Sample records for upland peat soils

  1. Controls of soil pipe frequency in upland blanket peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Holden

    2005-01-01

    Soil pipes were surveyed in 160 British blanket peat catchments using consistent application of ground-penetrating radar. Soil pipes were found in all catchments. The mean frequency of piping was 69 per kilometer of surveyed transect. Land management (moorland gripping) appears to exert the most important control on hillslope pipe frequency in blanket peats. Management practice in peatlands may therefore induce

  2. Guidance on peat soils 1 | Peat | Helen Cariss

    E-print Network

    Guidance on peat soils 1 | Peat | Helen Cariss Forestry and deep peat Purpose This policy guidance on forestry and deep peat acts as the country level guidance for FCW. It applies to regulatory functions: conserving and enhancing biodiversity climate change mitigation maintaining the peat and soil resource

  3. Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired carbon

    E-print Network

    Litvak, Marcy

    Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired boreal peat under black spruce forest with sphagnum and feather moss understory using incubation increments. At temperatures below 0°C, significant decomposition was observed in feather moss peat

  4. Extreme peat burning along peatland-upland interfaces of the Western Boreal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M.; Hokanson, K.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Thompson, D.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands in the Western Boreal Forest, releasing 4700 Gg C a-1 over ~1500 km2 annually. Under future climate scenarios the amount of area burned in this region is forecast to increase by 25-100%, potentially converting these ecosystems into a regional net source of carbon to the atmosphere. During wildfire, the majority of carbon released from peatlands is attributable to peat smouldering with burn depths generally ranging from 5 - 20 cm of peat. However, no study has documented the incidence of an extreme smouldering event and the conditions necessary for such an event to occur. Here we report on a smouldering event during the Utikuma Complex forest fire (SWF-060, ~90,000 ha) in May, 2011 at the Utikuma Lake Research Study Area (URSA) in Alberta's Western Boreal Plain, where peat burn depths exceeded one meter along a peatland-upland interface (range = 0.12 to 1.10 m, mean = 0.54 m). We applied the Peat Smouldering and Ignition model (PSI) at an adjacent unburned peatland-upland interface to characterize the hydrological and hydrophysical conditions necessary for these extreme burn depths. Model outputs indicate that the coupling of dense peat (bulk density > 150 kg m-3) and low peat moisture (GWC < 250%) allow for severe smouldering to propagate deep into the peat profile. We argue that peatland-upland interfaces, which likely release ten times more carbon per meter squared than peatland centers, are hotspots for peat smouldering due to dynamic hydrological conditions that reduce the moisture content of high-density peat during dry periods. We suggest the hydrogeological setting of peatlands is essential for identifying peatland-upland interfaces as areas highly vulnerable to smouldering and for assisting fire managers and scientists in predicting and mitigating the effects of extreme peat burning events. Burned peatland-upland interface

  5. School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences Management of carbon budgets for severely eroded upland blanket peat bogs impacts

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    upland blanket peat bogs ­ impacts of restoration Blanket bog is an important carbon sink and an Annex 1 Habitat priority under the EU Habitats Directive, but in the Peak District National Park much suffers peat by Natural England as an important site for studies of vegetation history and peat erosion in the Pennines

  6. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article looks at the U.S. peat market as of July 2013. Peat is produced from deposits of plant organic materials in wetlands and includes varieties such as reed-sedge, sphagnum moss, and humus. Use for peat include horticultural soil additives, filtration, and adsorbents. Other topics include effects of environmental protection regulations on peat extraction, competition from products such as coir, composted organic waste, and wood products, and peatland carbon sinks.

  7. Piping and pipeflow in a deep peat catchment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Holden; T. P. Burt

    2002-01-01

    Natural pipes are common in many upland blanket peats, yet little is known about pipe network morphology or pipeflow processes. Most information on soil piping comes from the shallow peaty podzols of the Welsh uplands, where monitoring suggests that pipes may be important contributors to streamflow. This paper presents information on piping and pipeflow from a deep upland blanket peat

  8. Effects of Redox on Aggregate Stability of Upland Soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland soils in the US Midwest often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring. The redox effect on the aggregate/structural stability of upland soils is not well understood. We hypothesized that aggregate stability would decrease under reducing conditions. Thre...

  9. Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

  10. Diversity and Activity of Methanotrophic Bacteria in Different Upland Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Knief; A. Lipski; P. F. Dunfield

    2003-01-01

    Samples from diverse upland soils that oxidize atmospheric methane were characterized with regard to methane oxidation activity and the community composition of methanotrophic bacteria (MB). MB were identified on the basis of the detection and comparative sequence analysis of the pmoA gene, which encodes a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. MB commonly detected in soils were closely related to Methylocaldum

  11. DOC export from an upland peat catchment in the Flow Country, northern Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinjili, Shailaja; Robinson Robinson, Ruth; Arn Teh, Yit; Waldron, Susan; Singer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Flow Country blanket bogs in northern Scotland are the most expansive in Europe covering an area of ~4000 km2, and they significantly impact the global carbon cycle because of their high rates of carbon production and storage, as well as their role in the transfer of carbon to oceans through rivers or greenhouse gas exchange (Moore et al., 1998). These upland areas are highly susceptible to climatic and landuse changes, and currently, large areas of previously drained and forested peatlands are being felled and blocked to increase the water table level and rejuvenate the peatlands (LIFE Peatlands Project 2001-2006; Holden et al., 2004). This study is examining the event-based export of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) from one of the main upland Flow Country catchments that drains into the north-draining Halladale River. For a time-series of summer rainfall events, we have focussed particularly on a comparison of DOC/POC exports from three different land use areas in the catchment: forested plots, felled to waste (restoration) plots (felled between 2005-2007), and near-pristine bog sites. DOC concentrations have been measured using a combination of methods including TOC and EA analyses, and in situ absorbance measurements using a spectrophotometer (Thurman, 1985; Worrall et al., 2002). Our results show that the stream water draining the felled to waste site records the highest levels of DOC concentration (and DOC variability), and the near-pristine site has the lowest export rate of DOC (and lowest variability). All sites exhibit positive DOC responses to the flood hydrograph, and the near-pristine and forested sites have a similar maximum concentrations of DOC. The felled site concentrations are about 2times greater than the near-pristine and forested sites, and the non-linear response to flow reflects the hydrophobic nature of peats after a period of drought, and the lag time required for them to saturate. The integrated downstream DOC concentrations on forested land and on the main stem of the Halladale River have 'forest-like' values reflecting a dilution in DOC concentrations from the felled site, and mixing of stream water from other sources. The initial results from this study imply that i) the felled to waste site (after 2-3 years) releases the highest (up to x2) DOC into stream waters that drain them, ii) DOC concentrations are more sensitive to hydrological variation in sites felled to waste but not yet fully restored, and iii) saturation-excess overland flow is the predominant response of near-pristine site to the rainfall events. References: Holden J., Chapman P.J., and Labadz J.C. 2004. Artificial drainage of peatlands: hydrological and hydrochemical process and wetland restoration. Progress in Phy Geography, 28, 1, pp: 95-123. Life Peatlands Project 2001-2006. www.lifepeatlandsproject.com Moore T.R., Roulet N.T. and Waddington J.M. 1998. Uncertainty in Predicting the Effect of Climatic Change on the Carbon Cycling of Canadian Peatlands. Climate Change, 40, 2, pp: 229-245. Thurman E.M. 1985. Organic Geochemistry of Natural Waters. Netherlands, Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W.Junk Publishers. Worrall F., Burt T. P., Jaeban R. Y., Warburton ,J. and R. Shedden, 2002. Release of dissolved organic carbon from upland peat. Hydrol. Process. 16, 3487-3504.

  12. The Influence of Dam Removal on Upland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafrenz, M. D.; Bean, R. A.; Uthman, D.

    2011-12-01

    Driven largely by anadromous fish passage issues, several dams have been removed in the Pacific Northwest and several more are slated to be removed there and in other regions of North America. While much effort has gone into modeling and monitoring the geomorphic and ecologic response of stream channels to dam removal, little research has investigated changes in upland soils following inundation resulting from dam construction, and none had evaluated how these upland soils would respond to dewatering following dam removal. The removal of a relatively large dam - Marmot Dam on the Sandy River in Northwest Oregon, presented an opportunity to evaluate the effect of dewatering on what were formerly upland rather than floodplain soils. We compared the dewatered soils to downstream upland soils that had not been inundated and modified a "ripening" index, which had been developed to characterize dewatered estuary soils in Dutch polders, in order to evaluate the physical and chemical changes taking place in these soils. Two years following dam removal, the previously inundated soils have higher organic matter percentage, cation exchange capacity, and nitrogen levels than downstream soils that were not inundated; yet, this new riparian area is largely devoid of vegetation while the downstream soils maintain a thick (10 cm) O horizon. The carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N) of upstream surface horizons are low (13:1) and increase markedly with soil depth (54:1); the C:N ratios of downstream soils are typical of other forested soils in this region (28:1 at the surface and 26:1 at depth). Prior to dam removal, it is likely that all upstream, inundated soils had high C:N ratios due to the persistent anaerobic conditions under the reservoir. Following dam removal, soil microbes needing to supplement their nitrogen consumption with soluble nitrogen likely out-competed higher plants for plant available nitrogen. The C:N ratio should have dropped to an equilibrium; this was not achieved at this location likely due to the coarse texture and corresponding low ripening value of the dewatered soils. Hence, native plants have not re-established in the new riparian area. The current resulting high levels of nitrogen in the upstream dewatered soil is anomalous for this region and could lead to colonization by non-native species in this and other newly dewatered ecosystems. Additionally, the lower sections of the dewatered upland soils are still saturated even though they stand perched several meters above the current floodplain; this evidence of reservoir "underflooding" will continue to affect soil development for an unknown amount of time and should be considered for any large dam removal project.

  13. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  14. A 19-year long energy budget of an upland peat bog, northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Burt, T. P.; Clay, G. D.; Moody, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study has estimated the long term evaporation record for a peat covered catchment in northern England. In this study, 19 years of daily evaporation were estimated for rain-free periods using White's methods. Net radiation was measured over the study period; soil heat flux was calculated from temperature profiles; and sensible heat flux was calculated assuming the energy budget was closed. The calculated time series was compared to available environmental information on the same time step and over the same time period. Over a 19-year period it was possible to calculate 1662 daily evaporation rates (26% of the period). The study showed that the energy flux to net primry productivity was a small, long-term sink of energy but this sink was a virtue of high carbon accumulation in peat catchments: in catchments where there is no long-term dry matter accumulation, net primary productivity must be a small net source of energy. The study showed that evaporation increased over the study period whilst sensible heat flux significantly declined, reflecting an increased use of sensible heat energy to meet evaporative demand. The relatively small change in evaporative flux compared to other energy fluxes suggests that this system is a "near-equilibrium" system and not a "far-from-equilibrium" system.

  15. A 19-year long energy budget of an upland peat bog, northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Clay, Gareth; Moody, Catherine; Burt, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    This study has estimated the long term evaporation record for a peat covered catchment in northern England. In this study, 19 years of daily evaporation were estimated for rain-free periods using White's methods. Net radiation was measured over the study period; soil heat flux was calculated from temperature profiles; and sensible heat flux was calculated assuming the energy budget was closed. The calculated time series was compared to available environmental information on the same time step and over the same time period. Over a 19-year period it was possible to calculate 1662 daily evaporation rates (26% of the period). The study showed that the energy flux to net primary productivity was a small, long-term sink of energy but this sink was a virtue of high carbon accumulation in peat catchments: in catchments where there is no long-term dry matter accumulation, net primary productivity must be a small net source of energy. The study showed that evaporation increased over the study period whilst sensible heat flux significantly declined with the ecosystem became a stronger heat sink reflecting an increased use of sensible heat energy to meet evaporative demand. The relatively small change in evaporative flux compared to other energy fluxes suggests that this system is a "near-equilibrium" system and not a "far-from-equilibrium" system.

  16. How does hillslope position control carbon fluxes from peat soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothroyd, I.; Worrall, F.; Allott, T.

    2012-04-01

    Peatlands represent a significant terrestrial carbon stock, with an estimated 445.69 Gtonnes of carbon stored globally (Joosten 2009). In the UK, peatlands are estimated to store 1.75 Gtonnes of carbon (Joosten 2009), yet most of the upland blanket bogs that dominate peatland forms in the UK are in a damaged condition from erosion or land management practices. As such they could be releasing carbon and their restoration could be of benefit to the UK government in terms of climate change mitigation targets through the benefits of avoided carbon losses. In order to realise any possible benefit of management intervention upon peatlands accurate carbon budget models are required to assess the carbon balance of peatlands. To reduce uncertainty in model output a greater understanding of peatland function is required (Ostle et al., 2009). As part of this, topographical and hydrological controls need to be characterised in more detail. Landscape scale features such as gullies (McNamara et al., 2008) and drainage ditches (Wallage et al., 2006; Gibson et al., 2009) have been shown to affect carbon fluxes from peatlands, but slope position and its role on carbon fluxes has not yet been considered. A 12 month field study was carried out from June 2010 - June 2011 in the Peak District, UK, to assess the role that hillslope position has upon carbon flux from peat soils. Changes in hydrology, carbon dioxide flux and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration across four hillslope positions: topslope, upper midslope, lower midslope and bottomslope were observed. Results showed that there was a significant slope effect for both DOC and CO2 effluxes but that the effect upon CO2 was explained by changes in the depth to the water table across the slope.

  17. DIVISION S-10--WETLAND SOILS Carbon Accumulation and Storage in Mineral Subsoil beneath Peat

    E-print Network

    Moore, Tim

    DIVISION S-10--WETLAND SOILS Carbon Accumulation and Storage in Mineral Subsoil beneath Peat Tim R subsoil (Turunen and Moore, 2003). TheyWe showed that sandy subsoils beneath peat near Ramsey Lake conditions beneath the peat. soils beneath the forest, those beneath the peat contained similar In this paper

  18. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, peat was harvested in 15 US states. Florida, Michigan and Minnesota accounted for more than 80% of the US production. Reed-sedge was the dominant variety of peat harvested in the United States. More than 56% of all peat used in the US was imported from Canada. With the growing interest in gardening, landscaping related to home construction and golf courses, peat usage is expected to remain near current levels during the next several years.

  19. The molecular properties of humic substances isolated from a UK upland peat system: a temporal investigation.

    PubMed

    Scott, M J; Jones, M N; Woof, C; Simon, B; Tipping, E

    2001-12-01

    The study concerns the possible changes in the molecular characteristics of humic materials isolated from the same source as a function of time. A great deal of data has been reported concerning the contrast in molecular characteristics of humic substances isolated from different environments. This has primarily been an attempt to identify source-specific molecular characteristics. However, data presented in this paper suggests that humic substances isolated from a single catchment have significant changes in molecular characteristics over time. Two naturally occurring peat pools (X and Y) situated upon a small organic catchment on Great Dun Fell, Cumbria, UK were sampled monthly between November 1994 and November 1996. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the pool water samples was fractionated using macroporous nonionic resins (XAD8 and 4), and the humic, fulvic and hydrophilic acids were collected. These fractions were analysed for elemental composition (C, H and N), weight average molecular weight, functional group content and adsorption (340 nm) of a 1 g l(-1) solution measured in a 1-cm spectrophotometer cell. The molecular characteristics were compared to those of natural DOM described by Scott et al. (1998). Scott et al. reported that drought conditions and seasonal climatic changes could have appreciable effects upon molecular characteristics of natural DOM. Results showed that the atomic H/C ratio of the humic substances increased immediately after strong drought conditions experienced in the summer of 1995. This change was temporary with atomic H/C ratio decreasing gradually over the following months. A similar decrease was observed in the carboxyl group content of the isolated compounds. The data set suggested that atomic H/C ratio in the fulvic and hydrophilic fractions exhibited seasonal characteristics of higher ratios during the late summer/early autumn months. This was not observed in the humic fraction. Humic acids exhibited a seasonal pattern of higher weight average molecular weight during the summer months. These trends were explained in terms of summer production of DOM in the catchment soils, their sequestering in the soil due to limited soil water movement during the summer months and their relative ease of dissolution when rainfall and soil water movement increased during the late summer/early autumn period. The results were found to support seasonal and long-term patterns observed in natural DOM as reported by Scott et al. (1998). PMID:11800427

  20. Soil CO2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing Hanna Lee,1,2

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    Soil CO2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing Hanna Lee,1,2 Edward A. G. Schuur to understand the response of belowground C emissions for different soil depths from upland tundra as a result moist acidic tundra and highest where thawing of permafrost and thermokarst was most pronounced. We were

  1. Accounting for variability in soil microbial communities of temperate upland grassland ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Grayston; G. S. Griffith; J. L. Mawdsley; C. D. Campbell; R. D. Bardgett

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors which regulate soil microbial community organisation and function in temperate upland grassland ecosystems. Soil microbial biomass (Cmic), activity (respiration and potential carbon utilisation) and community structure (phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, culturing and community level physiological profiles (CLPP) (Biolog®)) were measured across a gradient of three upland grassland types; Festuca–Agrostis–Galium grassland (unimproved grassland,

  2. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58Ë? 22' N, 26Ë? 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were chosen by following criteria: (1) plantcover age; (2) cultivated plant species; (3) utilized agrotechnology; (4) comparisons between different factors were created by using natural growth areas of Vaccinaceae (natural bog area, Vaccinaceae growth area on mineral soil). For the investigation is important to choose areas with different age of plant covers, because according to plants age the surface of exhausted peat land will be covered in relation to the width of plants. The purpose of current article is to investigate the biological and chemical parameters co-influences in peat soil. Thus, the major interest is on the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid distribution and dynamics in peat soil and dependence of plant cover, also its influence to the plants growth. Moreover, its contribution to yield and new growth area invasion will be discussed.

  3. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  4. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sty?a, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Pozna?, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wysko? ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at ?max=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci et al. (2000). In peat the highest activities of phenol oxidase was observed in the combinations marked as Shelterbelt and whereas the lowest - in Zbechy, Bridge and Hirudo. Activities of this enzyme in peat ranged from 15.35 to 38.33 ?mol h-1g d.m soil. Increased activities of phenol oxidase have been recorded on the depth 50-100cm - catotelm (21.74-38.33 ?mol h-1g d.m soil) in comparison with the depth 0-50cm - acrotelm (15.35-28.32 ?mol h-1g d.m soil). References Freeman, C., Ostle N.J., Fener, N., Kang H. 2004. A regulatory role for phenol oxidase during decomposition in peatlands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 1663-1667. Matocha Ch.J., Haszler G.R., Grove J.H. 2004. Nitrogen fertilization suppresses soil phenol oxidase enzyme activity in no-tillage systems. Soil Science, 169/10, 708-714. Perucci P., Casucci C., Dumontet S. 2000. An improved method to evaluate the o-diphenol oxidase activity of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1927-1933. Sokolowska Z., Szajdak L., Matyka-Sarzy?ska D. 2005. Impact of the degree of secondary transformation on amid-base properties of organic compounds in mucks. Geoderma, 127, 80-90. Szajdak L., Szczepa?ski M., Bogacz A. 2007. Impact of secondary transformation of peat-moorsh soils on the decrease of nitrogen and carbon compounds in ground water. Agronomy Research, 5/2, 189-200.

  5. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    The United States continued to be significant producer and consumer of peat for horticultural and industrial applications in 1999. Florida, Michigan and Minnesota were the largest producing states, in order of output.

  6. Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

    2011-01-01

    A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

  7. Distribution of heavy metals among different bonding forms in tropical peat soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koyo Yonebayashi; Masanori Okazaki; Jiraval Pechayapisit; Pisoot Vijarnsorn; Abu Bakar Zahari; Kazutake Kyuma

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics of the macro- and micro-nutrient status of tropical peat soils under natural swamp forest and their changes after reclamation. We sampled peat soils from the coastal swamps in southern Thailand and southern Peninsular Malaysia. These soils were at varying stages of reclamation. Soil Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu were sequentially

  8. Peat fires as source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) arrive from pyrogenic sources including volcanism and the combustion of oil products and plant materials. The production of PAHs during the combustion of plant materials was considered in a number of publications, but their results were mainly obtained in laboratory experiments. Insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in environmental objects. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAH sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are available on this topic. On Polistovskii reserve (Russia, Pskov region) the soil series were separated depending on the damage to the plants; these series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities, as well as soils of the background plots. The series of organic and organomineral soils significantly differed in their PAH distributions. In this series, the concentration of PAHs in the upper horizons of the peat soils little varied or slightly decreased, but their accumulation occurred at a depth of 5-10 or 10-20 cm in the soils after the fires. For example, in the series of high moor soils, the content of PAHs in the upper horizons remained almost constant; significant differences were observed in the subsurface horizons: from 2 ng/g in the background soil to 70 ng/g after the fire. In the upper horizons of the oligotrophic peat soils under pine forests, the total PAH content also varied only slightly. At the same time, the content of PAHs in the soil series increased from 15 to 90 ng/g with the increasing pyrogenic damage to the plot. No clear trends of the PAH accumulation were recorded in the organomineral soils. The content of PAHs in the soddy-podzolic soil subjected to fire slightly decreased (from 20 to 10 ng/g) compared to the less damaged soil. In peat fires, the access of oxygen to the fire zone is lower than in forest fires. The oxygen deficit acts as a factor of the organic fragments recombination and PAH production; therefore, larger amounts of PAHs are formed in peat fires. In addition, the peat fires occur directly in the soil layer; therefore, larger amounts of the resulting polyarenes remain in the soils of the fire sites. PAHs also can be formed at the heating of organic matter on the areas adjacent to the fire sites. After the combustion of peat in fires, phenanthrene, chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and tetraphene accumulate in soils. This is mainly the group of 4-nuclear compounds with the participation of 3-nuclear phenanthrene and 5-nuclear benz[a]pyrene. The formation of high-molecular weight compounds like benz[a]pyrene and, in some places, benzo[ghi]perylene is possible during smoldering under a low oxygen supply.

  9. Effect of soil properties on peat erosion and suspended sediment delivery in drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuukkanen, Tapio; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-04-01

    Erosion from peat extraction areas is known to cause siltation of water courses and poor water quality. However, the main soil parameters affecting peat erosion and suspended sediment (SS) yields from different catchments are not well understood. This paper used peat properties (degree of humification, peat type, ash content, porosity, moisture content, bulk density, and shear strength) and novel erosion threshold measurements from intact soil cores to explain peat erodibility and spatial variations in SS concentrations (SSCs) and SS loads (SSLs) at 20 Finnish peat extraction sites. The erosion threshold measurements suggested that critical shear stresses for particle entrainment decrease with increasing degree of humification (von Post scale) and are significantly lower in well-decomposed peat than in slightly or moderately decomposed peat. Two critical shear stresses were obtained from moderately decomposed peat samples, indicating a degree of surface armoring by coarse peat fibers. Monitored long-term average SSC was highest at study sites with well-decomposed peat, while very fine-grained mineral subsoil explained some of the highest long-term SSC in areas where drainage ditches penetrated below the upper peat layer. Average SSL (kg d-1) at the study sites was best explained (R2 = 0.89) by average discharge and surface peat decomposition level. Overall, this study provides new knowledge on peat erosion and critical shear stresses that can be used in water conservation and sediment management practices for cutover peatlands and other similar land uses.

  10. Microbial phototrophic fixation of atmospheric CO2 in China subtropical upland and paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Tida; Wu, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Hongzhao; Zou, Ziying; Li, Baozhen; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Shoulong; Tong, Chengli; Brookes, Phil; Wu, Jinshui

    2013-07-01

    Autotrophic microorganisms, which can fix atmospheric CO2 to synthesize organic carbon, are numerous and widespread in soils. However, the extent and the mechanism of CO2 fixation in soils remain poorly understood. We incubated five upland and five paddy soils from subtropical China in an enclosed, continuously 14CO2-labeled, atmosphere and measured 14CO2 incorporated into soil organic matter (SOC14) and microbial biomass (MBC14) after 110 days. The five upland soils supported dominant crops soils (maize, wheat, sweet potato, and rapeseed) in the region, while all paddy soils were cultivated in a regime consisting of permanently-flooded double-cropping rice cultivation. The upland and paddy soils represented typical soil types (fluvisols and ultisols) and three landforms (upland, hill, and low mountain), ranging in total carbon from low (<10 g kg-1 soil organic carbon) to medium (10-20 g kg-1) to high (>20 g kg-1). Substantial amounts of 14CO2 were fixed into SOC14 (mean 20.1 ± 7.1 mg C kg-1 in upland soil, 121.1 ± 6.4 mg C kg-1 in paddy soil) in illuminated soils (12 h light/12 h dark), whereas no 14C was fixed in soils incubated in continuous darkness. We concluded that the microbial CO2 fixation was almost entirely phototrophic rather than chemotrophic. The rate of SOC14 synthesis was significantly higher in paddy soils than in upland soils. The SOC14 comprised means of 0.15 ± 0.01% (upland) and 0.65 ± 0.03% (paddy) of SOC. The extent of 14C immobilized as MBC14 and that present as dissolved organic C (DOC14) differed between soil types, accounting for 15.69-38.76% and 5.54-18.37% in upland soils and 15.57-40.03% and 3.67-7.17% of SOC14 in paddy soils, respectively. The MBC14/MBC and DOC14/DOC were 1.76-5.70% and 1.69-5.17% in the upland soils and 4.23-28.73% and 5.65-14.30% in the paddy soils, respectively. Thus, the newly-incorporated C stimulated the dynamics of DOC and MBC more than the dynamics of SOC. The SOC14 and MBC14 concentrations were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.946; P < 0.0001). We conclude that CO2 uptake by phototrophic soil microorganisms can contribute significantly to carbon assimilation in soil, and so warrants further future study.

  11. Transport of lead and diesel fuel through a peat soil near Juneau, AK: a pilot study

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Transport of lead and diesel fuel through a peat soil near Juneau, AK: a pilot study Julian Deissa; accepted 6 February 2004 Abstract A set of peat column experiments was used to determine the transport-bearing stream 250 m from the site. Three pairs of peat columns were extracted from the rifle range for analysis

  12. Biological Chlorine Cycling in Arctic Peat Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlamal, J. E.; Raab, T. K.; Lipson, D.

    2014-12-01

    Soils of the Arctic tundra near Barrow, Alaska are waterlogged and anoxic throughout most of the profile due to underlying permafrost. Microbial communities in these soils are adapted for the dominant anaerobic conditions and are capable of a surprising diversity of metabolic pathways. Anaerobic respiration in this environment warrants further study, particularly in the realm of electron cycling involving chlorine, which preliminary data suggest may play an important role in arctic anaerobic soil respiration. For decades, Cl was rarely studied outside of the context of solvent-contaminated sites due to the widely held belief that it is an inert element. However, Cl has increasingly become recognized as a metabolic player in microbial communities and soil cycling processes. Organic chlorinated compounds (Clorg) can be made by various organisms and used metabolically by others, such as serving as electron acceptors for microbes performing organohalide respiration. Sequencing our arctic soil samples has uncovered multiple genera of microorganisms capable of participating in many Cl-cycling processes including organohalide respiration, chlorinated hydrocarbon degradation, and perchlorate reduction. Metagenomic analysis of these soils has revealed genes for key enzymes of Cl-related metabolic processes such as dehalogenases and haloperoxidases, and close matches to genomes of known organohalide respiring microorganisms from the Dehalococcoides, Dechloromonas, Carboxydothermus, and Anaeromyxobacter genera. A TOX-100 Chlorine Analyzer was used to quantify total Cl in arctic soils, and these data were examined further to separate levels of inorganic Cl compounds and Clorg. Levels of Clorg increased with soil organic matter content, although total Cl levels lack this trend. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) was used to provide information on the structure of Clorg in arctic soils, showing great diversity with Cl bound to both aromatic and alkyl groups. Incubations were conducted in the laboratory providing arctic soils with Clorg, and measurements taken to assess rates of organohalide respiration show an increase in chloride production due to microbial activity. Investigating these soils with diverse techniques affirms the importance of Cl-cycling in a pristine arctic tundra ecosystem.

  13. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The United States continued as a significant producer and consumer of peat for horticultural, agricultural and industrial applications in 1997. Several operations in the Great Lakes and the Southeast regions dominated US production. Florida, Michigan and Minnesota were the largest producing states.

  14. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Peat is a natural organic material of botanical origin and commercial significance. Peatlands are situated predominately in shallow wetland areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Commercial deposits are formed from the gradual decomposition of plant matter under anaerobic conditions over about a 5,000-year period.

  15. Soil Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Paddy-Upland Rotation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Teng-Fei; Chen, Yong; Westby, Anthony P.; Ren, Wan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Paddy-upland rotation is an unavoidable cropping system for Asia to meet the increasing demand for food. The reduction in grain yields has increased the research interest on the soil properties of rice-based cropping systems. Paddy-upland rotation fields are unique from other wetland or upland soils, because they are associated with frequent cycling between wetting and drying under anaerobic and aerobic conditions; such rotations affect the soil C and N cycles, make the chemical speciation and biological effectiveness of soil nutrient elements varied with seasons, increase the diversity of soil organisms, and make the soil physical properties more difficult to analyze. Consequently, maintaining or improving soil quality at a desirable level has become a complicated issue. Therefore, fully understanding the soil characteristics of paddy-upland rotation is necessary for the sustainable development of the system. In this paper, we offer helpful insight into the effect of rice-upland combinations on the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties, which could provide guidance for reasonable cultivation management measures and contribute to the improvement of soil quality and crop yield. PMID:24995366

  16. X-ray computed tomography of peat soils: measuring gas content and peat structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Kettridge; Andrew Binley

    2008-01-01

    The potential of using X-ray computed tomography (CT) to (i) analyse individual biogenic gas bubbles entrapped within peats and (ii) produce reliable descriptors of peat structure is examined. Existing approaches used to study biogenic gas bubbles measure the gas content of volumes of peat many orders of magnitude larger than most bubbles, and are, therefore, of little use in helping

  17. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, domestic production of peat, excluding Alaska, was estimated to be 612 kt (674,600 st), compared with 609 kt (671,300 st) in 2009. In 2010, imports increased to 947 kt (1.04 million st), compared with 906 kt (998,600 st) in 2009. Exports were estimated to have decreased to 69 kt (76,000 st) in 2010. U.S. apparent consumption for 2010 was estimated to have increased to 1.5 Mt (1.65 million st). World production was estimated to be about 23 Mt (25 million st) in 2010, which is 8 percent lower than in 2009.

  18. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, domestic production of peat, excluding Alaska, was estimated to be 560 kt (617,000 st), compared with 568 kt (626,000 st) in 2011. In 2012, imports decreased to 940 kt (1 million st) compared with 982 kt (1.1 million st) in 2011, and exports were estimated to have increased to 75 kt (82,600 st) in 2012. U.S. apparent consumption for 2012 was estimated to have remained the same as that of 2011. World production was estimated to be about 27 Mt (30 million st) in 2012, which was slightly higher than 2011.

  19. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, domestic production of peat, excluding Alaska, was estimated to be 605 kt (667,000 st), compared with 628 kt (629,000 st) in 2010. In 2011, imports increased to 1.1. Mt (1.2 million st) compared with 947 kt (1 million st) in 2010, and exports were estimated to have decreased to 39 kt (43,000 st) in 2011. U.S. apparent consumption for 2011 was estimated to have increased to 1.6 Mt (1.7 million st). World production was estimated to be about 22 Mt (24 million st) in 2011, which was 6 percent lower than 2010.

  20. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, domestic production of peat, excluding Alaska, was estimated to be 610 kt (672,000 st), compared with 615 kt (678,000 st) in 2008. In 2009, imports decreased to 906 kt (999,000 st) compared with 936 kt (1 million st) in 2008, and exports were estimated to have increased to 77 kt (85,000 st) in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption for 2009 was estimated to be about the same as in 2008. World production was estimated to be about 25 Mt (27.5 million st) in 2009, which is about the same as 2008.

  1. Soil hydraulic properties of sphagnum moss and peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Scharnagl, Benedikt; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The moisture state of the vadose zone (acrotelm) of ombrotrophic peatlands decisively determines whether carbon is contained in soil organic matter or released to the atmosphere. As the pore space is variably saturated with water throughout the year, oxygen diffusion, heat, and solute transport and thus the redox state are a function of water content over time. For prediction purposes, the hydrological processes must be epitomised in computer models which establish a link between the terrestrial water cycle and the carbon cycle. This requires a proper representation of effective soil hydraulic properties which are a mandatory input to the Richards equation, the standard model for variably-saturated flow processes in porous media. By applying the Richards equation to peatlands, one assumes that the acrotelm can be conceptualised as a rigid porous material. To test this approximation and select the most adequate set of soil hydraulic property functions, we conducted a series of specifically designed laboratory evaporation experiments on sphagnum moss and decomposed sphagnum peat. Sampling was carried out in five centimeter depth increments of an ombrotrophic bog profile in the Harz mountains. We selected sphagnum moss as it is a predominant plant species colonising bogs of the Boreal. Inverse modelling was used to test the adequacy of different parameterizations of soil hydraulic property functions. We used pressure head data measured by two tensiometers in the objective function to identify soil hydraulic properties. The Richards equation was used as process model. We critically assess the applicability of the van Genuchten/Mualem model, which finds frequent application in peatland hydrology, and discuss alternatives which account for (1) multimodal pore size distributions, (2) physical plausibility towards the dry end, (3) capillary and non-capillary storage and flow, and (4) isothermal flow of water vapour. Finally, our results indicate that applying the Richards equation to water flow under evaporation conditions to sphagnum moss and sphagnum peat is a feasible approximation.

  2. Effects of peat fires on the characteristics of humic acid extracted from peat soil in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yustiawati; Kihara, Yusuke; Sazawa, Kazuto; Kuramitz, Hideki; Kurasaki, Masaaki; Saito, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Wulandari, Linda; Hendri I; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2015-02-01

    When peat forest fires happen, it leads to burn soil and also humic acids as a dominant organic matter contained in peat soil as well as the forest. The structure and properties of humic acids vary depending on their origin and environment, therefore the transformation of humic acid is also diverse. The impacts of the peat fires on peat soil from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were investigated through the characterization of humic acids, extracted from soil in burnt and unburnt sites. The characterization of humic acids was performed by elemental composition, functional groups, molecular weight by HPSEC, pyrolysate compounds by pyrolysis-GC/MS, fluorescence spectrum by 3DEEM spectrofluorometer, and thermogravimetry. The elemental composition of each humic substance indicated that the value of H/C and O/C of humic acids from burnt sites were lower than that from unburnt sites. The molecular weight of humic acids from burnt sites was also lower than that from unburnt sites. Pyrolysate compounds of humic acids from unburnt sites differed from those of humic acids from burnt soil. The heating experiment showed that burning process caused the significant change in the properties of humic acids such as increasing the aromaticity and decreasing the molecular weight. PMID:24781330

  3. Effect of Soil Stratification on the Development and Migration of Headcuts in Upland Concentrated Flows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of vertical stratification in soil erodibility on the development and migration of steady-state headcut scour holes in upland concentrated flows typical of agricultural fields. Packed soil beds with a pre-formed step were subjected to identical simul...

  4. Fate of 14C-labeled dissolved organic matter in paddy and upland soils in responding to moisture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangbi; Wang, Aihua; Li, Yang; Hu, Lening; Zheng, Hua; He, Xunyang; Ge, Tida; Wu, Jinshui; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Su, Yirong

    2014-08-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) content in paddy soils is higher than that in upland soils in tropical and subtropical China. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, however, is lower in paddy soils. We hypothesize that soil moisture strongly controls the fate of DOM, and thereby leads to differences between the two agricultural soils under contrasting management regimens. A 100-day incubation experiment was conducted to trace the fate and biodegradability of DOM in paddy and upland soils under three moisture levels: 45%, 75%, and 105% of the water holding capacity (WHC). (14)C labeled DOM, extracted from the (14)C labeled rice plant material, was incubated in paddy and upland soils, and the mineralization to (14)CO2 and incorporation into microbial biomass were analyzed. Labile and refractory components of the initial (14)C labeled DOM and their respective half-lives were calculated by a double exponential model. During incubation, the mineralization of the initial (14)C labeled DOM in the paddy soils was more affected by moisture than in the upland soils. The amount of (14)C incorporated into the microbial biomass (2.4-11.0% of the initial DOM-(14)C activity) was less affected by moisture in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. At any of the moisture levels, 1) the mineralization of DOM to (14)CO2 within 100 days was 1.2-2.1-fold higher in the paddy soils (41.9-60.0% of the initial DOM-(14)C activity) than in the upland soils (28.7-35.7%), 2) (14)C activity remaining in solution was significantly lower in the paddy soils than in the upland soils, and 3) (14)C activity remaining in the same agricultural soil solution was not significantly different among the three moisture levels after 20 days. Therefore, moisture strongly controls DOM fate, but moisture was not the key factor in determining the lower DOM in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. The UV absorbance of DOM at 280 nm indicates less aromaticity of DOM from the paddy soils than from the upland soils. At any of the moisture levels, much more labile DOM was found in paddy soils (34.3-49.2% of the initial (14)C labeled DOM) compared with that in upland soils (19.4-23.9%). This demonstrates that the lower DOM content in the paddy soil compared with that in the upland soil is probably determined by the less complex components and structure of the DOM. PMID:24836136

  5. The Severity of Smouldering Peat Fires and Damage to the Forest Soil 

    E-print Network

    Rein, Guillermo; Cleaver, Natalie; Ashton, Clare; Pironi, Paolo; Torero, Jose L

    and the large loss of soil mass but poorly documented in the literature. A series of smouldering experiments with boreal peat have been conducted under laboratory conditions to quantify these effects using small-scale samples. Peat samples of 100 mm by 100 mm...

