CAC × clinoptilolite > kaolite.

Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

2013-04-01

142

Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

Ayotamuno, M. J.

1993-01-01

143

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of

Yoshizo Suzuki; Tomoyuki Nojima; Akihiko Kakuta; Hiroshi Moritomi

2004-01-01

144

Assessment of sewage sludge quality in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sewage sludge produced by two Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (Sparta and Kavala) was studied during the dry (summer?autumn) and wet (winter) periods. Sewage sludge had considerable nitrogen and phosphorus content that enable them to be used as additives to improve soil quality. On the other hand, the concentrations of harmful metals were lower than the limits imposed

M. O. Angelidis; M. Aloupi

1999-01-01

145

Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr

1997-01-01

146

My Town, My Creek, My Sewage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

Woodburn, John H.

1972-01-01

147

Virological Investigations on Irradiated Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The virusinactivating activity of a Co sub 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 d...

C. Epp

1980-01-01

148

Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory

Renuka Gupta; V. K. Garg

2008-01-01

149

White pelicans swim in the lagoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White pelicans search for a meal in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The habitat of white pelicans are marshy lakes along the Pacific and Texas coasts, wintering chiefly in coastal lagoons such as this one. They often capture fish cooperatively, forming a long line, beating their wings and driving the prey into shallow water. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

1999-01-01

150

Management of coastal lagoons under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is a reality that is rendering the concept of 'background conditions' meaningless. We can no longer attempt to maintain the environmental status quo. What we can do is to attempt to maintain ecosystem services despite climate-driven environmental change. There is a pressing need for proactive management that purposefully changes ecosystems to maintain ecosystem services before uncontrolled, detrimental changes occur. Such management would go beyond the bounds of current management efforts and could include, for example, introduction of species, bioengineering, and physical engineering. I suggest that this approach be applied first to coastal lagoons as they are clearly defined geographic areas where this approach can, hopefully, be demonstrated such that it can be applied more widely - when it is accepted, which unfortunately will most probably not occur until the adverse impacts of global climate change become much more apparent.

Chapman, Peter M.

2012-09-01

151

Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence of flushing. Coordinated studies of circulation through the Haulover Canal, Ponce Inlet and Sebastian Inlet would aid in understanding the genesis of future bloom events.;

Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

2012-12-01

152

Seasonal variation in a tropical lagoon with submarine groundwater discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chelem-Chuburna-Yucalpeten lagoon system is located at 21°17'N and 89°40'W in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Temperature, conductivity, sea level, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed measurements were recorded in this lagoon, during various oceanographic surveys within 2010-2012. During the experiments, which included diurnal variations during spring and neap tidal cycles, CTD profiles were collected in 35 oceanographic stations and moored instruments were deployed at strategic locations. The aim of this work is to investigate transitions of thermohaline properties in a tropical lagoon with submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) to increase the knowledge of the principal processes that control circulation and mixing in this kind of bodies of water. Results show that the lagoon is saltier than the ocean in the dry season and the opposite pattern is observed in the rain season. During the rain season could be more freshwater supplied from SGDs.

Tenorio, L.; Gómez-Valdés, J.; Enriquez, C.; Treviño, C.; Marino-Tapia, I.; López-Aguiar, K.

2013-05-01

153

ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

154

ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

155

Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

Not Available

1992-12-01

156

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01

157

VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense ultraviolet light, are responsible for making the nebula glow brightly. But the Lagoon Nebula is also home to much younger stellar infants. Newborn stars have been detected in the nebula that are so young that they are still surrounded by their natal accretion discs. Such new born stars occasionally eject jets of matter from their poles. When this ejected material ploughs into the surrounding gas short-lived bright streaks called Herbig-Haro objects [3] are formed, making the new-borns easy to spot. In the last five years, several Herbig-Haro objects have been detected in the Lagoon Nebula, so the baby boom is clearly still in progress here. Notes [1] This survey, one of six VISTA surveys currently in progress, will image the central parts of the Milky Way many times over a period of five years and will detect huge numbers of new variable objects. [2] Bart Bok was a Dutch-American astronomer who spent most of his long career in the United States and Australia. He first noticed the dark spots that now bear his name, in star formation regions and speculated that they may be associated with the earliest stages of star formation. The hidden baby stars were only observed directly when infrared imaging was possible several decades later. [3] Although not the first to see such objects, the astronomers George Herbig and Guillermo Haro were the first to study the spectra of these strange objects in detail and realise that they were not just clumps of gas and dust that reflected light, or glowed under the influence of the ultraviolet light from young stars, but were a new class of objects associated with star formation. More information The science team for VVV includes Dante Minniti (Universidad Catolica, Chile), Phil Lucas (University of Hertfordshire, UK), Ignacio Toledo (Universidad Catolica) and Maren Hempel (Universidad Catolica). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, D

2011-01-01

158

Holocene lagoonal development in the isolated carbonate platforms off Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-one vibracores were taken in interior lagoons of Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands—three isolated carbonate platforms offshore Belize, Central America. Holocene facies successions overlying the Pleistocene limestone bedrock begin with soils, followed by mangrove peats, and marine carbonate sediments of lagoonal origin. The soils formed on top of subaerially exposed Pleistocene limestone before the Holocene transgression. Mangrove peats developed during initial flooding of the platforms (Glovers ca. 8.5 ky, Lighthouse ca. 7 ky, Turneffe ca. 6 ky BP). As water depths increased, reefs colonized platform margins, lagoonal circulation improved thereby promoting carbonate production. The basal lagoonal carbonate sediments are characterized by shell beds and/or Halimeda packstones-grainstones. Mollusk-dominated wackestones and packstones follow upsection in Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. At present, open circulation prevails in Glovers and Lighthouse lagoons. In contrast, organic-rich Halimeda wackestones and packstones dominate the Turneffe Islands Holocene succession. The main lagoon area of Turneffe is enclosed by mangroves, and restricted circulation prevails. Factors that explain the differences in geomorphology, circulation, and facies are variations in depth of antecedent topography and degree of exposure to waves and currents. The thickness of Holocene lagoon sediments may exceed the maximum core length of 6 m in all atolls. Holocene sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/ky, with highest rates in Turneffe (0.82 m/ky), followed by Lighthouse (0.53 m/ky), and Glovers (0.46 m/ky). Like in many other isolated carbonate platforms and atolls, lagoon floor sedimentation did not keep pace with rising sea level, leading to unfilled accommodation space. At present, Glovers has an 18 m deep lagoon, while Lighthouse and the main Turneffe lagoon are 8 m deep. It is unlikely that the lagoons will be completely filled during the Holocene sea level highstand cycle. This observation should be kept in mind when using cycle thickness as a proxy for eustatic sea level change in fossil carbonate platforms.

Gischler, Eberhard

2003-06-01

159

Hydrodynamic and nutrient modeling in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USEPA WASP5 modeling system was applied to simulate and evaluate the relationships between external and internal nutrient loadings and water quality of Vistonis lagoon, North Greece for a 2-year time period. The hydrodynamic model DYNHYD5 was calibrated to estimate daily lagoon water level. The water quality models TOXI5 and EUTRO5 were calibrated and verified using meteorological data from a

Georgios D. Gikas; Trisevgeni Yiannakopoulou; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis

2009-01-01

160

CDF calorimeter and its upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The CDF calorimeter systems are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on the calibration and the performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter. Several physics analyses where the calorimetry plays an important role are discussed. The present gas calorimeter will be upgraded in accord with the collider upgrade. The new system is a scintillator-based calorimeter with optical fiber readout. A status of the CDF calorimeter upgrade project is also described.

Seiya, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Institute of Physics

1995-01-01

161

The upgraded arecibo observatory.  

PubMed

Arecibo Observatory's giant spherical reflector antenna has undergone a massive upgrading over the past 3 years. The surface of the reflector has been replaced with aluminum panels to obtain an accuracy of 3.2 mm r.m.s. over the reflector surface. The superstructure has been stabilized and modified to permit operation at S-band frequencies. A high-power S-band radar transmitter has been added to the existing UHF system. These additions and improvements provide the observatory with new and promising research capabilities in the fields of radio and radar astronomy. PMID:17782009

Lalonde, L M

1974-10-18

162

LHC detector upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

Dan Green

2003-09-15

163

Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

1981-01-01

164

Biogas production from Sludge of Sewage Treatment Plant at Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, a source of non-conventional energy is produced by fermentation of sludges. The sewage have collected through sewage pumping stations and treated in the primary and secondary treatment steps in sewage treatment plant at Jagjitpur, Hardwar. The Sewage Treatment Plant receives approximately 40 mld sewage from different pumping stations and 18 mld sewage is used for treatment at sewage treatment

D. S. Malik; Umesh Bharti

165

ENERGETYCZNE WYKORZYSTANIE OSADÓWCIEKOWYCH THERMAL UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work explores thermal methods to sewage sludge utilization. Author prepares review of existing thermal methods of sewage sludge utilization. Nowadays, the most popular way to sewage sludge utilization is neutralization by storage and agriculture utilization. European Union legislation is going to limit this way of sewage sludge neutralization. Thermal methods are going to be the best alternative way

Sebastian Werle; Ryszard K. Wilk

166

Energy Efficiency Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

Roby Williams

2012-03-29

167

Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

168

Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

2014-04-01

169

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates in a restricted Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were investigated in the restricted Bizerte Lagoon in 2002 and 2004. The\\u000a 2002 study, carried out at one station from January to October, showed significant seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics.\\u000a High growth rates (0.9–1.04 day?1), chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (6.6–6.8 ?g l?1) and carbon biomass (392–398 ?g C l?1) were recorded in summer (July), when several chain-forming diatoms had intensively proliferated and

A. Sakka Hlaili; B. Grami; Hassine Hadj Mabrouk; M. Gosselin; D. Hamel

2007-01-01

170

Upgrade of the CMS Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major upgrade of the CMS experiment at the LHC is planned to exploit future increases in LHC luminosity beyond the nominal 1034 cm2 s-1. The LHC upgrades will be made in two stages: Phase-1 to achieve 3×1034 cm2 s-1 and Phase-2 aiming for 1035 cm2 s-1. To maintain excellent detector performance, CMS is obliged to meet these upgrades with improvements to the detector systems, particularly the Tracker. In Phase-1, only the Pixel system will be upgraded, improving performance whilst also minimizing the material within the sensitive volume. For the Phase-2 upgrade, the entire Tracker will have to be replaced. The present level of tracking performance should be maintained under SLHC conditions, and a new and very challenging requirement is that the Tracker should also contribute to the first level trigger.

Gill, K.; CMS Collaboration

2011-04-01

171

Flow Characteristics of the Raw Sewage for the Design of Sewage-Source Heat Pump Systems  

PubMed Central

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

172

Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.  

PubMed

The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

2014-01-01

173

Sewage and the fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

This article very briefly describes a phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant installed by the New York Power Authority at a wastewater treatment plant. The facility is the first in the world to use anaerobic digester gas (ADG), a natural byproduct of sewage treatment, as fuel. ADG is partially utilized and partially flared at the plant. The PAFC captures a portion of the otherwise flared ADG and uses it as fuel to produce approximately 200kW of electricity and heat for plant use. The U.S. Department of Energy, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Electric Power Research Institute are helping the power authority finance the project.

Zelingher, S. [New York Power Authority`s Energy Efficiency Unit, NY (United States); Kishinevsky, Y.

1998-01-01

174

NIRSS Upgrades: Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This year we were able to further the NIRSS program by re-writing the data ingest and display code from LabVIEW to C++ and Java. This was leveraged by a University of Colorado Computer Science Department Senior Project. The upgrade made the display more portable and upgradeable. Comparisons with research aircraft flights conducted during AIRS-2 were also done and demonstrate reasonable skill in determining cloud altitudes and liquid water distribution. Improvements can still be made to the cloud and liquid logic. The icing hazard index was not evaluated here since that represents work in progress and needs to be made compatible with the new CIP-Severity algorithm. CIP is the Current Icing Potential product that uses a combination decision tree/fuzzy logic algorithm to combine numerical weather model output with operational sensor data (NEXRAD, GOES, METARs and voice pilot reports) to produce an hourly icing diagnosis across the CONUS. The new severity algorithm seeks to diagnose liquid water production through rising, cooling air, and depletion by ice processes. The information used by CIP is very different from that ingested by NIRSS but some common ground does exist. Additionally, the role of NIRSS and the information it both needs and provides needs to be determined in context of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS). The Weather Integrated Products Team has a plan for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) to take place in 2012. NIRSS is not explicitly a part of that IOC but should be considered as a follow-on as part of the development path to a 2025 full capability.

Politovich, Marcia K.

2007-01-01

175

The FNAL injector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The present FNAL H{sup -} injector has been operational since the 1970s and consists of two magnetron H{sup -} sources and two 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerators. In the upgrade, both slit-type magnetron sources will be replaced with circular aperture sources, and the Cockcroft-Waltons with a 200 MHz RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole). Operational experience at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable, improve beam quality and require less manpower than the present system. The present FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) injector has been operational since 1978 and has been a reliable source of H{sup -} beams for the Fermilab program. At present there are two Cockcroft-Walton injectors, each with a magnetron H{sup -} source with a slit aperture. With these two sources in operation, the injector has a reliability of better than 97%. However, issues with maintenance, equipment obsolescence, increased beam quality demands and retirement of critical personnel, have made it more difficult for the continued reliable running of the H{sup -} injector. The recent past has also seen an increase in both downtime and source output issues. With these problems coming to the forefront, a new 750 keV injector is being built to replace the present system. The new system will be similar to the one at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) that has a similar magnetron source with a round aperture and a 200MHz RFQ. This combination has been shown to operate extremely reliably.

Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

176

Big Lagoon Wetland and Creek Restoration Project. Part II. Feasibility Analysis Report, February 27, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service (NPS), in collaboration with Marin County and the San Francisco Zen Center, is developing conceptual restoration design alternatives for the project site known as Big Lagoon. The Big Lagoon site includes the wetlands, floodplain,...

2004-01-01

177

Land Application of Sewage Sludge Landfill Leachate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation evaluated the feasibility of the 'living filter' concept as an alternative method of heavy metal leachate disposal to prevent contamination of groundwaters. Leachate collected from a simulated sewage sludge landfill was applied at rates...

W. R. Wright H. J. Brown

1982-01-01

178

Actinomycetes of Sewage-Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In some activated sludge sewage treatment plants a thick foam rich in Nocardia may be formed at the surface of the secondary aeration and settling tanks. It had previously been observed that the supernatant from anaerobic digesters contained suspended sol...

H. A. Lechevalier M. P. Lechevalier P. E. Wyszkowski

1977-01-01

179

Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the heavy metal pollution level of tannery effluent-affected lagoon and canal water in the southwestern Dhaka, Bangladesh. The measured physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, pH, SO²??, PO³??, Cl-, and NO??) and metals (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were subjected to principal component (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses, and examining correlation matrix as well in order to explain the behavior and sources of the parameters/metals. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the lagoon and canal water were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the standard limits recommended by the Bangladesh Government. The following elemental associations were obtained from PCA and CA: Ca-Cd-Cr-Fe-K-Mn-Pb-Zn, Co-Cu-Ni, and As, which could be linked to anthropogenic sources (i.e., processes of the tannery and paint industries with some contributions from the municipal waste system). Potassium, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Cd occurred as important anthropogenic markers in the lagoons and lower part of the canal. Copper, Co, and Ni were importantly distributed in the lower part of the canal, which also received metal inputs from the municipal waste and other industrial sources, including paint industry. GIS-based factor score maps, generated to show the spatial controls of the major processes affecting surface water hydrochemistry, suggest that the activities of paint and tannery industries and municipal sewage are pervasive processes in the area, whereas the contribution from pesticides (used for tanning and disinfecting hides) has localized effects. This study has provided the evidence that effluents discharged from the tannery and auxiliary industries and urban sewage system are the main sources of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon and canal water systems in the Hazaribagh area of southwestern Dhaka. The high mean concentrations (in mg/l) of Cr (5.27), Pb (0.81), As (0.59), and Cd (0.13) observed in the water samples may have serious public health and potential environmental hazard implications. PMID:20544274

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Suruvi, Nahid I; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Quraishi, Shamshad B; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

2011-04-01

180

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

1997-01-01

181

Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station  

SciTech Connect

Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

1999-08-16

182

Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm\\/day to 2.4 mm\\/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm\\/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N),

J. M. Ham; T. M. DeSutter

2001-01-01

183

Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

1991-10-15

184

Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

2002-09-12

185

A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge  

PubMed Central

The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended.

Connop, Peter J.

1983-01-01

186

Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida?s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

187

A water-quality model for the Lagoon of Venice, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-quality model for the Lagoon of Venice is proposed. The model is based on the results of an existing, deterministic, hydraulic-dispersive model of the Lagoon to provide the distribution of salinity and residence time in the Lagoon of Venice. This model has been implemented by Magistrato alle Acque di Venezia and Consorzio Venezia Nuova to evaluate the environmental impact

Giuseppe Bendoricchio; Gabriella De Boni

2005-01-01

188

The control of nitrate and ammonium concentrations in a coral reef lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

One Tree Reef lagoon is surrounded by an emergent rim which restricts exchange between lagoonal waters and the surrounding ocean. For this reason, the loss rate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) through mixing processes is slow in the central lagoon compared to rates of advective input, uptake, regeneration and loss to the atmosphere. We present some hypotheses concerning the importance

Annamarie I. Hatcher; Carol A. Frith

1985-01-01

189

Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Associated Nitrogen Flux in Coral Reef Lagoons of Mauritius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent eutrophication in several coral reef lagoons along the Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius (20° S, 57° E) has highlighted the need for a greater understanding of nutrient sources to these lagoon waters. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal environment is one possible transport mechanism for excess terrestrial nutrients to coral reef lagoons, since groundwater nitrate levels are

M. Eagle; A. Paytan; R. T. Ramessur

2003-01-01

190

Seagrasses and sediment response to the changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary - coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that has steadily increased over more than one century. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of 1-3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet channel and propagate to the end of the lagoon

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; M. J. Pereira; J. B. Catarino

2003-01-01

191

THE BIOLOGY OF LANGEBAAN LAGOON: A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SHELTER FROM WAVE ACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system are described and it is shown that there are graded changes in wave action, substratum, temperature and salinity between the bay and the head of the lagoon. None the less the lagoon is not an estuary but a sheltered inlet of the sea.Two transects of rocky shores and four transects of

J. H. Day

1959-01-01

192

Upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electronics are required to operate in a harsh environment and are constrained by the existing infrastructure. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ADC ASIC, the design and testing of higher speed transmitters to handle the increased data volume, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design and improvements in the overall architecture.

Anderson, Jacob; the CMS Hcal Collaboration

2012-12-01

193

Upgrades to NRLMOL code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project consists of performing upgrades to the massively parallel NRLMOL electronic structure code in order to enhance its performance by increasing its flexibility by: a) Utilizing dynamically allocated arrays, b) Executing in a parallel environment sections of the program that were previously executed in a serial mode, c) Exploring simultaneous concurrent executions of the program through the use of an already existing MPI environment; thus enabling the simulation of larger systems than it is currently capable of performing. Also developed was a graphical user interface that will allow less experienced users to start performing electronic structure calculations by aiding them in performing the necessary configuration of input files as well as providing graphical tools for the displaying and analysis of results. Additionally, a computational toolkit that can avail of large supercomputers and make use of various levels of approximation for atomic interactions was developed to search for stable atomic clusters and predict novel stable endohedral fullerenes. As an application of the developed computational toolkit, a search was conducted for stable isomers of Sc3N C80 fullerene. In this search, about 1.2 million isomers of C80 were optimized in various charged states at the PM6 level. Subsequently, using the selected optimized isomers of C80 in various charged state, about 10,000 isomers of Sc3N C80 were constructed which were optimized using semi-empirical PM6 quantum chemical method. A few selected lowest isomers of Sc3N C80 were optimized at the DFT level. The calculation confirms the lowest 3 isomers previously reported in literature but 4 new isomers are found within the lowest 10 isomers. Using the upgraded NRLMOL code, a study was done of the electronic structure of a multichromoric molecular complex containing two of each borondipyrromethane dye, Zn-tetraphenyl-porphyrin, bisphenyl anthracene and a fullerene. A systematic examination of the effect of structural strain and the presence of ligands on the ionization energy and the electron affinity was also done. Finally, calculations were performed on a few lowest charge transfer states involving electronic transitions from the porphyrin component to the fullerene subunit of the complex using the perturbative delta-SCF method.