  6. Organic matter composition of peat soils affected by genesis and drainage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Heller, Christian; Leue, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The organic matter (OM) of peat soils often dominates the overall soil properties because of the low mineral contents. The quantity and quality of OM depends on the environmental conditions during peat genesis. We hypothesize that the OM quality in terms of the composition of OM functional groups can help to better understand the processes of peat soil development. The objective was to analyze OM composition of peat soils as a function of genesis, water regime, and land use. Three plant samples and 29 peat samples were taken from 7 sites (located northern Germany) which are different in peat genesis and land use intensity. The samples were analyzed with Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The lower contents in CH functional groups for the fen samples as compared to bog samples reflect a higher biochemical activity in the fen as compared to the ombothrophic bog environments. The role of the peat genesis for OM composition could be confirmed by FTIR data of a Canadian ombrotrophic bog. The relative higher CH content in samples from non-drained as compared to those from drained fens could be explained by selective preservation due to anaerobic conditions. Increasing drainage intensity seems to cause a relative decrease in CH content and an increase in C=O content of the peat samples, reflecting an enhanced aerobic decomposition. The results suggest that peat genesis and drainage affects both OM content and composition substantially. However, the greater variability in OM composition as compared to that of bog samples indicate that SOM in peat soils is not only influenced by climate, land use or drainage but it is also affected by the type of land use at sites in the close neighborhood.

  7. The diet and food preferences of Onychiurus procampatus (Collembola) from upland grassland soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Bardgett; J. B. Whittaker; J. C. Frankland

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Onychiurus procampatus (Collembola) observed grazing on fungal mycelia were collected from the surface soil of three differently manged upland grasslands. A general trend of an increasing proportion of Collembola with a full gut was found along a gradient of reduced sheep management intensity, which was correlated with increased fungal biomass. In the laboratory, this collembolan showed a consistent

  8. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, more than 30,000 ha of drained minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) in NE Germany were rewetted to restore their ecological functions. Due to an extended drainage history, a re-establishment of their original state is not expected in the short-term. Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium and phosphate have been measured in the soil porewater of the upper degraded peat layers of rewetted fens at levels of one to three orders higher than the values in pristine systems; an indicator of increased microbial activity in the upper degraded soil layers. On the other hand there is evidence that the substrate availability within the degraded peat layer is lowered since the organic matter has formerly been subject to intense decomposition over the decades of drainage and intense agricultural use of the areas. Previously however, it was suggested that inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by polyphenolic substances is suspended during aeration of peat soils mainly due to the decomposition of the inhibiting polyphenols by oxidising enzymes such as phenol oxidase. Accordingly we hypothesised a lack of enzyme inhibiting polyphenols in degraded peat soils of rewetted fens compared to less decomposed peat of more natural fens. We collected both peat samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and fresh roots of dominating vascular plants and mosses (as peat parent material) from five formerly drained rewetted sites and five more natural sites of NE Germany and NW Poland. Less decomposed peat and living roots were used to obtain an internal standard for polyphenol analysis and to run enzyme inhibition tests. For all samples we determined the total phenolic contents and in addition we distinguished between the contents of hydrolysable and condensed tannic substances. From a methodical perspective the advantage of internal standards compared to the commercially available standards cyanidin chloride and tannic acid became apparent. Quantification with cyanidin or tannic acid led to a considerable underestimation (up to 90%) of polyphenolic concentrations in peat soils. As hypothesised we found that highly degraded peat contains far lower levels of total polyphenolics (factor 8) and condensed tannins (factor 50) than less decomposed peat. In addition we detected large differences between different plant species with highest polyphenolic contents for the roots of Carex appropinquata that were more than 10-fold higher than Sphagnum spp. (450 mg/g dry mass vs. 39 mg/g dry mass). Despite these differences, we did not find a significant correlation between enzyme activities and peat degradation state, indicating that there is no simple linear relationship between polyphenolic contents and microbial activity.

  9. Actinomadura rayongensis sp. nov., isolated from peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

    2015-03-01

    A novel actinomycete strain RY35-68(T), isolated from a peat swamp forest soil sample in Rayong Province, Thailand, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain belonged to the genus Actinomadura based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Cell-wall analysis revealed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid in the peptidoglycan layer. The diagnostic sugar in whole-cell hydrolysates was identified as madurose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The major cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The genomic DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain RY35-68(T) was closely related to the species Actinomadura atramentaria JCM 6250(T) (97.5?%). The value of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain RY35-68(T) and A. atramentaria JCM 6250(T) was 37.6-42.6?%. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and these results mentioned, this strain could be distinguished from the closely related type strain and represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura rayongensis sp. nov. (type strain RY35-68(T)?=?JCM 19830(T)?=?TISTR 2211(T)?=?PCU 332(T)) is proposed. PMID:25525125

  10. Resistivity-based monitoring of biogenic gases in peat soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Slater; Xavier Comas; Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis; Maitry Roy Moulik

    2007-01-01

    Biogenic free-phase gas (FPG) formation was induced in a peat block (dimensions 0.28 × 0.21 × 0.21 m) extracted from a peatland in Maine. Electrical resistivity (ER), surface deformation, and methane (CH4) flux from the peat surface was monitored over a 48-day period during which the temperature remained constant at 21 ± 1°C. ER measurements were made on 5 vertical

  11. Spatial and vertical distribution of mercury in upland forest soils across the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Justin B.; Friedland, Andrew J; Engerbretson, Teresa R.; Kaste, James M.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing current Hg pools in forest soils of the northeastern U.S. is important for monitoring changes in Hg cycling. The forest floor, upper and lower mineral horizons were sampled at 17 long-term upland forest sites across the northeastern U.S. in 2011. Forest floor Hg concentration was similar across the study region (274 ± 13 ?g kg?1) while Hg amount at northern sites (39 ± 6 g ha?1) was significantly greater than at western sites (11 ± 4 g ha?1). Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, soil pH, latitude and mean annual precipitation and these variables explained approximately 70% of the variability when multiple regressed. Mercury concentration and amount in the lower mineral soil was correlated with Fe, soil organic matter and latitude, corresponding with Bs horizons of Spodosols (Podzols). Our analysis shows the importance of regional and soil properties on Hg accumulation in forest soils. PMID:23911621

  12. Macronutrient concentration in plant parts of cotton fertilized with broiler litter in a marginal upland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tewolde; M. W. Shankle; A. Adeli; K. R. Sistani; D. E. Rowe

    2009-01-01

    Effectiveness of surface-applied unincorporated broiler litter as a fertilizer relative to conventional inorganic fertilizers under no-till or conventional-till cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems in the upland soils of the southern and southeastern USA is not well documented. The objectives of this research were to (1) test if broiler litter improves plant macronutrient (N, P, K, and Mg) nutrition of

  13. High Potential for Iron Reduction in Upland Soils from Diverse Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. H.; Liptzin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the redox state of iron (Fe) can be coupled to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen, and phosphorus. The importance of Fe in catalyzing redox-driven biogeochemical cycling has been underappreciated in terrestrial ecosystems because they are not typically thought of as anaerobic environments. However, upland soils can experience anaerobic conditions following rainfall events or in microsites of high biological oxygen consumption. Measurements of Fe reduction rates in soils are difficult to compare among studies from different ecosystems, so we used the same assay to quantify potential Fe reduction in soils from upland environments (annual grassland, drained peatland pasture, and a rainforest) that varied in poorly crystalline Fe and total C. We slurried the soils and incubated them in a glovebox with a dinitrogen headspace. To evaluate the role of C availability in potential Fe reduction, we added sodium acetate daily at rates up to 0.6 mg C/g soil/d. We measured methane (CH4) production, acid- extractable Fe(II), citrate-ascorbate extractable Fe oxides, and pH over 5 days to determine the timing and magnitude of Fe reduction. In relatively dry soils (< 20 % gravimetric soil moisture), Fe reduction began after one day of anaerobic incubation as slurries, but all of the soils demonstrated high Fe reduction potential. On day 3, Fe reduction rates for the 0.05 mg C/g soil/d treatment were 1535 ± 51 ?g Fe(III) g-1 d-1 in the annual grassland soil, 1205 ± 42 ?g Fe(III) g-1 d-1 in the drained peatland soil, and 826 ± 54 ?g Fe(III) g-1 d-1 in the rainforest soil. This contrasts with the trend in poorly crystalline Fe oxide pools across the sites: 3.87 ± 0.06 ?g Fe(III) g-1 in the annual grassland, 7.49 ?g Fe(III) g-1 in the drained peatland, and 20.84 ± 0.19 ?g Fe(III) g-1 in the rainforest soil. Across all sites, small C additions (< 0.05 mg C/g soil/day) increased Fe reduction rates while larger C additions decreased Fe reduction. Iron reduction rates typically decreased by day 5, associated with an increase in CH4 concentrations suggesting that potentially reducible Fe was depleted. Our results suggest that upland soils have the potential to exhibit high short-term rates of Fe reduction that may play a role in driving C oxidation and other soil biogeochemical cycles during periods of anaerobiosis.

  14. Controls on soil solution nitrogen along an altitudinal gradient in the Scottish uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson-Blake, L.; Helliwell, R. C.; Britton, A. J.; Gibbs, S.; Coull, M. C.; Dawson, L.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition continues to threaten upland ecosystems, contributing to acidification, eutrophication and biodiversity loss. We present results from a monitoring study aimed at investigating the fate of this deposited N within a relatively pristine catchment in the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland). Six sites were established along an elevation gradient (486 - 908 m) spanning the key habitats of temperate maritime uplands. Bulk deposition chemistry, soil carbon content, soil solution chemistry, soil temperature and soil moisture content were monitored over a 5 year period, making this the first study of its kind in a maritime Alpine environment. Results were used to assess spatial variability in soil solution N and to investigate the factors and processes driving this variability. Highest soil solution inorganic N concentrations were found in the alpine soils at the top of the hillslope. Soil carbon stock, dissolved organic carbon concentration and factors representing site hydrology were the best predictors of nitrate concentration. These factors act as proxies for changing net biological uptake and soil/water contact time, and support the hypothesis that spatial variations in soil solution nitrate are controlled by habitat N retention capacity. Soil percent carbon was a better predictor of soil solution N concentration than mass of carbon. Ammonium was less affected by soil hydrology than nitrate and showed the effects of net mineralization inputs, particularly at Racomitrium heath and peaty sites. We hypothesize that high ammonium concentrations at the Racomitrium heath are related to the mineralization of microbial cell tissue during times of stress, largely in the absence of plant uptake. Due to the spatial heterogeneity in N leaching potential, a fine-scale approach to assessing surface water vulnerability to N leaching is recommended over the broad scale, critical loads approach currently in use, particularly for sensitive areas.

  15. Effect of lead on the sorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on soil and peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-guo Pei; Xiao-quan Shan; Tao Liu; Ya-ning Xie; Bei Wen; Shuzhen Zhang; Shahamat U. Khan

    2007-01-01

    The effect of lead on the sorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) on soil and peat was investigated using a batch equilibration method. Lead markedly diminished the sorption of 2,4,6-TCP, and 2,4,6-TCP had little effect on lead sorption. Peat was a more effective adsorbent for 2,4,6-TCP than soil. The desorption hysteresis of 2,4,6-TCP verified the presence of high-energy sorption sites. Mechanisms of

  16. An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 2332 (2003) EGU

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2003-01-01

    properties of peat soils 23 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 23­32 (2003) © EGU An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine water balance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils.Schwaerzel@TU-Berlin.de Abstract A simple method for the installation of groundwater lysimeters in peat soils was developed which

  17. Diversity of Methanotrophic Bacteria in Tropical Upland Soils under Different Land Uses

    PubMed Central

    Knief, Claudia; Vanitchung, Supika; Harvey, Narumon W.; Conrad, Ralf; Dunfield, Peter F.; Chidthaisong, Amnat

    2005-01-01

    Three upland soils from Thailand, a natural forest, a 16-year-old reforested site, and an agricultural field, were studied with regard to methane uptake and the community composition of methanotrophic bacteria (MB). The methane uptake rates were similar to rates described previously for forest and farmland soils of the temperate zone. The rates were lower at the agricultural site than at the native forest and reforested sites. The sites also differed in the MB community composition, which was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of pmoA gene fragments (coding for a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase) that were PCR amplified from total soil DNA extracts. Cluster analysis based on the DGGE banding patterns indicated that the MB communities at the forested and reforested sites were similar to each other but different from that at the farmland site. Sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands indicated that Methylobacter spp. and Methylocystis spp. were present. Sequences of the “forest soil cluster” or “upland soil cluster ?,” which is postulated to represent organisms involved in atmospheric methane consumption in diverse soils, were detected only in samples from the native forest and reforested sites. Additional sequences that may represent uncultivated groups of MB in the Gammaproteobacteria were also detected. PMID:16000794

  18. Grain yield and arsenic uptake of upland rice inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in As-spiked soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuyong; Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-06-01

    A pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi species, including Glomus geosporum BGC HUN02C, G. versiforme BGC GD01B, and G. mosseae BGC GD01A, on grain yield and arsenic (As) uptake of upland rice (Zhonghan 221) in As-spiked soils. Moderate levels of AM colonization (24.1-63.1 %) were recorded in the roots of upland rice, and up to 70 mg kg(-1) As in soils did not seem to inhibit mycorrhizal colonization. Positive mycorrhizal growth effects in grain, husk, straw, and root of the upland rice, especially under high level (70 mg kg(-1)) of As in soils, were apparent. Although the effects varied among species of AM fungi, inoculation of AM fungi apparently enhanced grain yield of upland rice without increasing grain As concentrations in As-spiked soils, indicating that AM fungi could alleviate adverse effects on the upland rice caused by As in soils. The present results also show that mycorrhizal inoculation significantly (p?soils added with 70 mg?kg(-1) As. The present results suggest that AM fungi are able to mitigate the adverse effects with enhancing rice production when growing in As-contaminated soils. PMID:23292227

  19. Soil phosphorus forms in hydrologically isolated wetlands and surrounding pasture uplands.

    PubMed

    Cheesman, Alexander W; Dunne, Ed J; Turner, Benjamin L; Reddy, K Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Newly created and restored wetlands play an important role in sequestering excess nutrients at the landscape scale. In evaluating the long-term efficacy of nutrient management strategies to increase wetland capacity for sequestering P, information is needed on the forms of P found across the upland-wetland transition. To assess this, we studied soils (0-10 cm) from four wetlands within cow-calf pastures north of Lake Okeechobee, FL. Wetlands contained significantly (P < 0.05) greater concentrations of organic matter (219 g C kg(-1)), total P (371 mg P kg(-1)), and metals (Al, Fe) relative to surrounding pasture. When calculated on an aerial basis, wetland surface soils contained significantly greater amounts of total P (236 kg ha(-1)) compared with upland soils (114 kg ha(-1)), which was linked to the concomitant increase in organic matter with increasing hydroperiod. The concentration of P forms, determined by extraction with anion exchange membranes, 1 mol L(-1) HCl, and an alkaline extract (0.25 mol L(-1) NaOH and 50 mmol L(-1) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]) showed significant differences between uplands and wetlands but did not alter as a proportion of total P. Speciation of NaOH-EDTA extracts by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that organic P was dominated by phosphomonoesters in both wetland and pasture soils but that myo-inositol hexakisphosphate was not detected in any sample. The tight coupling of total C and P in the sandy soils of the region suggests that the successful management of historically isolated wetlands for P sequestration depends on the long-term accumulation and stabilization of soil organic matter. PMID:20830938

  20. Gamma ray attenuation in the soils of Northern Ireland, with special reference to peat.

    PubMed

    Beamish, David

    2013-01-01

    This study considers gamma ray attenuation in relation to the soils and bedrock of Northern Ireland using simple theory and data from a high resolution airborne survey. The bedrock is considered as a source of radiogenic material acting as parent to the soil. Attenuation in the near-surface is then controlled by water content in conjunction with the porosity and density of the soil cover. The Total Count radiometric data together with 1:250 k mapping of the soils and bedrock of Northern Ireland are used to perform statistical analyses emphasising the nature of the low count behaviour. Estimations of the bedrock response characteristics are improved by excluding areas covered by low count soils (organic/humic). Equally, estimations of soil response characteristics are improved by excluding areas underlain by low count bedrock (basalt). When the spatial characteristics of the soil-classified data are examined in detail, the low values form spatially-coherent zones (natural clusters) that can potentially be interpreted as areas of increased water content for each soil type. As predicted by theory, the highest attenuation factors are associated with the three organic soil types studied here. Peat, in particular, is remarkably skewed to low count behaviour in its radiometric response. Two detailed studies of blanket bogs reveal the extent to which peat may be mapped by its radiometric response while the intra-peat variations in the observed response may indicate areas of thin cover together with areas of increased water content. PMID:22858640

  1. Organic carbon transformations in high-Arctic peat soils: key functions and microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Tveit, Alexander; Schwacke, Rainer; Svenning, Mette M; Urich, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A substantial part of the Earths' soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in Arctic permafrost peatlands, which represent large potential sources for increased emissions of the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2 in a warming climate. The microbial communities and their genetic repertoire involved in the breakdown and mineralisation of SOC in these soils are, however, poorly understood. In this study, we applied a combined metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach on two Arctic peat soils to investigate the identity and the gene pool of the microbiota driving the SOC degradation in the seasonally thawed active layers. A large and diverse set of genes encoding plant polymer-degrading enzymes was found, comparable to microbiotas from temperate and subtropical soils. This indicates that the metabolic potential for SOC degradation in Arctic peat is not different from that of other climatic zones. The majority of these genes were assigned to three bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes. Anaerobic metabolic pathways and the fraction of methanogenic archaea increased with peat depth, evident for a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyles. A population of CH4-oxidising bacteria closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum was the dominating active group of methanotrophs. Based on the in-depth characterisation of the microbes and their genes, we conclude that these Arctic peat soils will turn into CO2 sources owing to increased active layer depth and prolonged growing season. However, the extent of future CH4 emissions will critically depend on the response of the methanotrophic bacteria. PMID:22955232

  2. RESPONSE OF UPLAND RICE GENOTYPES TO SOIL ACIDITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many parts of the world on highly weathered Oxisols, acidity is one of the major factors that contributes to the reduction of crop yields. In addition to liming, use of acid tolerant crop species or cultivars within species, is a complimentary solution to improve crop production on such soils. A ...

  3. Peat amendment and production of different crop plants affect earthworm populations in field soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna Kukkonen; Ansa Palojärvi; Mauri Räkköläinen; Mauritz Vestberg

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of peat amendment and crop production system on earthworms. The experiment was established on a field previously cultivated with oats and with silt as the main soil type. Perennial crops strawberry, timothy and caraway, and annual crops rye, turnip rape, buckwheat, onion and fiddleneck were cultivated with conventional methods. All the

  4. SEASONAL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY IN THREE CHARACTERISTIC SOILS OF THE ENGLISH UPLANDS POLLUTED BY LONG-TERM ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN DEPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphomonoesterase activities were determined monthly during a seasonal cycle in three characteristic soil types of the English uplands that have been subject to long-term atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Activities (µmol para-nitrophenol per gram soil dry wt per hour) ranged between 83.9 - 307 in...

  5. Transport of lead and diesel fuel through a peat soil near Juneau, AK: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deiss, Julian; Byers, Carl; Clover, Dave; D'Amore, Dave; Love, Alan; Menzies, Malcolm A; Powell, Jim; Walter, M Todd

    2004-10-01

    A set of peat column experiments was used to determine the transport potential of lead (Pb) and diesel range organics (DRO) in palustrine slope wetlands near Juneau, AK. This project is important to southeast Alaskan communities because limited land resources are forcing development of regional wetlands. This study was instigated by concerns that proposed modifications to a nearby rifle range using DRO-contaminated soil posed a potential risk to an anadromous fish-bearing stream 250 m from the site. Three pairs of peat columns were extracted from the rifle range for analysis, one pair along and two pairs across the natural bedding planes of the soil. One column in each pair was spiked with Pb and DRO and the other was used as a control. Approximately 1-year worth of water (171 cm) was passed through each column and leachate was collected at regular intervals. The results showed that substantial DRO transport only occurred along the bedding planes. Leads was surprisingly mobile, both along and across the bedding planes with estimated soil-water partition coefficients several orders of magnitude lower than commonly published values, probably because the peat was heavily Pb-loaded by lead from bullets and because the peat's acidic, organic-rich environment enhanced Pb mobility. The chemical outflow behavior agreed with a simple macropore transport model. These results underscore the need for caution when developing regional wetlands. PMID:15358484

  6. Can differences in soil community composition after peat meadow restoration lead to different decomposition and mineralization rates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry van Dijk; Wim A. M. Didden; Frans Kuenen; Peter M. van Bodegom; Herman A. Verhoef; Rien Aerts

    2009-01-01

    Reducing decomposition and mineralization of organic matter by increasing groundwater levels is a common approach to reduce plant nutrient availability in many peat meadow restoration projects. The soil community is the main driver of these processes, but how community composition is affected by peat meadow restoration is largely unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether restoration induced changes could lead to

  7. Humus composition and physico-chemical properties of humic acids in tropical peat soils under sago palm plantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Kawahigashi; Hiroaki Sumida

    2006-01-01

    Tropical peatlands in Sarawak are exploited on a large scale for crop plantations. After reclamation of primary forests, large amounts of gaseous and soluble organic compounds could be released from peatlands. These decomposing products are probably related to the composition and properties of peat humus. Furthermore, these properties might be influenced by land use and topography. Peat soils on the

  8. Application of ground-penetrating radar to measure near-saturation soil water content in peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsekian, Andrew D.; Slater, Lee; GiméNez, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The presence and flux of biogenic methane-rich free phase gas that is eventually released to the atmosphere influence water content (?) of peat soils below the water table. Small variations in gas content in peat soils at near-saturation ? could be inferred by changes in dielectric permittivity, but detailed measurements in that range of ? needed to develop calibration functions are lacking. Our experiment uses a new method for varying ? in the sample using elevated pressure to reduce the naturally occurring volumetric gas content in a manner similar to what occurs in situ under atmospheric pressure change, which relevant to understanding carbon gas cycling in peatlands. We recorded dielectric permittivity using a 1.6 MHz ground-penetrating radar antenna at multiple water contents between 0.87 and 0.95 m3 m-3 on four peat monoliths with varying levels of humification and with <5% gas content as is commonly observed in the field. We identified empirical equations that were linear over the range of ? investigated and optimized a dielectric mixing model for estimating ? from GPR. These results indicate that there are differences in the permittivity-? relationships developed between peat samples and suggest that variability in dielectric relationships may be attributed to peat structure and particle orientation. The empirical relationships developed in this study confirm the utility of previously applied multiphase mixing models for estimating peat properties using methods sensitive to dielectric permittivity. This work is relevant to studies of gas content in peat and the role of peatlands in the carbon cycle.

  9. Production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane (THM) precursor from peat soils.

    PubMed

    Chow, Alex T; Tanji, Kenneth K; Gao, Suduan

    2003-11-01

    Water passing through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane (THM) precursor relative to upstream waters from the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River. Drainage from agricultural peat soils has been identified as one of the major sources of DOC and THM precursor. A series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate abiotic and biotic effects on the quantity and the nature of DOC and THM precursors produced from oxidized surface and reduced subsurface soils in the Delta. For abiotic effects, DOC was extracted from both soils with synthetic solutions containing a range of salinity (0-4 dS/m) and sodicity (0 to infinity ). The results showed that an increase in salinity significantly decreased the concentration of DOC in the soil-water from both soils but increased its aromaticity, as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA). For biotic effects, peat soils were incubated over a range of temperatures (10 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C) and soil moisture contents (0.3-10 g water/g soil). After 8 weeks of incubation, only extracted DOC from flooded conditions and flooded and non-flooded cycles showed an increase in DOC. These findings indicate that neither salinity nor sodicity is the major factor for DOC production, but both can affect the solubility and mobility of DOC in the Delta soils. We believe wetting processes in oxidized peat soils produce significant amounts of DOC found in agricultural drainage discharged into the Delta waters. PMID:14511718

  10. Effect of peat on the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals by maize grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa; Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Kocon, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Incorporation of organic materials into soil improves the soil sorption capacity, while limiting the mobility of metals in soil and their availability to plants. These effects can be taken advantage for remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. The objective of this study is to assess the remediatory potential of peat applied to soils with concomitant pollution with Cd, Pb, and Zn. Two 1-year experiments were run in microplots in which maize was grown as the test plant. The following treatments were compared on two soils (sandy soil and loess): (1) control, (2) heavy metals (HM), (3) HM?+?peat in a single dose, and (4) HM?+?peat in a double dose. Maize was harvested in the maturity stage; the biomass of roots and aerial parts, including grain and cobs, was measured. Besides, concentration of metals in all those plant parts and the net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate were determined. The approach of using peat in soil remediation led to satisfactory results on sandy soil only. The application of peat to sandy soil caused significant changes in the accumulation of the metals and their translocation from roots to other parts of plants, which resulted in a higher intensity of photosynthesis and an increase in the maize biomass compared to the HM treatment. PMID:25331526

  11. Removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from a solution by humic acids repeatedly extracted from a peat soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Min Tzou; Shan-Li Wang; Jen-Chyi Liu; Ying-Ying Huang; Jen-Hshuan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is one of the major components of soil organic matter. It strongly affects the sorption behavior of organic and inorganic contaminants in soils. To obtain a better understanding of the interactions of contaminants with HA, a repeated extraction technique has been applied to a peat soil to obtain HA fractions with varying aliphaticity and aromaticity, which were

  12. Morphometrics, Erosion Processes and the influence of Climate on Upland Soil-Mantled Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. L.; Heimsath, A. M.; Finnegan, D. C.; Amundson, R.

    2007-12-01

    Hillslope morphology reflects processes of sediment transport and offers key insight into controlling mechanisms on landscape evolution. Here, we examine how climate influences landscape form, using remotely sensed data from an upland soil-mantled region of the Sierra Nevada, California. Previous work in this field area has quantified rates of landscape lowering by cosmogenic 10Be and dominant processes of soil transport by fallout radionuclides and field measurements including incidence of tree throw, burrow density, root density and soil surface exposure. Here, we examine high resolution Light Distance and Ranging (LiDAR) and coarser scale Shuttle Radar Topography (SRTM) data for four distinct climate zones along the western front of the southern Sierra Nevada range. We quantify slope and curvature distributions and metrics of surface roughness, ruggedness, drainage density and relief. Furthermore, we couple hillslope profiles with calculated denudation rates and soil transport processes to examine climate modulated control of erosion and weathering on landscape morphology. Our morphometric examination demonstrates the sensitivity of variables such as hillslope curvature to distinct processes of soil transport across the climate gradient.

  13. Substrate Geochemistry and Soil Development in Boreal Forest and Tundra Ecosystems in the Yukon-Tanana Upland and Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Crock, J.G.; Wang, B.; Day, W.C.; Eberl, D.D.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We report on soil development as a function of bedrock type and the presence of loess in two high latitude ecosystems (boreal forest and tundra) and from two regions in Alaska?the Yukon-Tanana Upland (YTU, east-central Alaska) and the Seward Peninsula (SP, far-west coastal Alaska). This approach to the study of 'cold soils' is fundamental to the quantification of regional geochemical landscape patterns. Of the five state factors in this study, bedrock and biota (ecosystem; vegetation zone) vary whereas climate (within each area) and topography are controlled. The influence of time is assumed to be controlled, as these soils are thousands of years old (late Quaternary to Holocene). The primary minerals in soils from YTU, developed over loess and crystalline bedrock (metamorphic and intrusive), are quartz, plagioclase, and 2:1 clays; whereas in the SP, where loess and metasedimentary bedrock (schist and quartzite) predominate, they are quartz and muscovite. The A horizon of both regions is rich in peat. Examination of the ratio of mobile (K2O, CaO, and Fe2O3) to immobile (TiO2) major oxides, within each region, shows that very little difference exists in the chemical weathering of soils developed between the two ecosystems examined. Differences were observed between tundra soils developed in the two regions. These differences are most probably due to the dissimilarity in the geochemical importance of both loess and bedrock. A minimal loss of cadmium with soil depth is seen for soils developed over YTU crystalline bedrock in the boreal forest environments. This trend is related to the mobility of cadmium in these soils as well as to its biogenic cycling. Major differences were observed in the proportion of cadmium and zinc among the A, B, and C horizon material sequestered in various soil fractions as measured by sequential soil extractions. These trends followed such variables as the decrease with depth in organic matter, the change in clay minerals, and the change in the proportion of oxides/hydroxides. An analysis of the bulk soil mineralogy and the relation between CaO and MgO and Al2O3 and Fe2O3 indicates that the silty textured soils of the YTU are predominantly eolian (that is, of late Tertiary or Quaternary age) but not broad-regional in origin. Their composition instead is probably the result of locally derived dusts as well as input from long-term, in-place bedrock weathering.

  14. Dissolved Organic Carbon and Disinfection By-Product Precursor Release from Managed Peat Soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, J.A.; Bossio, D.A.; Fujii, R.

    2004-01-01

    A wetland restoration demonstration project examined the effects of a permanently flooded wetland on subsidence of peat soils. The project, started in 1997, was done on Twitchell Island, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Conversion of agricultural land to a wetland has changed many of the biogeochemical processes controlling dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release from the peat soils, relative to the previous land use. Dissolved organic C in delta waters is a concern because it reacts with chlorine, added as a disinfectant in municipal drinking waters, to form carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). This study explores the effects of peat soil biogeochemistry on DOC and DBP release under agricultural and wetland management. Results indicate that organic matter source, extent of soil organic matter decomposition, and decomposition pathways all are factors in THM formation. The results show that historical management practices dominate the release of DOC and THM precursors. However, within-site differences indicate that recent management decisions can contribute to changes in DOC quality and THM precursor formation. Not all aromatic forms of carbon are highly reactive and certain environmental conditions produce the specific carbon structures that form THMs. Both HAA and THM precursors are elevated in the DOC released under wetland conditions. The findings of this study emphasize the need to further investigate the roles of organic matter sources, microbial decomposition pathways, and decomposition status of soil organic matter in the release of DOC and DBP precursors from delta soils under varying land-use practices.

  15. Dissolved organic carbon and disinfection by-product precursor release from managed peat soils.

    PubMed

    Fleck, J A; Bossio, D A; Fujii, R

    2004-01-01

    A wetland restoration demonstration project examined the effects of a permanently flooded wetland on subsidence of peat soils. The project, started in 1997, was done on Twitchell Island, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Conversion of agricultural land to a wetland has changed many of the biogeochemical processes controlling dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release from the peat soils, relative to the previous land use. Dissolved organic C in delta waters is a concern because it reacts with chlorine, added as a disinfectant in municipal drinking waters, to form carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). This study explores the effects of peat soil biogeochemistry on DOC and DBP release under agricultural and wetland management. Results indicate that organic matter source, extent of soil organic matter decomposition, and decomposition pathways all are factors in THM formation. The results show that historical management practices dominate the release of DOC and THM precursors. However, within-site differences indicate that recent management decisions can contribute to changes in DOC quality and THM precursor formation. Not all aromatic forms of carbon are highly reactive and certain environmental conditions produce the specific carbon structures that form THMs. Both HAA and THM precursors are elevated in the DOC released under wetland conditions. The findings of this study emphasize the need to further investigate the roles of organic matter sources, microbial decomposition pathways, and decomposition status of soil organic matter in the release of DOC and DBP precursors from delta soils under varying land-use practices. PMID:15074797

  16. Adsorption of Nitrogen on Thermally Treated Peat Soils: The Role of Energetic and Geometric Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska; Hajnos; Borówko; Sokolowski

    1999-11-01

    We investigate adsorption isotherms of nitrogen at 80 K on several peat soils. In addition to natural soil samples we also study samples thermally treated at 50, 100, and 150 degrees C. The experimental adsorption isotherms are used to evaluate the surface fractal dimension and the energy distribution functions. Moreover, for some samples we have also determined the pore size distributions from mercury intrusion data. We compare the surface fractal dimensions evaluated from the mercury intrusion data and from adsorption isotherms and discuss how the thermal treatment changes the energetic heterogeneity of the samples. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10527566

  17. Changes in soil fungal:bacterial biomass ratios following reductions in the intensity of management of an upland grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Bardgett; Philip J. Hobbs; Åsa Frostegård

    1996-01-01

    In this study we examined the effect on soil fungal:bacterial biomass ratios of withholding fertiliser, lime, and sheep-grazing from reseeded upland grassland. The cessation of fertiliser applications on limed and grazed grassland resulted in a reduction in soil pH from 5.4 to 5.1. The cessation of fertiliser applications and liming on grazed grassland resulted in a fall in pH from

  18. Fire effects on peat and organo-mineral soils of Meshchera plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, Anna; Koshovskii, Timur; Gamova, Natalia; Kovach, Roman

    2015-04-01

    The fire effects the soil properties depend on soil type and on their vulnerability to fires. The most of available data is devoted to changes in organo-mineral soils. But the peat fires can cause deeper changes in soil profiles, especially in case of drained peat soils. Now the lack of information exists in the sphere of the comparison of these fire types on soil cover. Meshchera plain (Moscow and Ryazan Regions, Russia) has different soil types. Moreover peatlands were partly drained, and the plain was affected by numerous fires of different time. So there is a need of detailed post-fire soil investigations in this region. During current research the soils Meshchera plain subjected by wildfires of 2002, 2007, 2010 and 2012 were studied. A total of 32 profiles including background and post-fire histosols, histic and sod podzols were investigated. Moreover the detailed description of vegetation cover was conducted. The samples were taken from genetic horizons. The morfological properties of soil profiles were sudied and the samples were analysed on organic carbon, pH, macroelements, magnetic susceptibility. After the wildfires changes in morfological and physico-chemical properties of soils were detected in most cases. The formation of ash and charry horizons was observed only in cases of peat soils affecetd by intense fires, and all post-fire drained peat soils had thick ash horizons even after 10 years after the fires. The significant loss of organic matter took place after burning. But almost immediately after the fires new stage of humus formation usually started. For instance, in post-fire histosols in 2 years after the burning the content of organic carbon reached to 10-12 % in upper horizons. ph values in background histosols were approximately 4-5. After the fire pH increased in these soil type to 8, and two years after the fire event pH decreased to 6-7. In podzols pH values returned to the pre-fire level 4-5 in two years. The magnetic susceptibility of soil samples in background histosols was 2-40 ×10-6 cm3/g. After the fires it increased in ash horizons up to 250 ×10-6 cm3/g. In sod podzols the changes also occurred. Background podzols had 2- 5×10-6 cm3/g. Post-fire horizons had up to 50- 60×10-6 cm3/g after the fires. And even 10 years later the differences between post-fire and background soils preserved. So this parameter could be used as an indicator of fire events in soil profiles. After the fire the significant changes occurred in horizon mineral composition. Ash horizons had elevated concentrations of Al2O3 (9-17%), Fe2O3 (4-11%), P2O3 (1-1,8 %), CaO (1,9-2,8 %) and K2O (0,1-1,9%). The observed trends were similar for histosols and for histic podzols. And the changes in horizon mineral composition remained 2 and 10 years after the fire. So the more significant morphological and chemical changes occurred in the profiles of histosols, especially fire altered the soils of drained peatlands. These soil type keeps changes even 10 years after the fires.

  19. Biochar as a Substitute for Peat in Greenhouse Growing Media: Soil Water Characteristics and Carbon Leaching Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Hilbert, I.; Jollymore, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Biochar (charcoal derived from waste biomass via pyrolysis) has the potential to be used as part of regional scale carbon sequestration strategies. By providing a stable form of carbon that is resistant to decay in soils, biochar can be utilized in a wide range of applications to improve the sustainability of land use management practices. Due to its high water holding capacity, surface area and charge density, it could provide a substitute for peat that is widely used in horticultural activities. Globally, peat production in 2010 amounted to 23.4 Mt, with more than a third of this used for horticulture. In Canada, essentially all peat produced is used for horticulture, with each ton of peat extracted also contributing about 0.7 t CO2e in combined greenhouse gas emissions related to production, transportation and use of peat. We evaluated biochar produced on farm from red alder as a peat substitute in terms of soil water characteristics and carbon leaching in greenhouse growing media (e.g. potting mix). Biochar mixing ratios of 10% (v/v) and greater provided water holding capacity equivalent to peat-based potting mixes. We also present results from a laboratory wetting experiment in which we characterized leachate for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOC characteristics using spectral methods (uV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy).

  20. Multiple season, field scale exploration of biogenic gas dynamics in two peat soils of the Florida Everglades using hydrogeophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. J.; Comas, X.; Mount, G. J.; McClellan, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands are known to release significant amounts of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the spatio-temporal distribution and triggering mechanisms of gas releasing events from peat soils. Furthermore, most research regarding peatland gas dynamics has historically been focused on high latitude peatlands, while recent works have suggested gas production rates from low-latitude peat soils may be higher than those from colder climates. Varying temporal and spatial scales have also shown marked differences in flux rates, thus questioning the appropriate scale for gas flux quantification. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical tool that has successfully been used in the past to non-invasively investigate the release of biogenic gasses from northern peat soils, and has only recently been used in the subtropical Florida Everglades. This study is based on an array of measurements at four field sites, spanning two different peat types (Loxahatchee and Everglades peats) of the Florida Everglades over a period of two years. At each site, gas contents within the soil are monitored using the GPR method, which is supported by direct gas flux measurements using flux chambers and time-lapse photography, and surface deformation is monitored using differential leveling. Resulting data highlight the variability of gas dynamics based on spatial, temporal, and soil compositional differences.

  1. Soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc and its underground distribution in differently contaminated upland soils.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, In-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse to investigate the soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc in two different upland soils labeled with (99)TcO4(-) in two contrasting ways. One was to mix the soil with a (99)TcO4(-) solution 26 d before sowing (pre-sowing deposition: PSD), and the other was to apply the solution onto the soil surface 44 d after sowing (growing-period deposition: GPD). The soil-to-plant transfer was quantified with the transfer factor (TF, ratio of the plant concentration to the average of at-planting and at-harvest soil concentrations) or the aggregated transfer factor (TFag, ratio of the plant concentration to the deposition density). For both the depositions, the transfer of (99)Tc to aerial parts decreased in the order of leaf > stem > pod > seed. TF values (dimensionless) from the PSD were 0.22 and 0.27 (no statistically significant difference) for mature dry seeds in the respective soils, whereas a 600-fold higher value occurred for dry leaves. The post-harvest concentrations of the PSD (99)Tc in the top 20 cm soils as a whole were about half the initial concentrations. Around 25% of the total applied activity remained in the GPD soils after the harvest. The post-harvest depth profiles of the GPD (99)Tc in the two soils showed similar patterns of logarithmic activity decrease with increasing soil depths. Only 1.5-4.3% of the total applied activity was removed through the harvested biomass (seeds, pods and stems), and it was estimated that a great part of the total pant uptake returned to the soil through the fallen leaves. TFag values (m(2) kg(-1)) were about 2-4 times higher for the GPD than for the PSD. This finding and generally high root uptake of Tc may indicate that the use of empirical deposition time-dependent TFag data is particularly important for predicting the plant concentrations of Tc after its growing-period deposition. PMID:24556176

  2. Manipulation of soil microbial community structure in bog and forest soils using chloroform fumigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Dickens; J. M. Anderson

    1999-01-01

    Chloroform fumigation was used to manipulate the composition of microbial communities as a means of investigating relationships between community structure and the functioning of soil processes. Soils from two upland sites, a coniferous forest and a peat bog were fumigated with chloroform for 2, 12, 24 or 72 h. Samples were then incubated at 20°C for 4 weeks to investigate

  3. Availability of Cadmium and Zinc as Affected by the Use of Reactive Phosphate Rock, Lime, and Chicken Manure on an Indonesian Acidic Upland Soil under Field Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sri Rochayati; M. Verloo; G. Du Laing

    2010-01-01

    We assessed cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) availability when applying reactive phosphate rock (RPR) in combination with lime and chicken manure on Indonesian acidic upland soils. Maize plants were grown on unamended soil and soils treated with several combinations of 2 tons dolomite ha, 2 tons of chicken manure ha, 1 ton ha of RPRL (reactive phosphate rock containing 4

  4. Strategies to mitigate diffuse phosphorus pollution during rewetting of fen peat soils.

    PubMed

    Meissner, R; Rupp, H; Seeger, J; Leinweber, P

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of fen peat soils (Eutric Histosols) for agricultural purposes, started in Europe about 250 years ago, resulting in decreased soil fertility, increased oxidation of peat and corresponding greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere, nutrient transfer to aquatic ecosystems and losses in total area of the former native wetlands. To prevent these negative environmental effects set-aside programs and rewetting measures were promoted in recent years. Literature results and practical experiences showed that large scale rewetting of intensively used agricultural Histosols may result in mobilisation of phosphorus (P), its transport to adjacent surface waters and an accelerated eutrophication. The paper summarises results from an international European Community sponsored research project and demonstrates how results obtained at different scales and from different scientific disciplines were compiled to derive a strategy to carry out rewetting measures. Based on this findings a simple decision support system (DSS) for a hydrologically sensitive area in the Droemling catchment in north-eastern Germany was developed and since 2005 practically used to prevent freshwater resources from non point P pollution. PMID:20595762

  5. Soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange from tropical oil palm plantations on peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arn Teh, Yit; Manning, Frances; Zin Zawawi, Norliyana; Hill, Timothy; Chocholek, Melanie; Khoon Kho, Lip

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm is the largest agricultural crop in the tropics, accounting for 13 % of all tropical land cover. Due to its large areal extent, oil palm cultivation may have important implications not only for terrestrial stores of C and N, but may also impact regional and global exchanges of material and energy, including fluxes of trace gases and water vapor. In particular, recent expansion of oil palm into tropical peatlands has raised concerns over enhanced soil C emissions from degradation of peat, and elevated N-gas fluxes linked to N fertilizer application. Here we report our preliminary findings on soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from a long-term, multi-scale project investigating the C, N and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of oil palm ecosystems established on peat soils in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Flux chamber measurements indicate that soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes averaged 20.0 ± 16.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 37.4 ± 29.9 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 and 4.7 ± 4.2 g N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Soil CO2 fluxes were on par with other drained tropical peatlands; whereas CH4 fluxes exceeded observations from similar study sites elsewhere. Nitrous oxide fluxes were in a similar range to fluxes from other drained tropical peatlands, but lower than emissions from mineral-soil plantations by up to three orders of magnitude. Fluxes of soil CO2 and N2O were spatially stratified, and contingent upon the distribution of plants, deposited harvest residues, and soil moisture. Soil CO2 fluxes were most heavily influenced by the distribution of palms and their roots. On average, autotrophic (root) respiration accounted for approximately 78 % of total soil CO2 flux, and total soil respiration declined steeply away from palms; e.g. soil CO2 fluxes in the immediate 1 m radius around palms were up to 6 times greater than fluxes in inter-palm spaces due to higher densities of roots. Placement of harvest residues played an important - but secondary - role in modulating soil CO2 fluxes; soil respiration rates doubled in areas where harvest residues were deposited, reflecting an enhanced input of labile organic matter for decomposition. In contrast, N2O fluxes were best-predicted by the distribution of harvest residues, and were only weakly related to plant distributions or soil moisture. For example, N2O fluxes from harvest residue piles were up to twice of the overall plot-average. In contrast, N2O fluxes showed no clear pattern around palms or in inter-palm spaces; this finding is surprising because N fertilizers are applied within the 1 m radius around palms, and we expected to observe enhanced N2O fluxes in areas of greater fertilizer input. This suggests that palms may be a strong competitor for N in these ecosystems, and that fertilizer application may more closely match overall plant demand than in mineral-soil plantations. Overall, the spatial patterning of soil CO2 and N2O fluxes implies that soil biogeochemical processes are predictably distributed in space, potentially making it easier to model and constrain fluxes of these soil-derived GHGs.

  6. Use of computed tomography imaging for quantifying coarse roots, rhizomes, peat, and particle densities in marsh soils.

    PubMed

    Davey, Earl; Wigand, Cathleen; Johnson, Roxanne; Sundberg, Karen; Morris, James; Roman, Charles T

    2011-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging has been used to describe and quantify subtidal, benthic animals such as polychaetes, amphipods, and shrimp. Here, for the first time, CT imaging is used to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, New York) and mineral (North Inlet, South Carolina) Spartina alterniflora soils. Image analysis software was coupled with the CT images to measure abundance and diameter of the coarse roots and rhizomes in marsh soils. Previously, examination of marsh roots and rhizomes was limited to various hand-sieving methods that were often time-consuming, tedious, and error prone. CT imaging can discern the coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat based on their varying particle densities. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard densities (i.e., air, water, colloidal silica, and glass) were used to operationally define the specific x-ray attenuations of the coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in the marsh cores. Significant regression relationships were found between the CT-determined wet mass of the coarse roots and rhizomes and the hand-sieved dry mass of the coarse roots and rhizomes in both the organic-rich and mineral marsh soils. There was also a significant relationship between the soil percentage organic matter and the CT-determined peat particle density among organic-rich and mineral soils. In only the mineral soils, there was a significant relationship between the soil percentage organic matter and the CT-determined peat wet mass. Using CT imaging, significant positive nitrogen fertilization effects on the wet masses of the coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat, and the abundance and diameter of rhizomes were measured in the mineral soils. In contrast, a deteriorating salt marsh island in Jamaica Bay had significantly less mass of coarse roots and rhizomes at depth (10-20 cm), and a significantly lower abundance of roots and rhizomes compared with a stable marsh. However, the diameters of the rhizomes in the deteriorating marsh were significantly greater than in the stable marsh. CT imaging is a rapid approach to quantify coarse roots, rhizomes, peat, and soil particle densities in coastal wetlands, but the method is unable at this time to quantify fine roots. PMID:21939051

  7. Heavy metals uptake from contaminated soils as affected by peat, lime, and chelates

    SciTech Connect

    Albasel, N.; Cottenie, A.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils may reduce yields as well as the suitability for consumption of crop growth (Keeney et al., Leeper). In an effort to find possible ways to counter this danger, the effect of lime, chelating agents, and peat applied to Zn-, Cu- and Pb-contaminated soils on the uptake of metal ions were studied. Pot experiments with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) plants and soils, humic podzols (haplohumads) contaminated with Zn (3030 mg kg/sup -1/) and with Pb, Zn and Cu (110, 630, and 40 mg kg/sup -//sub 1/, respectively) were carried out. The concentration of the acid extracts of soils and plants were determined with the aid of the simultaneous direct reading spectrograph and atomic absorption. In all cases, raising the pH of the soil by liming appeared to be the most efficient method for reducing plant absorption of toxic micronutrients and heavy metals. However, the uptake of Fe and Mn was more markedly dependent on pH than that of Zn and Cu.

  8. Use of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Imaging for Quantifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided Tomography (CT) imaging was utilized to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard dens...

  9. Trihalomethane reactivity of water- and sodium hydroxide-extractable organic carbon fractions from peat soils.

    PubMed

    Chow, Alex T; Guo, Fengmao; Gao, Suduan; Breuer, Richard S

    2006-01-01

    Certain organic carbon moieties in drinking source waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta can react with chlorine during disinfection to form potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic trihalomethanes. The properties of reactive organic carbon in Delta waters, particularly those of soil origin, have been poorly understood. This study attempts to characterize trihalomethane reactivity of soil organic carbon from three representative Delta peat soils. Soil organic carbon was extracted from all three soils with either deionized H2O or 0.1 M NaOH and sequentially separated into humic acids, fulvic acids, and nonhumic substances for quantitation of trihalomethane formation potential. Water-extractable organic carbon represented only 0.4 to 0.7% of total soil organic carbon, whereas NaOH extracted 38 to 51% of total soil organic carbon. The sizes and specific trihalomethane formation potential (STHMFP) of individual organic carbon fractions differed with extractants. Fulvic acids were the largest fraction in H2O-extractable organic carbon, whereas humic acids were the largest fraction in NaOH-extractable organic carbon. Among the fractions derived from H2O-extractable carbon, fulvic acids had the greatest specific ultraviolet absorbance and STHMFP and had the majority of reactive organic carbon. Among the fractions from NaOH-extractable organic carbon, humic acids and fulvic acids had similar STHMFP and, thus, were equally reactive. Humic acids were associated with the majority of trihalomethane reactivity of NaOH-extractable organic carbon. The nonhumic substances were less reactive than either humic acids or fulvic acids regardless of extractants. Specific ultraviolet absorbance was not a good predictor of trihalomethane reactivity of organic carbon fractions separated from the soils. PMID:16391282

  10. Respiration of soil and ground vegetation of a peat bog in southern taiga under drought stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarinov, F.; Minaeva, T.; Kurbatova, Yu.; Rusanovitch, N.

    2003-04-01

    Respiration of peat and ground vegetation (mostly sphagnum mosses) was measured by CO2 analyser LI-6400 in late August 2002 in the peat bog (Central Forest Nature Reserve, 560N, 330E, Tver region, Russia). The whole summer 2002 in the region was characterized by hot and dry weather, thus obtained data correspond to the extreme drought stress. Measurements were carried out on the 16 stationary points along the transect crossing the mire along the altitude gradient and presenting the whole range of vegetation complexes diversity: margin lag with the spruce stand and eutrophic and mesotrophic conditions; typical oligotrophic lag with pine stand and dwarf shrubs, tall sedges mesotrophic lawn, not forested hummock-hollow complex, forested hummock-hollow complex, the dwarf pine communities of different structure and at last the type of minerotrophic margin with meadow vegetation. As a “zero-point” the spruce forest on the land was appointed as the measurement point. The transect under study is the object of the long-term observations on the ground vegetation and groundwater parameters, which were related to obtained respiration values. The measured mean values of ground respiration were 4.9, 6.8, 7.5, 4.8, 3.9 and 3.7 mkmol m-2s-1 for spruce stand (bare soil), paludified spruce stand, pine mire margin, dwarf pine communities oligotrophic and minerotrophic part of the mire, respectively. Within the open peat bog hummock-hollow complex significantly higher respiration was observed for hummocks comparatively to the hollows: 6.6 and 4.2 mkmol m-2s-1, correspondingly. Significant correlation of ground respiration to the groundwater level and temperature difference between peat and air was observed. The study was carried out within the framework of international project TCOS. The data on the spatial variation of dark respiration depending on the vegetation structure and groundwater regime is considered as a background for the further functional patterns for the virgin mire ecosystems of the Russian Plain.

  11. Bogs are a specialized wetland community with saturated, acidic, peat soils that have low concentra-tions of minerals (e.g., calcium, magnesium) and essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen). They

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    , acidic, peat soils that have low concentra- tions of minerals (e.g., calcium, magnesium) and essential of living Sphagnum mosses growing over a layer of saturated, acidic peat. Sedges, forbs and/or the low), pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) and sundew (Drosera rotundifolia). SOILS: Fibric peat (Histosols

  12. Diversity of Nitrite Reductase (nirK and nirS) Gene Fragments in Forested Upland and Wetland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Priemé, Anders; Braker, Gesche; Tiedje, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of nitrite reductase gene (nirK and nirS) fragments from denitrifying prokaryotes in forested upland and marsh soil was investigated using molecular methods. nirK gene fragments could be amplified from both soils, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only from the marsh soil. PCR products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and representative fragments were sequenced. The diversity of nirK clones was lower than the diversity of nirS clones. Among the 54 distinct nirK RFLP patterns identified in the two soils, only one pattern was found in both soils and in each soil two dominant groups comprised >35% of all clones. No dominance and few redundant patterns were seen among the nirS clones. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acids grouped the nirK sequences into five major clusters, with one cluster encompassing most marsh clones and all upland clones. Only a few of the nirK clone sequences branched with those of known denitrifying bacteria. The nirS clones formed two major clusters with several subclusters, but all nirS clones showed less than 80% identity to nirS sequences from known denitrifying bacteria. Overall, the data indicated that the denitrifying communities in the two soils have many members and that the soils have a high richness of different nir genes, especially of the nirS gene, most of which have not yet been found in cultivated denitrifiers. PMID:11916709

  13. Contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N 2 O production in peat, clay and loamy sand soils under different soil moisture conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Pihlatie; Eija Syväsalo; Asko Simojoki; Martti Esala; Kristiina Regina

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural soils are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O). Since mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is needed in all sectors of society, it is important to identify the processes producing N2O and the factors affecting the production rates in agricultural soils. This study aimed to elucidate the N2O production in peat, clay and loamy sand at four different soil

  14. Secondary successions of biota in oil-polluted peat soil upon different biological remediation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melekhina, E. N.; Markarova, M. Yu.; Shchemelinina, T. N.; Anchugova, E. M.; Kanev, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of different bioremediation methods on restoration of the oil-polluted peat soil (Histosol) in the northernmost taiga subzone of European Russia was studied. The population dynamics of microorganisms belonging to different trophic groups (hydrocarbon-oxidizing, ammonifying, nitrifying, and oligonitrophilic) were analyzed together with data on the soil enzyme (catalase and dehydrogenase) activities, population densities of soil microfauna groups, their structures, and states of phytocenoses during a sevenyear-long succession. The remediation with biopreparations Roder composed of oil-oxidizing microorganisms-Roder with Rhodococcus rubber and R. erythropolis and Universal with Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodococcus sp.-was more efficient than the agrochemical and technical remediation. It was concluded that the biopreparations activate microbiological oil destruction, thereby accelerating restoration succession of phytocenosis and zoocenosis. The succession of dominant microfauna groups was observed: the dipteran larvae and Mesostigmata mites predominant at the early stages were replaced by collembolans at later stages. The pioneer oribatid mite species were Tectocepheus velatus, Oppiella nova, Liochthonius sellnicki, Oribatula tibialis, and Eupelops sp.

  15. Summer drought decreases soil fungal diversity and associated phenol oxidase activity in upland Calluna heathland soil.

    PubMed

    Toberman, Hannah; Freeman, Chris; Evans, Chris; Fenner, Nathalie; Artz, Rebekka R E

    2008-11-01

    Natural moisture limitation during summer drought can constitute a stress for microbial communities in soil. Given globally predicted increases in drought frequency, there is an urgent need for a greater understanding of the effects of drought events on soil microbial processes. Using a long-term field-scale drought manipulation experiment at Clocaenog, Wales, UK, we analysed fungal community dynamics, using internal transcribed spacer-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), over a 1-year period in the 6th year of drought manipulation. Ambient seasonality was found to be the dominant factor driving variation in fungal community dynamics. The summer drought manipulation resulted in a significant decline in the abundance of dominant fungal species, both independently of, and in interaction with, this seasonal variation. Furthermore, soil moisture was significantly correlated with the changes in fungal diversity over the drought manipulation period. While the relationship between species diversity and functional diversity remains equivocal, phenol oxidase activity was decreased by the summer drought conditions and there was a significant correlation with the decline of DGGE band richness among the most dominant fungal species during the drought season. Climatically driven events such as droughts may have significant implications for fungal community diversity and therefore, have the potential to interfere with crucial ecosystem processes, such as organic matter decomposition. PMID:18662311

  16. In situ measures of methanotroph activity in upland soils: A reaction-diffusion model and field observation of water stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Fischer, Joseph C.; Butters, Gregory; Duchateau, Paul C.; Thelwell, Roger J.; Siller, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Laboratory assays of methanotroph activity in upland (i.e., well-drained, oxic) ecosystems alter soil physical structure and weaken inference about environmental controls of their natural behavior. To overcome these limitations, we developed a chamber-based approach to quantify methanotroph activity in situ on the basis of measures of soil diffusivity (from additions of an inert tracer gas to the chamber headspace), methane concentration change, and analysis of results with a reaction-diffusion model. The analytic solution to this model predicts that methane consumption rates are equally sensitive to changes in methanotroph activity and diffusivity, but that doubling either of these parameters leads to only a ?2 increase in consumption. With a series of simulations, we generate guidelines for field deployments and show that the approach is robust to plausible departures from assumptions. We applied the approach on a dry grassland in north central Colorado. Our model closely fit measured changes in methane concentrations, indicating that we had accurately characterized the biophysical processes underlying methane uptake. Field patterns showed that, over a 7-week period, soil moisture fell from 38% to 15% water-filled pore spaces, and diffusivity doubled as the larger soil pores drained of water. However, methane uptake rates fell by ˜40%, following a 90% decrease in methanotroph activity, suggesting that the decline in methanotroph activity resulted from water stress to methanotrophs. We anticipate that future application of this approach over longer timescales and on more diverse field sites has potential to provide important insights into the ecology of methanotrophs in upland soils.

  17. Effect of Sheep Urine Deposition on the Bacterial Community Structure in an Acidic Upland Grassland Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deirdre Rooney; Nabla Kennedy; Louise Deering; Deirdre Gleeson; Nicholas Clipson

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the addition of synthetic sheep urine (SSU) and plant species on the bacterial community composition of upland acidic grasslands was studied using a microcosm approach. Low, medium, and high concentrations of SSU were applied to pots containing plant species typical of both unimproved (Agrostis capillaris) and agriculturally improved (Lolium perenne) grasslands, and harvests were carried out 10

  18. A coupled molecular and field-based approach to study microbial controls on methane flux in upland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judd, C. R.; von Fischer, J. C.; Fierer, N.

    2007-12-01

    Predicting the responses of ecosystems to global change depends, in part, on understanding how soil microbial communities respond to external controls. To address this question, we are studying a relatively simple biogeochemical process: methane consumption in upland (i.e., well-drained, oxic) soils. In this process, methane molecules diffuse from the atmosphere into the soil, where they are consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Because of the simplicity of this process, we have been able to develop a reaction-diffusion model that allows us to directly quantify methanotroph activity in situ from chamber-based measures of flux and diffusivity. Moreover, because the bacteria that oxidize methane come from a phylogenetically cohesive group, we can use molecular tools to quantify the size of methanotroph community and determine its species composition. Our application of these approaches on the Shortgrass Steppe Long-Term Ecological Research (SGS LTER) site in northeastern Colorado has revealed strong temporal and spatial patterns in methane uptake rates that are driven primarily by methanotroph activity, and very little by soil diffusivity. The temporal patterns in methanotroph activity follow seasonal changes in soil temperature and water content, with sharp reductions in activity associated with hot, dry conditions. Spatial patterns in activity follow differences in soil texture, with sandier soils expressing a greater range of methanotroph activity than clay soils. Although methanotroph abundances did not vary across soil types, the phylogenetic structure of the methanotroph communities differed significantly between clay and sand soil types. In addition, we found that the majority of methanotrophs were not the usual Type I or Type II, but instead were of the JR2 and JR3 types previously found only in a dry California grassland by Horz et al. AEM (2005). Together, these observations suggest that the species composition of methanotroph communities reflects changes in the physical environment. Given the potential for specialization among methanotrophs (e.g., for desiccation tolerance, or for methane affinity), we anticipate that the specific phylogenetic and physiological characteristics of methane oxidizer communities will modulate the responses of upland methane fluxes to climate change.

  19. Isolation and characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum from the soil of a Sphagnum peat bog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Doroshenko; E. S. Boulygina; E. M. Spiridonova; T. P. Tourova; I. K. Kravchenko

    2007-01-01

    he presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum in the soils of acidic raised Sphagnum bogs is revealed for the first time. Three Azospirillum strains, B2, B21, and B22, were isolated as a component of methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures, whereas attempts to isolate\\u000a them directly from peat samples have failed. The results of comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of

  20. Coevolution of topography, soils, and vegetation in upland landscapes: Using cinder cones to elucidate ecohydrogeomorphic feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    The study of landscape evolution in upland environments requires analysis of complex interactions among topography, soil development, and vegetation cover under changing climatic conditions. Earth surface scientists lack a comprehensive understanding of these interactions in part due to their interdisciplinary nature, our limited ability to reconstruct the progression of landscape states through time, and the limited spatially-distributed data available for paleoclimate conditions. In this study, we investigate the interactions and feedbacks among topography, soil development, and vegetation cover in upland environments using remote sensing, geochemistry, and numerical modeling. We focus on quantifying the evolution of late Quaternary cinder cones within several volcanic fields, spanning a range of climates, as a function of age and microclimate, which varies with elevation and slope aspect. Cinder cones are excellent natural laboratories for studying the evolution of upland landscapes because they begin their evolution at a known time in the past (i.e. many cinder cones have been radiometrically dated) and because they often have unusually uniform initial conditions (i.e. they form close to the angle of repose and are comprised of well-sorted volcaniclastic parent materials). As such, cinder cones of different ages with similar size and climatic history can provide an approximate time progression illustrating how a dated hillslope has evolved over geologic time scales. Data suggest that rates of soil development and fluvial erosion are low on younger cones, which have surfaces consisting mostly of permeable cinders, but increase significantly after eolian deposits reduce the permeability of the cone surface. Further, data demonstrate that microclimatic differences between north and south facing slopes lead to systematic variations in biomass. Additionally, north-facing slopes on cinder cones are found to be steeper than corresponding south-facing slopes. The observed asymmetries in hillslope morphology are not present initially, but appear to develop over time as a result of differences in post-emplacement processes that may be attributed to aspect-induced microclimatic effects on long-term sediment transport rates. Results provide additional constraints on the timing and magnitude of feedback mechanisms among topography, biomass, and soil development as well as improve our understanding of cinder cone evolution within different climates.

  1. In situ quantification of CH4 bubbling events from a peat soil using a new infrared laser spectrometer Sbastien Gogo Christophe Guimbaud Fatima Laggoun-Dfarge Valry Catoire Claude Robert

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 In situ quantification of CH4 bubbling events from a peat soil using a new infrared laser in May 2009, in Sphagnum and Betula plots, and in a wet artificially bared peat area with Eriophorum of increased CH4 production and accumulation in peat. In May, bubbling was higher at nighttime (65.5%) than

  2. Hydrological, fine sediment and water colour response of managed upland wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.

    2003-04-01

    Many upland peats in the UK have been subject to artificial drainage mainly involving the cutting of ditches. The aim was to drain the ground for grazing and game but there is little evidence of any improvement for these purposes. Instead moorland ditching has been blamed for causing a wide range of problems including: increased flooding, decreased low flows, increased water discolouration (or loss of dissolved organic carbon), accelerated erosion and associated destruction of in-stream and wetland habitats and the removal of the terrestrial carbon store. However, there is conflicting evidence for the hydrological response of peatlands to drainage and little is known about the exact nature of the hydrological, fine sediment and water colour production, transport and storage processes involved. This poster presents the research outline for a new three year project that aims to examine the effects of wetland management (including ditch blocking and natural revegetation) on the production of runoff, fine sediment and water discolouration in upland blanket peats. Detailed process-based measurements will be combined with simultaneously collected yield data measured at a range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, monitoring of catchment outlets will be combined with measurement of hillslope flow processes including overland flow, subsurface pipeflow, and soil pore matrix and macropore flows. It is envisaged that the project will be extended to deal with the science of a detailed process-based carbon budget for managed upland peats.

  3. Decomposition activity of peat soils in geogenous mires in Sasakami, central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Haraguchi; Chiaki Hasegawa; Akiko Hirayama; Hisaya Kojima

    2003-01-01

    Decomposition rates of peat and cellulose, and oxygen consumption rates were studied in three minerotrophic peat mires in Sasakami, central Japan. These mires had differences in topography, pedology and hydrology. Two dominant vegetation types in each mire, a Sphagnum palustre–S. cuspidatum community and a Rhynchospora fauriei community, were selected as the decomposition study sites. The objective of this study was

  4. The short-term effects of cessation of fertiliser applications, liming, and grazing on microbial biomass and activity in a reseeded upland grassland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Bardgett; D. K. Leemans

    1995-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the influence of a short-term (2 year) cessation of fertiliser applications, liming, and sheep-grazing on microbial biomass and activity in a reseeded upland grassland soil. The cessation of fertiliser applications (N and NPK) on a limed and grazed grassland had no effect on microbial biomass measurements, enzyme activities, or respiration. Withholding fertiliser and

  5. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation, position of ecosystems in the landscape (lateral migration) and types of bedrocks [2]. The results allow better understanding of the coupling between biogeochemical cycles of carbon and major and trace elements in peat soils in order to predict the future changes in both concentrations and stocks of chemical elements in the Western Siberia peat bog systems under climate warming.

  6. Uncertainties in peat volume and soil carbon estimated using ground penetrating radar and probing

    SciTech Connect

    Parsekian, Andrew D. [Rutgers University; Slater, Lee [Rutgers University; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios [Rutgers University; Nolan, James [Rutgers University; Sebestyen, Stephen D [USDA Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MN; Kolka, Randall K [USDA Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MN; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the uncertainty in calculations of peat basin volume using high-resolution data . to resolve the three-dimensional structure of a peat basin using both direct (push probes) and indirect geophysical (ground penetrating radar) measurements. We compared volumetric estimates from both approaches with values from literature. We identified subsurface features that can introduce uncertainties into direct peat thickness measurements including the presence of woody peat and soft clay or gyttja. We demonstrate that a simple geophysical technique that is easily scalable to larger peatlands can be used to rapidly and cost effectively obtain more accurate and less uncertain estimates of peat basin volumes critical to improving understanding of the total terrestrial carbon pool in peatlands.

  7. Exploring the potential of the permanganate oxidation method as a tool to monitor soil quality in agricultural upland systems of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, Catherine M.; Bruun, Thilde Bech; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The transition to more intensified upland systems is having an impact on the soil quality, defined as the ability of a soil to both provide and maintain essential services to an ecosystem. As many tropical upland soils are inherently low in quality, it is essential that impacts be monitored. Soil quality is assessed by using a combination of parameters that serve as indicators and cover the soil chemical, biological and physical properties. An ideal indicator should be sensitive to changes in the environment and management practices and should be widely accessible, meaning low resource requirement (i.e. time and equipment). Total organic carbon (TOC) content is a commonly used indicator of soil quality as it is linked to many soil functions and processes; however analysis is costly and requires access to advanced instrumental facilities, rendering it unsuited for many developing countries. An alternative indicator is the soil fraction dominated by easily decomposable carbon; this may be measured by treating soil samples with 0.2M potassium permanganate (KMnO4), an oxidizing agent which is thought to mimic the enzymes released by the soil microbial community. The advantage of this method is that it is accessible: it is fast, requires little resource input and is field appropriate. There is no consensus however as to which soil carbon fraction the method targets. Furthermore Skjemstad et al. (2006) has indicated that KMnO4 may oxidise charcoal, a component of the non-labile carbon pool; this has implications for the suitability of the method when used for soils of shifting cultivation systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of permanganate oxidizable carbon (Pox C) as a reliable indicator of soil quality in agricultural upland systems in Northern Lao PDR. Focus was placed on the relations between Pox C and other soil quality parameters (bulk density, pH, CEC, TOC, total N, exchangeable K, plant available P) and upland rice yields. The ability of KMnO4 to oxidize charcoal was also a focus however, as the study is still in its initial stage, no results can be discussed. Volumetric soil samples (at the surface and at 10 cm) and upland rice yield measurements were taken from three fields with three plots that were previously left fallow for five years (n=9; soil n=81). Pearson's Correlation test and Stepwise Regression analysis was done using SPSS v 16.0 for Windows. Results show that Pox C is significantly correlated to the measured soil parameters in a manner similar to TOC. Both are positively correlated to the soil nutrients: Total N %, P Avail and K Exch; Pox C however had a stronger correlation to K Exch than TOC. This affirms the important role of Pox C in soil processes in the biological, chemical and physical spheres. Furthermore, the regression analysis identified Pox C as an influencing factor for the variations seen in upland rice yields. It is concluded that Pox C is a suitable indicator for soil quality and may be useful in monitoring changes in the soil quality of agricultural upland systems.

  8. Method for determining the acid ameliorating capacity of plant residue compost, urban waste compost, farmyard manure, and peat applied to tropical soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. F. Wong; S. Nortcliff; R. S. Swift

    1998-01-01

    Plant residue compost, urban waste compost, farmyard manure, and peat can be used to ameliorate soil acidity. The diversity of these materials and their highly variable composition mean that their reliability in increasing the soil pH is uncertain because of lack of a method to test their acid ameliorating capacities. Incubation of a Spodosol from Sumatra, an Oxisol from Burundi

  9. Effect of peat moss?shrimp wastes compost on the growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on a loamy sand soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Hountin; A. Karam; L. É. Parent; D. Isfan

    1995-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of peat moss?shrimp wastes compost on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a limed loamy sand soil. A control, four rates of compost applied alone and in combination with three rates of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) chemical fertilizer were evaluated. Applications of compost to limed soil substantially enhanced the growth

  10. Fractionation of total water soluble aluminium in extracts from peat and sand soil samples by ion?exchange method followed by GF AAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. RUSZCZY?SKA; P. BIE?KOWSKI; E. BULSKA

    2005-01-01

    This study attempted the use ion?exchange resins in order to fractionate total water soluble aluminium in extracts collected over acidic peat and alkaline sand soils. Extraction was performed in neutral and acidic conditions in order to imitate the behaviour of natural or acid rains. The total aluminium content in soil extracts and fractions was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption

  11. Catchment disturbance and stream metabolism: patterns in ecosystem respiration and gross primary production along a gradient of upland soil and vegetation disturbance

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Jeffrey N [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Catchment characteristics determine the inputs of sediments and nutrients to streams. As a result, natural or anthropogenic disturbance of upland soil and vegetation can affect instream processes. The Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) exhibits a wide range of upland disturbance levels because of spatial variability in the intensity of military training. This gradient of disturbance was used to investigate the effect of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on rates of stream metabolism (ecosystem respiration rate [ER] and gross primary production rate [GPP]). Stream metabolism was measured using an open-system, single-station approach. All streams were net heterotrophic during all seasons. ER was highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer and autumn. ER was negatively correlated with catchment disturbance level in winter, spring, and summer, but not in autumn. ER was positively correlated with abundance of coarse woody debris, but not significantly related to % benthic organic matter. GPP was low in all streams and generally not significantly correlated with disturbance level. Our results suggest that the generally intact riparian zones of these streams were not sufficient to protect them from the effect of upland disturbance, and they emphasize the role of the entire catchment in determining stream structure and function.

  12. Effects of soils and grazing on breeding birds of uncultivated upland grasslands of the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Kologiski, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The principal use of uncultivated upland grasslands in the northern Great Plains is for livestock production. However, on lands set aside for wildlife or for scientific or recreational use, grazing by livestock may be used as a management measure to enhance populations of game species or to create conditions that increase the diversity of plant or animal species. To determine the effects of grazing on the avifauna of various types of Great Plains grasslands, we conducted bird censuses and plant surveys during 1974-78 on 615 plots of lightly, moderately, or heavily grazed native rangeland.Numbers of horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys), and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus) accounted for 65-75% of the total bird population, regardless of grazing intensity. For the entire area sampled (600,000 km2), horned lark, western meadowlark, and chestnut-collared longspur were the dominant birds. Major differences in composition of the dominant species and species richness occurred among the major soils. Increased mean annual soil temperature seemingly had a greater negative influence on avian species richness than did decreased soil moisture or organic matter content. Differences in total bird density were not significant among soils and among grazing intensities within most soils. For the area as a whole, light or moderate grazing resulted in increased species richness. Of the 29 species studied, 2 responded significantly to grazing for the area as a whole and 6 others to grazing on the soil in which peak densities occurred. Response of several other species to grazing effects evidently varied among strata.A list of plants with mean cover values of more than 1% in any of the 18 combinations of soils and grazing intensities contained less than 25 species, attesting to the relative simplicity of the grassland vegetation in the northern Great Plains. Agropyron spp. and Bouteloua gracilis were the dominant plants that provided greater than average cover on the best habitat for the most bird species. Optimum habitat for each bird species is given in terms of grazing, soils, and dominant plant species. Increased soil temperature probably had a negative effect on plant species richness, especially among soils with a high organic matter content that supported perennial grasses and other mesophytes.

  13. Population dynamics of soybean root-nodule bacteria in latosol soil used for upland and lowland rice\\/soybean cropping systems in West Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. M. Simanungkalit; A. Indrasumunar; E. Pratiwi; R. D. Hastuti; R. J. Roughley

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were established in a latosol soil near Bogor, Indonesia to examine the population dynamics of soybean rhizobia under soybean-upland and -lowland rice management systems. Rice was sown in all plots before sowing the first soybean crop which was inoculated with either the wild-type or antibiotic-resistant mutants of strains CB1809, USDA110 and LRj I1D or left uninoculated. Numbers of

  14. Comparing terrestrial laser scanning with ground and UAV-based imaging for national-level assessment of upland soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, Gareth; Farrow, Luke; Morgan, David; Glendell, Miriam; James, Mike; Quinton, John; Evans, Martin; Anderson, Karen; Rawlins, Barry; Quine, Timothy; Debell, Leon; Benaud, Pia; Jones, Lee; Kirkham, Matthew; Lark, Murray; Rickson, Jane; Brazier, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying soil loss through erosion processes at a high resolution can be a time consuming and costly undertaking. In this pilot study 'a cost effective framework for monitoring soil erosion in England and Wales', funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), we compare methods for collecting suitable topographic measurements via remote sensing. The aim is to enable efficient but detailed site-scale studies of erosion forms in inaccessible UK upland environments, to quantify dynamic processes, such as erosion and mass movement. The techniques assessed are terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photography and ground-based photography, both processed using structure-from-motion (SfM) 3D reconstruction software. Compared to other established techniques, such as expensive TLS, SfM offers a potentially low-cost alternative for the reconstruction of 3D high-resolution micro-topographic models from photographs taken with consumer grade cameras. However, whilst an increasing number of research papers examine the relative merits of these novel versus more established survey techniques, no study to date has compared both ground-based and aerial SfM photogrammetry with TLS scanning across a range of scales (from m2 to 16ha). The evaluation of these novel low cost techniques is particularly relevant in upland landscapes, where the remoteness and inaccessibility of field sites may render some of the more established survey techniques impractical. Volumetric estimates of soil loss are quantified using the digital surface models (DSMs) derived from the data from each technique and subtracted from a modelled pre-erosion surface. The results from each technique are compared. The UAV was able to capture information over a wide area, a range of altitudes and angles over the study area. Combined with automated SfM-based processing, this technique was able to produce rapid orthophotos to support ground-based data acquisition, as well as a DSM for volume loss measurement in larger features. However, the DSM of erosion features lacked the detail of those captured using the ground-based methods. Terrestrial laser scanning provided detailed, accurate, high density measurements of the ground surface over long (100s m) distances, but size and weight of the instrument made it difficult to use in mountainous environments. In addition, deriving a reliable bare-earth digital terrain model (DTM) from TLS was at times problematic due to the presence of tall shrubby vegetation. Ground-based photography produced comparable data sets to terrestrial laser scanning and was the most useful for characterising small and difficult to view features. The relative advantages, limitations and cost-effectiveness of each approach at 5 upland sites across the UK are discussed.