Basurto, Luis

194

Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah

195

Superhilac upgrade project  

SciTech Connect

This project will increase the uranium output of the Bevalac heavy-ion facility from the currently available 10/sup 7/ to 5 x 10/sup 7/ ions/pulse, allowing accurate Lamb shift measurements to be made in U/sup 90 +/ and U/sup 91 +/ with important applications to the testing of quantum electrodynamics and the development of an x-ray laser. The injected beam intensity will be increased to make better use of the 10emA output space-charge limit of the Wideroe linac. Components will include a new high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source along with an improved high current, high voltage Cockcroft-Walton power supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line will be upgraded with additional focusing to manage the increased space-charge forces and with an improved vacuum to reduce charge exchange losses. Finally, the phase matching between the 23MHz Wideroe linac and the 70MHz Alvarez linac will be improved by the addition of the appropriate buncher cavities. Physics design is underway and detailed engineering is scheduled to begin in October 1985, with installation slated for the 1986 summer shutdown.

Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

1985-05-01

196

Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

2014-04-01

197

Sediment biogeochemical differences in two pristine Mediterranean coastal lagoons (in Italy) characterized by different phanerogam dominance-A comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate functional differences in two Italian coastal lagoons (Caprolace and Fogliano, Tyrrhenian Sea) characterized by the dominance of two different seagrass species: Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in the Caprolace lagoon and Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande in the Fogliano lagoon. 2. A monitoring system was set up in both lagoons in order to (i)

A. SIGNORINI; G. MASSINI; G. MIGLIORE; M. TOSONI; C. VARRONE; G. IZZO

2008-01-01

198

Network Upgrade of GALAXY project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GALAXY is a Japanese research project promoted by NTT Laboratories, NAOJ, CRL, and ISAS. NTT has constructed a high speed ATM network dedicated to this project in 1996. Since 2000 we have started to upgrade this network to fully deploy the advance Internet technologies in the field of realtime VLBI. This upgrade enable us collaborate with other research networks. This presentaion describes our present activities and future plans.

Uose, Hisao; Kumagai, Kazunori

199

Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking.

Kruse, M.C. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States); CDF Collaboration

1998-04-01

200

Upgrading in an Industrial Setting. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project objectives were: (1) to assess existing industrial upgrading practices in an Atomic Energy Commission contractor organization, (2) to design new alternative upgrading methods, (3) to experiment with new upgrading methods, (4) to plan for utilization of proven upgrading programs, and (5) to document and disseminate activities. A twelve…

Russell, Wendell

201

User and Performance Impacts from Franklin Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The NERSC flagship computer Cray XT4 system"Franklin" has gone through three major upgrades: quad core upgrade, CLE 2.1 upgrade, and IO upgrade, during the past year. In this paper, we will discuss the various aspects of the user impacts such as user access, user environment, and user issues etc from these upgrades. The performance impacts on the kernel benchmarks and selected application benchmarks will also be presented.

He, Yun (Helen)

2009-05-10

202

Chlorinated Sewage Effluents and Avoidance of Stream Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavioral responses of the blacknose dace to domestic sewage effluents and their toxic constituents, free chlorine, chloramine, and ammonia were investigated. The degrees of the fish avoidance to chlorinated sewage effluents were identical with those...

C. Tsai J. A. Fava

1975-01-01

203

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01

204

21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be disposed of in a safe and sanitary...

2013-04-01

205

JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

1976-01-01

206

Sanitary and bacteriological aspects of sewage treatment.  

PubMed

A study into the removal of contamination load and indicator bacteria was carried out in 1992-1996 in the mechanical, biological and chemical waste-water treatment plant WTP in Lezany, in the County of Reszel, in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. The results of chemical analyses found a high efficiency of removal of carbon compounds, COD (90%) and BOD (98%), in the process of purification of household sewage. In addition, a high effectiveness of total nitrogen, on average 71%, and unsatisfactory removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were found. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed the high efficiency of removal of indicator bacteria in the process of sewage treatment from 94 to 97%. In the sewage after the final phase of purification in stabilization ponds, the following pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of the EPL 21tests: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter georgoriae, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Ervinia herbicola, Edwardsiella tarda, Serratia odoriefra, Serratia marcescens, Providencia alcalifaciens, Hafnia alvei, Yersina pestis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia fredericksenii, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, Aeromons hydrophila, Pseudomonas aerulginosa. The obtained results show that although the sewage purification system is efficient and reduces the contamination load to the level required by the regulations (Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry from 20 September 1991) and removes a great percentage of indicator bacteria, the purified sewage may be a source of pathogenic bacteria in inland waters. PMID:15058814

Filipkowska, Zofia

2003-01-01

207

Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)  

PubMed Central

High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m?2 specimen area d?1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m?2 lagoon area d?1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems.

Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

2013-01-01

208

Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose

V. E. Noshkin

1997-01-01

209

Distributional patterns of fishes in an Alaskan Arctic Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summer, the fish community of Simpson Lagoon and adjacent coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea was dominated by two marine species (Arctic cod, fourhorn sculpin) and three anadromous species (Arctic and least cisco, Arctic char). The anadromous species remained in the relatively warm and brackish waters near shore and demonstrated an affinity for shoreline edges, particularly the mainland shoreline

P. C. Craig; W. B. Griffiths; L. Haldorson; H. McElderry

1985-01-01

210

Heavy metals in Morocco Lagoon and river sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were carried out in a short core from a salt marsh of the Nador Lagoon (north-eastem Morocco) and in surficial sediment samples collected in the Martil river, which borders the industrial town of Tétouan. Three soit samples and a reservoir sediment were also collected around the town to check the effects

L. G. Bellucci; B. El Moumni; F. Collavini; M. Frignani; S. Albertazzi

2003-01-01

211

Variability of Organic Matter Processing in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of plant organic matter processing was studied experimentally in a shallow coastal lagoon (Tancada lagoon, average depth: 37 cm, area: 1.8 km2) in the Ebro River Delta (NE Spain). To determine the effect of hydrology and sediment characteristics on plant organic matter processing, leaves of Phragmites australis at the end of its vegetative cycle and whole plants of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, just abscised, were enclosed in litter bags. Two different mesh sizes (100 m and 2 mm) were used to study the effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition. The bags were placed in the water column and approximately 15 cm above the sediment at 6 different locations in the lagoon. The experiment was performed twice, in autumn-winter and spring-summer. The effect of macroinvertebrates on decomposition rate was not significant in Tancada lagoon. Breakdown rates showed spatial differences only in spring-summer. In the autumn-winter experiment, the effect of strong wind masked the effects of environmental variables and hydrology on decomposition rate. In the spring-summer experiment, characterised by high stability of the water column, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in the water column and organic matter in the sediment were the main factors determining the variability of organic matter processing. A positive relationship was calculated between P. australis decomposition rate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in spring-summer (r2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). (

Menéndez, Margarita; Hernández, Oliver; Sanmartí, Neus; Comín, Francisco A.

2004-11-01

212

DISTRIBUTION OF RECENT SEDIMENTS IN SALDANHA BAY AND LANGEBAAN LAGOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment distribution in Saldanha Bay is wave controlled and can be related to the energy levels created by the refraction pattern. Four energy zones are distinguished in the inner bay: a centrally exposed zone, two marginal semi-exposed zones, a sheltered zone in the north and a bay\\/lagoon transitional zone in the south. Sediment is supplied on the abrasion platform of

B. W. Flemming

1977-01-01

213

The Douala Coastal Lagoon Complex, Cameroon: Environmental Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Littoral zone of Douala in Cameroon depicts an interesting physiography dominated by hydro-geomorphic characteristics of immense sustainable potentials to its teeming urban human population growth. The Douala coastal lagoon complex is easily the dominant feature with richly endowed natural and socio-economic resources along the littoral zone of Cameroon. It is fed mainly by the River Wouri, evolving a maze

Chebo K. Asangwe

214

LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

215

A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

216

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

217

Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific  

SciTech Connect

Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

1987-05-01

218

Fuzzy prediction of the algal blooms in the Orbetello lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbetello lagoon is a shallow brackish waterbody subject to intense and diverse eutrophication (phytoplankton, macroalgae and macrophytes). Periodically a large amount of algae must be artificially removed, their collection and disposal representing a considerable management cost. This paper describes the design of a bloom predictor based on the daily fluctuations of simple water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen,

Stefano Marsili-libelli

2004-01-01

219

Performance Evaluation of an Existing Seven Cell Lagoon System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the l...

C. A. Macko E. J. Middlebrooks J. H. Reynolds R. E. Swiss

1977-01-01

220

Preparing Sewage Sludge for Land Application or Surface Disposal: A Guide for Preparers of Sewage Sludge on the Monitoring, Record Keeping, and Reporting Requirements of the Federal Standards for the Use of Disposal of Sewage Sludge, 40 CFR Part 503.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general resp...

1993-01-01

221

NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR SEWAGE NO DISCHARGE ZONES  

EPA Science Inventory

Locations where vessel sewage discharge is prohibited. Sewage no discharge zone (NDZ) locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Sewage no discharge zone locations are coded onto region.rch (Wat...

222

Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

Anderson, Stephen P.

223

Agronomic characterisation of different types of sewage sludge: Policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain is one of the main municipal sewage sludge producers of Europe. This paper aims to agronomically characterise different types of sewage sludge stabilised by different methods (anaerobically digested, composted, and pelletised) and deliver policy recommendations from the results of this characterisation. Anaerobic sewage sludge quality is found to be better in plants with a lower volume of water processing.

M. R. Mosquera-Losada; N. Muñoz-Ferreiro; A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

224

Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

2009-01-01

225

Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the

Baruch Weber; Yoram Avnimelech; Marcelo Juanico

1996-01-01

226

Anthropogenic disturbance and spatial heterogeneity of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages in coastal lagoons: the study case of Pialassa Baiona (northern Adriatic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution patterns of macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages at different spatial scales and in relation to natural and anthropogenic disturbance gradients were investigated in the Pialassa Baiona, a eutrophic and polluted brackish coastal lagoon located along the Italian coast of the northern Adriatic Sea. This coastal lagoon shows a complex physiography with several shallow water ponds and channels separated by discontinuous artificial embankments. Environmental variables and macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages showed higher heterogeneity at small spatial scale (i.e. within channels and ponds). Distinction between channels and ponds is only weakly supported by the distribution patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. Depth was the major factor in structuring benthic communities within ponds, while species distributions along the channels were strongly correlated with the anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Anthropogenic disturbance mainly affected species richness, which was inversely correlated with the organic carbon contents in the sediments and the water surface temperature, which is affected by the input of cooling water from two thermal power plants. Some opportunistic species, like the polychaetes Streblospio shrubsolii and Capitella capitata, were more abundant in the southern polluted areas. In particular, the abundance of S. shrubsolii significantly increased with organic carbon contents in the sediments and water surface temperature, while C. capitata was more abundant in the warmed sites and close to sewages. Conversely, the abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum was inversely related to organic carbon contents.

Ponti, Massimo; Casselli, Chiara; Abbiati, Marco

2011-03-01

227

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

228

The occurrence of potentially toxic dinoflagellates and diatoms in a subtropical lagoon, the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of potentially toxic phytoplankton species was examined over a 5-year period in a region of the Indian River Lagoon in Florida that has recently been subject to ecologically significant events, putatively related to algal toxins. The results of the study reveal a significant presence of two species of phytoplankton that have been shown to be toxic in Florida

E. J. Phlips; S. Badylak; S. Youna; Karen Kelley

2004-01-01

229

Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and geochemical behaviour of several heavy metals in this coastal system, focusing on their distribution in both the dissolved phase (<0.45 ?m) and the suspended particulate matter. Therefore, the general hydrochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and concentration of total particulate and dissolved metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr and Mn) were measured along 2 years (2004-2006) at two different sites. As regards their distribution, hydrological parameters did not present any evidence of deviation with respect to historical values. Suspended particulate matter showed no seasonal variation or any relationship with the tide, thus indicating that in this shallow coastal lagoon neither tides nor freshwater sources regulate the particulate matter input. Heavy metals behaviour, both in dissolved and particulate phases did not reveal any relationship with tide or seasons. Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon showed a large input of dissolved and particulate metals, which is probably due to intensive agriculture within the drainage basin of this system.

Beltrame, María Ornela; De Marco, Silvia G.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

2009-10-01

230

Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact, efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

2013-05-01

231

Effect of experimental conditions on gas quality and solids produced by sewage sludge cogasification. 1. Sewage sludge mixed with coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cogasification of sewage sludge mixed with coal showed that the amount of sewage sludge supplied to the gasifier, depending on its availability, could vary without affecting the gasifier performance; however, it had an influence on the syngas composition. The use of sewage sludge during coal gasification gave rise to an increasing gas yield and energy conversion, mainly because the gas

Filomena Pinto; Helena Lopes; Mario Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

2007-01-01

232

Impact of a river flash flood on microbial carbon and nitrogen production in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over half of the total nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading was discharged from the Vène River into the Thau Lagoon waters within the first five days of what was considered to be the autumn flash flood period. Such loads represented about 8% and 3% of the yearly averaged total nitrogen and phosphorus load in Thau Lagoon, respectively. Although this event affected >20% of the total lagoon volume, river trace metal loads contributed apparently only weakly to the increase in labile trace metal concentrations in the lagoon surface waters. Differences between theoretical dilution values and observed values were also noticed for phosphate, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC losses (10-50%) mainly through flocculation, together with the substantial increases in some metallic contaminants such as Zn (from 6 to >30 ?g L-1) observed during the flash flood in saline lagoon waters, may have limited the carbon production of bacterial communities. The potential osmotic shock and the increase in turbidity may mainly explain the low phytoplankton C turnover rates (average of 0.02 h-1) measured in brackish waters (<30) during periods of heavy flood discharge. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: NO3 + NH4) enrichment measured 12 days after the flash flood event in saline lagoon surface waters (from 22 to 143 ?g N L-1) led to a substantial increase in phytoplanktonic C production and associated DIN uptake rates (from 2.6 to 7.0 ?g C L-1 h-1 and from 0.5 to 1.1 ?g N L-1 h-1, respectively). Subsequent accumulation in particulate organic carbon and nitrogen was not observed in the area studied during and after the flash flood period, averaging 549 ± 50 ?g C L-1 and 168 ± 9 ?g N L-1, respectively. This suggests that most of locally produced microbial production was rapidly filtered by oysters contributing to about 13% of the yearly exploited production in the lagoon and/or exported through sedimentation.

Fouilland, E.; Trottet, A.; Bancon-Montigny, C.; Bouvy, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Gonzalez, J.-L.; Hatey, E.; Mas, S.; Mostajir, B.; Nouguier, J.; Pecqueur, D.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Rodier, C.; Roques, C.; Salles, C.; Tournoud, M.-G.; Vidussi, F.

2012-11-01

233

Physical protection upgrades in Ukraine.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control and accountability and in physical protection to several facilities in Ukraine. This paper summarizes the types of physical protection upgrades that have been or are presently being implemented at these facilities. These facilities include the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, and the South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant. Typical upgrades include: hardening of storage areas; improvements in access control, intrusion detection, and CCTV assessment; central alarm station improvements; and implementation of new voice communication systems. Methods used to implement these upgrades and problems encountered are discussed. Training issues are also discussed.

Djakov, A.

1998-08-06

234

The D0 detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector.

Bross, A.D.

1995-02-01

235

Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan.

Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

1981-07-20

236

Characterization and lytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage were tested against P. fluorescens isolates of soil and sewage. The phages were characterized as to host range, morphology, structural proteins and genome fingerprint. Of the seven phages isolated, one was found to be abundant in sewage (5.9×107 pfu/mL), having broad host range, and distinct protein and DNA profile when compared to the other six phages. DNA restriction and protein profiles of the phages and their morphology indicate the diversity in the sewage environment. None of the isolates from the rhizosphere regions of various cultivated soils were susceptible to phages isolated from sewage.

Radhakrishnan, Ananthi; Ananthasubramanian, M.

2012-01-01

237

Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method for pyrolyzing sewage sludge using a microwave furnace. It was found that if just the raw wet sludge is treated in the microwave, only drying of the sample takes place. However, if the sludge is mixed with a small amount of a suitable microwave absorber (such as the char produced in the pyrolysis itself)

J. A Menéndez; M Inguanzo; J. J Pis

2002-01-01

238

COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

239

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

2013-04-01

240

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An epidemiology study which included environmental samples and clinical specimens within a three mile radius of a new sewage treatment plant near Chicago, Illinois was carried out. Evaluations were made before and after plant start-up to determine if operations resulted in any ad...

241

Water recovery from sewage using forward osmosis.  

PubMed

This research is part of the Sewer Mining project aimed at developing a new technological concept by extracting water from sewage by means of forward osmosis (FO). FO, in combination with a reconcentration system, e.g. reverse osmosis (RO) is used to recover high-quality water. Furthermore, the subsequent concentrated sewage (containing an inherent energy content) can be converted into a renewable energy (RE) source (i.e. biogas). The effectiveness of FO membranes in the recovery of water from sewage has been evaluated. Stable FO water flux values (>4.3 LMH) were obtained with primary effluent (screened, not treated) used as the feed solution. Fouling of the membrane was also induced and further investigated. Accumulated fouling was found to be apparent, but not irreversible. Sewer Mining could lead to a more economical and sustainable treatment of wastewater, facilitating the extraction of water and energy from sewage and changing the way it is perceived: not as waste, but as a resource. PMID:22179641

Lutchmiah, Kerusha; Cornelissen, Emile R; Harmsen, Danny J H; Post, Jan W; Lampi, Keith; Ramaekers, Hans; Rietveld, Luuk C; Roest, Kees

2011-01-01

242

Desinfeccion de efluentes residuales. (Disinfection of sewage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the ...

J. Arenas

1984-01-01

243

Fresh Water from Sewage on Long Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small sewage purification systems adequate for about 250 homes are being tested for the return of drinking quality fresh water to the local water table. One system consists of a grass meadow which slopes into a planted marsh which merges into a pond which...

M. M. Small

1976-01-01

244

SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

245

SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT  

EPA Science Inventory

A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

246

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOEpatents

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30

247

Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana

2010-01-01

248

Using vulnerability assessments to define upgrade actions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Determining appropriate and cost-effective upgrades for safeguards and security (S&S) systems is demanding activity. The process requires that specific weaknesses be recognized through a vulnerability assessment (VA), candidate upgrades be identified, thr...

C. J. Udell M. P. Billings B. J. Layman R. A. Schultheiss

1990-01-01

249

The upgraded Pegasus Toroidal Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pegasus Toroidal Experiment was developed to explore the physics limits of plasma operation as the aspect ratio (A) approaches unity. Initial experiments on the device found that access to high normalized current and toroidal beta was limited by the presence of large-scale tearing modes. Major upgrades have been conducted of the facility to provide the control tools necessary to mitigate these resistive modes. The upgrades include new programmable power supplies, new poloidal field coils and increased, time-variable toroidal field. First ohmic operations with the upgraded system demonstrated position and current ramp-rate control, as well as improvement in ohmic flux consumption from 2.9 MA Wb-1 to 4.2 MA Wb-1. The upgraded experiment will be used to address three areas of physics interest. First, the kink and ballooning stability boundaries at low A and high normalized current will be investigated. Second, clean, high-current plasma sources will be studied as a helicity injection tool. Experiments with two such sources have produced toroidal currents three times greater than predicted by geometric field line following. Finally, the use of electron Bernstein waves to heat and drive current locally will be studied at the 1 MW level; initial modelling indicates that these experiments are feasible at a frequency of 2.45 GHz.

Garstka, G. D.; Diem, S. J.; Eidietis, N. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Taylor, G.; Battaglia, D. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Frost, M. J.; Kujak-Ford, B. A.; Squires, B. J.; Winz, G. R.

2006-08-01

250

Physical protection upgrades in Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control and accountability and in physical protection to several facilities in Ukraine. This paper summarizes the types of physical protection upgrades that have been or are presently being implemented at these facilities. These facilities include the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Sevastopol

Djakov

1998-01-01

251

Risk Factors for Colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48?hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48?hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings.

Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A.; Reif, John S.

2011-01-01

252

Factors structuring temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities in a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal).  