  15. [Effects of different tillage measures on upland soil respiration in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Cai, Li-qun; Chen, Qiang-qiang

    2009-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Lijiabu Town of Dingxi City, Gansu Province to study the soil respiration and its relations with the canopy temperature and soil moisture content in a rotation system with spring wheat and pea under effects of different tillage measures. Six treatments were installed, i.e., tillage with no straw- or plastic mulch (conventional tillage, T), tillage with straw mulch (TS), tillage with plastic mulch (TP), no-tillage (NT), no-tillage with straw mulch (NTS), and no-tillage with plastic mulch (NTP). During the growth periods of spring wheat and pea, soil respiration had different change patterns, with the peaks appeared at the early jointing, grain-filling, and maturing stages of spring wheat, and at the 5-leaf, silking, flowering and poding, in spring wheat field between treatments NTS and T, and the soil respiration rate was significantlyand maturing stages of pea. There was an obvious difference in the diurnal change of soil respiration lower in NTS than in T; while the soil respiration in pea field had less diurnal chan ge. Soil respiration rate had a significant linear relationship with the canopy temperature of both spring wheat andpea, the correlation coefficient being the highest at booting stage of spring wheat and at flowering and poding stage of pea, followed by at grain-filling stage of spring wheat and at branching stage of pea. There was also a significant parabola relationship between soil respiration rate and soil moisture content, the correlation coefficient being higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage, with the highest under NTS. The moisture content in 10-30 cm soil layer of spring wheat field and that in 5-10 cm soil layer of pea field had the greatest effects on soil respiration. Comparing with conventional tillage, all the five conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage with straw mulch. PMID:20030139

  16. Grass Upland Water Quality Wednesday November 21st 2007

    E-print Network

    Quinton, John

    · Overgrazing · Diffuse pollution - silt from run-off excessive Nutrients chemical pollution #12;Upland Drainage regimes. · Unstable soils ­ heavy rainfall deposits silt in upland streams #12;Diffuse Pollution · Silt

  17. ERODIBILITY OF A SOIL DRAINAGE SEQUENCE IN THE LOESS UPLANDS OF MISSISSIPPI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility of loess soils in the lower Mississippi to runoff and erosion losses varies as a function of landscape position and mapping units. This study was conducted to determine the effects of soil drainage on physical and chemical properties that influence erodibility through their contr...

  18. Sorption of selected organic compounds from water to a peat soil and its humic-acid and humin fractions: Potential sources of the sorption nonlinearity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.; Rutherford, D.W.; Sheng, G.; Boyd, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The sorption isotherms of ethylene dibromide (EDB), diuron (DUN), and 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) from water on the humic acid and humin fractions of a peat soil and on the humic-acid of a muck soil have been measured. The data were compared with those of the solutes with the whole peat from which the humic-acid (HA) and humin (HM) fractions were derived and on which the sorption of the solutes exhibited varying extents of nonlinear capacities at low relative concentrations (C(e)/S(w)). The HA fraction as prepared by the density-fractionated method is relatively pure and presumably free of high- surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) that is considered to be responsible for the observed nonlinear sorption for nonpolar solutes (e.g., EDB) on the peat; conversely, the base-insoluble HM fraction as prepared is presumed to be enriched with HSACM, as manifested by the greatly higher BET- (N2) surface area than that of the whole peat. The sorption of EDB on HA exhibits no visible nonlinear effect, whereas the sorption on HM shows an enhanced nonlinearity over that on the whole peat. The sorption of polar DUN and DCP on HA and HM display nonlinear effects comparable with those on the whole peat; the effects are much more significant than those with nonpolar EDB. These results conform to the hypothesis that adsorption onto a small amount of strongly adsorbing HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear sorption of nonpolar solutes on soils and that additional specific interactions with the active groups of soil organic matter are responsible for the generally higher nonlinear sorption of the polar solutes.

  19. The sensitivity of peat soil and peatland vegetation to drought: release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritson, Jonathan; Graham, Nigel; Templeton, Michael; Freeman, Christopher; Clark, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Organic rich peat soils are a major store of carbon worldwide. Their existence is predicated on high year-round water tables which create an anoxic environment, thus limiting decay, and also to the recalcitrance of plant litter (dead plant material) commonly found in peatland areas. Climate change threatens the stability of peat soils by altering the biogeochemical cycles which control plant decay, lowering water tables so that oxic degradation can occur and by changing habitat niches such that less recalcitrant species can thrive in peatlands. One of the major fluxes of carbon from peatlands is through dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters. As peatland areas in the UK are often used as source waters for drinking water supply this presents a problem to water utilities as DOC must be effectively removed to limit colour, odour and the formation of potentially carcinogenic by-products on disinfection. Changes in catchment vegetation may occur due to climate change, nutrient deposition and changing bioclimatic envelopes. How different peatland vegetation contribute to DOC flux and how this may change in the future is therefore of interest. A six week laboratory simulation was performed on typical peatland litter (Sphagnum spp., Calluna vulgaris, Molinea caerulea, Juncus effusus) and a peat soil collected from Exmoor National Park, UK. The simulation monitored DOC flux from the decaying litter/soil and considered the impact of different drought severities using the 50th, 25th, 10th and 5th percentiles of the mean July/August monthly rainfall for Exmoor. On rewetting following the drought, all sources produced significantly different amounts of DOC (Tukey HSD p<0.05) in the order Molinia>Juncus>Calluna>Sphagnum>peat. The source also had a significant (ANOVA p<0.001) effect on coagulation removal efficiency, a typical method of removing DOC during drinking water treatment, with Juncus DOC proving the easiest to remove whilst Sphagnum DOC was the most difficult. Sphagnum DOC had the lowest ratio of humic-like to protein-like fluorescence, which is indicative of DOC which is poorly removed by coagulation. An interactive effect was noted between DOC source and the drought treatment which was explored further using a one-way ANOVA with a Holm-Šidák correction. This suggested peat will produce significantly more DOC when affected by drought (p=0.010), possibly explained by increased oxygenation engaging the 'enzymatic latch' mechanism. A similar analysis was performed on the interaction between drought and DOC source for the specific UV absorbance at 254nm (SUVA) value (a measure of aromaticity). This suggested that Molinea caerulea produces DOC of significantly (p=0.001) higher aromaticity following periods of drought. Comparisons between drought and DOC source factors suggest the source in more important than climatic conditions of decay which is consistent with our previously published findings. These results have implications for marginal peatlands which may be at risk from increased water table drawdown in the future as climate changes and where Molinea caerulea, typically a fen species, is encroaching on bog communities.

  20. Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in a California Upland Grassland Soil: Diversity and Response to Simulated Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Horz, Hans-Peter; Rich, Virginia; Avrahami, Sharon; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria (i.e., methanotrophs) in an annual upland grassland in northern California, using comparative sequence analysis of the pmoA gene. In addition to identifying type II methanotrophs commonly found in soils, we discovered three novel pmoA lineages for which no cultivated members have been previously reported. These novel pmoA clades clustered together either with clone sequences related to “RA 14” or “WB5FH-A,” which both represent clusters of environmentally retrieved sequences of putative atmospheric methane oxidizers. Conservation of amino acid residues and rates of nonsynonymous versus synonymous nucleotide substitution in these novel lineages suggests that the pmoA genes in these clades code for functionally active methane monooxygenases. The novel clades responded to simulated global changes differently than the type II methanotrophs. We observed that the relative abundance of type II methanotrophs declined in response to increased precipitation and increased atmospheric temperature, with a significant antagonistic interaction between these factors such that the effect of both together was less than that expected from their individual effects. Two of the novel clades were not observed to respond significantly to these environmental changes, while one of the novel clades had an opposite response, increasing in relative abundance in response to increased precipitation and atmospheric temperature, with a significant antagonistic interaction between these factors. PMID:15870356

  1. Peat slides and rain fall intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Roselyn; Long, Mike

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the reasons for peat bog slides in upland areas of Ireland and to provide tools for susceptibility assessment of future slides. A case study of a recent peat slide in Ireland will be presented in order to address these objectives. The slide occurred on the 23rd August 2009 north of Glencolmcille, Co. Denegal in an upland blanket bog. The interaction of groundwater, rainfall, and human activities in peat areas are all considered casual factors that impact on the stability of peat. An understanding of these factors combined with the shear strength of peat will help in assessing the risks of peat slope failures. Rainfall from previous years and at the time of the slide, peat shear strength and known human activities at the slide location will be assed and a description of the slide will be presented. Boylan et al. (2008) noted that the most commonly cited casual factor for peat slope failures was periods of incense or prolonged rainfall. Basic geotechnical properties of the peat sampled at different depths will be presented. A shear strength profile of peat at the location of the slide will be developed using direct simple shear (DSS) tests. The shear strength results from DSS tests will be implemented in a limit state slope stability model for the slide location so as to back calculate the existing slide and then could be used in a risk assessment of a peat slide. Boylan, N., Jennings, P. & Long, M. (2008) Peat slope failure in Ireland. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 41(1), 93-108.

  2. Time-lapse ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements for exploring biogenic gas distribution and releases from peat soils in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. J.; Comas, X.; Berber, M.

    2013-12-01

    Peat soils are known to release significant amounts of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the spatio-temporal distribution of gas accumulations and the triggering mechanisms of gas releasing events. Furthermore, most peatland gas dynamics research has historically been focused on high latitude peatlands, while recent works have suggested that gas production rates from low-latitude peat soils may be higher than those from colder climates. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical tool that has successfully been used in the past to non-invasively investigate the release of biogenic gasses from peat soils. This study is conducted in the Loxahatchee Impoundment Landscape Assessment (LILA), a hydrologically controlled, landscape scale (30 HA) model of the Florida Everglades. Here, temporal and spatial heterogeneity of gas releases from peat soil at the plot scale (<100 m2) are shown using a time series of three-dimensional (3D) GPR measurements. GPR data are supported by direct gas flux measurements using flux chambers combined with time-lapse photography, and surface deformation measurements using terrestrial LiDAR scanning and differential leveling.

  3. Peat Characterization and Uptake of Nickel (II) and Cobalt (II) in a Saprist Peat E. S. Asapo1, 2*

    E-print Network

    Coles, Cynthia

    1 Peat Characterization and Uptake of Nickel (II) and Cobalt (II) in a Saprist Peat Column By E. S should be addressed. Email: esasapo@mun.ca Abstract Fibrist and saprist sphagnum peat soils taken from a bog in Torbay, Newfoundland, Canada were characterized. The saprist and fibrist peat soils had wet

  4. Peat Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  5. Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre Jorgenson, M.; Harden, Jennifer; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Ewing, Stephanie; Manies, Kristen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shur, Yuri; Striegl, Robert; Koch, Josh

    2013-09-01

    The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly-sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty-silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly-sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty-silty lowlands, 2-4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly-sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to centuries in peaty-silty lowlands with a legacy of complicated Holocene changes, and over centuries in silty uplands where ice-rich soil and ecological recovery protect permafrost.

  6. Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, M. Torre; Harden, Jennifer; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Ewing, Stephanie; Manies, Kristen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shur, Yuri; Striegl, Robert; Koch, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly–sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty–silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly–sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty–silty lowlands, 2–4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly–sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to centuries in peaty–silty lowlands with a legacy of complicated Holocene changes, and over centuries in silty uplands where ice-rich soil and ecological recovery protect permafrost.

  7. Is soil degradation unrelated to deforestation? Examining soil parameters of land use systems in upland Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Dechert; Edzo Veldkamp; Iswandi Anas

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that declining soil fertility during cultivation forces farmers to clear forest. We wanted to test this for a rainforest margin area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We compared soil characteristics in different land-use systems and after different length of cultivation. 66 sites with four major land-use systems (maize, agroforestry, forest fallow and natural forest) were sampled. Soils

  8. Methane and carbon dioxide exchange potentials of peat soils in aerobic and anaerobic laboratory incubations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Moore; M. Dalva

    1997-01-01

    Samples (140) of peat collected from bogs, fens and swamps in boreal, subarctic and temperate regions of Canada were incubated at 15 or 20°C for 5 d in the laboratory to determine potential rates of CO2 and CH4 exchange under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Rates of CO2 production ranged between 0.07 and 5.0 mg g?1 d?1, with means of 1.0

  9. The influence of soil characteristics on the extractability of Cd, Pb and Zn in upland and moorland soils.

    PubMed

    Rieuwerts, J S; Ashmore, M R; Farago, M E; Thornton, I

    2006-08-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of using existing data sets of total soil metal concentrations and soil parameters, such as pH, to predict available metal concentrations on a regional or national basis. The attraction of such an approach is that it would provide valuable data for initiatives requiring information on the availability and mobility of metals in soils without the need for costly soil sampling and analysis. Ninety-seven topsoil and subsoil samples were collected from 6 soil series in a catenary sequence in north Wales to provide data for the development of an empirical model. These were analysed for total, 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable and porewater metal concentrations and for a range of soil properties including pH, solid and dissolved organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Regression analysis showed that, of the soil parameters measured, pH was the most important predictor variable for the estimation of CaCl2-extractable Cd, Pb and Zn. pH accounted for up to 86% of the variance in the proportion of 'total' metals which were extracted by CaCl2, a reagent that is commonly used to estimate plant uptake of elements. However, the relationships recorded between soil parameters and Kd (total metal/porewater metal) were much weaker, indicating that porewater metal concentrations can less readily be predicted from total soil metal concentrations and soil properties. PMID:16188295

  10. Application of soil magnetometry on peat-bogs and soils in areas affected by historical and prehistoric ore mining and smelting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Chrost, Leszak

    2015-04-01

    The valleys of upper Brynica and Sto?a located in northern part of Upper Silesia were areas of historical human activities since prehistoric times. Historically confirmed mining and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores on this areas has been dated back to early Middle Ages, however recently some geochemical and radiometric analyses suggest even prehistoric time of such activities. The aim of this study was to check if it is possible to find any magnetic signal suggesting such activities in peat-bogs and soils of this area. This magnetic properties would be a result of presence of historical Technogenic Magnetic Particles (TMPs) arisen during the primitive smelting processes in the past. Many different types of TMPs were separated from the depth of 15-30 cm of soil profiles and also were present in deeper parts of peat-bogs accompanied by fine charcoal particles. The peat-bog horizons dated by radiocarbon (C14) for 2000 BC were contaminated by some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb, Mn, Fe, Sr, Sc) and slightly increased magnetic susceptibility signal was also observed. On the base of soil surface magnetic measurement using MS2D Bartington sensor complemented by magnetic gradiometer system Grad 601-02 for the deeper soil penetration, some local magnetic anomalies were detected. In areas of local 'hot spots', the vertical cores up to 30 cm in depth were collected using the HUMAX core sampler. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along the cores was measured in the laboratory using the MS2C Bartington core sensor. The core section with increased susceptibility values were analyzed and TMPs were separated using a hand magnet. The separation of fine fraction of TMPs was carried out in an ultrasonic bath from the fine soil material suspended in isopropanol to avoid their coagulation. Irregular ceramic particles, ash and ore particles, as well as strong magnetic particles of metallic iron; all with diameter up to 10 mm and almost regular shape and rounded edges were magnetically separated from the 15-30 cm of topsoil cores. In order to determinate the mineralogical composition of magnetic particles in soil samples a SEM-EDS technique was used. On the base of the magnetic prescreening the archeological excavations on the study area are planning.

  11. Effects of cattle husbandry on abundance and activity of methanogenic archaea in upland soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviane Radl; Andreas Gattinger; Alica Chro?áková; Anna N?mcová; Jiri ?uhel; Miloslav Šimek; Jean Charles Munch; Michael Schloter; Dana Elhottová

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that animal treading associated with a high input of organic matter would favour methanogenesis in soils used as overwintering pasture. Hence, methane emissions and methanogen populations were examined at sections with different degree of cattle impact in a Farm in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. In spring, methane emission positively corresponded to the

  12. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 1: Field evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, H.; LeJeune, K.; Lipton, J. [Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and metals in soils surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana were correlated with vegetative community structure and composition and wildlife habitat quality. Soils in the uplands surrounding the smelter were highly enriched with arsenic and metals. Concentrations of these analytes decreased with distance from the smelter and with soil depth, suggesting that the smelter is the source of the enrichment. In enriched areas, marked modifications to the native vegetation community structure and composition were observed. These included replacement of evergreen forest with bare unvegetated ground; species impoverishment and increased dominance by weed species in grasslands; and reductions in the vertical complexity of the habitat. Significant negative correlations existed between soil arsenic and metals concentrations and the extent of vegetative cover and the vertical diversity of plant communities. Loss of vegetative cover in the affected areas has been accompanied by reductions in their capacity to support indigenous wildlife populations.

  13. Scale effect of climate on soil organic carbon in the Uplands of Northeast China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan-Dan Wang; Xue-Zheng Shi; Hong-Jie Wang; David C. Weindorf; Dong-Sheng Yu; Wei-Xia Sun; Hong-Yan Ren; Yong-Cun Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Climate factors, considered significant factors in regulating soil organic carbon (SOC), are not equally important at all\\u000a spatial scales. However, the scale which provides the optimal relationship between climate and SOC and how that relationship\\u000a varies at multiple scales are still unclear. Thus, it is crucial to study the relationship between climate factors and SOC\\u000a at multiple scales when attempting

  14. Reduction of iron (III) and humic substances plays a major role in anaerobic respiration in an Arctic peat soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, David A.; Jha, Mony; Raab, Theodore K.; Oechel, Walter C.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic peat soils contain vast reserves of organic C and are largely anaerobic. However, anaerobic respiration, particularly the role of Fe(III) and humic substances as electron acceptors, is not well understood in such ecosystems. We investigated these processes in a drained thaw lake basin on the Arctic coastal plain near Barrow, Alaska. We measured concentrations of soluble Fe and other potential electron acceptors, described the microbial community, and performed experiments in the laboratory and field to measure net rates of Fe(III) reduction and the relationship of this process to C cycling. In most areas within the basin, aerobic conditions existed only in the upper few centimeters of soil, though oxygen penetrated deeper in raised areas, such as rims of ice wedge polygons. Concentrations of nitrate and sulfate in soil pore water were low or negligible. Soil pore water contained surprisingly high concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(III), in the range of hundreds of ?M, suggesting the presence of organic chelators. The solid phase contained substantial amounts of iron minerals, with a progressively reduced oxidation state throughout the growing season. The most abundant 16S rRNA sequence in our gene survey was closely related to the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Rhodoferax ferrireducens, and other sequences closely related to Fe-transforming bacteria were found. Field and laboratory incubations with soluble Fe(III) and the quinonic compound, AQDS (a common humic analog), stimulated respiration and verified that Fe(III) reduction occurs in these soils. We conclude that reduction of Fe(III) and humic substances are major metabolic pathways in this ecosystem.

  15. The effects of ecological restoration, on soil-pore water quality and DOC concentrations, on a British upland blanket bog.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qassim, Suzane; Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Polluted by past atmospheric deposition, eroded and burnt, the Bleaklow plateau (Peak district National Park, UK) has long been degraded. Peatlands are important carbon reservoirs and can act as sources or sinks of carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is carbon lost from peatlands via the fluvial pathway and as the major component of water colour it is costly to remove during water treatment processes. The Bleaklow Summit peatlands, were subjected to a large wildfire in 2003 devegetating 5.5km2. This fire prompted stakeholders to initiate a large-scale programme of restoration of the plateau. This study considered restoration techniques across four sites: all four sites were seeded with lawn grass, limed and fertilised; to raise the pH and allow establishment of vegetation. In addition to these interventions, one site also had a mulch of Calluna vulgaris applied to the surface to allow soil stabilisation and promote vegetation establishment and another site had biodegradable geojute textile mesh installed, to stabilize the steep gully surfaces. Another site had a gully block installed, to reduce peat desiccation and erosion. This study will compare the four restored sites to two types of comparators: bare soil sites where no restoration was undertaken and a naturally vegetated site unaffected by the 2003 wildfire. Each site had six replicate dipwells, installed in two groups of three. The depth to the water table was monitored and soil water samples collected for analysis, monthly for 5 years, from Nov 2006 - Jan 2012. No significant difference in DOC concentration was found between control and treated sites. There was, however, a significant difference in DOC composition between sites and over the 5 year period of monitoring. UV-vis absorbance of the samples is used to quantify the fulvic to humic components of DOC. The vegetated control was not significantly different to the bare sites; however the vegetated control had a significantly greater humic fraction of than the seeded, limed and fertilised only site, as well as the seeded, limed, C. vulgaris mulched site. This is possibly related to vegetation and litter layer establishment. A suite of water quality data (conductivity, pH and cation data) are now being analysed in combination with DOC to increase understanding of the relationship between bare site re-vegetation and DOC compositional change.

  16. Copper tolerance of the biomass crops Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (Phragmites australis) in soil culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinghua; Shen, Yixing; Lou, Laiqing; Ding, Chenglong; Cai, Qingsheng

    2009-01-01

    Pot trials were conducted to study the influence of copper (Cu) on the growth and biomass of Elephant grass (EG, Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (VG, Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (UR, Phragmites australis). Cu toxicity in EG, VG and UR was positively correlated with the total and bioavailable Cu concentrations in the soil. Based on the EC50, dry weights, Cu contents, chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rates, the Cu tolerance of the three species followed the trend EGNVGNUR. There were no significant differences in the unit calorific values among the different plants, though the total calorific values of EG were higher than those of VG and UR due to its higher biomass. The addition of KH2PO4 to the soil decreased the bioavailability of Cu and the Cu uptake by plants. EG could therefore be a good candidate for growth on Cu-contaminated soils, especially those improved by phosphate. PMID:19393734

  17. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations and compositions, and trihalomethane formation potentials in waters from agricultural peat soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California; implications for drinking-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Aiken, George R.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (Delta) is an important drinking-water source for more than 20 million people in California. At times, this water contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and bromide, and exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for trihalomethanes of 0.100 milligrams per liter if chlorinated for drinking water. About 20 to 50 percent of the trihalomethane precursors to Delta waters originates from drainage water from peat soils on Delta islands. This report elucidates some of the factors and processes controlling and affecting the concentration and quality of dissolved organic carbon released from peat soils and relates the propensity of dissolved organic carbon to form trihalomethanes to its chemical composition.Soil water was sampled from near-surface, oxidized, well-decomposed peat soil (upper soil zone) and deeper, reduced, fibrous peat soil (lower soil zone) from one agricultural field in the west central Delta over 1 year. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the upper soil zone were highly variable, with median concentrations ranging from 46.4 to 83.2 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in samples from the lower soil zone were much less variable and generally slightly higher than samples from the upper soil zone, with median concentrations ranging from 49.3 to 82.3 milligrams per liter. The dissolved organic carbon from the lower soil zone had significantly higher aromaticity (as measured by specific ultraviolet absorbance) and contained significantly greater amounts of aromatic humic substances (as measured by XAD resin fractionation and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of XAD isolates) than the dissolved organic carbon from the upper soil zone. These results support the conclusion that more aromatic forms of dissolved organic carbon are produced under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentration, trihalomethane formation potential, and ultraviolet absorbance were all highly correlated, showing that trihalomethane precursors increased with increasing dissolved organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance for whole water samples. Contrary to the generally accepted conceptual model for trihalomethane formation that assumes that aromatic forms of carbon are primary precursors to trihalomethanes, results from this study indicate that dissolved organic carbon aromaticity appears unrelated to trihalomethane formation on a carbon-normalized basis. Thus, dissolved organic carbon aromaticity alone cannot fully explain or predict trihalomethane precursor content, and further investigation of aromatic and nonaromatic forms of carbon will be needed to better identify trihalomethane precursors.

  18. Biodiversity Toolkit Why we DON'T DIG PEAT

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    Biodiversity Toolkit Peat free Why we DON'T DIG PEAT The collegiate University is working to help the environment and wildlife by phasing out its use of products containing peat, such as compost and soil improver.admin.ox.ac.uk/estates/environment/biodiversity Cut your carbon emissions Wildlife living in peat bogs includes foxes, Irish hares, pygmy shrews, red

  19. Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Tony

    2014-05-01

    Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia. Tony Bernardi and Leah Moore Dryland Salinity Hazard Mitigation Program (DSHMP), University of Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA The diversity of salt expression in central NSW has defied classification because salt expression, mobilisation and transport is highly variable and is typically site specific. Hydrological models are extensively used to simulate possible outcomes for a range of land use changes to mitigate the mobilisation and transport of salt into the streams or across the land surface. The ability of these models to mimic reality can be variable thereby reducing the confidence in the models outputs and uptake of strategic management changes by the community. This study focuses on a 250 ha semi-arid sub-catchment of Little River catchment in central west NSW in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. We propose that an understanding the structure of the landforms and configuration of rock, regolith and soil materials at the study site influences fluid flow pathways in the landscape and can be related to observed variations in the chemical composition and salinity of surface and aquifer water. Preliminary geological mapping of the site identified the dominant rock type as a pink and grey dacite and in localised mid-slope areas, a coarsely crystalline biotite-phyric granodiorite. Samples were taken at regular intervals from natural exposures in eroded stream banks and in excavations made during the installation of neutron moisture meter tubes. In order to establish mineral weathering pathways, samples were taken from the relatively unweathered core to the outer weathered 'onion skins' of corestones on both substrates, and then up through the regolith profile, including the soil zone, to the land surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was conducted on the rock and soil/saprock samples. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) profile data were compiled from previous work with colleagues in this area. Preliminary interpretation of the mapping and the geophysics is that there is a three-layer framework for groundwater modelling: fractured granitic rock with an irregular upper surface, finer-grained (volcanic) rock that has either mantled the older granite or has been intruded into, and a weathering profile developed in relation to the land surface. More careful interpretation of the intervals that shallow and deep piezometers and shallow and deep bores are sampling indicates that variability in water chemistry between holes can, in part, be explained because they are sampling different materials in the sub-surface geology/regolith geology. Quartz is a relatively resistant phase throughout the profiles. For both substrates there is a decrease in the feldspar in increasingly weathered regolith materials, with a corresponding increase in kaolinite clay. There is increased homogenisation of the profile, and some horizonation due to pedogenic processes (e.g. bioturbation, illuviation of fines down profile) nearer the land surface. This results in a concentration of more resistant phases (quartz and remnant primary feldspar as sands) at the land surface over the granitic substrate, however kaolinite persists in the profile over the finer substrate. The presence of measurable ferruginous oxides and sesquioxides relates to localised percolation of oxidising fluids through the profiles. Understanding the configuration and composition of rocks and regolith materials in the Baldry catchment facilitates interpretation of observed patterns in hydrological analyses.

  20. Runoff-driven export of particulate organic carbon from soil in temperate forested uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joanne C.; Galy, Albert; Hovius, Niels; Tye, Andrew M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Schleppi, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    We characterise the sources, pathways and export fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in a headwater catchment in the Swiss Alps, where suspended sediment has a mean organic carbon concentration of 1.45%±0.06. By chemically fingerprinting this carbon and its potential sources using carbon and nitrogen elemental and isotopic compositions, we show that it derives from binary mixing between bedrock and modern biomass with a soil-like composition. The hillslope and channel are strongly coupled, allowing runoff to deliver recent organic carbon directly to the stream beyond a moderate discharge threshold. At higher flows, more biomass is mobilised and the fraction of modern carbon in the suspended load reaches 0.70, increased from 0.30 during background conditions. Significant amounts of non-fossil organic carbon are thus transferred from the hillslope without the need for extreme events such as landsliding. Precipitation is key: as soon as the rain stops, biomass supply ceases and fossil carbon again dominates. We use rating curves modelled using samples from five storm events integrated over 29-year discharge records to calculate long-term export fluxes of total POC and non-fossil POC from the catchment of 23.3±5.8 and 14.0±4.4 t km-2 yr-1 respectively. These yields are comparable to those from active mountain belts, yet the processes responsible are much more widely applicable. Such settings have the potential to play a significant role in the global drawdown of carbon dioxide via riverine biomass erosion, and their contribution to the global flux of POC to the ocean may be more important than previously thought.

  1. Evidence for an eolian origin for the silt-enriched soil mantles on the glaciated uplands of eastern Upper Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaetzl, R.J.; Loope, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    We provide textural, geochemical, and mineralogical data on a thin, silty deposit that unconformably mantles glaciated uplands in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Previous research on this deposit, which we hypothesize to be loess, is nonexistent. The uplands were islands or narrow peninsulas within one or more glacial lakes. We compare the distribution, likely source and nature of the 20-60??cm thick silty mantle by using the loess formation model of Mason et al. [Mason, J.A., Nater, E.A., Zanner, C.W., Bell, J.C., 1999. A new model of topographic effects on the distribution of loess. Geomorphology 28, 223-236], which focuses on the generation of eolian silt by saltating sand across upwind, barren surfaces. Parabolic dunes, with arms open to the NW, are common on former lake floors upwind of the silt-mantled uplands, attesting to the strength and direction of paleowinds. The abrupt termination of the dunes at the footslopes of the uplands, associated with silt deposition on upland soil surfaces in downwind locations, are both consistent with the model of Mason et al. [Mason, J.A., Nater, E.A., Zanner, C.W., Bell, J.C., 1999. A new model of topographic effects on the distribution of loess. Geomorphology 28, 223-236]. Sediments on former lake floors contain abundant strata of fine/medium sand and silt, and thus are likely sources for the silt and dune sand. The cap, dune and lake sediments are similar along many different geochemical axes, whereas the substrate sediment, i.e., the drift below the cap, is unique. Cap sediments, normally containing roughly 30% silt, are enriched in quartz and depleted in Ti and Zr, relative to dune sediment. The dune sediment, a more residual eolian deposit, is enriched in Ti and Zr, relative to the cap, probably due to its greater abundance of heavy minerals. Therefore, we conclude that the silty cap is loess that was deflated from abandoned lake floors after nearby glacial lakes drained, probably contemporaneously with dune migration across the former lake floors. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of electromagnetic microwaves on the germination of spores of Streptomyces xanthochromogenes in a peat soil and in a liquid nutrient medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarova, A. S.; Likhacheva, A. A.; Lapygina, E. V.; Maksimova, I. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of microwaves on the germination of spores of Streptomyces xanthochromogenes in a liquid nutrient medium and in a peat soil was studied. The treatment of inoculums with microwave radiation affected the development of the microorganisms from the stage of spore germination to the stage of the formation of microcolonies of actinomycetes upon the spore cultivation in the liquid medium. Typical hypnum-herbaceous peat was used to study the rate of germination of the actinomycetal spores in soil. The study of the dynamics of the Streptomyces xanthochromogenes population in the control soil (without treatment with microwaves) showed that the most active development of the culture took place in the soil moistened to 60% of the maximum water capacity. When the soil was moistened to the minimum adsorption capacity, the streptomyces did not complete their full cycle of development. The stimulation of the spore germination and mycelium growth with microwaves in the soil medium required a longer period in comparison with that for the liquid medium. The stimulation of the spore germination was observed in the liquid nutrient medium in the case of 30-s treatment and in the soil in the case of 60-s treatment.

  3. Assessment by laboratory simulation of approaches to amelioration of peat acidification.

    PubMed

    Sanger, L J; Billett, M F; Cresser, M S

    1993-01-01

    The effects of different liming materials (CaCO(3), Ca(OH)(2), CaHPO(4), and dolomite) on soil and drainage-water chemistry have been investigated for upland acidic peats by using a soil-core-simulation experiment. Intact cores from three depths (0-30, 0-60, and 0-90 mm) were subjected to ten years of simulated rainfall. Drainage water was periodically analysed for Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) NH(4)(+), TOC, Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-), and pH, and at the end of the experiment the cores were destructively sampled and analysed. Temporal changes in soil and drainage-water chemistry are used to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different liming materials for the amelioration of soil and drainage-water chemistry. PMID:15091833

  4. Elevated CO 2 concentration and nitrogen fertilisation effects on N 2O and CH 4 fluxes and biomass production of Phleum pratense on farmed peat soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riitta Kettunen; Sanna Saarnio; Pertti Martikainen; Jouko Silvola

    2005-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 supply on N2O and CH4 fluxes and biomass production of Phleum pratense were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Three sets of 12 farmed peat soil mesocosms (10cm dia, 47cm long) sown with P. pratense and equally distributed in four thermo-controlled greenhouses were fertilised with a commercial fertiliser in order to add 2, 6 or 10gNm?2.

  5. Soil organic carbon sequestration in upland soils of northern China under variable fertilizer management and climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guiying; Xu, Minggang; He, Xinhua; Zhang, Wenju; Huang, Shaomin; Yang, Xueyun; Liu, Hua; Peng, Chang; Shirato, Yasuhito; Iizumi, Toshichika; Wang, Jinzhou; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2014-03-01

    We determined the historical change in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks from long-term field trials that represent major soil types and climatic conditions of northern China. Soil carbon and general circulation models were validated using these field trial data sets. We then applied these models to predict future change in SOC stocks to 2100 using two net primary production (NPP) scenarios (i.e., current NPP or 1% year-1 NPP increase). The conversion rate of plant residues to SOC was higher in single-cropping sites than in double-cropping sites. The prediction of future SOC sequestration potential indicated that these soils will be a net source of carbon dioxide (CO2) under no fertilizer inputs. Even when inorganic nutrients were applied, the additional carbon input from increased plant residues could not meet the depletion of SOC in parts of northern China. Manure or straw application could however improve the SOC sequestration potential at all sites. The SOC sequestration potential in northern China was estimated to be -4.3 to 18.2 t C ha-1 by 2100. The effect of projected climate change on the annual rate of SOC change did not differ significantly between climate scenarios. The average annual rate of SOC change under current and increased NPP scenarios (at 850 ppm CO2) was approximately 0.136 t C ha-1 yr-1 in northern China. These findings highlight the need to maintain, and where possible increase, organic carbon inputs into these farming systems which are rapidly becoming inorganic fertilizer intensive.

  6. Trihalomethane Reactivity of Water and Sodium Hydroxide–Extractable Organic Carbon Fractions from Peat Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex T. Chow; Fengmao Guo; Suduan Gao; Richard S. Breuer

    2006-01-01

    Certain organic carbon moieties in drinking source waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta can react with chlorine during dis- infection to form potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic trihalometh- anes. The properties of reactive organic carbon in Delta waters, partic- ularly those of soil origin, have been poorly understood. This study attempts to characterize trihalomethane reactivity of soil organic car- bon from

  7. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O. (RECOPE, San Jose (Costa Rica)); Cohen, A. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified the potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Effects of the application of digestates from wet and dry anaerobic fermentation to Japanese paddy and upland soils on short-term nitrification.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kozue; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Wet and dry anaerobic fermentation processes are operated for biogas production from organic matter, resulting in wet and dry digestates as by-products, respectively. The application of these digestates to soil as fertilizer has increased in recent years. Therefore, we herein compared the effects of applying wet digestates (pH 8.2, C/N ratio 4.5), dry digestates (pH 8.8, C/N ratio 23.4), and a chemical fertilizer to Japanese paddy and upland soils on short-term nitrification under laboratory aerobic conditions. Chloroform-labile C, an indicator of microbial biomass, was only minimally affected by these applications, indicating that a small amount of labile N was immobilized by microbes. All applications led to rapid increases in NO3 -N contents in both soils, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, but not archaea may play a critical role in net nitrification in the amended soils. The net nitrification rates for both soils were the highest after the application of dry digestates, followed by wet digestates and then the chemical fertilizer in order of decreasing soil pH. These results suggest that the immediate effects of applying digestates, especially dry digestates with the highest pH, on nitrate leaching need to be considered when digestates are used as alternative fertilizers. PMID:25740173

  9. Soil Phosphorus in Relation to Surface and Ground Water Phosphorus in Harvested and Forested Portions of a Sub-humid Boreal Aspen Upland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; Devito, K. J.; Redding, T.; Creed, I. F.; Bell, W.

    2004-05-01

    Soil moisture and phosphorus measured across a toposequence from upland to wetland in both harvested (clearcut) and forested sections of an aspen-dominated catchment in central Alberta were related to surface and ground water phosphorus. Topographic position explained most of the variance in the moisture and phosphorus contents of surface soils (0-20 cm) and there was little difference between harvested and forested areas. Soil phosphorus was inversely related to soil moisture throughout the catchment. Soil moisture was low and soil phosphorus was high in upslope areas compared to low-lying areas and wetlands. Surface organic soils (0 -10 cm) are high in extractable phosphorus (> 70 ? g g-1) and total phosphorus pools (> 1000 ? g g-1) whereas mineral soils are low in extractable phosphorus (< 2 ? g g-1) and total phosphorus pools (< 300 ? g g-1). Phosphorus buffering capacity was low in organic surface soils (EPC > 5000 ? g l-1) and high in subsoils (EPC =100-400 ? g l-1 in A horizon; EPC < 100 ? g l-1 in B horizon). This is reflected in total dissolved phosphorus concentrations in surface water and ground water throughout the catchment. Total dissolved phosphorus concentrations were high in surface water (85 ? g l-1) and soil water (202 ? g l-1) where organic soils were present and low in ground water where mineral soils were prevalent (23 ? g l-1). Changes in ground water phosphorus following a harvest are unlikely in this catchment due to the high adsorption affinity of mineral subsoils. Phosphorus-rich surface soils have a high potential for phosphorus release to surface water but this does not differ between harvested and forested sections of the catchment. Natural climatic variability in this sub-humid area often prevents surface runoff and discharge from occurring. The effects of harvesting may be dampened in sub-humid areas such as the Boreal Plain due to the moisture deficit. However, our ability to evaluate the effects of harvesting on phosphorus dynamics in this region is confounded by natural climatic variability and spatial variability within catchments.

  10. Metagenomic Insights into Anaerobic Metabolism along an Arctic Peat Soil Profile

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, David A.; Haggerty, John Matthew; Srinivas, Archana; Raab, Theodore K.; Sathe, Shashank; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    A metagenomic analysis was performed on a soil profile from a wet tundra site in northern Alaska. The goal was to link existing biogeochemical knowledge of the system with the organisms and genes responsible for the relevant metabolic pathways. We specifically investigated how the importance of iron (Fe) oxides and humic substances (HS) as terminal electron acceptors in this ecosystem is expressed genetically, and how respiratory and fermentative processes varied with soil depth into the active layer and into the upper permafrost. Overall, the metagenomes reflected a microbial community enriched in a diverse range of anaerobic pathways, with a preponderance of known Fe reducing species at all depths in the profile. The abundance of sequences associated with anaerobic metabolic processes generally increased with depth, while aerobic cytochrome c oxidases decreased. Methanogenesis genes and methanogen genomes followed the pattern of CH4 fluxes : they increased steeply with depth into the active layer, but declined somewhat over the transition zone between the lower active layer and the upper permafrost. The latter was relatively enriched in fermentative and anaerobic respiratory pathways. A survey of decaheme cytochromes (MtrA, MtrC and their homologs) revealed that this is a promising approach to identifying potential reducers of Fe(III) or HS, and indicated a possible role for Acidobacteria as Fe reducers in these soils. Methanogens appear to coexist in the same layers, though in lower abundance, with Fe reducing bacteria and other potential competitors, including acetogens. These observations provide a rich set of hypotheses for further targeted study. PMID:23741360

  11. The decomposition of vegetation and soil in marginal peat-forming landscapes: climate simulations to quantify gaseous and dissolved carbon fluxes and the effects on peat accumulation and drinking water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritson, J.; Bell, M.; Clark, J. M.; Graham, N.; Templeton, M.; Brazier, R.; Verhoef, A.; Freeman, C.

    2013-12-01

    Peatlands in the UK represent a large proportion of the soil carbon store, however there is concern that some systems may be switching from sinks to sources of carbon. The accumulation of organic material in peatlands results from the slow rates of decomposition typically occurring in these regions. Climate change may lead to faster decomposition which, if not matched by an equivalent increase in net primary productivity and litter fall, may tip the balance between source and sink. Recent trends have seen a greater flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from peatlands to surface waters and a change in DOM character, presenting challenges to water treatment, for example in terms of increased production of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Peat systems border a large proportion of reservoirs in the UK so uncertainty regarding DOM quantity and quality is a concern for water utilities. This study considered five peatland vegetation types (Sphagnum spp., Calluna vulgaris, Molinea caerulea, peat soil and mixed litter) collected from the Exmoor National Park, UK where it is hypothesised that peat formation may be strongly affected by future changes to climate. A factorial experiment design to simulate climate was used, considering vegetation type, temperature and rainfall amount using a current baseline and predictions from the UKCP09 model. Gaseous fluxes of carbon were monitored over a two month period to quantify the effect on carbon mineralisation rates while 13C NMR analysis was employed to track which classes of compounds decayed preferentially. The DOM collected was characterised using UV and fluorescence techniques before being subject to standard drinking water treatment processes (coagulation/flocculation followed by chlorination). The effect of the experimental factors on DOM amenability to removal and propensity to form DBPs was then considered, with both trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetonitrile (HAN) DBP classes monitored. Initial results have shown a statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U) difference in THM formation (p<0.05) as well as the amount of DOM produced and specific UV absorption at 254nm (p<0.01) between vegetation classes.

  12. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that although species-specific differences in Collembola feeding behavior appear to exist, species are very plastic in their diet. This implies that changes in C turnover rates with vegetation shifts, might well be due to diet shifts of the present decomposer community rather than by changes in species composition.

  13. Utilization of subsurface microbial electrochemical systems to elucidate the mechanisms of competition between methanogenesis and microbial iron(III)/humic acid reduction in Arctic peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E. S.; Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Angenent, L. T.

    2012-12-01

    High-latitude peat soils are a major carbon reservoir, and there is growing concern that previously dormant carbon from this reservoir could be released to the atmosphere as a result of continued climate change. Microbial processes, such as methanogenesis and carbon dioxide production via iron(III) or humic acid reduction, are at the heart of the carbon cycle in Arctic peat soils [1]. A deeper understanding of the factors governing microbial dominance in these soils is crucial for predicting the effects of continued climate change. In previous years, we have demonstrated the viability of a potentiostatically-controlled subsurface microbial electrochemical system-based biosensor that measures microbial respiration via exocellular electron transfer [2]. This system utilizes a graphite working electrode poised at 0.1 V NHE to mimic ferric iron and humic acid compounds. Microbes that would normally utilize these compounds as electron acceptors donate electrons to the electrode instead. The resulting current is a measure of microbial respiration with the electrode and is recorded with respect to time. Here, we examine the mechanistic relationship between methanogenesis and iron(III)- or humic acid-reduction by using these same microbial-three electrode systems to provide an inexhaustible source of alternate electron acceptor to microbes in these soils. Chamber-based carbon dioxide and methane fluxes were measured from soil collars with and without microbial three-electrode systems over a period of four weeks. In addition, in some collars we simulated increased fermentation by applying acetate treatments to understand possible effects of continued climate change on microbial processes in these carbon-rich soils. The results from this work aim to increase our fundamental understanding of competition between electron acceptors, and will provide valuable data for climate modeling scenarios. 1. Lipson, D.A., et al., Reduction of iron (III) and humic substances plays a major role in anaerobic respiration in an Arctic peat soil. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 2010. 115. 2. Friedman, E.S., et al., A cost-effective and field-ready potentiostat that poises subsurface electrodes to monitor bacterial respiration. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2012. 32(1): p. 309-313.

  14. Instrumenting an upland research catchment in Canterbury, New Zealand to study controls on variability of soil moisture, shallow groundwater and streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Hilary; Srinivasan, Ms

    2015-04-01

    Hydrologists recognise the importance of vertical drainage and deep flow paths in runoff generation, even in headwater catchments. Both soil and groundwater stores are highly variable over multiple scales, and the distribution of water has a strong control on flow rates and timing. In this study, we instrumented an upland headwater catchment in New Zealand to measure the temporal and spatial variation in unsaturated and saturated-zone responses. In NZ, upland catchments are the source of much of the water used in lowland agriculture, but the hydrology of such catchments and their role in water partitioning, storage and transport is poorly understood. The study area is the Langs Gully catchment in the North Branch of the Waipara River, Canterbury: this catchment was chosen to be representative of the foothills environment, with lightly managed dryland pasture and native Matagouri shrub vegetation cover. Over a period of 16 months we measured continuous soil moisture at 32 locations and near-surface water table (< 2 m) at 14 locations, as well as measuring flow at 3 stream gauges. The distributed measurement sites were located to allow comparisons between North and South facing locations, near-stream versus hillslope locations, and convergent versus divergent hillslopes. We found that temporal variability is strongly controlled by the climatic seasonal cycle, for both soil moisture and water table, and for both the mean and extremes of their distributions. Groundwater is a larger water storage component than soil moisture, and the difference increases with catchment wetness. The spatial standard deviation of both soil moisture and groundwater is larger in winter than in summer. It peaks during rainfall events due to partial saturation of the catchment, and also rises in spring as different locations dry out at different rates. The most important controls on spatial variability are aspect and distance from stream. South-facing and near-stream locations have higher water tables and more, larger soil moisture wetting events. Typical hydrological models do not explicitly account for aspect, but our results suggest that it is an important factor in hillslope runoff generation. Co-measurement of soil moisture and water table level allowed us to identify interrelationships between the two. Locations where water tables peaked closest to the surface had consistently wetter soils and higher water tables. These wetter sites were the same across seasons. However, temporary patterns of strong soil moisture response to summer storms did not correspond to the wetter sites. Total catchment spatial variability is composed of multiple variability sources, and the dominant type is sensitive to those stores that are close to a threshold such as field capacity or saturation. Therefore, we classified spatial variability as 'summer mode' or 'winter mode'. In summer mode, variability is controlled by shallow processes e.g. interactions of water with soils and vegetation. In winter mode, variability is controlled by deeper processes e.g. groundwater movement and bypass flow. Double flow peaks observed during some events show the direct impact of groundwater variability on runoff generation. Our results suggest that emergent catchment behaviour depends on the combination of these multiple, time varying components of variability.

  15. Response of micropropagated potatoes transplanted to peat media to post-vitro inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Vosátka; Milan Gryndler

    2000-01-01

    Positive effects of dual inoculation with some combinations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and bacteria on the growth of micropropagated potato (Solanum tuberosum) transplanted to a peat-based substrate were found in three different cultivation systems — pots, greenhouse or shadowhouse beds. Some inoculation treatments, e.g. with Glomus etunicatum, Glomus fistulosum together with bacterial isolate B1 (Bacillus subtilis) in pots, or

  16. Use of Computed Tomography Imaging for Qualifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging has been used to describe and quantify subtidal, benthic animals such as polychaetes, amphipods, and shrimp. Here, for the first time, CT imaging is used to successfully quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from...

  17. Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetoshi Asai; Benjamin K. Samson; Haefele M. Stephan; Khamdok Songyikhangsuthor; Koki Homma; Yoshiyuki Kiyono; Yoshio Inoue; Tatsuhiko Shiraiwa; Takeshi Horie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar application (CA) on soil physical properties and grain yields of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in northern Laos. During the 2007 wet season, three different experiments were conducted under upland conditions at 10 sites, combining variations in CA amounts (0–16tha?1), fertilizer application rates (N and P) and rice

  18. Temperature and Microbial Activity Effects on Trace Element Leaching from Metalliferous Peats

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Temperature and Microbial Activity Effects on Trace Element Leaching from Metalliferous PeatsDue to geochemical processes, peat soils often have elevated con- sulfides (Cannon, 1955). The maximum Zn concentra as high as 10 g kg 1 . Theperatures to vary microbial activity in two metalliferous peats (M7 acidic peat

  19. The Current Use of Remote-Sensing Data in Peat, Soil, Land-Cover and Crop Inventories in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Stove

    1983-01-01

    The remote-sensing methodology developed, at the Macaulay Institute, for natural resource surveys is introduced and some recent mapping and environmental monitoring projects are reviewed. These include peat resource and peatland vegetation mapping in Lewis and North Harris, crop monitoring in Kincardineshire and land-cover mapping in the Buchan Area of Grampian Region, NE Scotland. The current use of remote-sensing data by

  20. Nitrate turnover in a peat soil under drained and rewetted conditions: results from a [(15)N]nitrate-bromide double-tracer study.

    PubMed

    Russow, Rolf; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Spott, Oliver; Mothes, Sibylle; Bernsdorf, Sabine; Meissner, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Under natural conditions, peatlands are generally nitrate-limited. However, recent concerns about an additional N input into peatlands by atmospheric N deposition have highlighted the risk of an increased denitrification activity and hence the likelihood of a rise of emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the turnover of added nitrate in a drained and a rewetted peatland using a [(15)N]nitrate-bromide double-tracer method. The double-tracer method allows a separation between physical effects (dilution, dispersion and dislocation) and microbial and chemical nitrate transformation by comparing with the conservative Br(-) tracer. In the drained peat site, low NO3(-) consumption rates have been observed. In contrast, NO3(-) consumption at the rewetted peat site rises rapidly to about 100% within 4 days after tracer application. Concomitantly, the (15)N abundances of nitrite and ammonium in soil water increased and lead to the conclusion that, besides commonly known NO3(-) reduction to nitrite (i.e. denitrification), a dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium has simultaneously taken place. The present study reveals that increasing NO3(-) inputs into rewetted peatlands via atmospheric deposition results in a rapid NO3(-) consumption, which could lead to an increase in N2O emissions into the atmosphere. PMID:24313368

  1. Will blocking historical drainage ditches increase carbon sequestration in upland blanket mires of Southwest England?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feuvre, N.; Hartley, I.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Grand-Clement, E.; Smith, D.; Brazier, R.

    2012-04-01

    Peat soils in the United Kingdom are estimated to store a minimum of 3,121Mt C (Lindsay, 2010). Despite being such a large carbon store the annual imbalance between uptake and release is small and susceptible to change in response to land management, atmospheric deposition and climate change. The upland blanket mires of Southwest England have been subject to extensive drainage and are particularly vulnerable to climate change as they lie at the lower edge of the peatland climatic envelope. The Mires-on-the-Moors project, funded by South West Water will restore over 2000 hectares of drained mire by April 2015. Herein, we question whether this restoration, which will block historical drainage ditches will allow the blanket bogs of Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks to recover their ecohydrological functionality. We hypothesise that such mire restoration will increase the resilience of these ecosystems to climate change and will return these upland mires to peat forming/carbon sequestering systems. A method is proposed which aims to understand the processes driving gaseous carbon exchange and peat formation in an upland blanket bog and quantifies the effect restoration has on these processes. We propose to measure the spatial variation in gas fluxes with respect to structural features of the mire; drainage ditches and nanotopes. The role of vegetation; the community composition, phenology and health will be explored as well as environmental variables such as water table depths, temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Importantly, the experiment will partition below ground respiration to assess the environmental controls and effect of restoration on autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration separately. Unusually, it will be possible to collect both pre- and post-restoration data for two experimental sites with existing intensive hydrological monitoring (baseline monitoring of water table depths at 15 minute timesteps has been in place for > 1 year at ca. 160 locations across two experimental catchments on Exmoor). Remote sensing of vegetation structure (using both airborne LiDAR and ground-based laser scanning tools) alongside geospatial modelling will enable the effects of restoration on carbon storage to be modelled from headwater catchment to moorland scales. Lindsay, R. (2010) Peatbogs and Carbon: A Critical Synthesis. University of East London, London.

  2. Hydrological connectivity of soil pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J.

    2003-04-01

    Natural soil pipes are common in many parts of the world and particularly in blanket peat uplands yet there are problems in finding and defining soil pipe networks which are often located deep within the peat. Pipeflow can contribute a large proportion of runoff to the river systems in these upland environments and may significantly influence catchment sediment and solute yield. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology has recently been developed for non-destructive identification and mapping of soil pipes in peat catchments. While GPR can identify subsurface cavities, it cannot alone determine hydrological connectivity between one cavity and another. This poster presents results from an experiment to test the ability of GPR to establish hydrological connectivity between pipes through use of a tracer solution. Tracers such as sodium chloride were injected at a constant rate into an open pipe cavity. The GPR was moved across the test area downslope. The resultant radargrams were analysed and significantly increased reflectance was observed from a selection of cavities downslope. It was thus possible to determine hydrological connectivity of soil pipes within a dense pipe network across a hillslope without ground disturbance. In addition, tracers were added to the peat surface upslope of known pipe networks. It was possible to then trace the movement of water across and through the hillslope by using GPR to establish the connectivity of a range of flowpaths. Often pipe networks were supplied with water from overland flow entering through cracks and openings where the soil pipe was near the peat surface. Downslope, pipeflow contributed not only directly to streamflow but also to overland flow and near-surface throughflow on the hillslope. The same water that was within a pipe network at four metres depth could become near-surface throughflow outside of the pipe network a few metres down slope. These data allow the first three-dimensional picture of subsurface hydrological pathways to be developed for blanket peat catchments. The improved understanding of flowpath connectivity will be important for understanding solutional and particulate denudation and hydrological and geomorphological model development.

  3. Flux and turnover of fixed carbon in soil microbial biomass of limed and unlimed plots of an upland grassland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Castro, J Ignacio; Prosser, Jim I; Ostle, Nick; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Killham, Ken; Meharg, Andy A

    2005-04-01

    The influence of liming on rhizosphere microbial biomass C and incorporation of root exudates was studied in the field by in situ pulse labelling of temperate grassland vegetation with (13)CO(2) for a 3-day period. In plots that had been limed (CaCO(3) amended) annually for 3 years, incorporation into shoots and roots was, respectively, greater and lower than in unlimed plots. Analysis of chloroform-labile C demonstrated lower levels of (13)C incorporation into microbial biomass in limed soils compared to unlimed soils. The turnover of the recently assimilated (13)C compounds was faster in microbial biomass from limed than that from unlimed soils, suggesting that liming increases incorporation by microbial communities of root exudates. An exponential decay model of (13)C in total microbial biomass in limed soils indicated that the half-life of the tracer within this carbon pool was 4.7 days. Results are presented and discussed in relation to the absolute values of (13)C fixed and allocated within the plant-soil system. PMID:15816931

  4. Metals in the soils of a small watershed in the forest-steppe zone of the central Russian upland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samonova, O. A.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Zhidkin, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distributions of Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mo, Ti, Zr, and Fe, as well as particle sizes and humus, in the surface horizon of soils in the Lokna River small watershed (Tula oblast) have been studied. The relationships of the studied parameters have been characterized by statistical methods. Little change in particle size distribution in the humus horizons of soils is revealed from the geomorphological elements of the watershed. An increase in the content of most metals is observed in soils on the convex slopes and the bottom of the watershed balka compared to the autonomous positions. Positive correlations have been found between the contents of Co, Mn, Zr, Mo, and, to a lesser degree, Zn and Pb and the sand and coarse silt fractions; no correlations of Ni, Cr, Ti, and Fe with the particle size fractions were revealed.

  5. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

  6. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. High sensitivity of peat decomposition

    E-print Network

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    rights reserved. LETTERS High sensitivity of peat decomposition to climate change through water of the high water-holding capacity of peat and its low hydraulic conductivity, accumulation of soil organic­biogeochemical soil model with peat depths that are continuously updated from the dynamic balance of soil organic

  7. The impact of alley cropping Gliricidia sepium and Cassia spectabilis on upland rice and maize production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Maclean; J. A. Litsinger; K. Moody; A. K. Watson

    1992-01-01

    G. sepium and C. spectabilis hedgerows were established on slopes ranging from 18 to 31% in an effort to reduce soil erosion and improve upland rice and maize production. Upland rice and maize responded more to soil incorporated G. sepium biomass than to mulched, C. spectibilis. Incorporating hedgerow biomass equivalent to over 40 kg N per hectare, however, did not

  8. Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed-lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mark C; Kolka, Randy; Wickman, Trent; Nater, Ed; Woodruff, Laurel

    2009-06-15

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue concentration and a total of 45 watershed and water chemistry parameters were evaluated for two separate years: 2005 and 2006. Results show agreement with other studies where watershed area, lake water pH, nutrient levels (specifically dissolved NO(3)(-)-N) and dissolved iron are important factors controlling and/or predicting fish THg level. Exceeding all was the strong dependence of yellow perch THg level on soil A-horizon THg and, in particular, soil O-horizon THg concentrations (Spearman rho=0.81). Soil B-horizon THg concentration was significantly correlated (Pearson r=0.75) with lake water THg concentration. Lakes surrounded by a greater percentage of shrub wetlands (peatlands) had higher fish tissue THg levels, thus it is highly possible that these wetlands are main locations for mercury methylation. Stepwise regression was used to develop empirical models for the purpose of predicting the spatial variation in yellow perch THg over the studied region. The 2005 regression model demonstrates it is possible to obtain good prediction (up to 60% variance description) of resident yellow perch THg level using upland soil O-horizon THg as the only independent variable. The 2006 model shows even greater prediction (r(2)=0.73, with an overall 10 ng/g [tissue, wet weight] margin of error), using lake water dissolved iron and watershed area as the only model independent variables. The developed regression models in this study can help with interpreting THg concentrations in low trophic level fish species for untested lakes of the greater Superior National Forest and surrounding Boreal ecosystem. PMID:19349066

  9. Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed-lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabriel, M.C.; Kolka, R.; Wickman, T.; Nater, E.; Woodruff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue concentration and a total of 45 watershed and water chemistry parameters were evaluated for two separate years: 2005 and 2006. Results show agreement with other studies where watershed area, lake water pH, nutrient levels (specifically dissolved NO3--N) and dissolved iron are important factors controlling and/or predicting fish THg level. Exceeding all was the strong dependence of yellow perch THg level on soil A-horizon THg and, in particular, soil O-horizon THg concentrations (Spearman ?? = 0.81). Soil B-horizon THg concentration was significantly correlated (Pearson r = 0.75) with lake water THg concentration. Lakes surrounded by a greater percentage of shrub wetlands (peatlands) had higher fish tissue THg levels, thus it is highly possible that these wetlands are main locations for mercury methylation. Stepwise regression was used to develop empirical models for the purpose of predicting the spatial variation in yellow perch THg over the studied region. The 2005 regression model demonstrates it is possible to obtain good prediction (up to 60% variance description) of resident yellow perch THg level using upland soil O-horizon THg as the only independent variable. The 2006 model shows even greater prediction (r2 = 0.73, with an overall 10??ng/g [tissue, wet weight] margin of error), using lake water dissolved iron and watershed area as the only model independent variables. The developed regression models in this study can help with interpreting THg concentrations in low trophic level fish species for untested lakes of the greater Superior National Forest and surrounding Boreal ecosystem. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Chemical properties of peat used in balneology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajdak, L.; H?ado?, T.

    2009-04-01

    The physiological activity of peats is observed in human peat-bath therapy and in the promotion of growth in some plants. Balneological peat as an ecologically clean and natural substance is perceived as being more 'human friendly' than synthetic compounds. Poland has a long tradition of using balneological peat for therapeutic purposes. Balneological peat reveals a physical effect by altering temperature and biochemical effects through biologically active substances. It is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases that are quite common in Poland. Peat represents natural product. Physico-chemical properties of peat in particular surface-active, sorption and ion exchanges, defining their biological function, depend mainly on the chemical composition and molecular structure of humic substances representing the major constituent of organic soil (peat). The carbon of organic matter of peats is composed of 10 to 20% carbohydrates, primarily of microbial origin; 20% nitrogen-containing constituents, such as amino acids and amino sugars; 10 to 20% aliphatic fatty acids, alkanes, etc.; with the rest of carbon being aromatic. For balneology peat should be highly decomposed (preferably H8), natural and clean. The content of humic acids should exceed 20% of dry weight, ash content will be less than 15 15% of dry weight, sulphur content less than 0.3% of dry weight and the amount of water more than 85%. It will not contain harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Humic substances (HS) of peat are known to be macromolecular polydisperse biphyllic systems including both hydrophobic domains (saturated hydrocarbon chains, aromatic structural units) and hydrophilic functional groups, i. e having amphiphilic character. Amphiphilic properties of FA are responsible for their solubility, viscosity, conformation, surfactant-like character and a variety of physicochemical properties of considerable biologically practical significance. The chemical composition of peats depends significantly on the genesis of peatlands and the depth of sampling. The chemical properties of peat fulvic acids (FA) have some genetic peculiarities due to the specific conditions of the process of humification of peat-forming plants in mires. The process of humification in mires takes place in the top-forming layer under amphibious moisture conditions. Substances of microbial origin are water-soluble and can participate in the formation of peat FA to a little extent. So a main source of structural units for the peat HA and FA is suggested to be organic constituents of peat forming plants of various botanical composition. The content of aromatic units in peat FA was shown to depend on the content of lignin in peat-forming plants and also of the aromatization of polysaccharides mainly due to the transformation of cellulose. FA characterized lower than humic acids molecular weight (1000-30,000). FA's are composed of a series of highly oxidized aromatic rings with a large number of side chains. Building blocks are benzene carboxylic acids and phenolic acids. These are held together by hydrogen bonding van der Waals' forces and ionic bonding. FA contains larger concentrations of nitrogen. This fraction also contains a great deal of polysaccharide materials, as well as low molecular fatty acids and cytoplasmic constituents of microorganisms. These compounds are linear, flexible colloids at low concentrations, and spherical colloids at high solution concentrations and low pH values. A more adequate knowledge of the chemical structure of humic materials will assist us in better understanding the physiological effects and also the function of these macromolecules on the health that these materials are know to exert. This improved knowledge provides us better information on chemical structure of humic substances from peats, which are responsible for pharmacotherapeutic, pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical effect. This structure of FA creates proper conditions for uptake of nutrient as well as bioavailability of biologically active substances. The solubilization in water by

  11. Inorganic contents of peats

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Cohen, A.D.

    1988-02-01

    Peat, the precursor of coal, is composed primarily of plant components and secondarily of inorganic matter derived from a variety of sources. The elemental, mineralogic, and petrographic composition of a peat is controlled by a combination of both its botanical and depositional environment. Inorganic contents of peats can vary greatly between geographically separated peat bogs as well as vertially and horizontally within an individual bog. Predicting the form and distribution of inorganic matter in a coal deposit requires understanding the distribution and preservation of inorganic matter in peat-forming environments and diagenetic alterations affecting such material during late-stage peatification and coalification processes. 43 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Geochemical and Hydrological limitation of carbon sequestration and methane release in anoxic peat soil from the Luther Marsh, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaiuti, Simona; Blodau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    In deep peat layers, anaerobic respiration showed a slow-down due to the lack of solute transport which causes an accumulation of metabolic end products (i.e. DIC and CH4). This accumulation can lower the Gibbs free energy levels available to the terminal respiration processes, potentially leading to an inhibition in the decomposition. In particular, this state can affect the methanogenesis, acetogenesis and fermentation processes which occur near thermodynamic minimum energy levels. We conducted a column experiments with an ombrothrophic bog peat over a period of 300 days at 20° C, to test the hypothesis that alteration in solute and gas transport rates can remove this biogeochemical inactivation of DIC and methane turnover rates. To this end, we tested a i) control treatment with no gas and solute transport, ii) advective flow treatment with a flow water of 10 mm d-1, iii) ebullition treatment with methane removal by conduit transport as surrogate for bubbling, and iv) an O2-free atmosphere treatment to test the effect of remote transport of electron on anaerobic decomposition, in absence of oxygen compared to the other treatment. We determined detailed concentration depth profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), methane (CH4) and relevant decomposition intermediates (i.e. H2, Fe, nitrate, acetate, formiate and propionate), every 15 days at the beginning and every ca. 2 months after 75 days. CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured using a static chamber approach. Net turnover of DIC and CH4 in depth layers was calculated for individual depth intervals from mass balance approach based on diffusive mass fluxes between adjacent depth layers and change in storage over time. Thermodynamic energy levels of relevant electron accepting processes were calculated over time. In the initial phase of the experiments, DIC and CH4 concentrations increased mostly below the water table level at 10 cm depth and over time in all treatments. After 45 days of incubation, CH4 concentrations strongly increased in the advective flow treatment, peaked at 70 cm depth with 700 ?mol L-1, and in the O2-free treatment, peaked at 20 cm depth with ca. 600 ?mol L-1. DIC concentrations after 45 days showed similar pattern in term of levels between the different treatments, showed an increase from ca. 3000 ?mol L-1 near the water table to about 5000-6000 ?mol L-1at 70-75 cm depth. Furthermore, DIC and methane concentrations in the ebullition treatment showed a decline over time, probably due to the export of gases through the formation of bubbles. At the end of the experiment, we expect that a negative feedback on decomposition will mostly occur in deeper layers in the control treatments due to the slowness of transport and where the accumulation of CO2 and CH4 will be eased, in line with the results presented in previous studies. Keywords: Peatlands; Anaerobic decomposition; Methanogenesis; Net turnover rates; Gas fluxes; Advection; Ebullition.

  13. Effect of steel-making slag as a soil amendment on arsenic uptake by radish ( Raphanus sativa L.) in an upland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessie Gutierrez; Chang Oh Hong; Byung-Hyun Lee; Pil Joo Kim

    2010-01-01

    The steel-making slag (SMS), a by-product of steel manufacturing process with an alkaline pH (11–12) and high amount of iron\\u000a (Fe) and calcium (Ca) oxides, was used to reduce arsenic (As) phytoextractability. The by-product was selected as an alternative\\u000a to commercial Fe oxides, which can decrease plant uptake, but they are expensive if used as amendments of contaminated arable\\u000a soils.

  14. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ruess, Roger W.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    Background CO2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured CO2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO2 efflux. CO2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ?10 600 tonnes km?2 year?1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km2 year?1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO2 efflux (27 umol m?2 s?1), but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. Conclusions/Significance Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks. PMID:21738628

  15. 78 FR 8018 - Establishment of the Indiana Uplands Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio River Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...affect viticulture, such as climate, geology, soils, physical features, and elevation...Uplands petition presents evidence that the geology, soils, topography, and climate of...the proposed viticultural area include geology, topography, climate, and soil....

  16. Batch and Kinetic Studies of ni adsorption on Highly Humified newfoundland Peat

    E-print Network

    Coles, Cynthia

    Batch and Kinetic Studies of ni adsorption on Highly Humified newfoundland Peat emmanuel s. As's, NL, A1B 3X5, Canada abstract This study employed batch tests with a saprist peat soil from was used to determine the kinetic parameters at solution pH of 5.5 for peat doses of 4, 10, 21 and 40 g

  17. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat Catherine E. Lovelock1

    E-print Network

    Ruess, Roger W.

    CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat Catherine E. Lovelock1 *, Roger W. Ruess2 , Ilka C. Feller3 1 on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO2 efflux (27 umol m22 s21 ), but this had returned

  18. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Jiang; Cynthia A. Coles; Emmanuel S. Asapo

    2008-01-01

    Peat is commonly used as a combustible fuel for energy and as an addictive to soil in horticulture. For hundreds of years, peat was widely used as a green energy source for heating in the northern parts of Europe and North America. Nowadays, people tend to lay decomposed peat on lawns or gardens as a top layer because of its

  19. Studies on peat and peat microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eberhard Küster; Romano Locci

    1963-01-01

    Thermophilic Actinomycetes were isolated from various peat samples and examined in detail. Most of them were classified as Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, a species which frequently occurs in very different habitats.

  20. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Final report, Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Tisdale, M.

    1982-01-01

    South Carolina has few indigenous energy resources. Most widely known and utilized are hydropower, wood, and solar. Peat is a material composed of partially decomposed organic matter that, after burial for long periods of time, may eventually become coal. Peat is utilized as an energy resource for the production of electricity and for home heating in Europe and the Soviet Union. There are peat deposits in South Carolina, but peat has never been used as an energy resource within the state. This report presents the results of the two years of a planned four-year study of the quantity and energy potential of peat in South Carolina. In this year's survey two activities were undertaken. The first was to visit highly probable peat deposits to confirm the presence of fuel-grade peat. The second was to survey and characterize in more detail the areas judged to be of highest potential as major resources. The factors carrying the greatest weight in our determination of priority areas were: (1) a description of peat deposits in the scientific literature or from discussions with state and federal soil scientists; (2) mention of organic soils on soil maps or in the literature; and (3) information from farmers and other local citizens.

  1. Peat, horticulture and environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Robertson

    1993-01-01

    Peat-based growing media underpin the horticultural industry in the UK, although production sites cover less than 0.5% of the total peatland area. In recent years Peat Producer's Association members have released over 20% of their holdings to English Nature, representing virtually all the areas of current conservation value. The Association is now engaged in the assessment and development of restoration

  2. PEAT: an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Schora, F.C.; Punwani, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

  3. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in peat

    SciTech Connect

    Rapaport, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations (ng/g), accumulation rates (ug/m/sup 2/=yr) and burdens were determined for DDT (1,1,1-trichlorophenyl2-2'bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and a,b,g-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in peat cores taken across the mid-latitudes of North America. Because peat bogs are ombrotrophic, thereby receiving all contaminant inputs from the atmosphere and because peat cores were dated, atmospheric input functions were constructed for all of the compounds listed above excepting the HCHs. Compound inventories (burdens) in peat cores of PCBs, HCB, HCHs, Toxaphene, DDT, Pb and Zn were compared, indicating a strong influence from areas proximate to industrial sources and the atmospheric transport from source regions. Untransformed parent DDT (p,p' and o,p'-DDT) in surface peat and in precipitation provides evidence for the long range transport of DDT from neighboring countries where use has increased over the past 10-15 years. Present accumulation rates of DDT in peat are about 10-20% of maximum levels associated with peak use in the US around 1960. The DDT input function that was developed can be used to date peat cores. Transformations of DDT and PCBs were also examined in peat cores. First order transformation rates of DDT (p,p' and o,p') to DDD in anaerobic peat core environments ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 yr/sup -1/ with differences related to temperature. Aerobic transformation of PCB congeners in peat cores and microcosms was rapid for 2,3 and several 4 chlorinated congeners (T/sub 1/2 less than or equal to 0.2 to 3 years) and declined with increasing chlorine number.

  4. The link between peat hydrology and decomposition: Beyond von Post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, S. P. P.; Baldock, J. A.

    2013-02-01

    SummaryHydrology is central to the formation, growth and utilisation of peat soils. However, peat presents a difficult medium in which to measure hydrologic properties, due to its soft structure and high water content. The von Post scale is a widely used measure of the extent of decomposition of peat, which can be applied in the field or the laboratory without specialised equipment. von Post decomposition has been shown to correlate with hydraulic conductivity. However, it is a categorical and subjective measure of decomposition. Technological advances now enable peat chemistry to be described quantitatively and objectively. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is now routinely used to describe peat chemistry, and the capability of this technique has been extended by the development of the molecular mixing model (MMM). The MMM predicts the molecular composition of organic material from the spectral information provided by 13C NMR. We found significant relationships between the hydrologic properties hydraulic conductivity and water yield and peat chemistry as described by 13C NMR and the MMM. These relationships have potential application in all fields where the hydrologic properties of peat soils are of interest (i.e. peat mining, peatland restoration, catchment management) and also in modelling of peatland development and responses to climate change.

  5. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...7 CFR Part 1427 RIN 0560-AI16 Upland Cotton Base Quality AGENCY: Commodity Credit...Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations...uses base quality to calculate upland cotton loan rates, Adjusted World Price...