PubMed

The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the effects of the organic loadings into the lagoon may be reflected until this area. This transitional feature was corroborated by biological data, with macrobenthic assemblages displaying characteristics of down- and upstream areas. Macrobenthic abundance peaked in winter, which was associated with a higher nutrient availability (mainly ammonium) and the proliferation of green macroalgae in mid-lower and inner lagoon areas. However, massive macroalgae growth resulted in a sharp decrease of macrobenthic diversity and abundance in spring, particularly where the higher amounts of decaying algae were detected. Higher dissimilarities between assemblages were detected during winter (and spring, for trophic composition), while in summer, differences were highly attenuated. The least contaminated area (close to the sea inlet) experienced smaller temporal variations for environmental variables, as well as the lowest temporal biological variability. This area was dominated by carnivores, which were related with increased salinity. Deposit-feeders were numerically dominant in the lagoon, being generally spread within organically enriched sandy and muddy areas. The high concentration of chlorophyll a and suspended particulate matter in water was reflected in the abundance of deposit-feeders/suspension-feeders, taking benefit of the high primary productivity. On the other hand, deposit-feeders/herbivores responded to the decay of macroalgae mats in the sediment. Biological associations varied with the biological data used (taxonomic versus trophic group composition; abundance versus biomass), highlighting the relevance of the combination of different data analysis' approaches. In general, BIOENV analysis indicated total phosphorus, biomass of Ulva, metals and organic carbon and nitrogen as being significantly influencing benthic patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies in ecological behaviours of some taxa were also detected in the present study stressing the need for additional studies on the relationships between macrobenthic communities and environmental variables. Implications of the present results for monitoring studies are discussed. PMID:21236484

Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Patrícia; Pereira, Fábio; de Pablo, Hilda; Vale, Carlos; Gaspar, Miguel B

2011-03-01

253

Estimation of bottom ammonium affinity in the New Caledonia lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonium affinity of New Caledonia lagoon benthic communities was measured during the course of 33 in situ enrichment experiments, in order to estimate the contribution of benthos to ammonium fluxes. Ammonium chloride was injected into enclosures pushed into the sediment, in order to obtain a concentration of 20 22 ?mol l-1 in the enclosed water which approximated the interstitial water content. Ammonium kinetic uptake was then followed for two hours. Grey-sand bottom displayed the highest affinity for ammonium, but white-sand and muddy bottom affinity was of the same order of magnitude. Macrophytes, and microphytes (when macrophytes are absent), account for the bulk of ammonium bottom uptake. As a result, grey-sand bottoms with their dense macrophyte cover represent a sink for water column nitrogen and play a key role in nutrient cycling of the lagoon.

Boucher, G.; Clavier, J.; Garrigue, C.

1994-01-01

254

An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July. PMID:21339067

Wu, Binxin; Chen, Zhenbin

2011-04-01

255

Fine grain sediment transport and deposition in the Patos Lagoon-Cassino beach sedimentary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive mud deposits superimposed on the predominantly sandy inner continental shelf adjacent to the Patos Lagoon estuary, indicates that the Lagoon is a potential source of fine sediments to the coastal sedimentary system. The lagoon is large and shallow, and the water movement is mainly controlled by wind-driven set-up and set-down. The mean river inflow is around 2000 m 3

L. J. Calliari; J. C. Winterwerp; E. Fernandes; D. Cuchiara; S. B. Vinzon; M. Sperle; K. T. Holland

2008-01-01

256

Prokaryotic diversity in one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in\\u000a this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of\\u000a this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota.\\u000a In lagoon water,

M. M. Clementino; R. P. Vieira; A. M. Cardoso; A. P. A. Nascimento; C. B. Silveira; T. C. Riva; A. S. M. Gonzalez; R. Paranhos; R. M. Albano; A. Ventosa; O. B. Martins

2008-01-01

257

Fine grain sediment transport and deposition in the Patos Lagoon–Cassino beach sedimentary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive mud deposits superimposed on the predominantly sandy inner continental shelf adjacent to the Patos Lagoon estuary, indicates that the Lagoon is a potential source of fine sediments to the coastal sedimentary system. The lagoon is large and shallow, and the water movement is mainly controlled by wind-driven set-up and set-down. The mean river inflow is around 2000m3s?1, although peak

L. J. Calliari; J. C. Winterwerp; E. Fernandes; D. Cuchiara; S. B. Vinzon; M. Sperle; K. T. Holland

2009-01-01

258

Hydrological characteristics of three North African coastal lagoons: insights from the MELMARINA project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological and hydrodynamic characteristics are important controls in all wetlands including coastal lagoons. Enhanced understanding\\u000a of lagoon functioning can be obtained through the acquisition and interpretation of hydrological, meteorological and related\\u000a data. The MELMARINA Project investigated links between hydrological and ecological conditions within North African coastal\\u000a lagoons. It employed three primary sites: Merja Zerga in Morocco, Ghar El Melh in

J. R. Thompson; R. J. Flower; M. Ramdani; F. Ayache; M. H. Ahmed; E. K. Rasmussen; O. S. Petersen

2009-01-01

259

Hatching rhythms and dispersion of decapod crustacean larvae in a brackish coastal lagoon in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mar Chiquita, a brackish coastal lagoon in central Argentina, is inhabited by dense populations of two intertidal grapsid\\u000a crab species,Cyrtograpsus angulatus andChasmagnathus granulata. During a preliminary one-year study and a subsequent intensive sampling programme (November–December 1992), the physical\\u000a properties and the occurrence of decapod crustacean larvae in the surface water of the lagoon were investigated. The lagoon\\u000a is characterized by

K. Anger; E. Spivak; C. Bas; D. Ismael; T. Luppi

1994-01-01

260

Modeling Interaction of Fluid and Salt in an Aquifer\\/Lagoon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to simulate the dynamic interaction between a saline lagoon and a ground water system, a numerical model for two-dimensional, variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, coupled flow and solute transport (SIFEC) was modified to allow the volume of water and mass of salt in the lagoon to vary with each time step. The modified SIFEC allows the stage of a lagoon to

Katsuyuki Fujinawa; Takahiro Iba; Yohichi Fujihara; Tsugihiro Watanabe

2009-01-01

261

Deepwater rig upgrades face equipment, financial challenges  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the flat oil and gas prices, industry representatives are comparing the costs of upgrading production and drilling rigs rather than constructing new ones. This paper discusses the technologies available for upgrading these existing rigs and provides numerous case studies of such projects. It provides cost comparisons for the various upgrades as compared to new systems.

NONE

1996-04-01

262

Tracking triggers for the upgraded DØ detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high luminosity environment of the upgraded Tevatron will require not only the upgrade of various DØ subdetectors, but the trigger system as well. With respect to the present system, the upgraded trigger system must operate faster and provide a higher degree of background rejection while extending the physics acceptance beyond that of the current system. This will be accomplished

S. Glenn; P. Bloom; S. Mani; D. Pellett; J. Costa; L. Moreira; A. Baumbaugh; G. Blazey; F. Borcherding; M. Johnson; J. Wilcox

1995-01-01

263

Sasol upgrades synfuels with refining technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process flow sheet is presented of the oil upgrading process. The principal objectives of the fuels upgrading scheme are to: 1. Remove contaminants from the Synthol oil to yield suitable products and to protect catalyst in downstream processing. 2. Upgrade the quality of gasoline-range material to meet octane specifications of finished gasoline. 3. Polymerize propylene and butylenes to yield

J. S. Swart; G. J. Czajkowski; R. E. Conser

1981-01-01

264

Biorefineries for biofuel upgrading: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews the biofuel valorization facilities as well as the future importance of biorefineries. Biomass can be converted into useful biofuels and bio-chemicals via biomass upgrading and biorefinery technologies. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. Biomass upgrading processes include fractionation, liquefaction, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, fermentation, and gasification. Upgraded

M. Fatih Demirbas

2009-01-01

265

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Venice Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sediment cores were collected in the Venice Lagoon: two from mud flats (E, F) and one from the San Giuliano Canal (I1), which borders the industrial district. Samples were analysed for the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by the U.S. EPA. Sediment chronologies were established using both 137Cs and 210Pb activity-depth profiles, and confirmed by

M. Frignani; L. G. Bellucci; M. Favotto; S. Albertazzi

2003-01-01

266

Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons  

SciTech Connect

An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

1999-11-01

267

Isolation of Salmonella Bacteriophages from Swine Effluent Lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages (phages) associated with Salmonella were collect- ed from nine swine manure lagoons in Mississippi. Phages were isolated by an enrichment protocol or directly from effluent. For enrichment, chloroform-treated samples were filtered (0.22 mm) and selectively enriched by adding a cocktail of Salmonella strains in trypticase soy broth. After overnight incubation at 35C, chloroform was added and samples stored at

M. R. McLaughlin; M. F. Balaa; J. Sims; R. King

2006-01-01

268

Benthic nutrient remineralization in a coastal lagoon ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements of the exchange of ammonia, nitrate plus nitrite, phosphate, and dissolved organic phosphorus between sediments\\u000a and the overlying water column were made in a shallow coastal lagoon on the ocean coast of Rhode Island, U.S.A. The release\\u000a of ammonia from mud sediments in the dark (20–440 ?mol per m2 per h) averaged ten times higher than from

Barbara L. Nowicki; Scott W. Nixon

1985-01-01

269

Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

1985-02-01

270

A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments.  

PubMed

A sampler was needed for a spatial and temporal study of microbial and chemical stratification in a large swine manure lagoon that was known to contain zoonotic bacteria. Conventional samplers were limited to collections of surface water samples near the bank or required a manned boat. A new sampler was developed to allow simultaneous collection of multiple samples at different depths, up to 2.3 m, without a manned boat. The sampler was tethered for stability, used remote control (RC) for sample collection, and accommodated rapid replacement of sterile tubing modules and sample containers. The sampler comprised a PVC pontoon with acrylic deck and watertight enclosures, for a 12 VDC gearmotor, to operate the collection module, and vacuum system, to draw samples into reusable autoclavable tubing and 250-mL bottles. Although designed primarily for water samples, the sampler was easily modified to collect sludge. The sampler held a stable position during deployment, created minimal disturbance in the water column, and was readily cleaned and sanitized for transport. The sampler was field tested initially in a shallow fresh water lake and subsequently in a swine manure treatment lagoon. Analyses of water samples from the lagoon tests showed that chemical and bacterial levels, pH, and EC did not differ between 0.04, 0.47, and 1.0 m depths, but some chemical and bacterial levels differed between winter and spring collections. These results demonstrated the utility of the sampler and suggested that future manure lagoon studies employ fewer or different depths and more sampling dates. PMID:24549945

McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A

2014-07-01

271

Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

PITKOFF, C.C.

1999-07-02

272

Crustacean fish parasites from Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The present study is the first investigation on ectoparasites of commercial important fish from Segara Anakan, a brackish water lagoon located at the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. Eight economically important marine fish species (Mugil cephalus, Siganus javus, Scatophagus argus, Caranx sexfasciatus, Lutjanus johnii, Eleutheronema tetradactylum, Johnius coitor, and Epinephelus coioides) were examined for crustacean parasites. Prevalence and intensity data for each parasite species are given, together with an analysis of the origin and possible transmission pathways. A highly divers copepod fauna consisting of 23 different species and two isopods was found. All fish species were at least infested with two copepod species, with the exception of L. johnii, S. argus, and M. cephalus. With seven and six species, respectively, they harboured the most species-rich ectoparasite fauna. The copepods Ergasilus sp. 3 and Caligus acanthopagri on S. argus showed the highest prevalence (78.6) and intensity [17.8 (1-233) and 5.3 (1-22)] of infestation. The recorded parasite fauna is represented by marine, brackish water, and probably also freshwater components. The brackish water environment of Segara Anakan does not prevent disease outbreaks due to parasitic copepods by preventing pathogenic marine or freshwater species to enter the lagoon. This might cause fish health problems if the Segara Anakan Lagoon would be developed for finfish mariculture in future. PMID:17219222

Yuniar, Asri T; Palm, Harry W; Walter, Thorsten

2007-05-01

273

Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea. PMID:11999620

Caliceti, M; Argese, E; Sfriso, A; Pavoni, B

2002-04-01

274

High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage  

PubMed Central

In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n = 118) were screened for VRE. Surprisingly, VRE were isolated from 21 of 35 untreated sewage samples (60%), from 5 of 14 hospital sewage samples (36%), from 6 of 32 treated sewage samples (19%), and from 1 of 37 surface water samples. Thirty-five isolates from 33 samples were further characterized by geno- and phenotyping, MIC determination, and PCR analysis. Most isolates (30 of 35) carried the vanA gene, and the majority (24 of 35) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium. Most of the VRE were multiresistant. The typing revealed high diversity of the isolates. However, one major cluster with seven identical or similar isolates was found. These isolates came from three different sewage treatment plants and were collected at different occasions during 1 year. All VRE from hospital sewage originated from one of the two hospitals studied. That hospital also had vancomycin consumption that was 10-fold that of the other. We conclude that VRE were commonly found in sewage samples in Sweden. The origin might be both healthy individuals and individuals in hospitals. Possibly, antimicrobial drugs or chemicals released into the sewage system may sustain VRE in the system.

Iversen, Aina; Kuhn, Inger; Franklin, Anders; Mollby, Roland

2002-01-01

275

Groundwater and porewater as a major source of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by radon) and shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1. Both sources of TA were important on a reef wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependant on the time of day. On a daily basis, groundwater can contribute approximately 70% to 80% of the TA taken up by corals within the lagoon. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water-column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2012-11-01

276

Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

2013-04-01

277

Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project. Progress report, January-June 1983  

SciTech Connect

Sandia technical and engineering support for DOE's Byproduct Utilization Program (BUP) continued. A purchase order was placed for a prototype sludge solar dryer with Intermountain Wholesale, Inc. (IMCO) of Denver, Colorado. Gamma irradiation of various commodities in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) and in the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) continued. Several tons of sludge were irradiated for a sludge stockpile experiment, and 2 tons of sludge have been irradiated for the NMSU Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. SIDSS upgrading has included the installation of new limit switches, vacuum pumps, speed controls, and elapsed time indicators. Routine and preventive maintenance has included swipe tests and lubrication of the conveyor bearings. A sludge stockpile experiment was initiated. All microbiological analyses are being done by the NMSU Department of Biology, and temperature measurements and sample handling and shipping are being done by SNLA. Sewage Solids Irradiation Transport System (SSITS) cask activities included placement of a contract for final machining of the two cask bodies. Analyses of cask performance when loaded with six strontium-90 (Sr-90) capsules were done.

Not Available

1984-12-01

278

Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

Zak, B.D. (ed.)

1982-12-01

279

MIPP Plastic Ball electronics upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade electronics design for Plastic Ball detector is described. The Plastic Ball detector was a part of several experiments in the past and its back portion (proposed to be used in MIPP) consists of 340 photomultipliers equipped with a sandwich scintillator. The scintillator sandwich has fast and slow signal component with decay times 10 ns and 1 {micro}s respectively. The upgraded MIPP experiment will collect up to 12,000 events during each 4 second spill and read them out in {approx}50 seconds between spills. The MIPP data acquisition system will employ deadtime-less concept successfully implemented in Muon Electronics of Dzero experiment at Fermilab. An 8-channel prototype design of the Plastic Ball Front End (PBFE) implementing these requirements is discussed. Details of the schematic design, simulation and prototype test results are discussed.

Baldin, Boris; /Fermilab

2009-01-01

280

Tevatron beam position monitor upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980's, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

Wolbers, Stephen; Banerjee, B.; Barker, B.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Bowden, M.; Cancelo, G.; Forster, B.; Duerling, G.; Haynes, B.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Mahlum, R.; Martens, M.; Mengel, M.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Pham, T.; Piccoli, L.; Steimel, J.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

281

Fish fauna recovery in a newly re-flooded Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drana Lagoon, located at the NW site of Evros River Delta, was drained in 1987 and re-flooded in 2004 within the framework of an integrated wetland restoration project. This study presents the results of a monitoring program of the lagoon's oceanographic, water quality and fish fauna characteristics, during the pre- and post-restoration period. Results depict the presence of high salinity water (up to 41) due to seawater intrusion, strong evaporation in its interior and inadequate freshwater inflows. Overall, nutrient levels were low depicting local changes. Tidal variability at the mouth was approximately 0.2 m, producing high velocity tidal currents (up to 0.75 m/s). Eleven fish fauna species were collected; seven species were caught in both the inlet channel and the lagoon during the pre-restoration period and nine species in the post-restoration period. Atherina boyeri (37.6%) and Pomatoschistus marmoratus (31.7%) dominated the lagoon during the post-restoration period. Most of the A. boyeri specimens (88.5%) were caught inside the lagoon, while P. marmoratus had an almost equal distribution in the inlet channel and the lagoon (56.3% and 43.7% respectively). The presence of species of the Mugilidae family (5.2% total average catches after lagoon re-flooding) was mainly in the inlet channel (12.6% of the average catches) and not inside the lagoon (only 1.3% of the average catches). The small number of fish species inhabiting the lagoon might be the result of the recent restoration or it could be related with the increased water flow observed at the lagoon mouth during the flood and ebb tidal phases, and also in the presence of a smooth bank in the concrete waterspout that connects the entrance channel with the lagoon. The limited presence of the Mugilidae juveniles inside the lagoon could be related to the prevailing tidal inlet dynamics (i.e. strong ebb flow at lagoon inlet), thus preventing the species to enter the lagoon. In order to restore the lagoon environment, careful and gradual steps should be undertaken under the basis of continuous monitoring of hydrologic, environmental and fisheries system's status.

Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Sylaios, Georgios; Kamidis, Nikolaos; Markou, Dimitrios; Sapounidis, Argyris

2009-08-01

282

Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

2001-05-01

283

Is There Sewage in My Sample?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the relationship between sediment sampling and ocean pollution as they discover how scientists collect and study sediment on the bottom of the ocean. They will also find out if the sediment sampling methods used by scientists can be used to detect pollution. They will learn about the proximity of the Hudson Shelf Valley and the Hudson Canyon to the New York City metropolitan region, one of the most populated areas in the United States; and will learn that formerly two dumpsites in the Hudson Shelf Valley and Hudson Canyon were used to dispose of sewage sludge. Students will also learn how scientists collect and use core samples to study seafloor sediments and what are some of the impacts of dumping sewage in the ocean.

284

Bacterial removal of mercury from sewage  

SciTech Connect

Mercury-resistant bacteria, which are able to reduce mercuric ion (Hg/sup 2 +/) to metallic mercury (Hg/sup 0/), were examined for their ability to remove mercury from wastewater aerobically. Growth studies in artificial medium indicated that mercury increases the lag phase, but does not effect the growth rate of these bacteria. Further studies demonstrated that growth was minimal during a phase of rapid mercury removal, after which growth resumed. Small but significant amounts of carbohydrates are required for the mercuric ion reduction. Prolonged periods of bacterial growth under nonsterile conditions was accomplished without the loss of the mercuric reducing ability of the culture. A continuous culture of the resistant organism was maintained on raw sewage for two weeks, during which time relatively high concentrations of mercury (70 mg/L) were removed from the sewage at a rate of 2.5 mg/L h and at efficiencies exceeding 98%.

Hansen, C.L.; Zwolinski, G.; Martin, D.; Williams, J.W.

1984-11-01

285

The FNAL Injector Upgrade Status  

SciTech Connect

The new FNAL H{sup -} injector upgrade is currently being tested before installation in the Spring 2012 shutdown of the accelerator complex. This line consists of an H{sup -} source, low energy beam transport (LEBT), 200 MHz RFQ and medium energy beam transport (MEBT). Beam measurements have been performed to validate the design before installation. The results of the beam measurements are presented in this paper.

Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Karns, P.R.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A; Scarpine, V.E.; Tomlin, R.E.; /Fermilab

2012-05-14

286

RHIC and its upgrade programmes.  

SciTech Connect

As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species. After a brief review of the achieved performance the presentation will give an overview of the plans, challenges and status of machine upgrades, that range from a new heavy ion pre-injector and beam cooling at 100 GeV to a high luminosity electron-ion collider.

Roser,T.