  6. The effects of salinization on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition and mineralization in peat meadows: the roles of peat type and land use.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Karlijn; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Hefting, Mariet M

    2014-10-01

    Peat soils comprise a large part of the western and northern Netherlands. Drainage for agriculture has caused increased soil aeration which has stimulated decomposition and, hence, soil subsidence, currently amounting to 1-2 cm/yr. River water is supplied to these peat areas in summer to prevent drying out of the peat soils. Saltwater intrusion and evaporation make this surface water slightly brackish during drought periods. In addition, brackish seepage can surface more easily during such dry periods. We performed an incubation experiment in which the effects of salinization on aerobic decomposition and mineralization of shallow peat samples and anaerobic decomposition and mineralization of deep peat samples were studied. We considered four different types of peat samples: peat sampled in agricultural peat meadows and in nature reserves, originally formed under either eutrophic or oligotrophic conditions. The aerobic decomposition was approximately reduced by 50% after salinization, whereas the anaerobic decomposition rates remained unchanged. Remarkably, the response to salinization did not differ between the peat types and land uses. Ammonium concentrations increased while nitrate concentrations decreased after salinization, probably as a result of reduced nitrification. Especially in the oligotrophic peat, ammonium concentrations increased substantially. Phosphate concentrations increased, possibly caused by changes in desorption and adsorption processes due to higher ion concentrations. DOC concentrations decreased in the brackish samples due to precipitation. Furthermore, the eutrophic peat samples showed increasing sulfate concentrations, both in oxic and anoxic incubations, which was attributed to pyrite oxidation. Independently of salinization, nitrification rates were higher in the agricultural, fertilized, peat soils. In conclusion, while salinization might reduce subsidence rates, it will have adverse effects on water quality. PMID:24837279

  7. Upland Rice Production in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Barbosa Filho; T. Yamada

    Most of the upland rice produced in Brazil is on Oxisols with low water-holding capacity and often with low fertility. This article outlines some of the management practices being studied for sustainable rice production systems. Upland rice occupied 2.4 million ha or 64 percent of the total rice area in Brazil in 1999 (Table 1). However, due to lower productivity

  8. Measurement and Analysis of Physical and Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Peat Using 3D Micro CT Scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Rezanezhad; W. Quinton; J. Price; D. Elrick; T. Elliot; K. Shook

    2009-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated peat with a wetting phase is controlled by the peat structure which affects the air-filled porosity, pore size distribution and shape. This study investigates how the size and geometry of pores affects the flow of water through peat soil. To examine the effects of pore size and geometric characteristics of the air-filled pores on unsaturated

  9. Sulfur mobility in peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Novák; Marie Adamová; R. Kelman Wieder; Simon H. Bottrell

    2005-01-01

    Lead-210 chronologies, vertical S concentration gradients and ?34S values are presented for 5 Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs located in Central Europe (Rybarenska slat and Ocean Bog; Czech Republic) and the British Isles (Thorne Moors, England; Connemara, Ireland; and Mull, Scotland). Sulfur concentrations were measured in three 40-cm deep peat cores per site, sectioned into 2-cm segments. The coefficient of variation in

  10. Third technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The conference dealt with the estimation of US peat reserves, methods for the gasification of peat, including biogasification, techniques for dewatering peat, and the harvesting of peat. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  11. The effects of ecological restoration on CO2 fluxes from a climatically marginal upland blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Qassim, Suzane; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

    2013-04-01

    A legacy of gully incision, deposition of industrially-derived aerial pollutants, inappropriate management and wildfire has left large expanses of the topographic Bleaklow Plateau (Peak District National Park, England, UK) bare of vegetation and susceptible to massive erosion of the peat soils. The consequence of such degradation has been to decrease the capacity of the peatland on the plateau to provide important ecosystem services including; loss of net C sink function, discolouration of surface waters, mobilisation to surface waters of stored heavy metals and infilling of upland reservoirs with peat-derived sediment. In response to on-going and worsening degradation a programme of ecological restoration has been undertaken. Restoration methods include: seeding with a lawn grass mix; liming; fertilisation; slope stabilisation; and gully blocking. This talk will present data from a five-year, observational-study of CO2 fluxes from eight sites, with four sites sampling different restoration treatments and four sampling bare and least disturbed areas. The results of the analysis reveal that sites with revegetation alongside slope stabilisation were most productive and were the largest net (daylight hours) sinks of CO2. Unrestored, bare sites, while having relatively low gross fluxes of CO2 were the largest net sources of CO2. Revegetation without slope stabilisation took longer (~18 months) to show an impact on CO2 flux in comparison to the sites with slope stabilisation. Binary logistic regression indicated that a ten centimetre increase in water table depth decreases the odds of observing a net CO2 sink, on a given site, by up to 30%. Sites with slope stabilisation were between 5-8x more likely to be net CO2 sinks than the bare sites. Sites without slope stabilisation were only 2-2.3x more likely to be net CO2 sinks compared to the bare sites. The most important conclusion of this research is that revegetation appears to be effective at increasing the likelihood of net CO2 behaviour on degraded, climatically marginal blanket peat, with revegetation alongside slope stabilisation having the greatest impact.

  12. Fluvial entrainment of low density peat blocks (block carbon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Jeff

    2014-05-01

    In many fluvial environments low density materials are transported in significant quantities and these form an important part of the stream load and /or have a distinct impact on sedimentation in these environments. However, there are significant gaps in understanding of how these materials are entrained and transported by streams and rivers. Eroding upland peatland environments in particular, frequently have fluvial systems in which large eroded peat blocks, often exceeding 1 m in length; form an important component of the stream material flux. Transport of this material is significant in determining rates of erosion but also has important impacts in terms of damage to infrastructure and carbon loss. This paper describes a field experiment designed to establish for the first time the conditions under which large peat blocks (c. > 0.1 m b axis) are initially entrained from a rough gravel bed. The field site is Trout Beck, in the North Pennines, Northern England which is an upland wandering river channel with occasional lateral and mid channel bars. Mean low flow stage is typically 0.2 m but during flood can rapidly rise, in one to two hours, to over 1.5 m. To study peat block entrainment a bespoke data acquisition system consisting of two pressure transducers, four release triggers and time lapse camera was set up. The pressure transducers provided a record of local depth and the release triggers were embedded in peat blocks to record initial motion and arranged on the rough stream bed. The time lapse camera provided verification of timing of block entrainment (during daylight hours) and also provided information on the mechanism of initial movement. Peat blocks were cut from a local source and were equidimensional, ranging in size from 0.1 to 0.7 m. The derived entrainment function is related to a critical depth of entrainment. Results demonstrate that peat blocks are entrained when the local depth approximates the height of the peat block. Blocks frequently shift position prior to entrainment but once entrained are rapidly transported downstream. Because of the rough stream bed local depth, measured on the four sides of the block varies markedly and needs to be considered in developing an appropriate entrainment function and; is useful in explaining initial movement prior to entrainment. In some experiments a small accelerometer (HOBO Pendant G data logger) was used to investigate transport dynamics following entrainment. Further work will seek to improve the entrainment function by extending the size range of tests, developing a shear stress related function and investigating the importance of block shape (rounding) on entrainment.

  13. Inter-specific competition, but not different soil microbial communities, affects N chemical forms uptake by competing graminoids of upland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Medina-Roldán, Eduardo; Bardgett, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that plants differ in their ability to take up both organic (ON) and inorganic (IN) forms of nitrogen (N) has increased ecologists' interest on resource-based plant competition. However, whether plant uptake of IN and ON responds to differences in soil microbial community composition and/or functioning has not yet been explored, despite soil microbes playing a key role in N cycling. Here, we report results from a competition experiment testing the hypothesis that soil microbial communities differing in metabolic activity as a result of long-term differences to grazing exposure could modify N uptake of Eriophorum vaginatum L. and Nardus stricta L. These graminoids co-occur on nutrient-poor, mountain grasslands where E. vaginatum decreases and N. stricta increases in response to long-term grazing. We inoculated sterilised soil with soil microbial communities from continuously grazed and ungrazed grasslands and planted soils with both E. vaginatum and N. stricta, and then tracked uptake of isotopically labelled NH(4) (+) (IN) and glycine (ON) into plant tissues. The metabolically different microbial communities had no effect on N uptake by either of the graminoids, which might suggest functional equivalence of soil microbes in their impacts on plant N uptake. Consistent with its dominance in soils with greater concentrations of ON relative to IN in the soluble N pool, Eriophorum vaginatum took up more glycine than N. stricta. Nardus stricta reduced the glycine proportion taken up by E. vaginatum, thus increasing niche overlap in N usage between these species. Local abundances of these species in mountain grasslands are principally controlled by grazing and soil moisture, although our results suggest that changes in the relative availability of ON to IN can also play a role. Our results also suggest that coexistence of these species in mountain grasslands is likely based on non-equilibrium mechanisms such as disturbance and/or soil heterogeneity. PMID:23236451

  14. Fourth technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The papers presented dealt with peat dewatering, international peat programs, environmental and socio-economic factors, peat gasification, peat harvesting, and the state peat surveys for 14 states. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  15. Carbon stocks and soil sequestration rates of riverine mangroves and freshwater wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, M. F.; Santini, N. S.; Tovilla, C.; Vázquez-Lule, A.; Castro, L.

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and degradation of wetlands are important causes of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Accurate measurements of carbon (C) stocks and sequestration rates are needed for incorporating wetlands into conservation and restoration programs with the aim for preventing carbon emissions. Here, we assessed whole ecosystem C stocks (trees, soil and downed wood) and soil N stocks of riverine wetlands (mangroves, marshes and peat swamps) within La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve in the Pacific coast of Mexico. We also estimated soil C sequestration rates of mangroves on the basis of soil accumulation. We hypothesized that riverine wetlands have large C stocks, and that upland mangroves have larger C and soil N stocks compared to lowland mangroves. Riverine wetlands had large C stocks with a mean of 784.5 ± 73.5 Mg C ha-1 for mangroves, 722.2 ± 83.4 Mg C ha-1 for peat swamps, and 336.5 ± 38.3 Mg C ha-1 for marshes. C stocks and soil N stocks were in general larger for upland (833.0 ± 7.2 Mg C ha-1; 26.4 ± 0.5 Mg N ha-1) compared to lowland mangroves (659.5 ± 18.6 Mg C ha-1; 13.8 ± 2.0 Mg N ha-1). Soil C sequestration values were 1.3 ± 0.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The Reserve stores 32.5 Mtons of C or 119.3 Mtons of CO2, with mangroves sequestering (via soil accumulation) 27 762 ± 0.5 Mg C ha-1 every year.

  16. Impacts of Reservoir Creation on the Biogeochemical Cycling of Methyl Mercury and Total Mercury in Boreal Upland Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Hall; V. L. St. Louis; K. R. Rolfhus; R. A. Bodaly; K. G. Beaty; M. J. Paterson; K. A. Peech Cherewyk

    2005-01-01

    The FLooded Upland Dynamics Experiment (FLUDEX) at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in northwest Ontario was designed to test the hypothesis that methylmercury (MeHg) production in reservoirs is related to the amount, and subsequent decomposition, of flooded organic matter. Three upland forest sites that varied in the amounts of organic carbon stored in vegetation and soils (Low C, 30,870 kg

  17. Vegetation influence on ectomycorrhizal inoculum Available to sub-arctic willow (Salix lapponum L.) planted in an upland Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Milne; R. A. Ennos; P. M. Hollingsworth

    2006-01-01

    Restoration of scrub and woodland in deforested upland sites is an important conservation activity. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal colonisation potential of upland soils or the factors that influence the distribution of mycorrhizal inoculum. We investigated the effect of existing vegetation on mycorrhizal colonisation potential for a sub-arctic willow (Salix lapponum) by planting uninoculated cuttings into plotsrepresenting two

  18. Cadmium in upland forests after vitality fertilization with wood ash—a summary of soil microbiological studies into the potential risk of cadmium release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonna Perkiömäki; Hannu Fritze

    2005-01-01

    The use of wood ash in forestry has been questioned because of the potential risk associated with its cadmium (Cd) content (1–30 mg kg ?1). In agriculture, wood ash is only allowed for use as a fertilizer when its Cd content is below 3 mg kg ?1. This restriction has not been applied to forest soils and there is a lack of

  19. Alfred P. Dachnowski and the scientific study of peats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Cohen, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Botanist Alfred Paul Dachnowski (1875–1949) was a major contributor to efforts at mapping organic soils in the United States during the early 20th century. He began his career at The Ohio State University, and spent most of his professional life at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, DC. His work spanned a diversity of topics, including bog ecology and the ecosystem services provided by wetlands, the mapping and chemical characterization of peat, and the commercial applications of peat. We present a biography and overview of his work. Dachnowski is best known today for the peat sampler that bears his name. The details of its operation are described here, and its place in modern peat studies is discussed.

  20. Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Steiner; Wenceslau G. Teixeira; Johannes Lehmann; Thomas Nehls; Jeferson Luis Vasconcelos de Macêdo; Winfried E. H. Blum; Wolfgang Zech

    2007-01-01

    Application of organic fertilizers and charcoal increase nutrient stocks in the rooting zone of crops, reduce nutrient leaching\\u000a and thus improve crop production on acid and highly weathered tropical soils. In a field trial near Manaus (Brazil) 15 different\\u000a amendment combinations based on equal amounts of carbon (C) applied through chicken manure (CM), compost, charcoal, and forest\\u000a litter were tested

  1. Characterisation of VOC, SVOC, and PM emissions from peat burnt in laboratory simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peat, or organic soil, is a vast store of organic carbon, widely distributed from polar temperate to equatorial regions. Drainage for agriculture and drought are drying vast areas of peat, exposing it to increasing fire risk, which may be exacerbated by climate change. This has ...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means all cultivated varieties of...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means all cultivated varieties of...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means all cultivated varieties of...

  5. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identified as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  6. The Limits to Peat Bog Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Clymo

    1984-01-01

    Not less than 2% of the Earth's land surface is peat-covered, so it is important to try to understand the dynamics of peat accumulation. Peat-forming systems (mires) accumulate peat because conditions within them impede the decay of the plant material produced by their surface vegetation. This paper concerns the rate of peat production and some unexpected consequences of the processes

  7. Characterization of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria with respiratory ammonification and denitrification activity--description of Paenibacillus uliginis sp. nov., an inhabitant of fen peat soil and Paenibacillus purispatii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft assembly clean room.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Schumann, Peter; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Pukall, Rüdiger; Augustin, Jürgen; Spröer, Cathrin; Schwendner, Petra; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Ulrich, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    In the course of studying the influence of N-fertilization on N(2) and N(2)O flux rates in relation to soil bacterial community composition of a long-term fertilization experiment in fen peat grassland, a strain group was isolated that was related to a strain isolated from a spacecraft assembly clean room during diversity studies of microorganisms, which withstood cleaning and bioburden reduction strategies. Both the fen soil isolates and the clean room strain revealed versatile physiological capacities in N-transformation processes by performing heterotrophic nitrification, respiratory ammonification and denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the investigated isolates belonged to the genus Paenibacillus. Sequence similarities lower than 97% in comparison to established species indicated a separate species position. Except for the peptidoglycan type (A4alpha L-Lys-D-Asp), chemotaxonomic features of the isolates matched the genus description, but differences in several physiological characteristics separated them from related species and supported their novel species status. Despite a high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the clean room isolate ES_MS17(T) and the representative fen soil isolate N3/975(T), DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed genetic differences at the species level. These differences were substantiated by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, ribotyping and several distinct physiological characteristics. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the fen soil isolates and the clean room isolate ES_MS17(T) represented two novel species for which the names Paenibacillus uliginis sp. nov. (type strain N3/975(T)=DSM 21861(T)=LMG 24790(T)) and Paenibacillus purispatii sp. nov. (type strain ES_MS17(T)=DSM 22991(T)=CIP 110057(T)) are proposed. PMID:20813476

  8. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

  10. 27 CFR 9.228 - Indiana Uplands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indiana Uplands. 9.228 Section 9.228...American Viticultural Areas § 9.228 Indiana Uplands. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is “Indiana Uplands”. For purposes of part 4 of...

  11. 27 CFR 9.228 - Indiana Uplands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indiana Uplands. 9.228 Section 9.228...American Viticultural Areas § 9.228 Indiana Uplands. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is “Indiana Uplands”. For purposes of part 4 of...

  12. Physical and thermochemical properties of uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated peat

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, R.A.; Pyke, J.B.; Ghaly, A.E.; Ugursal, V.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    Peat, plant matter that is partially fossilized, is formed in poorly oxygenated wetlands where the rate at which the plant matter accumulates is greater than the rate at which it decomposes. Peat is a common solid fuel ranking among coal, coke, wood, and sugarcane bagasse. It has also been used to recover oil during the remediation processes of contaminated water and soil. Because of its high moisture content, peat has a high potential as biofuel material for gasification. However, proper understanding of the physical and thermochemical properties of peat is necessary for the design of thermochemical conversion systems. This study provides information on moisture content, bulk density, particle size, heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, ash composition, and ash fusibility characteristics of uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated peat. The moisture content of uncontaminated peat was 7.10%, whereas that of diesel-contaminated peat ranged from 8.65% to 10.80%. The bulk density for the uncontaminated peat was 151 kg/m{sup 3}, which increased to 391--534 kg/m{sup 3} due to diesel contamination. Most of the particles (60%) were in the form of dust. The results also showed an ash content of 3.23% and the lower heating value of 17.65 MJ/kg (dry weight basis) for the uncontaminated peat. The ash content decreased substantially, whereas the lower heating value increased due to diesel contamination. The ash fusion temperature of the peat was found to be over 1100 C.

  13. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in different manners. Interactions between climate change and land management shifts will also be taken into account. The modelling results will be beneficial for the planning of land-use strategies in the blanket peatlands across the world.

  14. The legacy of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, J.Z.; De Fontaine, C. S.; Deverel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world, many extensive wetlands, such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California (hereafter, the Delta), have been drained for agriculture, resulting in land-surface subsidence of peat soils. The purpose of this project was to study the in situ effects of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Delta. Peat cores were retrieved from four drained, farmed islands and four relatively undisturbed, marsh islands. Core samples were analyzed for bulk density and percent organic carbon. Macrofossils in the peat were dated using radiocarbon age determination. The peat from the farmed islands is highly distinct from marsh island peat. Bulk density of peat from the farmed islands is generally greater than that of the marsh islands at a given organic carbon content. On the farmed islands, increased bulk density, which is an indication of compaction, decreases with depth within the unoxidized peat zone, whereas, on the marsh islands, bulk density is generally constant with depth except near the surface. Approximately 5580 of the original peat layer on the farmed islands has been lost due to land-surface subsidence. For the center regions of the farmed islands, this translates into an estimated loss of between 29005700 metric tons of organic carbon/hectare. Most of the intact peat just below the currently farmed soil layer is over 4000 years old. Peat loss will continue as long as the artificial water table on the farmed islands is held below the land surface. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  15. The legacy of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Christian S. de Fontaine; Steven J. Deverel

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world, many extensive wetlands, such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California (hereafter, the Delta), have been drained for agriculture, resulting in land-surface subsidence of peat soils. The purpose of this project was to study the in situ effects of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Delta. Peat cores were retrieved from four drained, farmed islands and four relatively undisturbed, marsh islands. Core samples were analyzed for bulk density and percent organic carbon. Macrofossils in the peat were dated using radiocarbon age determination. The peat from the farmed islands is highly distinct from marsh island peat. Bulk density of peat from the farmed islands is generally greater than that of the marsh islands at a given organic carbon content. On the farmed islands, increased bulk density, which is an indication of compaction, decreases with depth within the unoxidized peat zone, whereas, on the marsh islands, bulk density is generally constant with depth except near the surface. Approximately 55–80% of the original peat layer on the farmed islands has been lost due to landsurface subsidence. For the center regions of the farmed islands, this translates into an estimated loss of between 2900-5700 metric tons of organic carbon/hectare. Most of the intact peat just below the currently farmed soil layer is over 4000 years old. Peat loss will continue as long as the artificial water table on the farmed islands is held below the land surface.

  16. Calibration of Time Domain Reflectometry Using Undisturbed Peat Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagare, R. M.; Schincariol, R. A.; Quinton, W. L.; Hayashi, M.

    2009-05-01

    At present, freeze-thaw experiments on 60 cm diameter by 90 cm deep peat/permafrost cores from our central Mackenzie River basin long-term field site are being conducted to better elucidate coupled heat and moisture transport processes occurring in the active layer. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) along with 15 cm and 30 cm probes is being used to monitor the depth-specific volumetric soil moisture (VSM) in these cores. Organic soils are characterized by high porosities and soil density increases many folds at successive depths. Therefore, we calibrated the TDR for different depths and for peat with two different origins (sphagnum moss and lichen). A simple apparatus was developed to ensure a more homogenous soil moisture distribution in the undisturbed samples used for calibration. Methodology and results for the calibration as well as comparisons with mixing models at different densities are presented and the effects of different soil phases on calibration are discussed.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF UPLAND EROSION PROCESSES AND FARMER'S PERCEPTION OF LAND CONSERVATION IN DEBRE-MEWI WATERSHED,

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    ASSESSMENT OF UPLAND EROSION PROCESSES AND FARMER'S PERCEPTION OF LAND CONSERVATION IN DEBRE By Assefa Derebe Zegeye May 2009 #12;© 2009 Assefa Derebe Zegeye #12;ABSTRACT Soil erosion is affecting the last century mainly by human activity. In developing countries in order to combat erosion, many soil

  18. Examining the Influence of Pore Size Distribution and Geometry on Flow through Unsaturated Peat using 3D Micro-CT Scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Rezanezhad; W. L. Quinton; J. S. Price; D. Elrick; T. Elliot; K. Shook

    2009-01-01

    In organic soils, hydraulic conductivity is related to the degree of decomposition and soil compression, which reduce the effective pore diameter and consequently restrict water flow. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of complex dual-porosity peat soils is controlled by the peat structure which affects the air-filled porosity, pore size distribution and shape. This study investigates how the size distribution and geometry

  19. Ebullition of biogenic gas bubbles from samples of near-surface peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Baird; S. Waldron

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that peat soils are not water-saturated below the water table (e.g. Rosenberry et al. 2003; Baird and Waldron, 2003), owing to accumulations of biogenic gas bubbles, consisting of poorly-soluble gases such as CH4. It has been shown that gas bubbles can block pores and reduce rates of water flow in peat soils (Baird and Waldron, 2003). It

  20. Modelling uncertainty of carbon stocks changes in peats.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; Aalders, Inge; Morrice, Jane; Hough, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    Global warming might change the hydrology of upland blanket peats in Scotland with increased risk of release of the stored carbon. It is therefore important to model the loss of carbon in peat areas with estimation of the damage potential. The presented approach has the potential to provide important information for the assessment of carbon stocks over large areas, but also in case of changes of land use, such as construction of wind farms. The provided spatial uncertainty is important for including the results in further environmental and climate-change models and for decision making in order to provide alternatives and prioritisation. In this study, main peat properties (i.e. depth, water content, bulk density and carbon content) were modelled using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical 3D approach that allows full uncertainty propagation. The approach used involves 1) modelling the trend with full 3D spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in 3D-space, and 2) 3D kriging as spatial component. The uncertainty of the approach is assessed with iterations in both steps of the process. We studied the difference between local estimates obtained with the present method and local estimates obtained assuming the global average value across the test area for Carbon content and bulk density. To this end, virtual pits with a surface area of 30x30 m were excavated for the whole peat depth at randomly selected locations. Calculated uncertainty was used to estimate credible intervals of C loss. In this case the estimates obtained with the proposed approach are higher that what would be obtained by assuming spatial homogeneity and using just average values across the area. This has implications for environmental decision making and planning as, in this case, it is likely that more carbon would be lost than estimated using traditional approaches.

  1. Climate sensitivity and macronutrient regulation of peat decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Rachel; Ostle, Nick; McNamara, Niall; Baggs, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Organic soils act as vital global carbon stores maintained in northern latitudes by climate and nutrient limited rates of organic matter decomposition. Peatland decomposition rates are sensitive to climate change, however predicting the magnitude of the microbial respiratory response is complex due to unknown interactions between climate and substrate quality. The nutrient status of peatlands varies widely from mineral rich fens to nutrient poor ombrotrophic bogs, which have the potential to respond differently to climate driven changes in temperature and carbon (C) inputs. In this work we examine the links between peatland macronutrient C, phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry, microbial community structure and the microbial response to direct and indirect effects of climate change. Using total soil C:N and C:P ratios to define nutrient gradients in organic soils from Svalbard and Finland we investigated the interaction between the microbial response to temperature and nutrient limitation of decomposition. In organic rich soils from Svalbard we found there was a significant relationship between increasing temperature sensitivity of respiration and decreasing total soil P concentrations. Further investigation of the potential direct link between P limitation of decomposition and increased temperature sensitivity along a minerotrophic-ombroptrophic gradient in Finland was performed using multi-factorial P limitation assays. These showed that despite varying degrees of P limitation across four peatland soils there was no relationship between P limitation and increased temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Throughout this study we found consistently high temperature sensitivity of decomposition in organic rich soils with Q10 values ranging between 2 to 4.5, indicating potentially higher vulnerability of these C stores to warming than is currently predicted using a globally invariant Q10. Following on from this we examined the interaction between peatland nutrient status and the potential for labile C substrates to stimulate (prime) decomposition of the peat organic matter. Using 13C labelled glucose and hemicellulose compounds we observed significant differences in the amount and rate of microbial substrate use between peats with differing nutrient status. Nutrient addition experiments were used with labelled C substrates to investigate the role of N and P limitation in enhancing or restricting priming effects. This is one of the first studies to use 13C substrates to examine potential priming effects in peat soil and it provides an insight into the importance of priming mechanisms in peat decomposition. This work explicitly links soil microbial responses to temperature and nutrient manipulations with microbial community structure allowing us to observe how microbial communities mediate soil C losses in peat soils. Disentangling the complex interactions between soil microbial community, C and nutrient limitation of decomposition is essential for predicting the vulnerability of different peatland ecosystems to climate driven changes.

  2. Understanding fine sediment and phosphorous delivery in upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, M. T.; Reaney, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The uplands of UK are heavily impacted by land management including; farming and forestry operations, moorland burning, peat extraction, metal mining, artificial drainage and channelisation. It has been demonstrated that such land management activity may modify hillslope processes, resulting in enhanced runoff generation and changing the spatial distribution and magnitude of erosion. Resultantly, few upland river systems of the UK are operating in a natural state, with land management activity often resulting in increased fluxes of suspended sediment (< 2 mm) and associated pollutants (such as phosphorous). Most recent Environment Agency (EA) data reveals that 60% of monitored water bodies within upland areas of the UK are currently at risk of failing the Water Framework Directive (WFD) due to poor ecological status. In order to prevent the continual degradation of many upland catchments, riverine systems and their diverse ecosystems, a range of measures to control diffuse pollution will need to be implemented. Future mitigation options and measures in the UK may be tested and targeted through the EA's catchment pilot scheme; DEFRA's Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programmes and through the catchment restoration fund. However, restoring the physical and biological processes of past conditions in inherently sensitive upland environments is extremely challenging requiring the development of a solid evidence base to determine the effectiveness of resource allocation and to enable reliable and transparent decisions to be made about future catchment operations. Such evidence is rarely collected, with post-implementation assessments often neglected. This paper presents research conducted in the Morland sub-catchment of the River Eden within Cumbria; UK. 80% of this headwater catchment is in upland areas and is dominated by improved grassland and rough grazing. The catchment is heavily instrumented with a range of hydro-meteorological equipment. A high-tech monitoring station at the 12.5 km2 outlet provides flow, turbidity, total phosphorous (TP), total reactive phosphorous (TRP), conductivity, temperature and pH measurements at 15-minute intervals. Within this catchment, two additional monitoring stations along adjacent tributaries with catchment areas of 2.3 km2 and 3.8 km2 provide continuous flow and turbidity data with soluble reactive phosphorous and TP collected during storms. Collection and analysis of this data over two full hydrological years has proved effective in; a) producing load estimates; b) producing better assessments of the magnitude and duration of aquatic organisms exposure to detrimental levels of suspended sediment and phosphorous; c) exploring the processes responsible for the delivery and transfer of fine sediment and phosphorous to and from the channel and; d) enhancing our understanding and prediction of the fluvial sediment system. The process understanding achieved using this monitoring framework has facilitated the production of a mitigation plan for the Morland catchment. Following this plan, a range of measures are currently being implemented to reduce the movement of diffuse pollutants across the hillslopes and channels whilst in-stream monitoring continues. The adopted mitigation measures may act as a trial for other upland catchments facing similar pressures.

  3. Control of Submarine Groundwater Flow and Chemistry by Onshore and Offshore Buried Peat Along a Developed Long Island Shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, J. F.; Kroeger, K. D.; Crusius, J.; Schubert, C.; Paulsen, R.; Green, A. C.; Wanlass, J.; Baldwin, S.; Abbene, I. J.; Young, C.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along the north shore of Long Island’s Great South Bay estuary was investigated to characterize and quantify nutrient delivery to the bay from groundwater. Recent field activities included onshore and offshore piezometer and well sampling, sediment coring, stationary resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ porewater conductivity. Groundwater and surface water were sampled for analysis of nutrients, water quality parameters (conductivity, temperature, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen), and age tracers. Results from detailed study at Patchogue Bay sites showed shallow plumes of low-salinity groundwater (salinity <3.5) located within 0.5 m of the estuary floor that decreased in thickness along one transect from approximately 4.5 m near shore to <1 m at 90 m offshore. Sediment cores collected near shore recovered buried submarine peat layers up to 49 cm thick that isolated low-salinity (salinity = 2-4) porewater below from brackish porewater above. In situ measurements of porewater conductivity and temperature in the upper 0.7 m of the sediment at one site verified the presence and extent of the peat layer there, as well as the isolation of terrestrially-derived groundwater beneath the layer extending offshore about 100 meters. Stationary electrical resistivity measurements also revealed the presence of high-resistivity (low-salinity) groundwater beneath the peat layer and more conductive porewater above the peat layer. Peat was found adjacent to existing or filled tidal creeks but was absent in cores collected offshore of the ends of peninsulas between tidal creeks. Much of the natural shoreline of the bay was developed in the 1950s and 1960s after construction of bulkheads and filling of tidal marshes with dredged or dumped fill material. Recharge of groundwater through buried peats and organic-rich soils in developed filled areas results in adjacent submarine groundwater plumes that are anoxic and ammonium-rich (average = 255 micromoles of ammonium per liter in offshore samples; max = 593 [n = 41]). Tritium data collected previously in this area indicate that groundwater recharged within the last few decades discharges relatively close to shore, but that the age of groundwater increases with depth and distance offshore. Recent samples from offshore profile wells contained detectable concentrations of MTBE and volatile organic compounds in the deeper low-salinity intervals, consistent with recharge of this groundwater further inland than younger and shallower submarine groundwater that did not contain detectable concentrations of these compounds. Land use patterns in the upland area of the watershed support this trend. Better understanding of the distributions of age and chemical composition along developed shorelines such as this could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for estuarine nutrient over-enrichment.

  4. Transport and fate of trifluoroacetate in upland forest and wetland?ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Likens, G. E.; Tartowski, S. L.; Berger, T. W.; Richey, D. G.; Driscoll, C. T.; Frank, H. G.; Klein, A.

    1997-01-01

    Although trifluoroacetate (TFA), a breakdown product of chlorofluorocarbon replacements, is being dispersed widely within the biosphere, its ecological fate is largely unknown. TFA was added experimentally to an upland, northern hardwood forest and to a small forest wetland ecosystem within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Inputs of TFA were not transported conservatively through these ecosystems; instead, significant amounts of TFA were retained within the vegetation and soil compartments. More TFA was retained by the wetland ecosystem than by the upland forest ecosystem. Using simulation modeling, TFA concentrations were predicted for soil and drainage water until the year 2040. PMID:9114018

  5. Runoff generation and water table fluctuations in blanket peat: evidence from UK data spanning the dry summer of 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Evans; T. P. Burt; J. Holden; J. K. Adamson

    1999-01-01

    Understanding of the hydrology of upland blanket peatlands has been limited both by the logistical difficulties of obtaining data from such environments and by technical difficulties with plot scale investigations of peat hydrology. The relative importance of infiltration-excess and percolation-excess as runoff generating mechanisms as opposed to the saturation-excess mechanism remains unclear. This study uses catchment-scale runoff data, in combination

  6. Age Determination of the Remaining Peat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; de Fontaine, Christian S.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California was once a 1,400 square kilometer (km2) tidal marsh, which contained a vast layer of peat ranging up to 15 meters (m) thick (Atwater and Belknap, 1980). Because of its favorable climate and highly fertile peat soils, the majority of the Delta was drained and reclaimed for agriculture during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Drainage of the peat soils changed the conditions in the surface layers of peat from anaerobic (having no free oxygen present) to aerobic (exposed to the atmosphere). This change in conditions greatly increased the decomposition rate of the peat, which consists largely of organic (plant) matter. Thus began the process of land-surface subsidence, which initially was a result of peat shrinkage and compaction, and later largely was a result of oxidation by which organic carbon in the peat essentially vaporized to carbon dioxide (Deverel and others, 1998; Ingebritsen and Ikehara, 1999). Because of subsidence, the land-surface elevation on farmed islands in the Delta has decreased from a few meters to as much as 8 m below local mean sea level (California Department of Water Resources, 1995; Steve Deverel, Hydrofocus, Inc., written commun., 2007). The USGS, in collaboration with the University of California at Davis, and Hydrofocus Inc. of Davis, California, has been studying the formation of the Delta and the impact of wetland reclamation on the peat column as part of a project called Rates and Evolution of Peat Accretion through Time (REPEAT). The purpose of this report is to provide results on the age of the remaining peat soils on four farmed islands in the Delta.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions through oxidative peat decomposition on a burnt tropical peatland.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kusin, Kitso; Limin, Suwido; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-02-01

    In Southeast Asia, a huge amount of peat has accumulated under swamp forests over millennia. Fires have been widely used for land clearing after timber extraction, thus land conversion and land management with logging and drainage are strongly associated with fire activity. During recent El Niño years, tropical peatlands have been severely fire-affected and peatland fires enlarged. To investigate the impact of peat fires on the regional and global carbon balances, it is crucial to assess not only direct carbon emissions through peat combustion but also oxidative peat decomposition after fires. However, there is little information on the carbon dynamics of tropical peat damaged by fires. Therefore, we continuously measured soil CO2 efflux [peat respiration (RP)] through oxidative peat decomposition using six automated chambers on a burnt peat area, from which about 0.7 m of the upper peat had been lost during two fires, in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The RP showed a clear seasonal variation with higher values in the dry season. The RP increased logarithmically as groundwater level (GWL) lowered. Temperature sensitivity or Q10 of RP decreased as GWL lowered, mainly because the vertical distribution of RP would shift downward with the expansion of an unsaturated soil zone. Although soil temperature at the burnt open area was higher than that in a near peat swamp forest, model simulation suggests that the effect of temperature rise on RP is small. Annual gap-filled RP was 382 ± 82 (the mean ± 1 SD of six chambers) and 362 ± 74 gC m(-2)  yr(-1) during 2004-2005 and during 2005-2006 years, respectively. Simulated RP showed a significant negative relationship with GWL on an annual basis, which suggests that every GWL lowering by 0.1 m causes additional RP of 89 gC m(-2)  yr(-1) . The RP accounted for 21-24% of ecosystem respiration on an annual basis. PMID:23775585

  8. Correlation analysis as a tool to investigate the bioaccessibility of nickel, vanadium and zinc in Northern Ireland soils.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sherry; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; McKinley, Jennifer M; Cox, Siobhan; Barsby, Amy

    2013-10-01

    Correlation analyses were conducted on nickel (Ni), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) oral bioaccessible fractions (BAFs) and selected geochemistry parameters to identify specific controls exerted over trace element bioaccessibility. BAFs were determined by previous research using the unified BARGE method. Total trace element concentrations and soil geochemical parameters were analysed as part of the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland Tellus Project. Correlation analysis included Ni, V and Zn BAFs against their total concentrations, pH, estimated soil organic carbon (SOC) and a further eight element oxides. BAF data were divided into three separate generic bedrock classifications of basalt, lithic arenite and mudstone prior to analysis, resulting in an increase in average correlation coefficients between BAFs and geochemical parameters. Sulphur trioxide and SOC, spatially correlated with upland peat soils, exhibited significant positive correlations with all BAFs in gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion phases, with such effects being strongest in the lithic arenite bedrock group. Significant negative relationships with bioaccessible Ni, V and Zn and their associated total concentrations were observed for the basalt group. Major element oxides were associated with reduced oral trace element bioaccessibility, with Al2O3 resulting in the highest number of significant negative correlations followed by Fe2O3. spatial mapping showed that metal oxides were present at reduced levels in peat soils. The findings illustrate how specific geology and soil geochemistry exert controls over trace element bioaccessibility, with soil chemical factors having a stronger influence on BAF results than relative geogenic abundance. In general, higher Ni, V and Zn bioaccessibility is expected in peat soil types. PMID:23793447

  9. Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat

    E-print Network

    Moore, Tim

    Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat Accumulation Steve Frolking,1 * Nigel T. Roulet,2´al, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada ABSTRACT To test the hypothesis that long-term peat accumula- tion is related to contemporary carbon flux dynamics, we present the Peat Decomposition Model (PDM), a new model of long-term peat

  10. Second technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The program includes peat resource surveys of eleven states, peat gasification process and equipment studies, dewatering studies, and environmental and socioeconomic factors in the development of peat technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for selected papers. (CKK)

  11. 7 CFR 319.69-5 - Types of soil authorized for packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Materials Rules and Regulations § 319.69-5 Types of soil authorized for packing. The following types of soil or earth are authorized as safe for packing: (a) Peat, (b) peat moss, and (c) Osmunda...

  12. 7 CFR 319.69-5 - Types of soil authorized for packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Materials Rules and Regulations § 319.69-5 Types of soil authorized for packing. The following types of soil or earth are authorized as safe for packing: (a) Peat, (b) peat moss, and (c) Osmunda...

  13. 7 CFR 319.69-5 - Types of soil authorized for packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Materials Rules and Regulations § 319.69-5 Types of soil authorized for packing. The following types of soil or earth are authorized as safe for packing: (a) Peat, (b) peat moss, and (c) Osmunda...

  14. 7 CFR 319.69-5 - Types of soil authorized for packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Materials Rules and Regulations § 319.69-5 Types of soil authorized for packing. The following types of soil or earth are authorized as safe for packing: (a) Peat, (b) peat moss, and (c) Osmunda...

  15. 7 CFR 319.69-5 - Types of soil authorized for packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Materials Rules and Regulations § 319.69-5 Types of soil authorized for packing. The following types of soil or earth are authorized as safe for packing: (a) Peat, (b) peat moss, and (c) Osmunda...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101 Agriculture...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101 Agriculture...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

  3. Mineralization of 13C glucose in three fine textured soils from the western boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, C. E.; Quideau, S. A.; Macey, D. E.

    2012-04-01

    Microbial composition is known, on similar soil types, to vary based on differing organic matter inputs, or stand composition. Dominating western upland boreal forests are fine textured soils with a canopy cover of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss or a mixture of the two. These soils then reflect different belowground biogeochemical processing of organic matter. Anthropogenic soils, formed from a combination of peat litter and fine textured mineral soil, are now also a part of the landscape in the western boreal. This study set out to determine if a simple labelled compound (13C glucose) was processed differently between soils from the two dominant stand types (aspen and spruce) and a soil from an anthropogenic (constructed) site. Results indicate that while all three soils rapidly incorporated, and respired, the labelled carbon each maintained a distinct microbial community structure (as evidenced by phospholipid fatty acid analysis) throughout the 300 hour experiment. Therefore soils with different microbial communities from varied organic matter inputs decompose organic carbon by different processes, even in the case of simple labile compounds.

  4. Pollutants dynamics in a rice field and an upland field during storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Jong-Wha; Jang, Hoon; Kim, Young Hyeon

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the dynamics of pollutants such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended sediment (SS) in runoff from a rice field and an upland field near the upper stream of the Han river in South Korea for multiple storm events. The upland field was cropped with red pepper, sweet potato, beans, and sesame. Runoff from the rice field started later than that from the upland field due to the water storage function of rice field. Unlike the upland field, runoff from the rice field was greatly affected by farmers' water management practices. Overall, event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants in runoff water from the upland field were higher than those from the rice field. Especially, EMCs of TP and SS in runoff water from the upland field were one order of magnitude higher than those from the rice field. This may be because ponding condition and flat geographical features of the rice field greatly reduces the transport of particulate phosphorous associated with soil erosion. The results suggest that the rice field contributes to control particulate pollutants into adjacent water bodies.

  5. Ebullition of methane from peatlands: Does peat act as a signal shredder?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Jorge A.; Baird, Andy J.; Coulthard, Tom J.; Waddington, J. Michael

    2015-05-01

    Bubbling (ebullition) of greenhouse gases, particularly methane, from peatlands has been attributed to environmental forcings, such as changes in atmospheric pressure. However, observations from peat soils suggest that ebullition and environmental forcing may not always be correlated and that interactions between bubbles and the peat structure may be the cause of such decoupling. To investigate this possibility, we used a simple computer model (Model of Ebullition and Gas storAge) to simulate methane ebullition from a model peat. We found that lower porosity peat can store methane bubbles for lengthy periods of time, effectively buffering or moderating ebullition so that it no longer reflects bubble production signals. Our results suggest that peat structure may act as a "signal shredder" and needs to be taken into account when measuring and modeling ebullition.

  6. Promotion of host plant growth and infection of roots with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita by the application of peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Ma; Kazuhira Yokoyama; Takuya Marumoto

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the addition of peat on arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and host plant growth was investigated using a pot experiment. Peat was mixed with Masa soil at different levels (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 g kg) into which an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall was inoculated, and seedlings of Miscanthus sinensis Anderess were planted. There was

  7. Northern bobwhite and lead shot deposition in an upland habitat.

    PubMed

    Keel, M K; Davidson, W R; Doster, G L; Lewis, L A

    2002-10-01

    We estimated total lead shotshell pellets expended, resultant pellet availability near soil surface, and the frequency of pellet ingestion by northern bobwhites ( Colinus virginianus) attributable to nearly a quarter century of bobwhite hunting on a 202-ha upland habitat at Tall Timbers Research Station, Leon County, Florida. A total of 7776 shots were fired, resulting in the expenditure of approximately 4.5 million pellets (approximately 22519/ha). Sixteen of 235 (6.8%) soil samples collected in 1989 and 1992 contained one or two pellets. Soil samples indicated that approximately 7800 pellets/ha (about 35% of the projected 24-year deposition) were within 2.54 cm of the soil surface. Pellet ingestion by bobwhites was evaluated by examining 241 gizzards collected from 1989-92. Three bobwhites (1.3%) had ingested pellets ( x = 1.3 pellets). No instances of suspected lead poisoning were noted in bobwhites over the 24-year period. Sport hunting of wild bobwhite populations on upland habitats appears to produce a low potential for lead poisoning compared to lead deposition in association with waterfowl and dove hunting. PMID:12202928

  8. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  9. Variability of humic acid properties depending on their precursor material: a study of peat profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of variation of peat composition, presence of trace elements in the peat and HSs within peat profiles can give information on the character of transformation of organic matter, important for C biogeochemical cycling, but also about impacts of climate change and human activities. In peat the transformation and decay process of living organic matter (humification) is retarded by the acidic and anaerobic environment, but at the same time the peat can provide information on environmental and paleo-environmental conditions of the past. The aim of the present study is to analyze the elemental and functional composition, spectral characteristics of humic acids isolated from a well characterized raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the impact of the character of humification processes on the peat HA properties. A comparative and complex characterization of humic acids (HAs) isolated from peat profiles of different origin in Latvia was carried out. Elemental and functional analysis of the isolated HAs was done, their acidity and molecular weights estimated. Spectral characterization included UV-Vis, IR, and electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectra. Structural characterization of HAs was by both 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Comparison of position of studied humic acids in the Van Krevelen graph was done, thus locating them in the biogeochemical transformation processes of organic matter. Properties of HAs isolated from the Latvian peat were compared with HA from other sources (soil, water, coal and synthetic humic substances). Major properties of peat HAs depended on their origin, indicating the importance of humification processes. HAs isolated from peat of more recent origin were more similar to soil HAs, but from older sources there was a greater degree of humification. Changes of surface tension of solutions of humic acids stress the differences in aggregation character - ability to form supramacromolecular complexes of humic substances and impact of environmental conditions on the surfactant properties of humic matter. Amongst the main objectives of the study was the identification of the dependence of the humic acid properties on the composition of original living matter in the peat, especially considering high variability of peat composition in the studied bogs. Despite some correlation between peat botanical composition and properties exist, in general the similarities are much more expressed, thus indicating the significance of microbial decay processes on the properties of humic material. Acknowledgement: Support from a project ResProd

  10. Observations of a seasonally shifting thermal optimum in peatland carbon-cycling processes; implications for the global carbon cycle and soil enzyme methodologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Fenner; C. Freeman; B. Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    Thermal gradient apparatus has been used to study enzyme activity and carbon cycling in peat collected seasonally from a Northern upland peatland. A thermal optimum was observed in the peat where maximum carbon-cycling enzyme activities (phenol oxidase and ?-glucosidase), phenolic compound concentrations, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and microbial respiration (CO2 efflux) were all found in a given season. The

  11. Runoff water quality from a sierran upland forest, transition ecotone, and riparian wet meadow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High concentrations of inorganic N, P, and S have been reported in overland and litter interflow within forested uplands of the Tahoe basin and surrounding watersheds. In this study we compared runoff nutrient concentration and load as well as soil nutrient fluxes at three watershed locations; an up...

  12. On physical and mathematical modeling of the initiation and propagation of peat fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Grishin; A. S. Yakimov; G. Rein; A. Simeoni

    2009-01-01

    Works devoted to experimental and theoretical investigations of peat fires under laboratory and natural conditions have been\\u000a reviewed. Evaluations show that the smoldering of surface combustible materials in peatlands involves half the biomass burnt\\u000a during natural (forest, steppe, and peat) fires. These fires are of first importance in emission of combustion products into\\u000a the atmosphere, destruction of the soil structure,

  13. A delta13C record of late Quaternary climate change from tropical peats in southern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sukumar; R. Ramesh; R. K. Pant; G. Rajagopalan

    1993-01-01

    STABLE-ISOTOPE ratios of carbon in soils or lake sediments1-3 and of oxygen and hydrogen in peats4,5 have been found to reflect past moisture variations and hence to provide valuable palaeoclimate records. Previous applications of the technique to peat have been restricted to temperate regions, largely because tropical climate variations are less pronounced, making them harder to resolve. Here we present

  14. Variations in free-phase gases in peat landforms determined by ground-penetrating radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D. Parsekian; Lee Slater; Xavier Comas; Paul H. Glaser

    2010-01-01

    The spatial variability of biogenic gas produced by methanogenic archaea is difficult to assess within saturated peat soils and is often poorly quantified. This study uses ground-penetrating radar to noninvasively estimate the vertical distribution of biogenic free-phase gas (FPG) in two distinct peat landform types in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland, Minnesota: a near-crest bog and a midslope lawn (i.e.,

  15. Elevated methane concentrations in trees of an upland forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kristofer R.; Wood, Stephen A.; Warren, Robert J., II; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark A.

    2012-08-01

    There is intense debate about whether terrestrial vegetation contributes substantially to global methane emissions. Although trees may act as a conduit for methane release from soils to atmosphere, the debate centers on whether vegetation directly produces methane by an uncharacterized, abiotic mechanism. A second mechanism of direct methane production in plants occurs when methanogens - microorganisms in the domain Archaea - colonize the wood of living trees. In the debate this biotic mechanism has largely been ignored, yet conditions that promote anaerobic activity in living wood, and hence potentially methane production, are prevalent across forests. We find average, growing season, trunk-gas methane concentrations >15,000 ?L·L-1 in common, temperate-forest species. In upland habitat (where soils are not a significant methane source), concentrations are 2.3-times greater than in lowland areas, and wood cores produce methane in anaerobic, lab-assays. Emission rate estimates from our upland site are 52 ± 9.5 ng CH4 m-2 s-1; rates that are of a similar magnitude to the soil methane sink in temperate forest, and equivalent in global warming potential to ˜18% of the carbon likely sequestered by this forest. Microbial infection of one of the largest, biogenic sinks for carbon dioxide, living trees, might result in substantial, biogenic production of methane.

  16. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    E-print Network

    Dubinsky, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    bacteria and methanogenic archaea can suppress CH 4 emissions from soils and sediments.bacteria found in the upland soils in our study rival or exceed those found in wetland soils and lake-bottom sediments

  17. Soil Core Sample #2

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  Buried peat layer broken open.  Closer examination of the buried peat layer demonstrates that non-salt-tolerant vegetation from the past...

  18. The microbilogy of cut-away peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dooley; C. H. Dickinson

    1970-01-01

    Summary  A description is given of several surveys of fungal habitats in bare cut-away peat. These surveys are related to one another and to the general surveys of the peat microflora reported in an earlier paper of this series. The response of the peat myco-flora to cultivation of cut-away peat is reported and the colonisation of fresh organic material added to

  19. Artificial radioactivity in fuel peat and peat ash in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mustonen, R.A.; Reponen, A.R.; Jantunen, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 caused very uneven deposition of radionuclides in Finland. The deposited radionuclides were found in relatively high concentrations in fuel peat and especially in peat ash because a thin surface layer of peat-production bogs was extracted as fuel peat soon after the fallout occurred. Concentrations of artificial radionuclides in fuel peat and peat ash were measured at six peat-fired power plants in Finland throughout the heating season 1986-87. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in composite peat samples varied between 30 and 3600 Bq kg-1 dry weight and in ash samples between 600 and 68,000 Bq kg-1. High concentrations in peat ash caused some restrictions to the utilization of peat ash for various purposes.

  20. Artificial radioactivity in fuel peat and peat ash in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, R A; Reponen, A R; Jantunen, M J

    1989-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 caused very uneven deposition of radionuclides in Finland. The deposited radionuclides were found in relatively high concentrations in fuel peat and especially in peat ash because a thin surface layer of peat-production bogs was extracted as fuel peat soon after the fallout occurred. Concentrations of artificial radionuclides in fuel peat and peat ash were measured at six peat-fired power plants in Finland throughout the heating season 1986-87. Concentrations of 137Cs in composite peat samples varied between 30 and 3600 Bq kg-1 dry weight and in ash samples between 600 and 68,000 Bq kg-1. High concentrations in peat ash caused some restrictions to the utilization of peat ash for various purposes. PMID:2925384

  1. Peat Depth Assessment Using Airborne Geophysical Data for Carbon Stock Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaney, Antoinette; McKinley, Jennifer; Ruffell, Alastair; Robinson, Martin; Graham, Conor; Hodgson, Jim; Desissa, Mohammednur

    2013-04-01

    The Kyoto Agreement demands that all signatory countries have an inventory of their carbon stock, plus possible future changes to this store. This is particularly important for Ireland, where some 16% of the surface is covered by peat bog. Estimates of soil carbon stores are a key component of the required annual returns made by the Irish and UK governments to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Saturated peat attenuates gamma-radiation from underlying rocks. This effect can be used to estimate the thickness of peat, within certain limits. This project examines this relationship between peat depth and gamma-radiation using airborne geophysical data generated by the Tellus Survey and newly acquired data collected as part of the EU-funded Tellus Border project, together encompassing Northern Ireland and the border area of the Republic of Ireland. Selected peat bog sites are used to ground truth and evaluate the use of airborne geophysical (radiometric and electromagnetic) data and validate modelled estimates of soil carbon, peat volume and depth to bedrock. Data from two test line sites are presented: one in Bundoran, County Donegal and a second line in Sliabh Beagh, County Monaghan. The plane flew over these areas at different times of the year and at a series of different elevations allowing the data to be assessed temporally with different soil/peat saturation levels. On the ground these flight test lines cover varying surface land use zones allowing future extrapolation of data from the sites. This research applies spatial statistical techniques, including uncertainty estimation in geostatistical prediction and simulation, to investigate and model the use of airborne geophysical data to examine the relationship between reduced radioactivity and peat depth. Ground truthing at test line locations and selected peat bog sites involves use of ground penetrating radar, terrestrial LiDAR, peat depth probing, magnetometry, resistivity, handheld gamma-ray spectrometry, moisture content and rainfall monitoring combined with a real-time Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to monitor temporal and spatial variability of bog elevations. This research will assist in determining the accuracy and limitations of modelling soil carbon and changes in peat stocks by investigating the attenuation of gamma-radiation from underlying rocks. Tellus Border is supported by the EU INTERREG IVA programme, which is managed by the Special EU Programmes Body in Northern Ireland, the border Region of Ireland and western Scotland. The Tellus project was funded by the Northern Ireland Development of Enterprise Trade and Investment and by the Rural Development Programme through the Northern Ireland Programme for Building Sustainable Prosperity.

  2. SNG from peat by the PEATGAS Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Punwani; J. L. Arora; C. L. Tsaros

    1978-01-01

    The total energy content of U.S. peat resources is estimated to be equivalent to 1440 quads or over 2400 billion barrels of oil. Generally, peat deposits are located in areas with no other fossil fuel resources. Therefore, for those areas, it represents a very important energy resource. The areas with large peat deposits also have plentiful water supplies, so the

  3. 2, 14571486, 2005 Halogens in peat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 2, 1457­1486, 2005 Halogens in peat porewater H. Biester et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Halogens in porewater of peat bogs ­ the role of peat decomposition and dissolved organic matter H. Biester 1 , D. Selimovi´c 1 , S. Hemmerich 1

  4. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping...Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow...

  5. Piston corers for peat and lake sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Jr. Wright; D. H. Mann; P. H. Glaser

    1984-01-01

    Two pistons corers are described which are successful in cuting the wood or undecomposed fibrous peat that characterizes many peat deposits. These modified corers are equipped with a serrated cutting edge, along with modifications to permit the core tube to be rotated back and forth, so that undecomposed fibers and roots can be cut. Complete sections of peat and even

  6. CANADIAN PEAT HARVESTING AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    CANADIAN PEAT HARVESTING AND THE ENVIRONMENT SECOND EDITION ISSUES PAPER, No. 2001-1 PUBLISHED IN PARTNERSHIP WITH: North American Wetlands Conservation Council Committee Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Tourbe de and funding of: · Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss Association · Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada

  7. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping...Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow...

  8. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping...Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow...

  9. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping...Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow...

  10. Early diagenetic transformations of peat Original research

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Early diagenetic transformations of peat Original research Organic matter sources and decay;KEY WORDS: bioindicators - carbohydrates - labile organic matter - peat botanical composition to the fate of organic matter (OM) in the underlying peat. Our aims were to determine how moisture conditions

  11. Metal removal from wastewater using peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A Brown; S. A Gill; S. J Allen

    2000-01-01

    Peat has been investigated by several researchers as a sorbent for the capture of dissolved metals from wastestreams. Besides being plentiful and inexpensive, peat possesses several characteristics that make it an effective media for the removal of dissolved metal pollutants. The mechanism of metal ion binding to peat remains a controversial area with ion-exchange, complexation, and surface adsorption being the

  12. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the toxicity of chlorothalonil on upland rice (Oryzal sativa L.)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-hong; Lin, Ai-jun; Cui, Yu-jing

    2007-05-01

    Upland rice was selected as a host plant in a greenhouse-pot-culture experiment to investigate the effects of chlorothalonil and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and oxidative damage under chlorothalonil stress. The plants were grown with three concentrations of chlorothalonil (0, 50 and 100 mg x kg(-1) soil). The results suggested that chlorothalonil inhibited the growth of upland rice and reduced dry weight of upland rice shoot from 2.5 g x pot(-1) to 1.0 g x pot(-1), and the root dry weight was reduced from 0.9 g x pot(-1) to 0.3 g x pot(-1). However, with AMF colonization the dry weight of upland rice was increased to 2.1 g x pot(-1). With 50 mg x kg(-1) chlorothalonil addition, the P uptake was reduced from 3200 microg x pot(-1) to 860 microg x pot(-1), but the AMF colonization could increased the P uptake to 1900 microg x pot(-1). Chlorothalonil induced oxidative stress indicating by the changes in activities of antioxidative enzyme and AMF colonization could alleviate the oxidative stress. These results showed that chlorothalonil induced oxidative stress and inhibited P uptake in upland rice and AMF could decrease the side effects of chlorothalonil by increasing P uptake and decreasing oxidative damages. PMID:17633187

  13. Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

  14. Experimental evidence for mobility/immobility of metals in peat.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Zemanova, Leona; Voldrichova, Petra; Stepanova, Marketa; Adamova, Marie; Pacherova, Petra; Komarek, Arnost; Krachler, Michael; Prechova, Eva

    2011-09-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of most toxic metals have been significantly altered by anthropogenic activities. Anaerobic, rain-fed organic soils are believed to record historical changes in atmospheric pollution. Suspected postdepositional mobility of trace elements, however, hinders the usefulness of peat bogs as pollution archives. To lower this uncertainty, we quantified the mobility of six trace metals in peat during an 18-month field manipulation. A replicated, reciprocal peat transplant experiment was conducted between a heavily polluted and a relatively unpolluted peatland, located 200 km apart in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Both peatlands were Sphagnum-derived, lawn-dominated, and had water table close to the surface. A strikingly different behavior was observed for two groups of elements. Elements of group I, Fe and Mn, adjusted their abundances and vertical patterns to the host site, showing an extremely high degree of mobility. In contrast, elements of group II, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ti, preserved their original vertical patterns at the host site, showing a high degree of immobility. Our experimental results suggest that not just lead, but also copper and zinc concentration profiles in peat are a reliable archive of temporal pollution changes within a wide pH range (2.5-5.8). PMID:21761934

  15. Ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Paul H.

    1989-01-01

    Over 20 percent of the land surface of Canada and Alaska is covered by peatlands, which may be defined as any waterlogged ecosystem with a minimum thickness of 20 cm of organic matter in the soil. Past investigations have demonstrated the value of aerial photographs in identifying the major vegetation types and analyzing the biotic and hydrogeologic processes that control the development of these peatlands. In the present study, LANDSAT TM imagery was used in conjunction with field studies to determine the utility of this satellite sensor for detecting these important processes. Although the vegetation landforms within these major peat basins are visible on aerial photographs, LANDSAT TM imagery provides essential new evidence for their analysis. Spectral data from the LANDSAT TM system provides: (1) synoptic views of the patterns across large portions of these peat basins, indicating important physiographic controls on peatland development, (2) more sensitive detection of the major vegetation types, allowing rapid quantitative estimates to be made of their distribution and aerial extent, (3) discrimination of bog areas with potentially rapid or slow rates of peat accumulation, (4) identification of discharge zones for groundwater, which apparently represents the most important source of alkalinity in these peat basins, and (5) detection of flow patterns in water tracks that appear nearly uniform on standard aerial photographs.

  16. Thermal degradation of diesel-contaminated peats in an air atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, R.A.; Ugursal, V.I.; Ghaly, A.E.; Mansaray, K.G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    Peat, plant matter that is partially fossilized, is formed in poorly oxygenated wetlands where the rate at which the plant matter accumulates is greater than the rate at which it decomposes. Peat is a common solid fuel ranked among coal, coke, wood, and sugarcane bagasse. Peat has also been used to recover oil during the soil and water remediation processes. However, industrial utilization of peat in thermochemical conversion systems to liberate energy requires the knowledge of its thermal characteristics. In this study, the thermal behavior of peat (both uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50 C/min) in a stationary air atmosphere using a thermogravimetric analysis technique between ambient temperature (25 C) and 600 C. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600 C were determined. Increasing the heating rate increased both the thermal degradation rate and the residual weight at 600 C and decreased the initial degradation temperature. The residual weight at 600 C was less than the ash content in all of the peat samples indicating the burnout of some of the mineral oxides, which have low melting and boiling temperatures, such as K{sub 2}O and P{sub 2}O. The results provide useful information about utilization of diesel-contaminated peat in thermochemical conversion systems, especially gasifiers, because of its high energy content and low ash content.

  17. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

  2. Influence of forest management on the changes of organic soil properties in border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland (Stolowe Mountains National Park, Poland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bogacz; M. Roszkowicz

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to determine the properties of organic soils modified by man, muddy and fluvial process. Peat horizons were analyzed and classified by types - and species of peat. Three profiles of shallow peat and peaty gley soils identified. Investigation showed that organic soil developed on a sandy weathered sandstone base according to oligotrophic type

  3. Pore water chemistry in a disturbed and an undisturbed peat forests in Brunei Darussalam: Nutrient and carbon contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandois, L.; Cobb, A.; Abu Salim, K.; Chieng Hei, I.; Lim Biaw Leng, L.; Corlett, R.; Harvey, C.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests in their natural state are important reservoir of biodiversity, carbon and water. However, they are rapidly vanishing due to agricultural conversion (mainly to oil palms), logging, drainage and fire. Peat swamp forests constitute an important contribution to global and regional biodiversity, providing an habitat to rare and threatened species. They encompass a sequence of forest types from the perimeter to the center of mildely elevated domes, and at our site in Brunei, are host to Shorea Albida trees (Anderson, 1983). They constitute a large terrestrial carbon reservoir (tropical peat soils contain up to 70 Pg C, which accounts for 20% of global peat soil carbon and 2% of the global soil carbon (Hirano et al., 2007)). In tropical peat swamp forests, the most important factors controling organic matter accumulation, as well as the biodiversity and structure of the forest, are hydrology and nutrients availability (Page et al., 1999). Study of pore water in peat swamp forest can provide key information on carbon cycle, including biomass production, organic matter decomposition and leaching of carbon in draining water. However, data on pore water chemistry and nutrient concentrations in pristine tropical peatlands, as well as the effect of forest exploitation are scarce. The study area is located in the Belait district in Brunei Darussalam in Borneo Island. Brunei is perhaps the best of the regional guardians of peat forest systems; potentially irreversible damage to peat forest ecosystems has been widespread elsewhere. Two sites, one pristine dome and a logging concession, are being investigated. In order to assess the chemical status of the peat soil, pore water is sampled at different depth along the dome radius. The chemistry of pore water, including pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, concentration of major elements, as well as organic carbon content and properties are analyzed. References: Anderson, 1983. The tropical peat swamp of western malesia. Ecosystems of the world 4b, 181-189. Hirano et al., 2007. Carbon dioxide balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Global Change Biology 13, 412-425. Page et al., 1999. Interdependance of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 354, 1885-1897.

  4. Microbial Communities in Long-Term Heavy Metal Contaminated Ombrotrophic Peats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia E. Linton; Laura Shotbolt; Andrew D. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals are known to be toxic to many soil organisms. The effects of long-term exposure to lower\\u000a levels of metals on the soil microbial community are, however, less well understood. The southern Pennines of the U.K. are\\u000a characterised by expanses of ombrotrophic peat soils that have experienced deposition of high levels of heavy metals since\\u000a the

  5. Utilization of peat as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, D.F.; Evans, G.O. II; Whitehurst, B.M.

    1981-10-01

    This work has dealt primarily with the development and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM). POM and PAM slurries with varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios in jacketed glass tubes and slurry drain times from the tubes along with the slurry viscosities. The peat moisture content was found to be especially critical in forming stable slurries. Also, in both the PAM and POM systems, it was found that use of the more finely ground peat led to significantly higher sedimentation ratios than the use of coarse peat. Numerous additives selected to improve slurry suspension and flow characteristics have been evaluated. Cab-O-Sil M-5 and Cab-O-Sil PTG were most effective in the POM systems while Attagel X-2059 and Bentone 27 were most effective in the PAM systems. Viscosities have been measured for slurries of varied particle size and modified by selected additives. Viscosities in the PAM system were lower using the coarser peat with higher moisture content while viscosities in the POM system seemed to be lower using the finer, drier peat. Calorimetric studies of powdered peat as well as PAM and POM slurries, with and without additives, were completed. Combustion tests of POM and PAM slurries were carried out using a salamander type shop heater. Successful burns of the POM slurry were accomplished when the slurries were heated to reduce viscosities and the peat was prescreened to remove large wood fibers to avoid plugging of the small burner nozzle. Since the toxicity and low flash point of methanol precluded heating of the PAM slurries, plugging of the small burner routinely occurred. It was also demonstrated that ground peat could be burned by using an eductor connector to a compressed air line.

  6. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2012-08-01

    Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development. PMID:22664536

  7. Impact of subjacent rocks at the water and air regime of the depleted peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovich, V. A.

    2009-04-01

    At the depleted peat deposits (after peat extraction), where the residual layer of peat with the thickness of about 0,5 meters is laid at the well water permeable rocks, vegetation typical for dry conditions is developed in case of good drainage conditions; birch trees, willow, alder-trees and buckthorn prevail in this vegetation. Water and air regime is characterized here by good aeration with prevailing of oxidative processes. If water regime is regulated, these depleted peat areas are suitable for agricultural and forest lands; however, necessity of transformation of these depleted lands into forest and agricultural lands must be ecologically and economically justified. If the residual layer of peat with the thickness of 0,05-0,3 m is based at the sapropel or peat sapropel, contrast amphibiotic water and air regime with strong fluctuation of oxidative and restoration process depending on the weather conditions is formed; this regime is formed without artificial increase of the ground waters level. This does not allow bog vegetation or vegetation typical for dry conditions to develop. Thus, within 20 and more years after completion of peat extraction, such areas are not covered by vegetation in spite of favorable agro-chemical qualities of peat layer and favorable for vegetation chemical composition of soil and ground waters. Depleted peat deposits, that are based at the sapropel, are not suitable for agricultural use, because agricultural vegetation requires stable water and air regime with good aeration and oxidative and restoration potential within 400-750 mV. Contrast amphibiotic water and air regime of the depleted peat deposits that are based at sapropel excludes possibility to use them as agricultural lands. Because of this reason, areas with residual peat layer that are based at sapropel are not suitable for forest planting. Due to periodic increase of ground waters level, rot systems of the plants can not penetrate into the required depth, and mechanical solidity of the residual low-powered peat layer does not facilitate formation of wind stable plats. Besides, due to the fact that this territory was formed at the place of former ancient lake, there is a possibility that this territory will be flooded during water full periods for long periods because columbine from the nearby territories and this will lead to the death of forest plants. It is more profitable to use these areas for re-wetting or for creation of water basins.

  8. Mercury methylation in forested uplands; how important is it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Schuster, P. F.; Chalmers, A.; Reddy, M. M.

    2004-05-01

    Episodic fluxes of mercury during high flows at the headwater catchment at the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont indicate that uplands are an important source of total mercury (Hg) to known downstream methylation sites (i.e. large wetlands). Methylmercury (MeHg) behavior in streamwater, soil water, and sediment porewater coupled with high potential methylation rates suggests that forested uplands may be significant source areas for MeHg as well. In a July 2003 incubation, potential Hg methylation rates exceeded potential demethylation rates by factors of 1.6 each in shallow (0-4 cm) swamp and riparian soils and by 19.6 in anoxic stream sediments. The stream sediment had the greatest methylation rate of 7.5 ng/ g of wet sediment / day. However, MeHg concentrations in filtered (0.4 um) porewater at these sites ranged only from 0.07 to 0.37 ng/ L, similar to the range at low-lying wetland sites elsewhere in Vermont (0.06 to 0.56 ng/L). In Sleepers River headwaters as well as larger Vermont rivers, most of the MeHg export occurs during snowmelt and summer / fall storms, with nearly all of the MeHg occurring in the particulate phase. Stream total Hg and MeHg concentrations were consistently correlated, suggesting a common source, probably soil organic matter. The methylation efficiency (ratio MeHg / total Hg) was near 2% in the Sleepers River headwaters, similar to that in Vermont rivers draining large wetland systems, indicating that the methylation process originates in the headwaters.

  9. PwC's 3-Peat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2010-01-01

    PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) is giving the Chicago Bulls a run for their money when it comes to three-peats. The professional services firm scored the top spot on the Training Top 125 for a record third year in a row. So, just how did PwC nail No. 1 again? For starters, it met and exceeded a hefty challenge in fiscal year 2009: cutting training…

  10. DOC export from an upland peat catchment in the Flow Country, northern Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailaja Vinjili; Ruth Robinson Robinson; Yit Arn Teh; Susan Waldron; Michael Singer

    2010-01-01

    Flow Country blanket bogs in northern Scotland are the most expansive in Europe covering an area of ~4000 km2, and they significantly impact the global carbon cycle because of their high rates of carbon production and storage, as well as their role in the transfer of carbon to oceans through rivers or greenhouse gas exchange (Moore et al., 1998). These

  11. Freshwater peat on the continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, K.O.; Wigley, R.L.; Bartlett, A.S.; Rubin, M.; Barghoorn, E.S.

    1967-01-01

    Freshwater peats from the continental shelf off northeastern United States contain the same general pollen sequence as peats from ponds that are above sea level and that are of comparable radiocarbon ages. These peats indicate that during glacial times of low sea level terrestrial vegetation covered the region that is now the continental shelf in an unbroken extension from the adjacent land areas to the north and west.

  12. Biochar from deinking paper sludge as a peat replacement in growing media preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Eva; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Fernández, José Manuel; Plaza, César; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, there is an important trend in Europe for peat replacement with biochar in growing media formulation in order to reduce the environmental impact of peat exploitation. One evidence is the the creation of a working group on peat replacement within the framework of an EU COST action Biochar as option for sustainable resource management funded by the European Union. The use of biochar can reduce the environmental impact peat uses and also it can diminish the economic cost of different growing media ingredients as coir, bark or green waste compost in soil-less cultivation. The objective of this work was to study the use of biochar from deinking paper sludge in the formulation of growing media. For this reason, peat and coir were replaced by prepared biochar. Hydrophysical and chemical properties of different substrates were tested. At the same time, plant growth assay was designed. Results shown that is possible to use biochar to replace peat in growing media formulation obtaining similar crop yields.

  13. AMPHIBIAN UPLAND HABITAT USE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR POPULATION VIABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Trenham; H. Bradley Shaffer

    2005-01-01

    To predict the effects of habitat alteration on population size and viability, data describing the landscape-scale distribution of individuals are needed. Many amphibians breed in wetland habitats and spend the vast majority of their lives in nearby upland habitats. However, for most species, the spatial distribution of individuals in upland habitats is poorly understood. To estimate the upland distribution of

  14. metry and conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk peat samples from the lowest visually apparent peat

    E-print Network

    Gillespie, Rosemary

    #12;metry and conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk peat samples from the lowest visually apparent peat horizon in each core. Substantially older radiocarbon ages from organic-rich gytjja (mineral peat- lands throughout the WSL, for a total of 29,350 measurements digitized. (ii) Our own field data

  15. Biosorption of Metallic Elements onto Fen Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumins, Janis; Robalds, Artis

    2014-12-01

    Industrial development and anthropogenic activity have a huge impact on the environment, forcing society to find new and cost-effective environment treatment technologies. One of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods is the use of biosorbents, for which peat is one of the most cost-effective materials. The adsorption capabilities of peat sediments are well known; however, mainly raised bog peat is used for environmental treatment, and thus the abilities of fen peat are underestimated. The aim of this research was to assess the fen peat suitability as an adsorbent for metallic elements. In this study we have determined the sorption characteristics of Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cu and Pb and results show that fen peat deposits have a huge variability as a biosorbent due to their variable botanical composition and complex properties, for instance, under equal conditions, wood-sedge peat can have higher lead adsorption capacity than wood peat. However, due to its natural content of metallic elements, the sorption capacity overall is lower than it is for raised bog peat, although the high pH reaction encourage a high mobility metals.

  16. Genetic variation for yield and fiber quality response to supplemental irrigation within the Pee Dee Upland cotton germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability is a major factor influencing the development of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars and sustainable cotton production in the southeast USA because of endemic, intermittent drought events occurring in the region resulting from shallow, coarse textured soils and irregul...

  17. Rhizosphere impacts on peat decomposition and nutrient cycling across a natural water table gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, A. L.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude forest and peatland soils represent a major terrestrial carbon store sensitive to climate change. Warming temperatures and increased growing-season evapotranspiration are projected to reduce water table (WT) height in continental peatlands. WT reduction increases peat aerobicity and facilitates vascular plant and root growth. Root-associated microbial communities are exposed to a different physical and chemical environment than microbial communities in non-root associated "bulk" peat, and therefore have distinct composition and function within the soil system. As the size of the peatland rhizosphere impacts resources available to the microbial communities, transitions from a root-free high water table peatland to a root-dominated low WT peatland may alter seasonal patterns of microbial community dynamics, enzyme production, and carbon storage within the system. We used a natural water table gradient in Caribou Bog near Orono, ME to explore the influence of species composition, root biomass, and rhizosphere size on seasonal patterns in microbial community structure, enzyme production, and carbon mineralization. We quantified root biomass across the water table gradient and measured microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, C mineralization, N mineralization, and exoenzyme activity in root-associated and bulk peat samples throughout the 2013 growing season. Microbial biomass was consistently higher in rhizosphere-associated soils and peaked in the spring. Microbial biomass CN and enzyme activity was higher in rhizosphere-associated soil, likely due to increased mycorrhizal abundance. Exoenzyme activity peaked in the fall, with a larger relative increase in enzyme activity in rhizosphere peat, while carbon mineralization rates did not demonstrate a strong seasonal pattern. The results suggest that rhizosphere-associated peat sustains higher and more variable rates of enzyme activity throughout the growing season, which results in higher rates of carbon mineralization driven by increased microbial biomass. Increases in vascular plant abundance and root biomass may therefore increase overall rates of carbon mineralization and peat decomposition within peatland systems and influence the nature of the peatland carbon store.

  18. Peat hybrid sorbents for treatment of wastewaters and remediation of polluted environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Burlakovs, Juris; Robalds, Artis; Ansone-Bertina, Linda

    2015-04-01

    For remediation of soils and purification of polluted waters, wastewaters, sorbents might be considered as an prospective group of materials and amongst them peat have a special role due to low cost, biodegradability, high number of functional groups, well developed surface area and combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic structural elements. Peat as sorbent have good application potential for removal of trace metals, and we have demonstrated peat sorption capacities, sorption kinetics, thermodynamics in respect to metals with different valencies - Tl(I), Cu(II), Cr(III). However peat sorption capacity in respect to nonmetallic (anionic species) elements is low. Also peat mechanical properties do not support application in large scale column processes. To expand peat application possibilities the approach of biomass based hybrid sorbents has been elaborated. The concept "hybrid sorbent" in our understanding means natural, biomass based sorbent modified, covered with another sorbent material, thus combining two types of sorbent properties, sorbent functionalities, surface properties etc. As the "covering layer" both inorganic substances, mineral phases (iron oxohydroxides, oxyapatite) both organic polymers (using graft polymerization) were used. The obtained sorbents were characterised by their spectral properties, surface area, elemental composition. The obtained hybrid sorbents were tested for sorption of compounds in anionic speciation forms, for example of arsenic, antimony, tellurium and phosphorous compounds in comparison with weakly basic anionites. The highest sorption capacity was observed when peat sorbents modified with iron compounds were used. Sorption of different arsenic speciation forms onto iron-modified peat sorbents was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. It was established that sorption capacity increases with a rise in temperature, and the calculation of sorption process thermodynamic parameters indicates the spontaneity of sorption process and its endothermic nature. The recycling options of obtained compounds after their saturation with metal or non-metallic species are suggested. Acknowledgement: Support from a project 2014/0009/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/13/APIA/VIAA/044

  19. Assessment of the peat resources of Florida, with a detailed survey of the northern everglades

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.M.; Wieland, C.C.; Hood, L.Q.; Goode, R.W. III; Sawyer, R.K.; McNeill, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Available data, including previous publications, modern soil surveys, and detailed coring in the Northern Everglades for this project have been used to update information on Florida's peat resources. It is now estimated that Florida could, if no other constraints existed, produce 606 million tons of moisture-free fuel-grade peat, which may yield approximately 10.0 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy. These estimates are much lower than previously published projections for the state. The principal effort of this survey was in the largest peat region of the state, the Northern Everglades of Palm Beach and adjacent counties, where more than 800 core holes were drilled. Based on analyses of these cores, the Northern Everglades is now estimated to contain 191 million tons of moisture-free peat, with a potential energy yield of 2.98 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. These values are considerably less than previously published estimates, probably due to bacterial oxidation and other forms of drainage-induced subsidence in the Everglades agricultural areas. The present fuel-peat resources of the Northern Everglades occur in 19 separate deposits. Of these, the deposits in the Port Mayaca, Bryant, Six Mile Bend, and Loxahatchee Quadrangles comprise the highest concentration of the resource. These lands are generally privately owned and used for sugar cane and other crops, and the conversion of these lands to peat removal seems unlikely. It seems even less likely that the extensive peat deposits within the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge will be available for fuel use, barring a dire national emergency. The utilization of peat as a fuel must be approached with caution and careful study; large scale use may require state or federal action. 34 references.