2008-06-23

287

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the re-availability of all flywheel-generators allowed high-power operation with up to 20 MW heating power

A. Kallenbach; J. Adamek; L. Aho-Mantila; S. Äkäslompolo; C. Angioni; C. V. Atanasiu; M. Balden; K. Behler; E. Belonohy; A. Bergmann; M. Bernert; R. Bilato; V. Bobkov; J. Boom; A. Bottino; F. Braun; M. Brüdgam; A. Buhler; A. Burckhart; A. Chankin; I. G. J. Classen; G. D. Conway; D. P. Coster; P. de Marné; R. D'Inca; R. Drube; R. Dux; T. Eich; N. Endstrasser; K. Engelhardt; B. Esposito; E. Fable; H.-U. Fahrbach; L. Fattorini; R. Fischer; A. Flaws; H. Fünfgelder; J. C. Fuchs; K. Gál; M. García Muñoz; B. Geiger; M. Gemisic Adamov; L. Giannone; C. Giroud; T. Görler; S. da Graca; H. Greuner; O. Gruber; A. Gude; S. Günter; G. Haas; A. H. Hakola; D. Hangan; T. Happel; T. Hauff; B. Heinemann; A. Herrmann; N. Hicks; J. Hobirk; H. Höhnle; M. Hölzl; C. Hopf; L. Horton; M. Huart; V. Igochine; C. Ionita; A. Janzer; F. Jenko; C.-P. Käsemann; S. Kálvin; O. Kardaun; M. Kaufmann; A. Kirk; H.-J. Klingshirn; M. Kocan; G. Kocsis; H. Kollotzek; C. Konz; R. Koslowski; K. Krieger; T. Kurki-Suonio; B. Kurzan; K. Lackner; P. T. Lang; P. Lauber; M. Laux; F. Leipold; F. Leuterer; A. Lohs; N. C. Luhmann Jr.; T. Lunt; A. Lyssoivan; H. Maier; C. Maggi; K. Mank; M.-E. Manso; M. Maraschek; P. Martin; M. Mayer; P. J. McCarthy; R. McDermott; H. Meister; L. Menchero; F. Meo; P. Merkel; R. Merkel; V. Mertens; F. Merz; A. Mlynek; F. Monaco; H. W. Müller; M. Münich; H. Murmann; G. Neu; R. Neu; B. Nold; J.-M. Noterdaeme; H. K. Park; G. Pautasso; G. Pereverzev; Y. Podoba; F. Pompon; E. Poli; K. Polochiy; S. Potzel; M. Prechtl; M. J. Püschel; T. Pütterich; S. K. Rathgeber; G. Raupp; M. Reich; B. Reiter; T. Ribeiro; R. Riedl; V. Rohde; J. Roth; M. Rott; F. Ryter; W. Sandmann; J. Santos; K. Sassenberg; P. Sauter; A. Scarabosio; G. Schall; K. Schmid; P. A. Schneider; W. Schneider; G. Schramm; R. Schrittwieser; J. Schweinzer; B. Scott; M. Sempf; F. Serra; M. Sertoli; M. Siccinio; A. Sigalov; A. Silva; A. C. C. Sips; F. Sommer; A. Stäbler; J. Stober; B. Streibl; E. Strumberger; K. Sugiyama; W. Suttrop; T. Szepesi; G. Tardini; C. Tichmann; D. Told; W. Treutterer; L. Urso; P. Varela; J. Vincente; N. Vianello; T. Vierle; E. Viezzer; C. Vorpahl; D. Wagner; A. Weller; R. Wenninger; B. Wieland; C. Wigger; M. Willensdorfer; M. Wischmeier; E. Wolfrum; E. Würsching; D. Yadikin; Q. Yu; I. Zammuto; D. Zasche; T. Zehetbauer; Y. Zhang; M. Zilker; H. Zohm

2011-01-01

288

40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4775...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability... § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?...

2013-07-01

289

40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability...Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are...

2013-07-01

290

40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? 60.4770...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability... Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?...

2013-07-01

291

78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9821-1] Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated...control air pollutants from ``Sewage Sludge Incinerators'' (SSI). The...as any device that combusts sewage sludge for the purpose of reducing...

2013-06-11

292

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...graywater mixture. (c) Each entry in the Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book shall...Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type of treatment used; (4) Time...

2010-07-01

293

33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...graywater mixture. (c) Each entry in the Sewage and Graywater Discharge Record Book shall...Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type of treatment used; (4) Time...

2009-07-01

294

Production of long ceramic sewage pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

shaped from the plastic bodies using screw presses of high capacity (rigid construction) which permit one to obtain pipes from the bodies having a low moisture content (13-14%). At the Soviet ceramic plants, sewage pipes are made from the bodies having a moisture content of 17.5-18.5% which restricts the possibility of increasing the length of the pipes. The studies conducted

V. S. Radyukhin; B. V. Lebedev; V. M. Kraev; Yu. F. Mikhailov

1986-01-01

295

Upgrade of the CMS tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm?2s?1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb?1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

Tricomi, A.

2014-03-01

296

Material Transport in ASDEX Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today carbon is the most common first wall material in fusion experiments, whereas the first wall of the next step device will consist of a mixture of elements. Especially tungsten has been shown to be an alternative to low-Z materials. However, even with 40% of tungsten coated plasma facing components, carbon is still the dominant impurity at ASDEX Upgrade. A consistent picture of the carbon migration in ASDEX Upgrade has been achieved. Primary carbon sources are the protection limiters at the low field side of the main chamber. Eroded carbon is distributed all over the main chamber. So, the initially tungsten coated central column acts as the main carbon source during discharges, even though a considerable amount of tungsten surfaces persists. Carbon coverage of the central column can significantly change on a shot to shot basis. The divertor target plates act as a strong carbon sink. Deposits are found at the inner and outer divertor, which may be re-eroded forming precursors for layer production at remote areas. In ASDEX Upgrade, deposits on the subdivertor structure are formed by hydro-carbons with a high effective sticking coefficient. A parasitic plasma at these locations may enhance the surface loss probability by surface activation. At more remote areas, such as the pump ducts, a very small deposition is found. Non sticking hydro-carbons are effectively pumped by the cryopump and turbo molecular pumps.

Rohde, V.; Dux, R.; Mayer, M.; Neu, R.; PA~ 1/4 tterich, T.; Schneider, W.; ASDEX Upgrade-Team,

297

LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a vital piece of apparatus providing tracking, triggering and vertexing to the LHCb experiment. Its superb impact parameter resolution and high efficiency enable LHCb to make precision measurements and searches for New Physics in the flavour sector. These proceedings focus on the R&D for the future LHCb VELO detector to be installed in the upgraded LHCb experiment. In order to increase hadronic yields and to be able to run at higher luminosities LHCb plans to upgrade the front end electronics, currently limited by a first level hardware trigger. For the silicon vertex detector this implies a complete rebuild of the modules and electronics, with improved cooling capability to cope with the high voltages and currents expected after significant radiation damage has been accrued. This paper presents the design considerations for the vertex detector upgrade together with the two proposed options for the sensor layout, based on strips or pixels. As part of the R&D programme a pixel based tracking telescope has been developed for use in testbeams, to gain experience with pixel tracking and to evaluate the technologies under consideration. This paper presents results from the last years running of the TimePix telescope and describes the integration of various test devices.

Reid, M. M.; LHCb VELO Group

2013-01-01

298

Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

1976-01-01

299

Toxicity Evaluation of Sewage Sludge Before and After Composting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge and the compost were evaluated through chemical characterization and toxicity testing to determine their suitability for land application. The application of sewage sludge\\/compost, slightly acidic with pH rang of 6.4-6.5, decreased the soil pH. The higher the sewage sludge\\/compost rates, the higher the mixed soil contents of electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P),

Qiang Liu; Ling Chen; You Huang; Wuliang Cheng; Jianfu Zhao

2008-01-01

300

Ecophysiological Responses of Plants After Sewage Sludge Compost Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting is one of the most appropriate methods to recycle sewage sludge. Sewage sludge compost is a suitable solution for\\u000a improving the quality of barren soil at landfill. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost\\u000a on plants. Different compost application methods (mixing and scattering over reclaimed soil) on sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and Japanese red

Uhram Song; Eun Ju Lee

2010-01-01

301

[The hygienic evaluation of a local unit for sewage treatment].  

PubMed

A complex of hygienic criteria was proposed to assess a Bioclere local unit for sewage treatment. These included: the effects of the organoleptic properties of sewage, better sanitary and chemical parameters, lower levels of inorganic and organic chemicals, surfactants, microbiological parameters, stability of treatment regimens. The Bioclere unit has some advantages over the similar ones and may be useful when an object cannot be connected to the sewage network. PMID:9190350

Zholdakova, Z I; Kustova, E V; Sinitsyna, O O; Nedachin, A E; Sidorenko, S G

1997-01-01

302

Ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. Sewage sludge was spiked with Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °C (only 0.5%). A linear relationship was identified between Salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (NH3) concentration. Temperature had a positive impact on Salmonella spp. inactivation at higher temperatures, but in the range 4-10 °C temperature influenced this inactivation merely by its impact on the ammonia equilibrium. Enterococcus spp. was more persistent and a lag phase of up to 11 weeks was observed. Higher temperature and ammonia concentration reduced the lag phase duration significantly, and also had a clear effect on the inactivation rate for the treatments with 0.5% urea at 22 °C and 2% urea at 4 and 10 °C. Urea sanitisation of sewage sludge can give a 2 log10 reduction of Enterococcus spp. and more than a 5 log10 reduction of Salmonella spp. within 6 weeks with either 0.5% w/w urea at 22 °C or 2% urea at 10 °C. PMID:24185072

Fidjeland, Jørgen; Lalander, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

2013-01-01

303

The water quality of the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal: From the observations to the implementation of a numerical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ria de Aveiro is a very important area of the Portuguese coast, which has been under an increasing anthropogenic pressure for several decades and, contributes to the degradation of the lagoon’s water quality. This work presents both a characterisation of the water quality of the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, using physical, chemical and biological experimental data, and an implementation of

J. F. Lopes; J. M. Dias; A. C. Cardoso; C. I. V. Silva

2005-01-01

304

Characterizing sources of groundwater to a tropical coastal lagoon in a karstic area using radium isotopes and water chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) and water chemistry were used to identify two chemically distinct sources of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Celestún Lagoon, Yucatán, Mexico. Low salinity groundwater discharging from springs within the lagoon has previously been identified and extensively sampled for nutrient concentrations. However, a second type of groundwater discharging into the lagoon was detected during

Megan B. Young; Meagan Eagle Gonneea; Derek A. Fong; Willard S. Moore; Jorge Herrera-Silveira; Adina Paytan

2008-01-01

305

Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)  

EPA Science Inventory

The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

306

Evidence of North Africa?s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

307

75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country...System (NPDES) general permits for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian...issuance of the NPDES general permit for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in...

2010-08-31

308

Mechanical clam dredging in Venice lagoon: ecosystem effects evaluated with a trophic mass-balance model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting of the invasive Manila clam, Tapes philippinarum, is the main exploitative activity in the Venice lagoon, but the mechanical dredges used in this free-access regime produce a considerable disturbance of the lagoon ecosystem. An ecosystem approach to study the complex effects of clam harvesting was implemented using a trophic mass-balance model. The trophic relations in the ecosystem were quantified

F. Pranovi; S. Libralato; S. Raicevich; A. Granzotto; R. Pastres; O. Giovanardi

2003-01-01

309

Dynamics of copper and zinc sedimentation in a lagooning system receiving landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This study characterises the sediment dredged from a lagooning system composed of a settling pond and three lagoons that receive leachates from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in France. Organic carbon, carbonate, iron oxyhydroxides, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were measured in the sediment collected from upstream to downstream in the lagooning system. In order to complete our investigation of sedimentation mechanisms, leachates were sampled in both dry (spring) and wet (winter) seasonal conditions. Precipitation of calcite and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and sedimentation of organic matter occurred in the settling pond. Since different distributions of Zn and Cu concentrations are measured in sediment samples collected downstream in the lagooning system, it is suggested that these elements were not distributed in a similar way in the leachate fractions during the first stage of treatment in the settling pond, so that their sedimentation dynamics in the lagooning system differ. In the lagoons, it was found that organic carbon plays a major role in Cu and Zn mobility and trapping. The presence of macrophytes along the edges provided an input of organic matter that enhanced Cu and Zn scavenging. This edge effect resulted in a two-fold increase in Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediment deposited near the banks of the lagoons, thus confirming the importance of vegetation for the retention of Cu and Zn in lagooning systems. PMID:23810321

Guigue, Julien; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Denimal, Sophie; Steinmann, Marc; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Grisey, Hervé

2013-11-01

310

Biogas Production From A Covered Lagoon Digester And Utilization In A Microturbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will summarize results of data collection from the lagoon-type methane recovery system at the Cal Poly dairy, which has approximately 300 cows, calves and heifers. The project at present consists of a 14,000 cubic meter (4 million gallons) earthen lagoon, with pump and piping to transfer the dilute dairy manure wastewater from the solids separator to the new

311

Ecological implications of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of Burullus Lagoon of Nile Delta, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Ni) from three short sediment cores collected from Burullus lagoon of the Nile delta, Egypt. 210Pb and 137Cs measurement is applied to understand sedimentation rate and related chronology. Remarkably low isotopic activities and intensive bioturbation in the lagoonal sediments rendered age

Zhongyuan Chen; Alaa Salem; Zhuang Xu; Weiguo Zhang

2010-01-01

312

SEEPAGE LOSSES FROM ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS: A SUMMARY OF A FOUR-YEAR INVESTIGATION IN KANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seepage losses from animal waste lagoons can affect groundwater quality if liquid effluent is not properly contained within the basin. Seepage rates from 20 anaerobic lagoons were measured using water balance methods. Study locations included 14 swine sites, 5 cattle feedlots, and a single dairy. Seepage results and basin geometry were used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of the

J. M. Ham

2002-01-01

313

Small Mammal Survey at Big Lagoon, Muir Beach, Marin County, CA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Big Lagoon at Muir Beach, in Marin County, California is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) and is a popular destination for park visitors, receiving approximately 440,000 visitors annually. Today, Big Lagoon consists of fragmented h...

J. Y. Takekawa M. A. Bias I. Woo S. A. Demers E. E. Boydston

2003-01-01

314

Recruitment of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in the Lagoon of Thau, mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were investigated in the Mediterranean lagoon of Thau. The periods of release of clam larvae were determined by monitoring the gonad maturity index in samples of adult females. Two massive spawnings were detected. Recruitment, deduced from spat density, was abundant in one part of the lagoon (Etang des

Philippe Borsa; Bertrand Millet

1992-01-01

315

FLOATING COVER SYSTEMS FOR WASTE LAGOONS: POTENTIAL APPLICATION AT OLD INGER SITE, LOUISIANA  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous liquids are impounded in pits, ponds, and lagoons at many uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country. As the ranking, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies proceed at these sites, many of the lagoons gradually fill with rainwater and threaten to ov...

316

Nutrient And Particulate Inputs Into The Mar Menor Lagoon (Se Spain) From An Intensive Agricultural Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mar Menor is a Mediterranean coastal lagoon of high conservation interest, but highly threatened by non-point pollution derived from agricultural lands. This is the first comprehensive study that evaluates the inputs into the Mar Menor from a drainage channel and the Albujón wadi, the main watercourse, and their influence on the trophic state of the lagoon. Discharge variation during

J. Velasco; J. Lloret; A. Millan; A. Marin; J. Barahona; P. Abellan; D. Sanchez-Fernandez

2006-01-01

317

The Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain): A singular natural ecosystem threatened by human activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mar Menor lagoon is one of the most important ecological singularities in the Mediterranean area. At the same time, it is an area where many economic and industrial activities meet. The sum of the impacts of mining, agriculture and urban development in the surroundings to the lagoon during the last decades has affected its ecosystem. In this paper, we

Héctor M. Conesa; Francisco J. Jiménez-Cárceles

2007-01-01

318

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF THE RESERVOIR AGE IN THE LAGOON OF VENICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagoon of Venice was formed about 6000 years ago due to the marine transgression associated with the late Pleistocene sea level rise. Already by the time of the Republic of Venice (727 -1797 AD) it was recognized that the future of the city and its many historical buildings was strongly correlated with the future of the lagoon itself. During

U Zoppi; A Albani; A J Ammerman; Q Hua; E M Lawson; R Serandrei Barbero

319

Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass

J. Rapaglia; C. Ferrarin; L. Zaggia; G. Umgiesser; G. Zuppi; G. Manfe

2008-01-01

320

Metal pollution loading, Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt: Implications for aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

High cultural enrichment factors are found for Hg (13×), Pb (22.1×), and other potentially toxic metals (e.g., Sn, Zn, Cu, Ag) in the upper 20 cm of sediment cores from the southeastern Ginka subbasin of Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt. Cores from other areas of the lagoon show little metal loading. Metal loading followed the closure of the Aswan High

F. R. Siegel; M. L. Slaboda; D. J. Stanley

1994-01-01

321

Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum, however, it significantly affected the uptake of heavy metals by D. morifolium. PMID:17294948

Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

2006-01-01

322

Recent Upgrades and Extensions of the ASDEX Upgrade ECRH System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-frequency Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECRH) system at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak employs depressed collector gyrotrons, step-tunable in the range 105-140 GHz. The system is equipped with a fast steerable launcher allowing for remote steering of the ECRH RF beam during the plasma discharge. The gyrotrons and the mirrors are fully integrated in the discharge control system. The polarization can be controlled in a feed-forward mode. 3 Sniffer probes for millimeter wave stray radiation detection have been installed.

Wagner, Dietmar; Stober, Jörg; Leuterer, Fritz; Monaco, Francesco; Münich, Max; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Schütz, Harald; Zohm, Hartmut; Thumm, Manfred; Scherer, Theo; Meier, Andreas; Gantenbein, Gerd; Flamm, Jens; Kasparek, Walter; Höhnle, Hendrik; Lechte, Carsten; Litvak, Alexander G.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Chirkov, Alexey; Popov, Leonid G.; Nichiporenko, Vadim O.; Myasnikov, Vadim E.; Tai, Evgeny M.; Solyanova, Elena A.; Malygin, Sergey A.

2011-03-01

323

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade on Cryogenic Lines at Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

This is an upgrade to the thermal contraction analysis sound in D0 Engineering Note: 3823.115-EN-426. In this new design, a portion of the transfer lines are consolidated into one 6-inch vacuum jacket. Since all four transfer lines follow the same path and are of equal lengths, the stress analysis is performed on only one transfer line using the design system ALGOR{reg_sign}. The GHe Cooldown Supply line is analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight and all the stresses were below the allowable stress limit of 25,050 psi.

Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

1995-09-26

324

A summary of preliminary studies of sedimentation and hydrology in Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating sedimentary and hydrologic conditions in Bolinas Lagoon, a 1,100-acre lagoon 15 miles northwest of San Francisco. The program began in May 1967 and will continue into 1970. Only the study results analyzed before June 1968 are summarized in the report. Two series of measurements of suspended-sediment load and water discharge in the lagoon inlet showed that much of the suspended sediment is sand and that the average velocity was as much as 4.7 feet per second. Littoral drift near the inlet was generally toward the inlet, whereas farther from the inlet the pattern is irregular. Circulation velocities in the lagoon decrease rapidly away from the inlet, but probably remain high enough to erode bottom sediment along the channels. In most of the lagoon median size of bottom sediment was fine sand. Sediment was derived chiefly from Monterey Shale.

Ritter, John R.

1970-01-01

325

The physical hydrology of a lagoon system on the Pacific coast of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual hydrological cycle of the Caimanero-Huizache lagoon system on the Pacific coast of Mexico was investigated during 1977-1978. There is a well defined wet season during which the lagoons fill with water derived from fluvial inputs and direct precipitation. Water is lost by evaporation and outflow to the sea, the latter process starting as the wet season progresses and being facilitated by a falling mean sea level. Evaporation exceeds in situ precipitation and during the dry season complete desiccation may be prevented by a now rising mean sea level which promotes the flow of seawater into the lagoon basin. A quantitative estimate of the magnitude of these controlling processes is presented and processes bringing about mixing in the lagoons discussed. A brief comparison is made with other lagoon systems on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

Moore, N. H.; Slinn, D. J.

1984-10-01

326

Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5?(H)- and 5?(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17?(H),21?(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

1991-09-01

327

Biogeochemical Composition of Mediterranean Waters Outside Thau Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical characteristics (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen), nutrients (NO 3-, NO 2-, NH 4+, soluble reactive phosphorus, Si), dissolved organic matter with bacterial cell counts (DON, DOP, DOC, BACT) and particulate matter (POC, PON, Chl a) were measured weekly from January 1993 to March 1994 in Mediterranean surface waters, sampled 2·5 km offshore in Thau Lagoon (Sète, France). Waters outside the lagoon displayed salinity reductions below 29 which corresponded to flood periods of the Rhône River and/or to winds oriented in a southeasterly direction. Levels of nutrients were increased by the influence of the Rhône river plume. Concentrations of NO 3-and NH 4+were rather close to the theoretical dilution line, while SRP and Si seemed to be rapidly taken up along their dilution gradient, especially in spring. The influx of NO 3-enriched waters into the lagoon in October showed that the Rhône river plume can potentially fertilize this lagoon. The flux of nutrient from the Rhône River led to Chl amaxima above 4 ? g l -1in spring. The concentration of DOC and BACT reached peak values at the decay of the spring bloom and decreased to their lowest level afterwards, suggesting that primary production was an important source of DOC but also that DOC was repackaged in the microbial loop rather than being transported to deeper layers. Yearly averaged atomic C:N and C:P ratios in DOM were 15 and 1000, respectively, which probably compelled bacterioplankton to compete with phytoplankton for NH 4+and SRP. No influence of the Rhône River was observed during summer. This period was characterized by SRP, NO 3-and NO 2-concentrations below the limits of detection and by the lowest levels in DOC, DON, BACT and Chl a. However, NH 4+and DOP concentrations remained, respectively, above 0·3 and 0·15 ? M, and the summer period corresponded to oxygen supersaturation (up to 122%). These observations suggest the dominance of picophytoplanktonic communities with low biomass and high productivity associated with a heterotrophic component providing NH 4+directly to phytoplankton, and phosphorus dominated by organic forms.

Souchu, P.; Gasc, A.; Cahet, G.; Vaquer, A.; Collos, Y.; Deslous-Paoli, J. M.

1997-03-01

328

Copper complexation capacity in surface waters of the Venice Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total copper (CuT), copper ion activity (pCu) and the copper complexation capacity (CuCC) were determined in samples of seawater collected in July 2003 from the Venice Lagoon. CuT and CuCC showed considerable spatial variability: CuT ranged from 1.8 to 70.0nM, whereas the CuCC varied from 195 to 573nM. pCu values varied from 11.6 to 12.6 and are consistent with those

Francisco Delgadillo-Hinojosa; Alberto Zirino; Cristina Nasci

2008-01-01

329

Sasol upgrades synfuels with refining technology  

SciTech Connect

A process flow sheet is presented of the oil upgrading process. The principal objectives of the fuels upgrading scheme are to: 1. Remove contaminants from the Synthol oil to yield suitable products and to protect catalyst in downstream processing. 2. Upgrade the quality of gasoline-range material to meet octane specifications of finished gasoline. 3. Polymerize propylene and butylenes to yield gasoline and diesel-range products.

Swart, J.S.; Czajkowski, G.J.; Conser, R.E.

1981-08-31

330

Physics prospects with the upgraded CDF detector  

SciTech Connect

The CDF detector is being extensively upgraded for Fermilab Tevatron Run II, which is scheduled to begin in 1999. This talk describes the planned detector upgrades. The power of the upgraded detector is illustrated by showing the expected precision of several physics measurements that will be made with the Run II data: the top mass, the W mass, BR(t{yields}Wb), and the CP violation parameters sin(2{alpha}) and sin(2{beta}).

Hylen, J.; CDF Collaboration

1995-07-01

331

Biological upgrading of coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present progress to date on the biological upgrading of coal liquids. This three-year study focuses on surveying of known microorganisms for S, N, and O removal and aromaticity reduction. Isolates from natural sources will also be sought for these reactions. The performance of these cultures will be optimized and evaluated individually and as a mixed culture. The best cultures will be selected for performance evaluation in continuous submerged culture experiments in constant-stirring bioreactors. Reactor design and product removal processes will be projected and the economics of this technology compared with conventional methods. (VC)

Not Available

1991-01-01

332

The CDF silicon detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here.

Azzi, P.

1998-04-01

333

Nova Upgrade Design Support: Threats from Radiation Effects in the Proposed Nova Upgrade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program described in this report deals with the proposed Nova Upgrade facility, in which Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) expects to generate typically 20 MJ of total fusion energy. The Nova Upgrade is considered the next practical step a...

R. E. Tokheim L. Seaman D. R. Curran

1992-01-01

334

MMCR Upgrades: Present Status and Future Plans  

SciTech Connect

In September 2003, the Southern Great Plains (SGP) millimeter wave cloud radar (MMCR) was upgraded to a new digital signal processor that significantly increases the temporal resolution and the processing capability of the MMCR. The Barrow MMCR upgrade will be completed in early 2004. We will discuss the hardware and software C40 upgrade to the MMCRs at SGP and Barrow and the plans for upgrades at the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. Increased temporal resolution, new modes, and new file formats will be demonstrated. We are now collecting spectral data 24/7 and we will discuss how to obtain these large datasets.

Widener, Kevin B.; Koontz, Annette S.; Moran, Kenneth P.; Clark, K. A.; Chander, C.; Miller, Mark A.; Johnson, Karen L.

2004-12-07

335

SOFIA Gets Avionics and Mission Systems Upgrades  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, has received major upgrades to its telescope control and avionics systems that will significantly improve their efficiency and ope...

336

Chemical composition of sewage-grown Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spirulina platensis has been grown in an outdoor pilot production unit, with an exposed surface area of 450 m2, on a medium consisting of raw domestic sewage supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and nitrate or urea fertilizer. The chemical composition and yield of the biomass grown on sewage-nitrate was comparable to that grown on synthetic medium. The protein content was

P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; P. S. Misra

1982-01-01

337

FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

338

Survival and Activity of Sewage Micoorganisms in Acid Mine Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numbers and types of bacteria decrease if the pH of sewage is lowered by addition of acid mine water. A rapid decrease occurs at 4 C and 22 C, but at 22 C microbial numbers increese after the initial decrease. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of sewage...

R. C. Kralovic H. A. Wilson

1969-01-01

339

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in sewage and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is the evaluation of resistance patterns of E. coli in wastewater treatment plants without an evaluation of basic antibiotic resistance mechanisms.Investigations have been done in sewage, sludge and receiving waters from three different sewage treatment plants in southern Austria. A total of 767 E. coli isolates were tested regarding their resistance to 24 different antibiotics.

F. F Reinthaler; J Posch; G Feierl; G Wüst; D Haas; G Ruckenbauer; F Mascher; E Marth

2003-01-01

340

Study on the characteristics and utilization of urban sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to propose an effective method for the reclamation of sewage sludge, sewage sludge from three waste water treatment plants were sampled and analyzed. The results show that the digested sludge samples are alkalescent, and the undigested sludge samples are acidic. The moisture content ranged from 78% to 83%. The samples have plenty of organic matter, N, P, K,

Niu Junling; Liu Lei; Zheng Binguo

2011-01-01

341

[Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].  

PubMed

"Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one. PMID:23705396

Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

2013-02-01

342

Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are

Thomas Heberer

2002-01-01

343

Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal

M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis

2005-01-01

344

Cogasification of sewage sludge in an updraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is the residue produced by the domestic or industrial wastewaters treatment plants. According to the principles of sustainability, several restrictions have been imposed on the conventional methods currently adopted for its disposal. The consequent need to develop alternative processes for the use of sewage sludge for energy purposes such as gasification requires experimental tests in order to quantify

M. Seggiani; S. Vitolo; M. Puccini; A. Bellini

345

Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few health concerns because sufficient decay occurs before it can reach the public however, incineration, which is done in winter months, directly releases the 131I from sewage sludge to the atmosphere, and even though exposures to both workers and the public were found to be considerably lower than 1% of natural background, incineration of sludge in a pathway for public exposure. Although 131I was readily measurable in sewage sludge, only about 1% of the radioione administered to patients was found in the sludge. The fate of the remaining radioactivity has not been established; some may be in secondary and tertiary residuals, but it is quite likely that most passed through the plant and was discharged in dilute concentrations in plant emissions. The behavior of radioiodine and other radioactive materials released into municipal seweage systems, such as those from large medical facilities, is not yet well understood.

Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

1997-01-01

346

Reductive hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The United States and the European Union each generate around 6900 million dry tons of sewage sludge annually. This is disposed of by land application, landfilling, incineration and other approaches. Reductive hydrothermal (HT) treatment refers here to simple aqueous systems heated and pressurized above 300 degrees C/100 bar under anoxic and/or reducing conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the HT treatment of municipal sewage sludge and infectious fecal microbial cultures with respect to waste volume reduction, biological sterilization, and the generation of usable hydrocarbon product mixtures. These endpoints from HT treatment also were compared to those from pyrolysis. HT at 400 degrees C/150 bar transformed sewage sludge solids into complex gas phase (4%) and liquid (6%) hydrocarbon mixtures (approximately 11% combined yield), along with similar amounts (5%) of solid residues. HT products in the aqueous phase (e.g., alcohols) were present but not analysed. Viable mixed fecal cultures (10(9) colony forming units/mL) were completely sterilized by HT treatment, and a hydrocarbon mixture also was generated from the cells, but it was markedly different from that resulting from HT of the sludge. The hydrocarbon assemblage generated from the sludge included n-hydrocarbons (C9-C20) and alkyl substituted benzenes, phenols, and related compound series of higher mass (e.g., indanes, naphthalenes). Light aromatic parent compounds were significantly less abundant than their substituted C1-C5 alkyl series and there was a paucity of N-, O- and S-heterocycles and polycyclic systems with more than three fused rings. This was different from the products of pyrolysis which were dominated by a relatively simple mixture of linear and branched hydrocarbons and their oxidized homologues (e.g., aldehydes). PMID:18065219

Catallo, W J; Comeaux, J L

2008-11-01

347

Spatial variability in fish species assemblage and community structure in four subtropical lagoons of the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The species assemblage and community structure of four lagoons was assessed through time series data collected between 2001 and 2005 in the Okavango Delta. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of lagoons as fish habitats in the Delta. Therefore, this study assessed the importance of these habitats through determining fish species diversity, composition, relative abundance, and community structure between the lagoons. Forty six species belonging to 11 families and five orders were collected over the study period. Main results showed that Cichlidae was the most important family and had the highest species richness in the lagoons. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were observed in species richness, faunal composition, and diversity among some of the lagoons. Moreover, there were also variations in species composition, and also significant differences in mean length and weight of some selected fish species in the four lagoons. This study showed that lagoons are important repositories of food fish to local communities. Moreover, a management of the fish stocks based on restricting fishing in some lagoons as protected areas is not feasible because of these significant differences in species assemblages between lagoons. Furthermore, lagoons are subject to multiple where most of the lodges are constructed, which makes subsequently makes them vulnerable to pollution. Therefore, the integrity of lagoon habitats needs to be maintained so that their ecosystem functioning (i.e. fish repositories) is maintained.

Mosepele, K.; Mosepele, B.; Bokhutlo, T.; Amutenya, K.

348

Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

2013-05-01

349

Spatiotemporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal and interannual dynamics of the biomass and spatial distribution of a macrophyte meadow were explored in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Albufera des Grau, Balearic Islands) from 2002 to 2007. The dynamics in the main physicochemical variables were also analysed to assess the factors involved in the spatiotemporal variability of the submerged macrophytes. The meadows were dominated by Ruppia cirrhosa, which showed a marked seasonal cycle with winter quiescence and complete annual regrowth. The annual production of R. cirrhosa had high interannual variability and was amongst the highest described for this species in the literature, ranging 327-919 gDW m -2. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was determined by light availability and wave exposure, with the highest abundances found in shallow and gently sloped areas sheltered from the strong northerly winds. The interannual variations in macrophyte descriptors (area of occurrence, average depth of the meadows, and maximum biomass) were mainly related to water turbidity and salinity, but the effect of these variables was constrained to the spring and summer months, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the extent of coverage of R. cirrhosa and the water level at the end of the previous annual cycle was observed, suggesting a positive effect of desiccation on the extent of coverage of the macrophytes. After six years of apparent stability, the macrophytes abruptly disappeared from the lagoon. Although the mechanisms are not clear, this shift was likely attributable to a combination of several factors.

Obrador, Biel; Pretus, Joan Lluís

2010-03-01

350

Successional pattern of phytoplankton (>55 microm) in Lekki lagoon, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lagoons are dominant features along large stretches of the West Africa coast. These freshwater environments are very valuable areas where phytoplankton constitute the basis of aquatic food webs. In order to know the effects of environmental variables on phytoplankton, a study of the successional pattern of phytoplankton in Lekki lagoon was carried out monthly for two years (June 2003-May 2005). Phytoplankton samples were collected from 12 stations using a plankton net of 55 microm mesh, and samples preserved in 4% unbuffered formalin. Besides, surface water samples were taken for physico-chemical analysis. For each year, the seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton followed different patterns. Phytoplankton abundance was higher during the dry season (November-April) for the two annual cycles. The diatoms (Aulacoseira granulata and A. granulata var angustissima) and blue green algaes, Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia tennuissima and Trichodesmium lacustre showed this trend by being the abundant species in some of these months. For the rainy season, the green alga Mougeotia sp. dominated. The replacement of one form by another throughout seasonal cycles was probably controlled by the changes in environmental variables such as rainfall, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. PMID:22458215

Adesalu, Taofikat Abosede; Nwankwo, Dike Ikegwu

2012-03-01

351

Impact of tidal inlet and its geomorphological changes on lagoon environment: A numerical model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphological changes of a tidal inlet are governed by complex interactions of tidal currents, waves and sediments. Tidal inlet(s) of the Chilika lagoon (19° 28'-19° 54' N; 85° 06'-85° 35' E) on the east coast of India and its geomorphological changes is linked to the contemporary phase of lagoon transformation such as sedimentation (from riverine discharge, land drainage and decay of macrophytes), choking of the outer channel, northward shifting, closing and opening of inlet(s). These transformations are responsible for decrease in salinity, depth and weak lagoon-sea interaction, which in turn are responsible for decline in water area, increase in vegetated area (macrophyte growth) and decrease in fish productivity. The present study investigates the past and present geomorphological changes of Chilika inlet(s) using historical data, satellite data, field observations and numerical modelling techniques. A numerical model was used to simulate the hydrodynamic conditions and salinity distribution in the lagoon for one inlet and multiple inlets and the results are calibrated with observations. The study suggests that tidal inlet(s) and its geomorphological changes have significant impacts on ebb and flood currents at the inlet(s), salinity distribution in the lagoon, sediment and water exchange between the lagoon and sea. Possible impacts of inlet(s) on ecological conditions of the lagoon environment are discussed.

Panda, U. S.; Mohanty, P. K.; Samal, R. N.

2013-01-01

352

Spatio-temporal dynamics of the nematode Anguillicola crassus in Northeast Tunisian lagoons.  

PubMed

Anguillicola crassus, parasite nematode of the European eel Anguilla anguilla, was recorded for the first time in Tunisia (1999) in the Ichkeul lagoon. Its distribution has since spread toward Bizerte and Ghar El Melh lagoons. The monthly epidemiological survey reveals that A. crassus exists throughout the year in the Ichkeul lagoon. In this lagoon, its prevalence is low in winter (12% in December), with a marked increases in the spring reaching a maximum in March (35%), before it starts to decrease in summer with a minimum in July (4.35%), which in turn is followed by a pronounced new rise in autumn (30% in November). However, mean intensity values do not show such a marked variation. The majority of the values are between 1 and 1.5 parasites per host. In the Bizerte and Ghar El Melh lagoons, the presence of this nematode is limited only to one to three months. Investigations in the Tunis lagoon did not reveal until now the presence of A. crassus. It has been observed that the length of the eel influences the prevalence values: A. crassus becomes less common if the length of the eel increases. Comparatively with the global epidemiological values of A. crassus signalled subsequently (1999) in the Ichkeul lagoon, we note that the present values record a clean increase. PMID:17027639

Gargouri Ben Abdallah, Lamia; Maamouri, Fadhila

2006-10-01

353

The role of connectivity and hydrodynamic conditions in the configuration of ichthyoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons are constituted by species with different gilds and life stories including estuarine residents but also a high percentage of marine stragglers and marine migrants. Previous studies showed that different ichthyoplancton assemblages can be identified inside a lagoon, depending on hydrological conditions, but at the same time a high spatial and temporal variability haven observed. The proposed models to explain lagoon assemblages configuration based on probabilities of colonization from the open sea involves an important stochastic component and introduces some randomness that could lead to that high spatial and temporal variability at short and long-term scales. In this work we analyze the relationship between ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon and the adjacent open sea in the framework of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon and connectivity between sampling stations using hydrodynamic models. The results, show a complex interaction between the different factors that lead to a highly variable system with high accumulated richness and diversity of species, and a large proportion of occasional visitors and stragglers suggesting that the mechanisms of competitive lottery can play an important role in the maintenance of communities of coastal lagoons , where environmental variability occurs in a system with strong differences in colonization rates and connectivity, not only with the open sea, but also between locations within the lagoon.

Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Quispe, Jhoni I.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ghezzo, Michol; De Pascalis, Francesca; Marcos, Concepción

2014-05-01

354

Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Associated Nitrogen Flux in Coral Reef Lagoons of Mauritius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent eutrophication in several coral reef lagoons along the Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius (20° S, 57° E) has highlighted the need for a greater understanding of nutrient sources to these lagoon waters. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal environment is one possible transport mechanism for excess terrestrial nutrients to coral reef lagoons, since groundwater nitrate levels are an order of magnitude greater than coastal nitrate levels (330 and 30 ? M respectively). However, the direct discharge of groundwater into the sea has been difficult to measure, because fluxes may be episodic and patchy in distribution. Here we utilize radium isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra), which desorbs from aquifer sediments when fresh water and salt water interact within the coastal aquifer, as naturally occurring SGD tracers. Given the positive correlations between radium activities, salinity and nitrate concentrations found in the lagoon waters of Mauritius, it is apparent that SGD is a source of nitrate to the coastal lagoons. Based on mass balance of 223Ra activities, submarine groundwater flux per meter of coastline is 116 m3/m along the west coast and more than twice as great on the east coast (323 m3/m). The nitrogen loading associated with SGD in the east coast lagoon (0.28 g N/m3) is likewise twice that in the west coast (0.14 g N/m3). Regions of the east coast lagoon have recently experienced eutrophication, while the west coast has not experienced significant algal blooms, suggesting that the nitrogen loading along the east coast may be negatively impacting the health of the coral reef lagoon. Given the sensitivity of the marine environment to excess nutrients and the potential groundwater transport of such nutrients far from their source, there is a clear need for greater understanding of groundwater nutrient transport to the lagoons of Mauritius.

Eagle, M.; Paytan, A.; Ramessur, R. T.

2003-12-01

355

A comparative study of anaerobically digested and undigested sewage sludges in preparation of activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of sewage sludge is an increasingly expensive and environmentally sensitive problem throughout the world. Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge offers an attractive re-use alternative to the traditional disposal routes. The objective of this research work was to compare anaerobically digested sewage sludge (DS) and undigested sewage sludge (US) as source materials in the preparation of activated carbons.

J. H Tay; X. G Chen; S Jeyaseelan; N Graham

2001-01-01

356

SURFACE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE (EPA/625/R-95/002)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage sludge and domestic septage may be applied to the land as a soil conditioner and partial fertilizer, incinerated, or placed on land (surface disposal). Placement refers to the act of putting sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit (land on which only sewage sludge is...

357

The Upgraded Fiber Optic Echelle Spectrograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upgraded Fiber Optic Echelle (UFOE) is a fiber-fed, white pupil echelle spectrograph to be implemented at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in the spring of 1997. It will serve as the commissioning spectrograph until HET facility instruments come on line in early 1998. This instrument is a quick, cost effective upgrade of the Fiber Optic Echelle, resident at KPNO for

J. J. B. Harlow; L. W. Ramsey; D. R. Andersen; J. D. Fleig; B. T. Rhoads; L. G. Engel

1996-01-01

358

Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan  

SciTech Connect

This SARP Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A performance agreement has been assigned, beginning in FY 1997, to update, revise, and/or cancel 20 percent of the existing onsite SARPS, so that 100 percent are reviewed and within current standards by the completion of the Project Hanford Management Contract (five-year period).

Kelly, D.L.

1998-03-12

359

Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water  

SciTech Connect

Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. (Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, AZ (USA))

1987-11-01

360

Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood damage, but still easily mapped from aerial photos. These features suggest that Isla Angel de la Guarda experienced Quaternary uplift similar in scale to many other gulf islands on which marine terraces are preserved. Closed lagoons around the Gulf of California represent a stable oligotrophic ecosystem affected by extreme aridity and hypersalinity, punctuated episodically by the injection of floodwater from tropical storms. The taxonomic and geographic ranges of microbial communities throughout the larger region remain to be explored.

Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

2012-07-01

361

Performance of the upgraded Orroral laser ranging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics discussed include the following: upgrade arrangements, system prior to 1991, elements of the upgrade, laser performance, timing system performance, pass productivity, system precision, system accuracy, telescope pointing and future upgrades and extensions.

Luck, John M.

1993-01-01

362

Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

2006-07-01

363

Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this task was to upgrade to the existing severe weather database by adding observations from the 2010 warm season, update the verification dataset with results from the 2010 warm season, use statistical logistic regression analysis on the database and develop a new forecast tool. The AMU analyzed 7 stability parameters that showed the possibility of providing guidance in forecasting severe weather, calculated verification statistics for the Total Threat Score (TTS), and calculated warm season verification statistics for the 2010 season. The AMU also performed statistical logistic regression analysis on the 22-year severe weather database. The results indicated that the logistic regression equation did not show an increase in skill over the previously developed TTS. The equation showed less accuracy than TTS at predicting severe weather, little ability to distinguish between severe and non-severe weather days, and worse standard categorical accuracy measures and skill scores over TTS.

Watson, Leela

2011-01-01

364

Medically-derived 131I in municipal sewage effluent.  

PubMed

This work presents (131)I (t(½) = 8.04 d) concentrations in sewage effluent from the Stony Brook Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), a small plant serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY, USA. The concentrations detected in sewage effluent ranged from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 227 ± 2 Bq L(-1). The primary source of (131)I is excreta from thyroid cancer inpatients treated at the Stony Brook University Medical Center. Based on several time series measurements following known inpatient treatments, the mean sewage half-life (T(s)) of iodine is 3 d in this plant. The T(s), analogous to a radioactive half-life, describes the time it takes for half of a wastewater component to be removed from a WPCP. Flow recycling, or activated sludge, used to maintain bacterial populations necessary for sewage treatment causes iodine to remain in this plant far longer than its hydraulic retention time. The experimental results suggest that most (131)I entering the Stony Brook WPCP leaves in sewage effluent, not in sewage sludge. Patient treatments can result in continuous discharges of (131)I to surface waters where it can be used as a tracer of sewage-derived material and to understand the behavior of (131)I in aquatic environments. PMID:22925394

Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence; Cochran, J Kirk

2012-11-01

365

Evaluation of sewage sludge, septic waste and sludge compost applications to corn and forage: yields and N, P and K content of crops and soils.  

PubMed

This paper presents the data from two years of experiments concerned with the application of aerobically-digested sewage sludge, anaerobic lagoon septic sludge, sewage sludge compost or fertilizer to soils for grass forage and feed corn (Zea mays L.) production at two different sites 45 km from Truro, Nova Scotia. Crop yields, plant tissue and Mehlich-1 extractable soil nutrients were evaluated; 15 elements were analyzed in the plant tissue and nine elements in the soil extracts. This paper describes the results of crop yields, plant N, P and K content and Mehlich-1 extractable P and K. The research demonstrated the fertilizer produced higher yields of grass forage than the sludge and the compost but equivalent to the sludge in corn yields. Forage and corn N, P and K contents, however, varied with treatment, crop and year, while the compost-amended soils were highest in extractable nutrients. Both sludges and the compost, therefore, could be effective sources of N, P and K for crop production. Compared to the conventional fertilizer, the nutrient availability from the organic amendments (especially N and P) was considerably lower than the 50% assumed at the start of the experiment; the sludges however, provided higher nutrient availability than the compost. PMID:15627567

Warman, P R; Termeer, W C

2005-05-01

366

Evaluation of sewage sludge, septic waste and sludge compost applications to corn and forage: Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B content of crops and soils.  

PubMed

This is the second of two papers presenting the data from an experiment on the application of aerobically-digested sewage sludge (AES), anaerobic lagoon septic wastes (ANS), sewage sludge compost and fertilizer to soils for grass forage and feed corn production at two different sites in Nova Scotia. Crop yields, plant tissue and Mehlich-1 extractable soil nutrients were evaluated; 15 elements were analyzed in the plant tissue and 9 elements in the soil extracts. This paper describes the Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B content of the crops and the Mehlich-1 extractable content of the soils. The response to the amendments was not consistent at the two sites with the two different crops. We found that the septic sludge (ANS) produced the highest forage Fe, Cu and Zn levels and was equal to compost in elevating corn stover and forage S and the forage B content. The compost produced the highest forage Ca and corn Zn, the AES produced the highest corn Mn, and fertilizer produced the highest forage Mn. None of the amendments produced excessive levels of the above nutrients; rather, the amendments improved the feed quality of the forage and corn stover. Lastly, it was noted that the Mehlich-1 extract only had a significantly positive correlation with forage Cu content. PMID:15668199

Warman, P R; Termeer, W C

2005-06-01

367

Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewages of different composition and the effluents of four sewage treatment plants (STPs), plus sewage sludges were analysed for semivolatile organic priority pollutants. Furthermore, 11 landfill leachates were analysed to evaluate their contribution to sewage pollutants when co-treated. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the pollutant occurring at highest concentrations (up to 122 ?g\\/l) and it was present in all sewages and

Sanna K Marttinen; Riitta H Kettunen; Jukka A Rintala

2003-01-01

368

Spectroscopic study of the humification process during sewage sludge treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the free radical transition of organic materials during the sewage treatment process. Investigations of sludge from biologic-mechanical sewage treatment plant in Sosnowiec Zagórze were carried out. The course of the humification processes during sewage treatment was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The concentration of free radicals at each process stage and the value g were determined. Sludge samples and extracted fractions of humic acids were examined. Humic acids were extracted from sludge by means of conventional methods elaborated by Stevenson. For study of humic acids structures, besides EPR, the UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy were used.

Paj?czkowska, J.; Su?kowska, A.; Su?kowski, W. W.; J?drzejczyk, M.

2003-06-01

369

An Assessment of the Expected Impact of a Dredging Project Proposed for Pala Lagoon, American Samoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the biological and socio-economic effects of a dredging project proposed for Pala Lagoon, American Samoa. Emphasis is placed on the expected impact the project would have upon the tides and circulation, bacterial contamination, phytopl...

P. Helfrich

1975-01-01

370

Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).  

PubMed

In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia. PMID:22560742

Fournier, Jonathan; Dupuy, Christine; Bouvy, Marc; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Charpy, Loïc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Le Pennec, Marcel; Cochard, Jean-Claude

2012-01-01

371

The contribution of benthic macrofauna to the nutrient filter in coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

Human activities in coastal areas have increased the occurrence of eutrophication events, especially in vulnerable ecosystems such as coastal lagoons. Although we have a general knowledge of the consequences of eutrophication in these ecosystems, some efforts need to be made to understand biotic feedbacks that could modify the response of the environment to nutrient enrichment. The plant-mediated 'coastal filter' is one of the main factors that determine lagoonal efficiency in processing excess nutrients. In this context, the present paper examined the relative contribution of benthic macrofauna to the 'coastal filter' of a Mediterranean lagoon. The analysis of macrofaunal assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon led to a clear differentiation between shallow areas of net nutrient recycling and exportation and deeper areas of net retention. These differences enhance nutrient removal from the water column, thus increasing the ecosystem's resistance to eutrophication. PMID:21967864

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2011-12-01

372

ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

373

Use of Shallow Lagoon Habitats by Nekton of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared nekton use of prominent habitat types within a lagoonal system of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). These habitat types were defined by combinations of structure (cover type) and location (distance from shore) as: Spartina edge (...

374

Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 ?g g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 ?g g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural "barrier" for the potential risk of Hg transfer to the aquatic trophic chain.

Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

2011-10-01

375

Fish and blue crab assemblage structure in a U.S. mid Atlantic coastal lagoon complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in assemblages of organisms in contiguous lagoons is dependent upon component bays and their connections to the\\u000a ocean and terrestrial watersheds. Fish and blue crab assemblage structure of Maryland's coastal lagoon complex, which consists\\u000a of Assawoman, Isle of Wight, Sinepuxent, and Chincoteague Bays, was analyzed for spatial and seasonal patterns for the period\\u000a 1991–2002. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinated sites

Robert F. Murphy; David H. Secor

2006-01-01

376

Biological Oxidation of Dissolved Compounds in Oilfield-Produced Water by a Pilot Aerated Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 19 mo field pilot test in southern California demonstrated the feasibility of the aerated lagoon for biotreating oilfield-produced water containing 20,000 g\\/cu m of total dissolved solids (TDS) after oil removal by induced air flotation. The two-stage pilot lagoon consisted of two 80 cu m plastic-lined steel tanks in series, each filled with 60 cu m fluid. Stage 1

A. H. Beyer; L. L. Palmer; J. Stock

1979-01-01

377

A geochemical analytical approach for the evaluation of heavy metal distribution in lagoon sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim, and Scope  Italian lagoon environments are of great importance due either to their frequency and distribution along the coasts or to\\u000a their management. Agriculture, urban and industrial activities in lagoon catchments can be sources of heavy metal (HM) pollution\\u000a by direct waste dumping, atmospheric deposition of fumes or, simply, as a consequence of a lack of natural water recharge.

Renata Pacifico; Paola Adamo; Carlo Cremisini; Fabio Spaziani; Luciano Ferrara

2007-01-01

378

Facies, dolomitization and karstification of lagoonal carbonates: Triassic of the Northern Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Lagoonal carbonates of the Wetterstein Limestone reflect cyclic sedimentation patterns established in near-reef and far-reef\\u000a environments. The near-reef lagoonal cycles consist of thickly bedded limestones with a predominant gragestone facies intercalated\\u000a with vadose pisolitic crusts revealing a broad spectrum of various textures of vadose diagenesis. Far-reef cycles are composed\\u000a of dasycladacean beds or mudstones intercalated with loferites, stromatolites and peritidal

Rüdiger Henrich

1984-01-01

379

An evaluation of the USEPA calculations of greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic lagoons.  

PubMed

On 10 Apr. 2009, USEPA proposed and on 30 Oct. 2009 USEPA finalized reporting thresholds for a wide range of human-derived sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) as a first step in establishing emission limits in the United States. The only on-farm source category that required monitoring under the proposed and final rule was methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (NO(2)) emissions from manure storage facilities. Our objective was to assess, through a literature review, the methodology used by USEPA to estimate current CH(4) emissions from uncovered anaerobic lagoons and the proposed methodology for reporting those emissions under the proposed rule. A review of the performance of uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicates that they are more effective at degrading volatile solids (VS) than predicted using parameters provided by USEPA that had been developed for anaerobic digesters. We also documented errors in the USEPA- and International Panel on Climate Change-estimated methane conversion factors for uncovered anaerobic lagoons. We suggest estimating CH(4) emissions from anaerobic lagoons based on VS degraded in the lagoon and B' (m(3) CH(4) generated kg(-1) VS destroyed). Our estimate of CH(4) released from uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicated the regulatory operation size threshold could be at least 65% smaller than predicted by USEPA in the proposed rule. Our calculated estimate of CH(4) emissions was substantially greater than the few estimates of CH(4) loss based on direct measurements on uncovered anaerobic lagoons. More research is needed before it will be possible to provide definitive estimates of CH(4) loss from uncovered anaerobic lagoons. PMID:20400573

Lory, John A; Massey, R E; Zulovich, J M

2010-01-01

380

Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy.Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224Ra to 228Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore

John Rapaglia; Christian Ferrarin; Luca Zaggia; Willard S. Moore; Georg Umgiesser; Ester Garcia-Solsona; Jordi Garcia-Orellana; Pere Masqué

2010-01-01

381

Above and below-ground biomass and production by Thalassia testudinum in a tropical reef lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual (1990–91) mean values of total biomass of Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex König) at three stations in different environments in a Caribbean reef lagoon varied between 573g dry wtm?2 (±167 SD) in a back-reef station, 774g dry wtm?2 (±167 SD) in a coastal fringe and 811g dry wtm?2 (±131 SD) in a mid-lagoon station. Corresponding ratios of mean above-ground to

Brigitta I van Tussenbroek

1998-01-01

382

Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N2O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification\\/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N2O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study

Konstantinos C. Makris; Dibyendu Sarkar; Syam S. Andra; Stephan B. H. Bach; Rupali Datta

2009-01-01

383

Equilibrium sampling used to monitor malodors in a Swine waste lagoon.  

PubMed

The concentrations of malodorous compounds in a 0.4-ha anaerobic lagoon that received waste from approximately 2000 sows were monitored during the late summer to late fall of 2006 to gain insight into the factors influencing their concentrations. Selected malodorous compounds were measured by the use of equilibrium samplers consisting of submersible stir plates and stir bar sorbtive sampling with polydimethylsiloxane-coated magnetic stir bars. During the same period, air and water temperatures, suspended solids, total organic carbon and nitrogen content, and wastewater pH were recorded. Concentrations of malodorous compounds were higher at the surface of the lagoon than at the middle or bottom of the lagoon. Skatole concentration, for instance, averaged 54, 24, and 38 microg L(-1) near the surface, in the middle, and at the lowest sampling depths, respectively. While the lagoon was being pumped down during field application of wastewater, concentrations of malodorous compounds fluctuated widely, increased 16-fold as compared with the sampling period before pumping, and continued to increase as fall progressed and temperatures cooled. Suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, and total organic carbon increased near the bottom of the lagoon during this same period. The increases in the concentrations of malodorous compounds in the wastewater during the fall could have been due to a combination of several factors. These factors include reduced degradation by lagoon bacteria, less wind stripping of volatile compounds from the lagoon surface due to lowering of the lagoon surface after crop application, and/or reduced evaporation of malodorous compounds due to falling temperatures. PMID:18178872

Loughrin, John H; Lovanh, Nanh; Mahmood, Rezaul

2008-01-01

384

Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion. PMID:12667017

Balgaranova, Janetta

2003-02-01

385

Silver nanoparticles tolerant bacteria from sewage environment.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticle (SNP) is a threat to soil, water and human health. Protection of environment from silver nanoparticles is a major concern. A sewage isolate, Bacillus pumilus treated with SNPs showed similar growth kinetics to that without nanoparticles. A reduction in the amount of exopolysaccharides was observed after SNPs--B. pumilus culture supernatant interaction. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) peaks for the exopolysaccharides extracted from the bacterial culture supernatant and the interacted SNPs were almost similar. The exopolysaccharide capping of the SNPs was confirmed by UV-Visible, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction analysis. The study of bacterial exopolysaccharides capped SNPs with E. coli, S. aureus and M. luteus showed less toxicity compared to uncoated SNPs. Our studies suggested that the capping of nanoparticles by bacterially produced exopolysaccharides serve as the probable mechanism of tolerance. PMID:21517011

Khan, Sudheer; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

2011-01-01

386

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge  

PubMed Central

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model.

2014-01-01

387

Application of microwaves for sewage sludge conditioning.  

PubMed

The article focuses on the effect of microwave treatment on the de-waterability of sewage sludge. The specific resistance to filtration, capillary suction time, and dry matter content in centrifuged sludge cake were measured. The quality of sludge liquor obtained after microwave processing was also analysed. It was found out that microwaves improve sludge de-waterability. The quantitative improvement depends on sludge type-better effect of microwave processing were observed in the primary sludge compared to mixed or digested sludges. If microwave treatment is followed by polyelectrolyte conditioning, the effects are considerably better than while these conditioning methods are used separately. Microwave conditioning increased burden of organic matter (BOD(5), COD) in the sludge liquor. PMID:16278005

Wojciechowska, Ewa

2005-11-01

388

Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

Trávní?ek, Petr; Junga, Petr

2014-01-01

389

Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

Trageser, Katherine H.

2011-01-01

390

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two years on ASDEX Upgrade the physics base for ITER operation was significantly extended in both the foreseen standard H-mode scenario as well as the stationary improved H-mode scenario with enhanced performance. For anomalous transport (energy, particles, toroidal momentum) a multi-faceted picture of mode dominance in different plasma parameter regimes of ITG, TEM and ETG turbulence is evolving based on detailed measurements including fluctuation reflectometry and gyrokinetic calculations. Similar structures were found for natural and pellet induced, mitigated type I-ELMs. They develop to outward drifting helical filaments which are seen as footprints on plasma phasing components. New insights were gained on the interaction of energetic particles (driven by NBI and ICRH) with large scale instabilities (TAEs, NTMs, ELMs) based on new diagnostic and theoretical tools. The unexpected broadening of NBI driven currents beyond a certain heating power can be explained by a fast particle diffusion driven by small-scale turbulence. The active control of MHD instabilities (sawteeth, NTMs) concentrates on ECCD as proposed for ITER. NTMs were completely stabilized with very localized deposition of dc ECCD in improved H-modes, while for the deposition widths larger than the marginal island size as in ITER modulated injection phased with the island O-point was demonstrated to be advantageous. The tungsten coverage of the vessel interior was further extended up to 85%, where the highest erosion occurs at the LFS poloidal limiters, where it is dominated by ICRF accelerated impurities and fast particles from NBI. The W concentration can be kept at an acceptable level by ELM pace-making (using pellets) and by tailored central heating. The stationary improved H-mode extends ITER operation beyond its standard H-mode performance for confinement and beta with H_{98(y,2)}\\beta _{N}/q_{95}^{2} up to 0.4 (ITER reference value 0.2). Based on ASDEX Upgrade kinetic profiles it promises either a fusion performance up to ignition at full current or long pulses of up to 1 h at reduced current (hybrid scenario). This operation mode extends well into the ITER dimensionless parameter range except for ?*. Besides the development of discharge scenarios, the influence of the edge pedestal on confinement and of the flat central q-profile on MHD and confinement was documented.

Gruber, O.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

2007-10-01

391

Kinetic evaluation and performance of pilot-scale fed-batch aerated lagoons treating winery wastewaters.  

PubMed

Winery wastewater was treated in two pilot-scale aerated lagoons operating in fed-batch mode. A first lagoon of 27.2m(3) working volume was gradually filled with wastewater with an average COD content of 8700mg/L. Given that with the flow-rate used (790L/day) this first lagoon completed its working volume after 30days of starting, part of the liquid contained in the first lagoon was transferred to another adjacent second lagoon of 10.8m(3) working volume. Therefore, the experiment continued in the second lagoon for another additional 24days using an influent with a COD content of 18,700mg/L at a flow-rate of 170L/day. After the 21st day, a maximum COD removal efficiency of 91% was achieved, and this value was maintained virtually constant until the end of the experiments. A mathematical model based on three differential equations solved simultaneously allowed the kinetic parameters of the system to be obtained. PMID:20097559

Montalvo, S; Guerrero, L; Rivera, E; Borja, R; Chica, A; Martín, A

2010-05-01

392

Non-steady-state modelling of faecal coliform removal in deep tertiary lagoons.  

PubMed

In Noirmoutier, a French island off the Atlantic coast, secondary effluents flow into a series of four lagoons, 1.4-2.8 m deep, and are reused for agricultural irrigation. The excess water is disposed of to the sea. The aim of this study was to provide a model capable of predicting the microbiological quality of the water pumped for irrigation or discharged to the sea. Meteorological variables, flow rates, physical-chemical characteristics and faecal coliform (FC) contents were monitored for a year and a half. The hydraulic pattern of each lagoon was assumed to be that of completely mixed reactor because of the calculated dispersion numbers and the wind mixing effect. Coliform decay was assumed to follow first order kinetics in each lagoon. Die-off coefficients were calculated in each lagoon using a non-steady-state model. The main bacterial removal mechanism was shown to be solar irradiation. Empirical equations were established to calculate die-off coefficients as a function of received solar energy and temperature. FC die-off rates were higher in the first lagoon and then decreased successively in those following. FC numbers in the different lagoons were predicted with reasonable accuracy in spite of high variation in inlet water quality. The model will facilitate the prediction of water quality under various climatic conditions and different water reuse scenarios and will help to optimise reclamation and storage facilities. PMID:12171406

Xu, P; Brissaud, F; Fazio, A

2002-07-01

393

Sustainability assessment of traditional fisheries in Cau Hai lagoon (South China Sea).  

PubMed

Overfishing and progressive environmental degradation of the Vietnamese Cau Hai coastal lagoon appear to be threatening the ecological integrity and water quality of the largest estuarine complex of Southeast Asia. This study assessed the relationships between the density of traditional fisheries and organic matter sedimentary contents in Cau Hai lagoon. Data revealed that the density of stake traps (the most common fishing gear used in this lagoon), decreasing hydrodynamic energy in shallow water, causes the accumulation of a large fraction of organic matter refractory to degradation. The relationship between biopolymeric carbon (a proxy of availability of organic matter) and stake traps density fits a S-shape curve. The logistic equation calculated a stake traps density of 90 m of net per hectare, as the threshold over which maximum accumulation of organic matter occurs in Cau Hai. With such level of stake trap density, and assuming a theoretical stationary status of the lagoon, the time necessary for the system to reach hypoxic conditions has been calculated to be circa three weeks. We recommend that this density threshold should not be exceeded in the Cau Hai lagoon and that further analyses of organic loads in the sediment should be conducted to monitor the trophic conditions of this highly eutrophicated lagoon. PMID:20691335

Marconi, Michele; Sarti, Massimo; Marincioni, Fausto

2010-01-01

394

Identification of asbestos and glass fibers in municipal sewage sludges  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of the analysis of municipal sewage sludges from five large American cities for the presence of asbestos fibers. The possible toxicologic significance of the findings for specific occupational groups is discussed.

Bishop, K.; Ring, S.J.; Zoltai, T.; Manos, C.G.; Ahrens, D.V.; Lisk, D.J.

1985-03-01

395

Use of Coal to Enhance Metabolic Treatment of Sewage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A newly proposed sewage treatment process in which coal particulates are suspended in mixed liquor and recirculated with activated sludge has been investigated. The premise that the suspended coal particles concentrate nutrients and organic matter by phys...

1969-01-01

396

TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI  

EPA Science Inventory

Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

397

Restoration of Failing On-Lot Sewage Disposal Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to evaluate two rehabilitative techniques-water conservation and absorption bed resting--for restoration of failing on-site sewage disposal areas. Eleven homes with failing absorption areas were characterized and baseline...

D. D. Fritton W. E. Sharpe A. R. Jarrett C. A. Cole G. W. Peterson

1984-01-01

398

First Report on the WRC Sewage Sludge Pumping Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes experiments carried out over a two year period to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on rotodynamic pump and pipeline performance. Pump performance has been correlated with sludge rheology, and ragging up and gas bubbles within ...

M. Johnson

1981-01-01

399

Onshore Treatment System for Sewage from Watercraft Retention Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the program an evaporative waste treatment system for onshore treatment of sewage from watercraft retention systems was developed and demonstrated. Wastes and chemical additives associated with recreational watercraft holding tanks were characteriz...

A. J. Glueckert P. A. Saigh

1975-01-01

400

Irradiation Effects on the Physical Characteristics of Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, i...

M. J. Lee J. K. Lee D. H. Yoo

2005-01-01

401

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

402

CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTORS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge and septage destined for land application or surface disposal. t also provides guidance for meeting those requirements. he chapters of this document discuss why pathogen control is necessary, t...

403

40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-13 Sewage collection system...habitations) from the collection system will be for waste waters originating from the community (habitations) in...

2013-07-01

404

Costs of Air Pollution Abatement Systems for Sewage Sludge Incinerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet s...

G. Annamraju Y. M. Shah M. L. Arora

1986-01-01

405

USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

406

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.

Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

407

Pegasus power system facility upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two key Pegasus systems have been recently upgraded: the Ohmic-transformer IGCT bridge control system, and the plasma-gun injector power system. The Ohmic control system contains two new microprocessor controlled components to provide an interface between the PWM controller and the IGCT bridges. An interface board conditions the command signals from the PWM controller. A splitter/combiner board routes the conditioned PWM commands to an array of IGCT bridges and interprets IGCT bridge status. This system allows for any PWM controller to safely control IGCT bridges. Future developments will include a transition to a polyphasic bridge control. This will allow for 3 to 4 times the present pulse length and provide a much higher switching frequency. The plasma gun injector system now includes active current feedback control on gun bias current via PWM buck type power supplies. Near term goals include a doubling or tripling of the applied bias voltage. Future arc bias system power supplies may include a simpler boost type system which will allow access to even higher voltages using existing low voltage energy storage systems.

Lewicki, B. T.; Kujak-Ford, B. A.; Winz, G. R.

2008-11-01

408

Absence of asbestos in municipal sewage sludge ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier studies, asbestos was found in sewage sludges in several cities in the United States using x-ray diffraction, high power light optical microscopy, polarized light microscopy or electron microscopy. In a number of cities in the United States, sewage sludge is incinerated at temperatures up to 1,000°C. Temperatures of 550°C or higher dehydroxylate the asbestos lattice resulting in alteration

Kusum J. Patel-Mandlik; Charles G. Manos; Donald J. Lisk

1988-01-01

409

Combustion kinetics of sewage sludge and combustible wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated the kinetics of the mono- and co-combustion of sewage sludge pellets and combustible wastes such as municipal\\u000a solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Sewage sludge was manufactured into pellets with a diameter of 8, 12, or\\u000a 16 mm and a length of 30 mm. The RDF was composed of paper and plastics and was formed into

Ho-Soo Lee; Sung-Keun Bae

2009-01-01

410

Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station,

Kevin A. Hughes

2005-01-01

411

Monitoring sewage sludge using heterotrophic nitrogen fixing microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was studied using free-living N2-fixing bacteria in two types of soil amended with six types of municipal sewage sludges and cow and pig manures, respectively. Sludge and manure treatments were as follows: no addition, Swedish recommended rates of 5 t dry wt ha?1, twice the standard rate of addition (2RR), and 10 times the standard rate (10RR). The

A. M. Mårtensson; L. Torstensson

1996-01-01

412

Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge contaminated with 4-nonylphenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) occurs in sewage sludge as a result of the breakdown of detergents which contains nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs). 4-NP is of environmental concern because of its toxicity to biological systems. The present paper reports results of aerobic treatment under thermophilic conditions of sewage sludge artificially contaminated with 4-NP. Experiments were carried out using three parallel laboratory-scale batch reactors operating

Fawzi A Banat; Stephan Prechtl; Franz Bischof

2000-01-01

413

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade Piping Loads on Cleanroom Roof  

SciTech Connect

The proposed piping layout for the DO upgrade will run along the south wall of DAB. The cryogenic service pipe runs above the upper and lower cleanroom roofs and will need to be supported by the roofs beams. Calculations were done to determine the stresses in the I-beams created by the existing and additional loads due to the upgrade. Refer to drawing no. 3823.115-ME-317283 for drawings of the piping layout. Figure 1 shows the 'plan view' portion of this drawing. The weight of the individual lines were calculated in figure 2 assuming a pipe density of O.28 lbm/in{sup 3} for stainless steel (0.12% C) and a fluid density (assuming LN2 at 1 atm) of 0.03 lbm/in{sup 3}. The weights of the corrugated steel flooring, assembly hall feed cans, support beams, and roof hatch were also included in the analysis. These loads are calculated on pgs. 5-6. A floor load of 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} was also added in order to maintain the existing floor load limit in addition to the added piping loads. Measurements of the dimensions of the I-beams determined that the nominal sizes of the beams were W8 x 21 for the lower roof and W14 x 26 for the upper roof. Pipe lengths were determined from the drawing for each of the lines on pgs. 1-2 of the calculations (refer to all piping by line numbers according to figure 2). A total weight was calculated for lines 3-9 along the south wall and lines 1-2 running along the north wall of the lower cleanroom roof. To simplify the calculations these weights were assumed to be evenly distributed on the 5 I-beam supports of the lower cleanroom roof 2.5 feet in from the south wall. The stress analysis was done using FrameMac, a 2-D finite element program for the Macintosh. Beam 3 was not included in the analysis because it is structurally equivalent to beam 1. The program outputted maximum values for shear stress, bending stress, shear force, and moments in each of the beams analyzed. These values were then compared to the allowable stresses as per the specifications and codes stated in the AISC: Manual of Steel Construction. The stresses on the roof beams needed to be determined in a number of different places. The first was in the beam itself which included the flange and web sections. The second place was at the ends of the beams where the flanges were removed to make the perpendicular connections to the other beams on the lower roof. The final point was the framed beam connection which included the bolt analysis. FrameMac calculated stresses only for the beams which included the sections where the flanges were removed to make the end connections. To analyze the connections, the allowable bending and shear stresses were solved for allowable shear and moments. This was done because FrameMac does not have the capability to analyze the dimensions for the bolts and angles used in the connections were known and the program outputted values for reaction forces and moments at the ends of the beams. Multiplying the allowable shear stress for the bolts and angle connections by their respective areas gave the allowable shear force. The allowable moment for the angle connection was calculated by multiplying the section modulus of the angle by the allowable bending stress. These allowable loads are calculated on pgs. 7-8. The allowable and maximum calculated stresses by FrameMac are summarized in a table. In conclusion, the cleanroom roofs will be able to safely support the weight of the upgrade cryogenic piping, feed cans, corrugated flooring and a 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} floor load with the addition of diagonal braces at the ends of beams 1,2,3,4, and 8. The location and size of these diagonal braces are shown in fig. 4. Also, the piping supports and feed cans will all need to be placed directly above the I-beam supports. These supports will consist of unistrut structures that will be detailed and specified separate to this analysis. The output and input data from FrameMac and the drawings used in the analysis follow the calculation pages.

Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

1995-08-28

414

Status of the ATLAS control system upgrade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certain components of the ATLAS control system are two generations behind today's technology. It has been decided to upgrade the control system. in part, by replacing Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11 computers with present-day VAX technology. Tw...

F. H. Munson M. Ferraretto B. Rutherford

1992-01-01

415

Upgrading Blue Collar and Service Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is reported of upgrading of blue collar and service workers in New York City in five major industries: apparel, food, health, construction, and transit. Concludes that there are limited expectations for manpower programs to increase the number of ...

C. Brecher

1972-01-01

416

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials  

ScienceCinema

An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

Gibbson, Murray;

2013-04-19

417

Initial performance of upgraded Tevatron cryogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab began operating a re-designed satellite refrigerator systems in November 1993. Upgrades were installed to operate the Tevatron at a magnet temperature of 3.5 K, approximately 1K lower than the original design. Refrigerator upgrades included new valve boxes, larger reciprocating expanders, the installation of cold vapor compressors, new sub-atmospheric instrumentation and an entirely new distributed controls system. Cryogenic system reliability data for Colliding Physics Run 1B is presented emphasizing a failure analysis for each aspect of the upgrade. Comparison to data for Colliding Physics Run 1A (previous to upgrade) is presented to show the impact of a major system overhaul. New operational problems and their solutions are presented in detail.

Norris, B.L.

1996-09-01

418

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials  

ScienceCinema

An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

419

Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

420

Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade.  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP(Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to up grade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported. Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system ''on line'' while still saving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided.

Munson, F. H.

1998-11-30

421

Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

Gibbson, Murray

2011-01-01

422

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01

423

BNL ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.

MALONE,R.; BEN-ZVI,I.; WANG,X.; YAKIMENKO,V.

2001-06-18

424

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Michigan State U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /CHEP, Taegu /Seoul Natl. U.

2007-02-01

425

Get a winning Oracle upgrade session using the quarterback approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upgrades, upgrades... too much customer down time. Find out how we shrunk our production upgrade schedule 40% from our estimate of 10 days 12 hours to 6 days 2 hours using the quarterback approach. So your upgrade is not that complex, come anyway. This approach is scalable to any size project and will be extremely valuable.

Anderson, G.

2002-01-01

426

CISOCUR - Hydrodynamic circulation in the Curonian Lagoon inferred through stable isotope measurements and numerical modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Overall, the project will develop according to 4 main phases: 1) A pilot study to measure the isotope composition of different carbon compounds (dissolved and suspended) in different water bodies that feed water into the central lagoon. Through this pilot study the optimal study sites for the seasonal campaign will be identified as well. 2) Seasonal field campaigns in the monitoring stations identified in phase 1 to measure the carbon isotope ratio. 3) Development of a model that describes the kinetics of carbon isotopes and its transformation. 4) Application of a hydrodynamic model that includes the kinetic model and uses the data in order to describe the overall circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Project activities will be carried out as common co-ordinated effort of field an SI group and the modeling group that will have to calibrate the hydrodynamic model. In this way the expertise of different groups (physicists and oceanographers) will result in added value, providing the best available expertise along the eastern coast of the Baltic.

Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Barisevi?i?t?, Ruta; Baziuk?, Dalia; Ertürk, Ali; Gasi?nait?, Jovita; Gulbinskas, Saulius; Lubien?, Irma; Mara?kinaite, Jurgita; Petkuvien?, Jolita; Pilkaityt?, Renata; Ruginis, Tomas; Zemlys, Petras; Žilius, Mindaugas

2013-04-01

427

Field measurements of groundwater discharge to a lagoon under variable density water conditions (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ringkøbing Fjord is a lagoon located near the west coast of Denmark. It has an extension of 300 km2 and receives water from the Skjern River (plus other smaller streams), direct rainfall, sea water through a controlled connection with the sea (sluice), and, finally, from groundwater. While most of these fluxes are relatively well known, groundwater inputs to the lagoon have never been quantified. The salinity of the lagoon changes from 4 g/L (winter) to 12 g/L (summer) due to the seasonal changes in discharge (mainly Skjern River) and the operation of the sluice. Four field surveys (March, May, August and October) were accomplished in 2012 to determine, for the first time, the groundwater discharge to the lagoon at four locations/transects on the eastern shore line. The main objective was to understand the groundwater-fjord exchange processes that take place in the near-shore lagoon environment where, according to the theory, most groundwater discharge to the lagoon is to be expected. The investigative methods were similar to those utilized in lake and stream studies. More than 350 seepage meter measurements and around 150 vertical groundwater temperature logs of the first 50 cm under the lagoon bed were collected providing direct and indirect quantification of fluxes, respectively. Nevertheless, a significant difference remains compared with e.g. lakes, because of the salinity changes of the fjord water and, subsequently also the groundwater directly beneath the fjord. The seasonal contrasts in the density of groundwater and lagoon water made it necessary to take into account the salinity distribution in the shallow groundwater, because it can affect the pattern and amount of groundwater discharge to the lagoon. Thus, the salinity of the groundwater was measured every 25 cm in vertical profiles until 3 m depth along each transect. In total, more than 1300 points were sampled to obtain the spatio-temporal salinity distribution at the four locations. These discharge and salinity data were used to; i) Study the groundwater Electrical Conductivity (EC) changes due to both salinity changes in the fjord and groundwater discharge variations, (ii) Compare the freshwater discharge flux rates obtained by different methods and, finally, iii) Correlate the groundwater salinity distribution and the estimated flux patterns at the fjord bed. The changes in the salinity of groundwater combined with analysis of the saline wedge location indicate that the system is dynamic with slow seasonal changes and characterized by high heterogeneity along the lagoon shore. The measured average flux rates ranges from 0.5 to 2 cm/d. The discharge from the aquifer to the fjord tends to decrease with distance to the shoreline, but affected by the presence of the saline wedge.

Duque, Carlos; Haider, Kinza; Engesgaard, Peter; Sebok, Eva; Sonnenborg, Torben O.

2013-04-01

428

Impacts of climate change on water resources in watersheds of four European lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrologic impacts of projected climate change were assessed for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: the Ria de Aveiro lagoon in Portugal, the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain, the Vistula lagoon in Poland and Kaliningrad region and the Tyligulski lagoon in Ukraine. The eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied to each of the four case study areas individually, considering basin-specific characteristics and management settings. All four watersheds were calibrated and validated towards river discharge at one or more gauges, reaching satisfactory to very good modelling results, depending on the quality and availability of input data (i.e. observed climate and discharge data). For the assessment of climate change impacts we forced the four model set-ups with scenario data from the ENSEMBLES project. Therefore a set of 15 climate scenarios, all running until the end of the 21st century, was applied to SWIM for one reference and three future periods of 30 years each. We evaluated the long-term changes of total freshwater inflow to the four lagoons and compared the results considering average trends and uncertainties induced by the different climate scenarios. The comparison not only shows differences in the magnitude of potential impacts among the four regions but also differences in the direction of change. In Spain and Portugal an average decrease in discharge of about -5% and -15% can be expected, while at the same time the total inflow to the Vistula and the Tyligulski lagoon is projected to increase by 18% and 20% on average by the end of the century. The agreement of climate projections among scenarios is varies between regions and in consequence the uncertainty in model outputs also differs between the four case studies. In the watershed of the Tyligulski lagoon the projected changes in river discharge vary between -70% and 120%, whereas the results for the Ria de Aveiro lagoon range between -1% and -27% for the last three decades of the century. We concluded that the outputs of such kind of impacts intercomparison can add a very valuable contribution to integrated lagoons management in a pan-European context.

Stefanova, Anastassi; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

2014-05-01

429

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to...

2009-01-01

430

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt. 503, App. A Appendix A to...

2010-07-01

431

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table...Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60...Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a...

2013-07-01

432

The distribution of salinity and main forcing effects in the Berre lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from previous studies in lagoons and well mixed estuaries indicate that salt transport is primarily in response to advection associated with freshwater outflow, tidal diffusion, and to shear effects arising from spatial correlations of vertical and especially transverse deviations in salinity and current speed (Smith, 1994). Therefore, the inflow of fresh and salt water into coastal lagoons is an important factor influencing the structure and function of lagoonal ecosystems worldwide (Lirman et al., 2007). The predominance of marine or freshwater inflow leads to the different ecosystems. Among several lagoons located along the Mediterranean shore of France, the Berre lagoon has been under intense anthropogenic pressure for several decades (Delpy et al., 2012). Moreover, the salinity level of the Berre lagoon was varying dramatically from the 19th century up to now. In this work, a special attention is focused on the salinity variation in the Berre lagoon due to the three dominant abiotic forcing mechanisms, i.e., incoming sea tide, runoff from a hydropower and a strong wind. Four different model scenarios were considered in order to examine the impact of each forcing mechanism or combined effects, i.e. : (a) tide only, (b) runoff only, (c) combined tide and runoff, and (d) an N-NW wind, tide and runoff together. Numerical modeling and interpretation of numerical results are based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D. It is found that the strongest negative impact is related to the huge hydropower runoffs, inducing the desalinization of the surface and subsurface waters not only in the centre of the lagoon, but also in the entire water column in the coastal seagrass recolonization zones. In the absence of wind, the huge inputs of freshwater from the hydropower lead to a haline stratification and thus, to anoxic conditions, making most of the lagoon unproductive. On the contrary, strong winds play a positive role on the salinity level of the Berre lagoon by destroying rapidly (in a few hours) the vertical stratification, thereby reducing the risk of anoxia. The results from these model scenarios are useful to further understand the ecosystem of the Berre lagoon and to help the designers of seagrass restoration program. References Delpy F., Pagano M., Blanchot J., Carlotti F., Thibault-Botha D. : Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64 (9) : 1921-32, 2012. Lirman D., Serafy J.E. : Documenting Everglades restoration impacts on Biscayne Bay's shallowest benthic habitats. First Annual Report. CERP Monitoring and Assessment Plan Component : Activity Number 3.2.3.3. Miami, FL, 2008. Smith N.P. : Water, salt and heat balance of coastal lagoons. In B. Kjerfve (ed.), Coastal Lagoon Processes. (pp. 69-101). Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1994.

Roux, Bernard; Alekseenko, Elena; Chen, Paul Gang; Kharif, Christian; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique

2014-05-01

433

Fish endocrine disruption responses to a major wastewater treatment facility upgrade.  

PubMed

The urban-water cycle modifies natural stream hydrology, and domestic and commercial activities increase the burden of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol, that can disrupt endocrine system function in aquatic organisms. This paper presents a series of integrated chemical and biological investigations into the occurrence, fate, and effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the City of Boulder Colorado's WWTF and Boulder Creek, the receiving stream. Results are presented showing the effects of a full-scale upgrade of the WWTF (that treats 0.6 m(3) s(-1) of sewage) from a trickling filter/solids contact process to an activated sludge process on the removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other contaminants (including nutrients, boron, bismuth, gadolinium, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) through each major treatment unit. Corresponding impacts of pre- and postupgrade effluent chemistry on fish reproductive end points were evaluated using on-site, continuous-flow experiments, in which male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 28 days to upstream Boulder Creek water and WWTF effluent under controlled conditions. The upgrade of the WWTF resulted in improved removal efficiency for many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, particularly 17?-estradiol and estrone, and fish exposed to the postupgrade effluent indicated reduction in endocrine disruption relative to preupgrade conditions. PMID:22300164

Barber, Larry B; Vajda, Alan M; Douville, Chris; Norris, David O; Writer, Jeffery H

2012-02-21

434

Assessing hydrological effects of human interventions on coastal systems: numerical applications to the Venice Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological consequences of historical, contemporary and future human activities on a coastal system were investigated by means of numerical models. The changes in the morphology of the Lagoon of Venice during the last century result from the sedimentological response to the combined effects of human interventions on the environment and global changes. This study focuses on changes from 1927 to 2012 and includes the changes planned for the protection of the city of Venice from storm surges and exceptional tides under future sea level rise scenarios. The application of a hydrodynamic model to simulate the circulation of water masses and the transport of a passive tracer enabled the analysis of the morphodynamic effects on the lagoon circulation and the interaction with the sea. The absolute values of the exchange between the lagoon and sea increased from 1927 to 2002 (from 3900 to 4600 m3 s-1), while the daily fraction of lagoon water volume exchanged decreased. At the same time, the water renewal time shortened from 11.9 to 10.8 days. Morphological changes during the last decade induced an increase of the basin-wide water renewal time (from 10.8 to 11.3 days). In the future, Venice Lagoon will evolve to a more restricted environment due to sea level rise and periodical closure of the lagoon from the sea during flooding events. Simulated scenarios of sea level rise showed that under fall-winter conditions the water renewal time will increased considerably especially in the central part of the lagoon. Furthermore, some considerations on the impact of the hydromorphological changes on the ecological dynamics are proposed.

Ferrarin, C.; Ghezzo, M.; Umgiesser, G.; Tagliapietra, D.; Camatti, E.; Zaggia, L.; Sarretta, A.

2012-12-01

435

New Caledonia surface lagoon chlorophyll modeling as coastal reef area health indicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major part of the New Caledonia (NC) lagoon was classified as UNESCO Natural Site of Humanity Patrimony. Indeed, 22 175 km2 of tropical coral lagoon area exhibit high biodiversity. The NC lagoon is semi enclosed and connected to the Coral Sea through a barrier reef segmented by narrow passes. The environment is oligotrophic, due to important flush during trade winds events, and bathymetry is highly variable. In order to predict eutrophication events, we used an extension of a 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model recently developed on NC south western lagoon. The model is based on the Nitrogen and Carbon cycles, relating the variable stoechiometry of the elements in each biological compartment. The ecological model was developed to include an explicit description of the microbial loop. The resulting coupled model, forced by tide, wind, light, temperature and freshwater inputs, was used to calculate phytoplankton biomass, bacterial production, dissolved organic matter concentrations and nutrient recycling. Here we present results issued from the 3D coupled model ECO3M_LAGOON (biogeochemical, LOPB-IRD) and MARS3D (regional physical model, IFREMER-IRD) describing spatial and temporal interactions between water motion and biology, on larger domain including reef barrier and water exchanges through ocean-lagoon interface. To validate physical processes in the lagoon we used in situ data collected during field cruise (ValHyBio 2008, La Niña episode). Surface chlorophyll concentrations are compared with water color data from ValHyBio cruise and satellite data (MODIS/MERIS) corrected from bathymetry effects.

Fuchs, R.; Pinazo, C.; Douillet, P.; Dupouy, C.; Faure, V.; Mangin, A.

2010-10-01

436

The Unare lagoon - A recent example of sequence stratigraphic control in reservoir patterns  

SciTech Connect

The Unare lagoon constitutes a barred coastal lagoon formed during the Holocene transgression on a moderate wave energy, microtidal coast. An extensive surface sampling and core drill program has been carried out in the lagoon in order to develop a reservoir sedimentology and sequence stratigraphic model applicable to similar subsurface deposits. During the rapid Halocene sea level rise, more than 70 m of fluvial and delta plain sediments have aggraded behind the landward stepping coastal barrier. These sediments are truncated seaward by a transgressive wave ravinement surface, and are capped by widespread lagoonal muds which accumulated between 8300 and 7250 yBP. These muds constitute the Holocene Maximum Flooding Surface which preceded the onset of the post Holocene stillstand (c. 500[approximately] yBP), probably as a result of the high rate of sediment supply and the confined nature of the lagoon which acted as an efficient sediment trap. During the post Holocene stillstand, a fluvial-dominated delta has prograded across the lagoon and attained the coastal barrier. This delta constitutes a Highstand Systems Tract. The major reservoir sands comprise distributary channel meanderbelts and the transgressive barrier. The channels form sand ribbons 5-7 m thick, and up to 2 km wide. The barrier and shoreface sands forms a strike-elongate deposits less than 5 m thick, up to 150-600 m wide, and 5-10 km long. The lagoonal facies of the Maximum Flooding Surface form a good reservoir seal overlying the aggrading transgressive fluvial and delta plain sands and muds.

Bejarano, C. (Corpoven, S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

437

Contribution of exotic species, environmental factors and spatial components to the macrophyte assemblages in a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau lagoon, Southern France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Thau lagoon, located on the French Mediterranean Coast, more than 20% of the macrophyte species are introduced species, likely through shellfish farming. Their impact on local soft substrate macrophyte communities has not yet been evaluated. In this study, we estimate the relationship between introduced species and the assemblage of indigenous macrophytes. Exotic species, environmental factors, and spatial distribution

Céline Vincent; David Mouillot; Michel Lauret; Thang Do Chi; Marc Troussellier; Catherine Aliaume

2006-01-01

438

Influence of nitrogen enrichment on size-fractionated in vitro carboxylase activities of phytoplankton from Thau Lagoon (Coastal Mediterranean Lagoon, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen (DIN and DON) enrichments on pools of enzymes responsible for CO2 fixation by the Calvin–Benson (Rubisco) and ?-carboxylation pathways (?-carboxylases) were studied in a natural plankton assemblage. The plankton community from a coastal Mediterranean lagoon were incubated in situ for 24 h with initially ammonium, nitrate and DON (taurine) enrichments and compared

Eric Fouilland; Chantal Descolas-Gros; Yves Collos; André Vaquer; Philippe Souchu; Anne Gasc; Bertrand Bibent; Virginie Pons

2002-01-01

439

Structural Analysis of Fuel Assembly Clads for the Upgraded Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT Upgrade).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Upgraded Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT Upgrade) is designed to test full-length, pre-irradiated fuel pins of the type used in large LMFBRs under accident conditions, such as severe transient overpower and loss-of-coolant accidents. In TREAT U...

T. F. Ewing T. S. Wu

1986-01-01

440

Enhanced compositing of radiation disinfected sewage sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on isothermal composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge and liquid chromatography of water extracts of the products were carried out. The optimum temperature and pH were around 50 °C and 7-8, respectively. The repeated use of products as seeds increased the rate of CO 2 evolution. The rate reached a maximum within 10 hours and decreased rapidly, and the CO 2 evolution ceased after about 3 days. The conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide attained to about 40% for the repeated use of products as seeds at the optimum conditions. As long as seeds in available were used, no remarkable difference was found in the composting of unirradiated and irradiated sludges. The composting process using radiation, however, can be carried out at the optimum conditions and is expected to shorten the composting period, because it is not necessary to keep fermentation temperature higher to reduce pathogen in sludge. Liquid chromatographic studies of the products showed that low molecular components decreased and higher molecular ones increased with fermentation. An index expressing the degree of reduction of easily decomposable organics was presented. The index also showed that the optimum temperature for fermentation was 50 °C, and that the easily decomposable organics disappeared above 30% of the conversion of organic carbon.

Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.

441

Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) power, by installing 2 × 8 internal magnetic perturbation coils, and by improving the ion cyclotron range of frequency compatibility with the tungsten wall. With the perturbation coils, reliable suppression of large type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) could be demonstrated in a wide operational window, which opens up above a critical plasma pedestal density. The pellet fuelling efficiency was observed to increase which gives access to H-mode discharges with peaked density profiles at line densities clearly exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit. Owing to the increased ECRH power of 4 MW, H-mode discharges could be studied in regimes with dominant electron heating and low plasma rotation velocities, i.e. under conditions particularly relevant for ITER. The ion-pressure gradient and the neoclassical radial electric field emerge as key parameters for the transition. Using the total simultaneously available heating power of 23 MW, high performance discharges have been carried out where feed-back controlled radiative cooling in the core and the divertor allowed the divertor peak power loads to be maintained below 5 MW m-2. Under attached divertor conditions, a multi-device scaling expression for the power-decay length was obtained which is independent of major radius and decreases with magnetic field resulting in a decay length of 1 mm for ITER. At higher densities and under partially detached conditions, however, a broadening of the decay length is observed. In discharges with density ramps up to the density limit, the divertor plasma shows a complex behaviour with a localized high-density region in the inner divertor before the outer divertor detaches. Turbulent transport is studied in the core and the scrape-off layer (SOL). Discharges over a wide parameter range exhibit a close link between core momentum and density transport. Consistent with gyro-kinetic calculations, the density gradient at half plasma radius determines the momentum transport through residual stress and thus the central toroidal rotation. In the SOL a close comparison of probe data with a gyro-fluid code showed excellent agreement and points to the dominance of drift waves. Intermittent structures from ELMs and from turbulence are shown to have high ion temperatures even at large distances outside the separatrix.

Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Äkäslompolo, S.; Amdor, C.; Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bardin, S.; Barrera Orte, L.; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottereau, C.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Brochard, T.; Brüdgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Casson, F. J.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I. G. J.; Coenen, J. W.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Curran, D.; da Silva, F.; de Marné, P.; D'Inca, R.; Douai, D.; Drube, R.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; Fünfgelder, H.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gál, K.; García Muñoz, M.; Geiger, B.; Giannone, L.; Görler, T.; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; Härtl, T.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Höhnle, H.; Hölzl, M.; Hopf, C.; Houben, A.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kantor, M.; Käsemann, C.-P.; Kallenbach, A.; Kálvin, S.; Kantor, M.; Kappatou, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kasparek, W.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H.-J.; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kubic, M.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Lazaros, A.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lindig, S.; Lisgo, S.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Maraschek, M.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuwirth, D.; Nocente, M.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Plöckl, B.; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polozhiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Püschel, M. J.; Pütterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reimold, F.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Rooij, G. v.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Santos, J.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sommer, F.; Stäbler, A.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Tala, T.; Tardini, G.; Teschke, M.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Tsalas, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Varela, P.; Veres, G.; Vicente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Viola, B.; Vorpahl, C.; Wachowski, M.; Wagner, D.; Wauters, T.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Würsching, E.; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

2013-10-01

442

Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons.  

PubMed

A workshop organized in French Polynesia in November 2004 allowed reviewing the current methods to model the three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation in semi-enclosed atoll lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source of income for South Pacific countries such as French Polynesia or Cook Islands. This aquaculture now requires a better understanding of circulation patterns to improve the spatial use of the lagoons, especially to define the best area to set larvae collectors. The pelagic larval duration of the relevant species (<20 days) and the size of the semi-closed lagoons (few hundreds of km2) drive the specifications of the model in terms of the spatial and temporal scale. It is considered that, in contrast with fish, mollusk larvae movements are limited and that their cycle occurs completely in the lagoon, without an oceanic stage. Atolls where aquaculture is productive are generally well-bounded, or semi-closed, without significant large and deep openings to the ocean. Nevertheless part of the lagoon circulation is driven by oceanic water inputs through the rim, ocean swells, tides and winds. Therefore, boundary conditions of the lagoon system are defined by the spatial structure of a very shallow rim (exposition and number of hoas), the deep ocean swell climate, tides and wind regimes. To obtain a realistic 3D numerical model of lagoon circulation with adequate forcing, it is thus necessary to connect in an interdisciplinary way a variety of methods (models, remote sensing and in situ data collection) to accurately represent the different components of the lagoon system and its specific boundary conditions. We review here the current methods and tools used to address these different components for a hypothetical atoll of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), representative of the semi-closed lagoons of the South Pacific Ocean. We hope this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies elsewhere and we provide guidelines in terms of costs for all the different stages involved. PMID:16987532

Andréfouët, S; Ouillon, S; Brinkman, R; Falter, J; Douillet, P; Wolk, F; Smith, R; Garen, P; Martinez, E; Laurent, V; Lo, C; Remoissenet, G; Scourzic, B; Gilbert, A; Deleersnijder, E; Steinberg, C; Choukroun, S; Buestel, D

2006-10-01

443

Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results also showed that environmental variables such as depth, transparency/depth ratio, total P, chl-a, and TSM differed significantly between the two lagoons. In order to assess the ecological quality of the study sites, the functional ISD index has been applied. From the preliminary results it seems that ISD index, based on the biomass size structure of the macroinvertebrate communities, is more appropriate for the assessment of the ecological status for these particular ecosystems. The development of a monitoring team is essential for the protection and management of these ecologically important ecosystems. Further investigation is necessary to examine the relationships between benthic macroinvertebrates and aquatic macrophytes, the use of biotic indices to the evaluation for lagoonal ecosystems' ecological status and the relation between the hydrological processes and the biodiversity patterns of the biotic elements.

Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

2012-04-01

444

[Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].  

PubMed

Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco State, and it also constitutes the more complete reference on the detailed size composition of a set of dominant species in a coastal lagoon in the central Mexican Pacific. PMID:24912349

González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

2014-03-01

445

Alterations in macroinvertebrate spatial patterns in coastal lagoons: Óbidos (NW coast of Portugal) 1984 versus 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macroinvertebrate spatial distribution patterns in the Lagoon of Óbidos were studied in 1984 and revisited in 2002. The overall surficial sediments and benthic community patterns show consistent similarities in the two sampling periods, but also important differences. The lagoon is relatively shallow, with about 1/3 of the area covered with extensive intertidal sand banks. These are interrupted by a navigation channel bordering the northern margin (1984) and, following dredging operations, a new navigation channel was opened along the southern margin (2002). The sediments in the navigation channels were coarser and with less percentage of fines in 2002 than in 1984. Arthropods dominated the species richness and abundance in 1984, but were much less important in 2002, when the community was dominated by molluscs and annelids, both in species numbers as well as in abundance. In 1984, the structure of the macrofauna communities closely followed a general model proposed for Atlantic and Mediterranean lagoons, with the marine, the transition and the lagoon communities occupying very well defined areas. This gradient was in accordance with an increase in the fines and organic matter content directed inwards allowing for the coexistence of several characteristic lagoon species with others characteristic of organic enriched sediments. In 2002 this spatial pattern is still recognized but the marine and the transition communities are spatially mixed, occupying both the entrance region and the navigation channels, whereas the characteristic lagoon community identified in 1984 was only recognized in a group of sites located along the southern margin in 2002. Several species show very important changes in their distribution extent in the lagoon system. These changes essentially show a generalized inward expansion of the distribution range of the marine species, in agreement with a larger influence of marine conditions toward the inner areas of the lagoon. This study shows how sensitive lagoon systems can be to the regime of water exchange rate with the ocean being possible to induce more or less marine conditions to the system as a response to the flow and exchange rate of water through the communication inlet following dredging interventions.

Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor; Pereira, Fábio; Freitas, Rosa

2012-09-01

446

Analysis of Lagoonal Ecosystems in the Po River Delta Associated with Intensive Aquaculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations on structure and functioning of coastal lagoon ecosystems experiencing a high level of eutrophication impact were accomplished in three lagoons of Ca'Pisani integrated within an experimental aquaculture enterprise variously fertilized by waste effluents discharged from and intensive fish culture plant. During August and early September an extremely dense bloom of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensewas recorded in these lagoons with the density of phytoplankton up to 190 g m -3of wet biomass, and primary production 2 to 6 mg Cl -1 day -1. The diel dissolved oxygen fluctuations in water column during the bloom reached 15-20 mg O 2 l -1. The wet biomass of bacterioplankton in the lagoons attained 5-9 g m -3. The microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates with biomass 1 to 19 g m -3. The daytime mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid copepods with a biomass 0·05-0·25 g m -3, while the biomass of the demersal zooplankton at night attained 2 to 14 g m -3. In the lagoon of Ocaro, the phototrophic plankton was dominated by the symbiotic ciliate Mesodinium.The labile sulphides content in the upper layer of the bottom attained over 1 g S dm -3of wet silt. The rate of microbial sulphate reduction was 5-10 mg S dm -3day -1. The data are generalized within the energy balance in these specific anthropogenically transformed pelagic communities.

Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

1999-03-01

447

MODIS-based sea surface temperature of the Baltic Sea Curonian Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) derived from Terra/Aqua Moderate Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) infrared imagery between 2000 and 2011 to document the hydrological regime in the Baltic Sea Curonian Lagoon. Records of the daytime SST from MODIS were validated against conventional in situ observations from an oceanographic buoy in the SE Baltic and two coastal hydrographic stations in the Curonian Lagoon. In general a very good agreement between them was found with positive bias (RMSD) not higher than 0.49 °C (1.31 °C) and R2 not less than 0.78. The MODIS-based SST data set, having a wide spatial coverage and relatively high spatial resolution enables one to study spatial, seasonal and inter-annual SST variations unavailable from sparse in situ measurements in the Curonian Lagoon. In addition satellite SST maps allow monitoring main spatio-temporal characteristics of mesoscale frontal features associated with the Curonian Lagoon coastal plume and coastal upwelling in the SE Baltic influencing coastal and lagoon ecosystems. The satellite infrared measurements and results obtained in near-shore waters in this study are unique and should be useful to researchers of near-shore water dynamics in other coastal regions of the world.

Kozlov, Igor; Dailidien?, Inga; Korosov, Anton; Klemas, Victor; Ming?lait?, Toma

2014-01-01

448

Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally towards total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer.

Yost, Erin E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meissner, Benjamin M.; Williams, Mike; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W.

2013-01-01

449

Late-Quaternary paleoenvironmental evolution of Lesina lagoon (southern Italy) from subsurface data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated sedimentological and micropaleontological (foraminifers and ostracods) analyses of two 55 m long borehole cores (S3 and S4) drilled in the subsurface of Lesina lagoon (Gargano promontory—Italy) has yielded a facies distribution characteristic of alluvial, coastal and shallow-marine sediments. Stratigraphic correlation between the two cores, based on strong similarity in facies distribution and AMS radiocarbon dates, indicates a Late Pleistocene to Holocene age of the sedimentary succession. Two main depositional sequences were deposited during the last 60-ky. These sequences display poor preservation of lowstand deposits and record two major transgressive pulses and subsequent sea-level highstands. The older sequence, unconformably overlying a pedogenized alluvial unit, consists of paralic and marine units (dated by AMS radiocarbon at about 45-50,000 years BP) that represent the landward migration of a barrier-lagoon system. These units are separated by a ravinement surface (RS1). Above these tansgressive deposits, highstand deposition is characterised by progradation of the coastal sediments. The younger sequence, overlying an unconformity of tectonic origin, is a 10 m-thick sedimentary body, consisting of fluvial channel sediments overlain by transgressive-regressive deposits of Holocene age. A ravinement surface (RS2), truncating the transgressive (lagoonal and back-barrier) deposits in core S4, indicates shoreface retreat and landward migration of the barrier/lagoon system. The overlying beach, lagoon and alluvial deposits are the result of mid-Holocene highstand sedimentation and coastal progradation.

Ricci Lucchi, Marianna; Fiorini, Flavia; Luisa Colalongo, Maria; Vittorio Curzi, Pietro

2006-01-01

450

Recruitment of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in the Lagoon of Thau, mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were investigated in the Mediterranean lagoon of Thau. The periods of release of clam larvae were determined by monitoring the gonad maturity index in samples of adult females. Two massive spawnings were detected. Recruitment, deduced from spat density, was abundant in one part of the lagoon (Etang des Eaux-Blanches) in 1987 but not in the following years. Conversely, it was absent in another part of the lagoon (Grand-Etang) in 1987, although it occurred previously there. The spatial patterns of recruitment in 1987 were highly heterogeneous. They could be related to circulation, modelled for the periods following spawning. In the Grand-Etang, where no recruitment occurred in 1987, the larvae were confined to the vicinity of intensive shellfish culture zones where they presumably were depleted from the water. Episodic local anoxia also likely caused massive mortality among recruits. Recruitment of invertebrates with planktonic larvae in Mediterranean lagoons thus depends on meterological conditions which directly or indirectly determine the timing of spawning, the circulation patterns, and the occurrence of anoxias. In the lagoon of Thau the presence of large areas of intensive shellfish culture is a potential factor of massive mortality for larvae.

Borsa, Philippe; Millet, Bertrand

1992-09-01

451

Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard.

Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cecile; Monteil, Caroline; Quemere, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R.; Monfort, Patrick

2014-01-01

452

Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamic models.  

PubMed

The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224Ra to 228Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore water end member. Average apparent age was calculated to be 6.0 d using Ra ratios. This calculated age was very similar to average residence time calculated for the same period using a hydrodynamic model (5.8 d). A mass balance of Ra was accomplished by quantifying each of the sources and sinks of Ra in the lagoon, with the unknown variable being attributed to SGD. Total SGD were calculated to be 4.1 +/- 1.5, 3.8 +/- 0.7, 3.0 +/- 1.3, and 3.5 +/- 1.0 x 10(10) L d(-1) for (223,224,226, 228)Ra, respectively, which are an order of magnitude larger than total mean fluvial discharge into the Venice Lagoon (3.1 x 10(9) L d(-1)). The SGD as a source of nutrients in the Venice Lagoon is also discussed and, though significant to the nutrient budget, is likely to be less important as the dominant control on SGD is recirculated seawater rather than freshwater. PMID:19732997

Rapaglia, John; Ferrarin, Christian; Zaggia, Luca; Moore, Willard S; Umgiesser, Georg; Garcia-Solsona, Ester; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Masqué, Pere

2010-07-01

453

Modelling ocean-lagoon interaction during upwelling processes in the South West of New Caledonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2005, wind-driven 'sporadic' coastal upwelling events have been identified off the southwestern reef of New Caledonia. Several studies have described the main physical processes and induced surface patterns using 1D and 3D modelling, as well as in situ measurements. Previous models were applied at the mesoscale without taking into account the lagoon. Using a recently developed 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model that considers the complex ocean-lagoon interface, we aim to understand better the impact of the upwelling on the lagoon. The model was found to be in good agreement with measured data reported in previous publications about two upwelling events. However, in general, levels of surface chlorophyll-a were overestimated by the model in the upwelling area when compared to ocean colour data and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the discrepancy. We then tracked rich upwelled water using a forward Lagrangian transport analysis. Upwelled waters from the upper nutricline were found to be able to reach the South West lagoon. An anti-cyclonic eddy was detected near the upwelling area, potentially responsible, in part, for the rich water intrusions into the lagoon.

Fuchs, R.; Pinazo, C.; Douillet, P.; Fraysse, M.; Grenz, C.; Mangin, A.; Dupouy, C.

2013-12-01

454

Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems  

SciTech Connect

One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

Pertl, A., E-mail: andreas.pertl@boku.ac.a [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria); Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G. [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

2010-01-15

455

Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems.  

PubMed

One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO(2). PMID:19783421

Pertl, A; Mostbauer, P; Obersteiner, G

2010-01-01

456

7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780.63 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning...1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering...

2014-01-01

457

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2010-07-01

458

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2013-07-01

459

33 CFR 151.79 - Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. 151.79 Section 151.79 Navigation and Navigable...79 Operating requirements: Discharge of sewage within Antarctica. (a) A vessel certified to carry more than 10...

2009-07-01

460

78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0372; FRL-9820-9] Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). The Indiana Department of...

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