  20. Nutritional characteristics of the leaves of native plants growing in adverse soils of humid tropical lowlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuru Osaki; Toshihiro Watanabe; Tetsuya Ishizawa; Chairatna Nilnond; Tanit Nuyim; Takuro Shinano; Masaru Urayama; Sehat Jaya Tuah

    2003-01-01

    Acid sulfate, peat, sandy podzolic, and saline soils are widely distributed inthe lowlands of Thailand and Malaysia. The nutrient concentrations in theleaves of plants grown in these type of soils were studied with the aim ofdeveloping a nutritional strategy for adapting to such problem soils. In sagoand oil palms that were well-adapted to peat soil, the N, P, and Kconcentrations

  1. Peat resource estimation in Minnesota. Third quarter report, FY1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources has been surveying organic soil deposits to determine the location of fuel-grade peat since October 1, 1979, when the US Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute awarded Minnesota a grant for peat resource estimation. The survey determines the type, quantity, and energy potential of peatlands by field mapping and laboratory characterization. The focus of the project is an eight-county study area (Aitkin, Beltrami, Carlton, Cass, Itasca, Koochiching, Lake of the Woods, and St. Louis counties) that contain over half of Minnesota's six or seven million acres of peatland. Approximately one million acres of the state's total peatland acreage are currently available for state lease. The Koochiching County survey (1,147,560 acres of peatland), the Aitkin County survey (420,560 acres of peatland), and the survey of an area of Beltrami and Lake of the Woods counties (775,400 acres of peatland) have been completed, and the reports have been published. A reconnaissance-level peatland survey of southwest St. Louis County was completed, and a report was published with state funding. Our staff is continuing the redrafting of the Carlton County Peat Resource Map to correct registration errors. We expect the redrafted version of map to be completed in the fourth quarter. The computerized version of the map will be started when the redrafting is complete.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Peat is a natural organic material of botanical origin, harvested from deposits in bogs and fens. Commercial deposits form from the incomplete decomposition of plant matter under anaerobic conditions and gradually accumulate to form peat over about a 5,000-year period.

  3. Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SVETLANA N. DEDYSH; NICOLAI S. PANIKOV; JAMES M. TIEDJE

    1998-01-01

    Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotro- phic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values

  4. Impacts of peatland restoration on dissolved carbon loss from eroded upland peatlands in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M.; Stimson, A.; Allott, T. E. H. A.; Holland, N.

    2012-04-01

    Upland blanket peatlands in the UK are severely degraded by extensive gully erosion. Large areas have experienced complete vegetation loss. In the last decade landscape scale approaches to the restoration of eroded and bare peat have been developed in the Peak District National Park in northern England. Bare peat is re-vegetated with a nurse crop of grasses established by the aerial application of lime, seed, and fertiliser. The approach has successfully re-vegetated large areas of eroded bog a nd has been shown to dramatically reduce particulate carbon losses in runoff. The impacts of the treatment on water quality and dissolved carbon loss have not previously been fully assessed. This paper reports results from a small catchment study assessing the impacts of restoration practice in the Peak District. Data from five small catchments are presented one re-vegetated, one intact and three eroded/bare catchments. Bi-weekly water samples have been taken from the catchments between January 2011 and February 2012 and during July 2012 two of the bare sites were treated with lime, seed, and fertiliser. The data show that there are significant spikes in nutrient flux post treatment and marked effects on dissolved carbon which include initial spikes in in DOC concentration but longer term reductions in DOC concentration. Monitoring is ongoing at these sites but the evidence to date points to at least a short term benefit in DOC flux reduction from this form of peatland restoration.

  5. Upland disturbance affects headwater stream nutrients and suspended sediments during baseflow and stormflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.; Mulholland, P.J.; Maloney, K.O.

    2006-01-01

    Because catchment characteristics determine sediment and nutrient inputs to streams, upland disturbance can affect stream chemistry. Catchments at the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) experience a range of upland disturbance intensities due to spatial variability in the intensity of military training. We used this disturbance gradient to investigate the effects of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on stream chemistry. During baseflow, mean total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration and mean inorganic suspended sediment (ISS) concentration increased with catchment disturbance intensity (TSS: R2 = 0.7, p = 0.005, range = 4.0-10.1 mg L-1; ISS: R2 = 0.71, p = 0.004, range = 2.04-7.3 mg L-1); dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (R2 = 0.79, p = 0.001, range = 1.5-4.1 mg L-1) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration (R2 = 0.75, p = 0.008, range = 1.9-6.2 ??g L-1) decreased with increasing disturbance intensity; and ammonia (NH 4+), nitrate (NO3-), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were unrelated to disturbance intensity. The increase in TSS and ISS during storms was positively correlated with disturbance (R2 = 0.78 and 0.78, p = 0.01 and 0.01, respectively); mean maximum change in SRP during storms increased with disturbance (r = 0.7, p = 0.04); and mean maximum change in NO3- during storms was marginally correlated with disturbance (r = 0.58, p = 0.06). Soil characteristics were significant predictors of baseflow DOC, SRP, and Ca 2+, but were not correlated with suspended sediment fractions, any nitrogen species, or pH. Despite the largely intact riparian zones of these headwater streams, upland soil and vegetation disturbances had clear effects on stream chemistry during baseflow and stormflow conditions. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  6. Effects of upland disturbance and instream restoration on hydrodynamics and ammonium uptake in headwater streams

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Houser, Jeffrey N [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Delivery of water, sediments, nutrients, and organic matter to stream ecosystems is strongly influenced by the catchment of the stream and can be altered greatly by upland soil and vegetation disturbance. At the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia), spatial variability in intensity of military training results in a wide range of intensities of upland disturbance in stream catchments. A set of 8 streams in catchments spanning this upland disturbance gradient was selected for investigation of the impact of disturbance intensity on hydrodynamics and nutrient uptake. The size of transient storage zones and rates of NH4+ uptake in all study streams were among the lowest reported in the literature. Upland disturbance did not appear to influence stream hydrodynamics strongly, but it caused significant decreases in instream nutrient uptake. In October 2003, coarse woody debris (CWD) was added to of the study streams (spanning the disturbance gradient) in an attempt to increase hydrodynamic and structural complexity with the goals of enhancing biotic habitat and increasing nutrient uptake rates. CWD additions had positive short-term (within 1 mo) effects on hydrodynamic complexity (water velocity decreased and transient storage zone cross-sectional area, relative size of the transient storage zone, fraction of the median travel time attributable to transient storage over a standardized length of 200 m, and the hydraulic retention factor increased) and nutrient uptake (NH4+ uptake rates increased). Our results suggest that water quality in streams with intense upland disturbances can be improved by enhancing instream biotic nutrient uptake capacity through measures such as restoring stream CWD.

  7. Evaluation of peat as a utility boiler fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bongiorno, S.J.; Strianse, R.V.

    1983-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the direct combustion of peat for electric power generation in the United States. The study includes a review of peat literature, selection of a region in the US to locate a hypothetical peat-harvesting operation, and an assessment of current practices for peat utilization in Europe, including peat harvesting, environmental control, and combustion technology. The conceptual design of a peat-harvesting facility supplying 1.4 million tons/yr of peat to a 2 x 150 MW power plant located in eastern North Carolina is developed for the purpose of estimating peat fuel costs. Environmental-control measures and peat transportation systems are identified. Budget capital and operating costs for a peat-fired power plant are estimated and the busbar cost of electricity compared to that for a 1 x 300 MW coal-fired power plant. Technical feasibility is demonstrated, although environmental acceptability of a large-scale peat harvesting operation must be confirmed on a site-specific basis. Peat fuel costs are found to be less than coal costs for a power plant located adjacent to the peat bogs in eastern North Carolina. The higher capital cost of a peat-fired power plant offsets to some extent the fuel cost advantage. Peat is found to have an electricity cost advantage of about 5 to 25% when compared to coal on a 30 year levelized basis depending on the peat escalation rate assumed.

  8. Restoring afforested peat bogs: results of current research

    E-print Network

    Restoring afforested peat bogs: results of current research The value of peat bogs as open habitats may suffice on lowland raised bogs. Damming furrows is ineffective if the peat is severely cracked sundew, Drosera anglica #12;Introduction In their natural state, peat bogs provide unique habitats

  9. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF ESSENTIALLY SATURATED PEAT

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory measured the hydraulic conductivity of peat samples using method ASTM D4511-00. Four samples of peat were packed into 73mm diameter plastic tubes and saturated from the bottom up with water. The columns were packed with Premier ProMoss III TBK peat to a dry density of approximately 0.16 gm/cc (10 lb/ft3). One column was packed using oven dried peat and the other 3 were packed using as delivered peat. The oven dried sample was the most difficult to saturate. All of the peat samples expanded during saturation resulting in a sample length (L) that was longer than when the sample was initially packed. Table 1 contains information related to the column packing. After saturation the hydraulic conductivity test was conducted using the apparatus shown in Figure 1. Three of the samples were tested at 2 different flow conductions, 1 high and 1 low. Table 2 and Figure 2 contain the results of the hydraulic conductivity testing. Each test was run for a minimum of 40 minutes to allow the test conditions to stabilize. The hydraulic conductivity at the end of each test is reported as the hydraulic conductivity for that test. The hydraulic conductivity of the 4 peat samples is 0.0052 {+-} 0.0009 cm/sec. This result compares well with the hydraulic conductivity measured in the pilot scale peat bed after approximately 2 months of operation. The similarity in results between the dry pack sample and moist pack samples shows the moisture content at the time of packing had a minimal effect on the hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, similarity between the results shows the test is reproducible. The hydraulic conductivity results are similar to those reported by other tests of peat samples reported in the literature.

  10. Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest.

    PubMed Central

    Page, S E; Rieley, J O; Shotyk, W; Weiss, D

    1999-01-01

    The visual uniformity of tropical peat swamp forest masks the considerable variation in forest structure that has evolved in response to differences and changes in peat characteristics over many millennia. Details are presented of forest structure and tree composition of the principal peat swamp forest types in the upper catchment of Sungai Sebangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in relation to thickness and hydrology of the peat. Consideration is given to data on peat geochemistry and age of peat that provide evidence of the ombrotrophic nature of this vast peatland and its mode of formation. The future sustainability of this ecosystem is predicted from information available on climate change and human impact in this region. PMID:11605630

  11. Peat accumulation in drained thermokarst lake basins in continuous, ice-rich permafrost, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Anthony, Katey Walter

    2012-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and peat-accumulating drained lake basins cover a substantial portion of Arctic lowland landscapes, yet the role of thermokarst lake drainage and ensuing peat formation in landscape-scale carbon (C) budgets remains understudied. Here we use measurements of terrestrial peat thickness, bulk density, organic matter content, and basal radiocarbon age from permafrost cores, soil pits, and exposures in vegetated, drained lake basins to characterize regional lake drainage chronology, C accumulation rates, and the role of thermokarst-lake cycling in carbon dynamics throughout the Holocene on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Most detectable lake drainage events occurred within the last 4,000 years with the highest drainage frequency during the medieval climate anomaly. Peat accumulation rates were highest in young (50–500 years) drained lake basins (35.2 g C m?2 yr?1) and decreased exponentially with time since drainage to 9 g C m?2 yr?1 in the oldest basins. Spatial analyses of terrestrial peat depth, basal peat radiocarbon ages, basin geomorphology, and satellite-derived land surface properties (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF)) from Landsat satellite data revealed significant relationships between peat thickness and mean basin NDVI or MNF. By upscaling observed relationships, we infer that drained thermokarst lake basins, covering 391 km2 (76%) of the 515 km2 study region, store 6.4–6.6 Tg organic C in drained lake basin terrestrial peat. Peat accumulation in drained lake basins likely serves to offset greenhouse gas release from thermokarst-impacted landscapes and should be incorporated in landscape-scale C budgets.

  12. Mass tree mortality leads to mangrove peat collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane Mitch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Hensel, P.; Rybczyk, J.; McKee, K.L.; Proffitt, C.E.; Perez, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    We measured sediment elevation and accretion dynamics in mangrove forests on the islands of Guanaja and Roatan, Honduras, impacted by Hurricane Mitch in 1998 to determine if collapse of underlying peat was occurring as a result of mass tree mortality. Little is known about the balance between production and decomposition of soil organic matter in the maintenance of sediment elevation of mangrove forests with biogenic soils. Sediment elevation change measured with the rod surface elevation table from 18 months to 33 months after the storm differed significantly among low, medium and high wind impact sites. Mangrove forests suffering minimal to partial mortality gained elevation at a rate (5 mm yeara??1) greater than vertical accretion (2 mm yeara??1) measured from artificial soil marker horizons, suggesting that root production contributed to sediment elevation. Basin forests that suffered mass tree mortality experienced peat collapse of about 11 mm yeara??1 as a result of decomposition of dead root material and sediment compaction. Low soil shear strength and lack of root growth accompanied elevation decreases. Model simulations using the Relative Elevation Model indicate that peat collapse in the high impact basin mangrove forest would be 37 mm yeara??1 for the 2 years immediately after the storm, as root material decomposed. In the absence of renewed root growth, the model predicts that peat collapse will continue for at least 8 more years at a rate (7 mm yeara??1) similar to that measured (11 mm yeara??1). Mass tree mortality caused rapid elevation loss. Few trees survived and recovery of the high impact forest will thus depend primarily on seedling recruitment. Because seedling establishment is controlled in large part by sediment elevation in relation to tide height, continued peat collapse could further impair recovery rates.

  13. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Canada); Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  14. Development of new peat based growing media by addition of pruning waste and biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; Gascó, Gabriel; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Plaza, César; Fernández, José Manuel; Méndez, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In the last years, several researches have been performed to find high quality and low cost substrates from different organic wastes in order to decrease peat consumption since the indiscriminate exploitation of peat lands is exhausting this non-renewable useful resource and destroying endangered wetland ecosystems worldwide. The use of organic wastes as soil amendments or possible peat substitute could be improved by pyrolysis treatment, leading to biochar, a carbon-rich material that has attached important attention. Our research group has been worked in the formulation of new based-growing media by peat substitution in 50 and 75 vol% of pruning waste (PW), commercial charcoal (CC), biochar from PW at 300°C (B300) and 500°C (B500). Growing media show adequate physicochemical and hydrophysical properties. Experiments performed with lettuce germination show that PW addition in a 75vol% reduces germination index probably due to their high content on phenolic compounds. Lettuce growing experiments were performed during 5 weeks and show that addition of PW and CC to peat decreases biomass production whereas; B300 and specially, B500 addition significantly increases the lettuce biomass.

  15. Hyperspectral data application for peat forest monitoring in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Takashi; Yoshida, Keigo; Sekine, Hozuma; Takayama, Taichi; Takeda, Tomomi; Hirose, Kazuyo; Evri, Muhammad; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    Peatland is a large CO2 reservoir which accumulates 2000Gt of CO2, which is equal to 30% of global soil carbon. However, it has been becoming a large CO2 emission source because of peat decomposition and fire due to drainage water. This is caused by social activities such as canalizing. Especially, in Indonesia, peat swamp forests cover considerable portions of Kalimantan and 37.5% of CO2 emission source is peatland (DNPI, 2010). To take measures, it is necessary to conduct appropriate assessment of CO2 emission in broad peat swamp forest. Because hyperspectral data possess higher spectral resolutions, it is expected to evaluate the detailed forest conditions. We develop a method to assess carbon emission from peat swamp forest by using hyperspectral data in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Specifically, we estimate 1) forestry biomass and 2) underground water level expected as an indicator of CO2 emission from peat. In this research, we use the image taken by HyMAP which is one of the airborne hyperspectral sensors. Since the research area differs in forest types and conditions due to the past forest fire and disturbance, forest types are classified with the sparse linear discriminant analysis. Then, we conduct a biomass estimation using Normalized Difference Spectral Index (NDSI). We also analyze the relationship between underground water level and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and find the possibility of underground water level estimation with hyperspectral data. We plan to establish a highly developed method to apply hyperspectral sensor to peatland monitoring system.

  16. Effect of biogenic gas bubbles on water flow through poorly decomposed blanket peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Clive W.; Baird, Andrew J.

    2001-03-01

    A laboratory investigation was used to determine whether biogenic gas bubbles accumulate and block water-conducting pores below the water table in poorly decomposed Sphagnum peat. We found that biogenic gas bubbles did accumulate under realistic incubation temperatures. At the end of incubations at 10.5°C, volumetric water contents in two peat samples decreased to between 0.8 and 0.85 (porosity of the samples ranged from 0.96 to 0.97), indicating that the peat was considerably undersaturated with respect to water. Methane was found to be an important constituent of the gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles appeared to have a major effect on hydraulic conductivity (K). In control incubations, prior to which the peat had been irradiated and dosed with a biocide, biogenic gas bubbles did not accumulate, and K was 5-8 times higher than at the end of the microbially active incubations. Our results suggest that biogenic gas bubbles have a potentially significant effect on seepage in peat soils.

  17. A Few Issues on the Peat Research in the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, Lydia I.; Larina, Galina; Shurova, Maya

    2010-05-01

    At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of peat and marsh waters is carried out. The group structure of organic substance of various samples of peat is investigated by the method of Institutes of Peat. The toxic metals of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As were defined by the method of stripping voltammetry. The region of the Altai Mountains is characterized by the contrastive distribution of some heavy metals and arsenic in a soil cover. This is caused by a variety of petrography and granulometry of soil forming material, and also by a landscape and geochemical situation in the system of vertical zoning. The sources of natural accumulation of heavy metals in the ground might be the deposits of polymetals. In this connection the content of the specified toxic elements in the peat under research has been identified. The peat of the Turochak deposit is characterized by a significant ash content - up to 41,9%; the increased ash content is typical of the Kutyush deposit: from 6,1% up to 19, %. The peat of the Northeastern Altai is referred to non-bitumunous: the content of bitumen makes up less than 5%. In comparison with the European peat the peat under study of the transitive and lowland type is characterized by the significant content of easy hydrolysable substances in the amount of 24,8-41,1%. The amount of the non-hydrolysable rest makes up around 4,3 - 7,4 %. The total content of fulvic acids is less than the content of humic acids by 2,9 - 5,8 times. The high content of humic acids which can reach up to 58 % is characteristic of certain deposits. Humic acids extracted from the peat are characterized, as a rule, by similar IR-spectra. The distinctions are shown in an unequal intensity of characteristic absorption bands, in their spreading and some shifts. It is revealed that humic acids of peat with the increase in a degree of decomposition are exposed to transformation; therefore the increase in their structure of functional groups is observed. As a result of the research which was carried out the following elements among heavy metals in the lowland peat of the Altai Mountains are revealed: Cd (2,7 - 30)> Hg (0,67)> Zn (0,22) ~Pb (0,21)> Cu (0,13)> As (0,03). The degree of mobility of chemical elements in the peat varies within the limits of 1,3 - 36%. According to the degree of their mobility these elements form the following line: Zn (36 %)> Pb (18,1 %)> Cd (9,6 %)> Cu (1,3 %). The content and the character of distribution of the heavy metals under study and arsenic in the peat of the Altai Mountains have their unique features in comparison with the same valley analogues. The mountain peat of the Central Altai contains much less Hg than the West Siberian one: 0,078 mg/g and 0,69 mg/g accordingly. Cd represents itself as the concentrator in the lowland peat of the Northeastern and Central Altai, its content is actually the same and makes up approximately 0,3 mg/kg. The lowland Altai and West Siberian peat has the same amount of Pb: 4-5 mg/kg; they have smaller amounts of Zn and Cu in comparison with the European and West Siberian peat. The revealed features of distribution of some toxic metals are the display of specificity of peat genesis in the conditions of a mountain relief. The complex of the data received by us allows to consider the peat of the Altai Mountains as a non-polluting raw source concerning the amount of some natural toxic substances. The possible perspective directions of practical application of the mountain peat can be medicine, veterinary science, and agriculture.

  18. Metal sorption by peat and algae treated peat: kinetics and factors affecting the process.

    PubMed

    Lourie, Elena; Gjengedal, Elin

    2011-10-01

    The article presents a new approach that can be used for the purification of water contaminated by heavy metals. The treatment of peat with microalgae showed to be an effective way of increasing metal uptake by peat. Metal sorption was studied for a multimetal solution containing Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Cu and Pb were found to be the metals having the highest affinity to peat. Water hardness has a strong effect on the uptake of borderline metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Cd) from a solution. The use of algae for peat treatment resulted in less time to reach an equilibrium (24 h vs. 72 h for pure peat), and the effect of water hardness (Ca²?) on metal uptake was considerably reduced. Both peat and algal-treated peat were able to take up metals from rather acidic solutions (pH 3.0). pH had less influence on the metal uptake compared with water hardness. The affinity of heavy metals to peat was the following: Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd>Zn>Co. It slightly changed to Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd?Co?Zn when the combined sorbent, peat treated with microalga, was applied. PMID:21788059

  19. Actinobacterial Nitrate Reducers and Proteobacterial Denitrifiers Are Abundant in N2O-Metabolizing Palsa Peat

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Palsa peats are characterized by elevated, circular frost heaves (peat soil on top of a permanently frozen ice lens) and are strong to moderate sources or even temporary sinks for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Palsa peats are predicted to react sensitively to global warming. The acidic palsa peat Skalluvaara (approximate pH 4.4) is located in the discontinuous permafrost zone in northwestern Finnish Lapland. In situ N2O fluxes were spatially variable, ranging from 0.01 to ?0.02 ?mol of N2O m?2 h?1. Fertilization with nitrate stimulated in situ N2O emissions and N2O production in anoxic microcosms without apparent delay. N2O was subsequently consumed in microcosms. Maximal reaction velocities (vmax) of nitrate-dependent denitrification approximated 3 and 1 nmol of N2O per h per gram (dry weight [gDW]) in soil from 0 to 20 cm and below 20 cm of depth, respectively. vmax values of nitrite-dependent denitrification were 2- to 5-fold higher than the vmax nitrate-dependent denitrification, and vmax of N2O consumption was 1- to 6-fold higher than that of nitrite-dependent denitrification, highlighting a high N2O consumption potential. Up to 12 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of narG, nirK and nirS, and nosZ were retrieved. Detected OTUs suggested the presence of diverse uncultured soil denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reducers, hitherto undetected species, as well as Actino-, Alpha-, and Betaproteobacteria. Copy numbers of nirS always outnumbered those of nirK by 2 orders of magnitude. Copy numbers of nirS tended to be higher, while copy numbers of narG and nosZ tended to be lower in 0- to 20-cm soil than in soil below 20 cm. The collective data suggest that (i) the source and sink functions of palsa peat soils for N2O are associated with denitrification, (ii) actinobacterial nitrate reducers and nirS-type and nosZ-harboring proteobacterial denitrifiers are important players, and (iii) acidic soils like palsa peats represent reservoirs of diverse acid-tolerant denitrifiers associated with N2O fluxes. PMID:22660709

  20. Soil property effects on wind erosion of organic soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histosols (also known as organic soils, mucks, or peats) are soils that are dominated by organic matter (>20%) in half or more of the upper 80 cm. Forty four states have a total of 21 million ha of histosols in the United States. These soils, when intensively cropped, are subject to wind erosion r...

  1. Soil Property Effects on Wind Erosion of Organic Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histosols (also known as organic soils, mucks, or peats) are soils that are dominated by organic matter (>20%) in half or more of the upper 80 cm. Forty four states have a total of 21 million ha of histosols in the United States. These soils, when intensively cropped, are subject to wind erosion r...

  2. Experiments and Observation of Peat Smouldering Fires 

    E-print Network

    Ashton, Clare; Rein, Guillermo; Dios, JD; Torero, Jose L; Legg, C; Davies, M; Gray, A

    2007-01-30

    If a subsurface layer of peat is ignited, it smoulders (flameless combustion) slowly but steadily. These fires propagate for long periods of time (days, weeks, even years), are particularly difficult to extinguish and can spread over very extensive...

  3. Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin

    2009-03-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 ?mol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 ?mol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

  4. A S-isotope approach to determine the relative contribution of redox processes to net SO 4 export from upland, and wetland-dominated catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eimers, M. C.; Dillon, P. J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2004-09-01

    Reoxidation of S stored in lowlands after summer droughts has been reported to be responsible for the excess SO 4 export observed in many catchments in south central Ontario. Stable S isotopes can be used to identify the source of SO 4 export in stream water, and are particularly well suited to evaluating zones of dissimilatory SO 4 reduction (DSR) and the contribution of oxidation of reduced S species to stream SO 4. The Plastic Lake-1 (PC1) stream drains an upland coniferous forest and then passes through a Sphagnum-dominated swamp before discharging to Plastic Lake. Measurements of SO 4 fluxes and isotope ratios were used to determine the source of net SO 4 export and the contribution of redox processes to S retention and export in the upland and wetland, respectively. Mass balance budgets for the years 1999/00 and 2000/01, which had comparatively wet summers, indicated that the upland part of the catchment consistently exported SO 4 in excess of bulk deposition inputs. In contrast, mass budget calculations for the swamp indicated a net retention of 3 and 2 g S-SO 4/m 2 of wetland area, in 1999/00 and 2000/01 respectively. Higher ? 34SO 4 ratios and lower SO 4 concentrations in the swamp outflow (average +8.6 ± 2.6‰; 1.5 ± 0.6 mg S-SO 4/L) compared to the inflow draining the upland (+5.4 ± 0.7‰; 2.4 ± 0.3 mg S-SO 4/L) indicated that DSR was at least partly responsible for net SO 4 retention in the swamp. Isotope values in upland stream water (+5.7 ± 0.7‰) were only slightly higher than values in bulk deposition (average +5.1 ± 0.6‰) and soil leachate (+4.4 ± 0.4‰) over the 2-year period of study. Similar ? 34SO 4 values in upland stream water compared to deposition and soil leachate, despite substantial variations in water table height in the streambed (92 cm), suggest that reoxidation of reduced sulphides is not an important contributor to SO 4 export from the upland. Rather, net SO 4 export from the upland subcatchment is likely due to net release from upland soil, and slight differences in ? 34SO 4 between bulk deposition and soil leachate are consistent with SO 4 release from organic S forms.

  5. Modulation of headcut soil erosion in rills due to upstream sediment loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Headcut erosion can severely accelerate soil loss in upland concentrated flows and lead to significant soil degradation in agricultural areas. Previous experimental work has demonstrated that actively migrating headcuts display systematic morphodynamic behavior, and impinging jet theory can provide...

  6. Soil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS; )

    2006-05-23

    Soil is an example of a non-living thing. Soil contains nutrients and living organisms, but the soil itself is not alive. Soil is important in plant growth because soil gives plants a place to anchor their roots and it also provides the plant with essential nutrients.

  7. Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Le Mer; Pierre Roger

    2001-01-01

    Methane emission by soils results from antagonistic but correlated microbial activities. Methane is produced in the anaerobic zones of submerged soils by methanogens and is oxidised into CO2 by methanotrophs in the aerobic zones of wetland soils and in upland soils. Methanogens and methanotrophs are ubiquitous in soils where they remain viable under unfavourable conditions. Methane transfer from the soil

  8. Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  9. A New Perspective on Soil Thermal Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyson E. Ochsner; Robert Horton; Tusheng Ren

    2001-01-01

    fractions of soil water, solids, and air. Table 1 does not include experiments using pure sand, crushed rock, The soil thermal properties—heat capacity (C ), thermal diffusivity gravel, or peat, all of which may have thermal properties (), and thermal conductivity ()—are important in many agricultural, engineering, and meteorological applications. Soil thermal properties drastically different from most soils. The research

  10. Evaluating the impacts of re-vegetation of bare peat on blanket peat water tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Richards, Rebecca; Evans, Martin; Agnew, Clive; Pilkington, Mike; Maskill, Rachael; Allott, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the hydrological impacts of peat restoration in blanket peat systems have focused on the impacts of drain and gully blocking on water tables. However, in the South Pennines of the UK large areas of previously bare blanket peat have been restored by re-vegetation. The effects of this restoration treatment on water table behaviour have not been fully evaluated. Preliminary data from space-for-time studies indicate that re-vegetation leads to significant rises in water tables and decreases in water table variability. Here we present additional data from a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) study to validate these preliminary observations. We also present meteorological, net radiation and evapotranspiration data to test the hypothesis that water table changes associated with re-vegetation are driven by changing evapotranspiration rates as bare peat surfaces re-vegetate. The wider ecosystem service benefits of water table increases associated with re-vegetation of bare peat are discussed.

  11. Heterotrophic respiration in drained tropical peat temperatures influenced by shading gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Kerojoki, Otto; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Lowland peatlands in Southeast Asia constitute a highly concentrated carbon (C) pool of global significance. These peatlands have formed over periods of several millennia by forest vegetation tolerant to flooding and poor substrates. Uncontrollable drainage and reoccurring wild fires in lack of management after removal of forest cover has impaired the C-storing functions in large reclaimed areas. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reporting sees drained tropical organic soils as one of the largest greenhouse gas emissions releasing terrestrial systems. Vast areas of deforested tropical peatlands do not receive noteworthy shading by vegetation, which increases the amount of solar radiation reaching the peat surface. We studied heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes in tropical peat in conditions, where; (i) peat temperatures were modified by artificial shading (no shade, 28%, 51% and 90% from the full sun exposure), (ii) root respiration was minimized, (iii) nutrient availability for peat decomposer community was changed (NPK fertilization of 0 and 313 kg ha-1). The experiment was repeated at two over 20 years ago drained fallow agricultural- and degraded sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Enhanced shading created a lasting decrease in peat temperatures, and decreased diurnal temperature fluctuations, in comparison to less shaded plots. The largest peat temperature difference was between the unshaded and 90% shaded peat surface, where the average temperatures within the topmost 50-cm peat profile differed 3 °C, and diurnal temperatures at 5 cm depth varied up to 4.2 °C in the unshaded and 0.4 °C in the 90% shaded conditions. Highest impacts on the heterotrophic CO2 fluxes caused by the treatments were on agricultural land, where 90% shading from the full exposure resulted in a 33% lower CO2 emission average on the unfertilised plots and a 66% lower emission average on the fertilised plots. Correlation between peat temperature and CO2 flux suggested an approximately 8% (unfertilised) and 25% (fertilised) emissions change for each 1 °C temperature change at 5 cm depth on the agricultural land. CO2 flux responses to the treatments remained low or were inconsistent over the peat temperature range.. Fertilised conditions negatively correlated with N2O efflux with increases in temperature, suggesting a 12-36% lower efflux for each 1 °C increase in peat temperature (at 5 cm depth) at the sites. Despite the apparently similar landscapes of fallow agricultural land and degraded peatland sites, the differences in greenhouse gas dynamics are expected to be an outcome of the long-term management differences. Based on the results it is possible to seek management practices that prolong timespan for using drained tropical peat for cultivation, simultaneously reduce negative climate impacts created from peat substrate carbon loss, and also improve greenhouse gas monitoring techniques at field.

  12. Lytic enzyme activity in peat is increased by substrate amendment with chitin: Implications for the control of Phytophthora fragariae in Fragaria vesca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Rafferty; John G. Murphy; Alan C. Cassells

    2003-01-01

    Chitin is reported to stimulate mycorrhizas and antagonistic, lytic-enzyme producing soil microorganisms. Here mycorrhizal\\u000a and non-mycorrhizal strawberry (Fragaria vesca) plants were grown in peat growth-substrate and in peat amended with chitin (Suppressor™). Chitinase and cellulase activity\\u000a was determined and the plants were challenged by inoculation withPhytophthora fragariae, the causal agent of redcore disease. Disease resistance was only found in the

  13. Geophysical evidence for peat basin morphology and stratigraphic controls on vegetation observed in a Northern Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, Xavier; Slater, Lee; Reeve, Andrew

    2004-08-01

    Vegetation patterns in peatlands suggest autogenic peatland development and hydrological processes are controlling factors in peatland evolution. These processes regulate vegetation ordination by influencing pH and nutrient availability at the peat surface. Geophysical studies in Caribou Bog, a 2200-hectare peatland in central Maine, indicate a close correlation between underlying geologic deposits and dominant vegetation type. The location of pools within the bog also appears to be related to subsurface geologic materials. Electrical resistivity imaging along a 1 km transect across the central unit of Caribou Bog resolved underlying lake sediment and glacio-marine clay thickness, as well as variability in depth to glacial till. Ground penetrating radar precisely defined the organic-rich lake sediment, the glacio-marine interface, and elevated till surfaces where peat thickness is less than 10 m. Direct verification of peat and lake sediment thickness, in addition to samples of the glacio-marine and till deposits, constrained the geophysical interpretation. Wooded heath (WH) interspersed with occasional Sphagnum lawn occurs where lake sediment and glacio-marine clay accumulation is thickest. Abrupt thinning of both layers (such that peat rests directly on till in places) correlates with a sharp transition to shrub heath dominated vegetation. A major open pool area located within the WH coincides with a localized sandy mineral soil-lake sediment contact at the base of the bog. The geophysical data suggest the underlying double basin system influences peatland development and dictates vegetation patterning. Limited groundwater elevation data suggest that sub-organic sediment stratigraphy mapped with geophysics regulates water levels at the peat surface, exerting a control on vegetation patterning. The major pool area, located between the basins, appears to reflect isolation of stagnant water at a point where peat development is incomplete and thus suggests that pools exist concurrent with peatland formation.

  14. Northern Hemisphere control of deglacial vegetation changes in the Rufiji uplands (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouimetarhan, I.; Dupont, L.; Kuhlmann, H.; Pätzold, J.; Prange, M.; Schefuß, E.; Zonneveld, K.

    2014-09-01

    In tropical Eastern Africa, vegetation distribution is largely controlled by regional hydrology which has varied over the past 20 000 years. Therefore, accurate reconstructions of past vegetation and hydrological changes are crucial to better understand climate variability in the tropical Eastern African region. Through high-resolution pollen records from a marine sediment core recovered offshore the Rufiji River, our data show significant shifts in pollen assemblages during the last deglaciation identifying, through respective changes in both upland and lowland vegetation, specific responses of plant communities to atmospheric (precipitation) and coastal (coastal dynamics/sea level changes) alterations. Specifically, an interval of maximum pollen representation of dry and open vegetation occurred during the Northern Hemisphere cold Heinrich event 1 (H1) suggesting the expansion of drier upland vegetation under arid conditions. This dry spell is followed by an interval in which forest and humid woodland expanded, indicating a hydrologic shift towards more humid conditions. Droughts during H1 and the return to humid conditions around ~14.8 kyr BP in the uplands are primarily attributed to latitudinal shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) driven by high-latitude Northern Hemisphere climatic fluctuations. Additionally, our results show that the lowland vegetation, consisting of a well developed salt marshes and mangroves in a successional pattern typical for vegetation occurring in intertidal habitats, has responded mainly to local coastal dynamics related to marine inundation frequencies and soil salinity in the Rufiji Delta as well as the local moisture availability. Lowland vegetation shows a substantial expansion of mangrove trees after ~14.8 kyr BP suggesting also an increased moisture availability and river runoff in the coastal area. The results of this study highlight the de-coupled climatic and environmental processes to which the vegetation in the uplands and the Rufiji Delta has responded during the last deglaciation.

  15. Ecosystem response to removal of exotic riparian shrubs and a transition to upland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Cooper, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding plant community change over time is essential for managing important ecosystems such as riparian areas. This study analyzed historic vegetation using soil seed banks and the effects of riparian shrub removal treatments and channel incision on ecosystem and plant community dynamics in Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. We focused on how seeds, nutrients, and ground water influence the floristic composition of post-treatment vegetation and addressed three questions: (1) How does pre-treatment soil seed bank composition reflect post-treatment vegetation composition? (2) How does shrub removal affect post-treatment riparian vegetation composition, seed rain inputs, and ground water dynamics? and (3) Is available soil nitrogen increased near dead Russian olive plants following removal and does this influence post-treatment vegetation? We analyzed seed bank composition across the study area, analyzed differences in vegetation, ground water levels, and seed rain between control, cut-stump and whole-plant removal areas, and compared soil nitrogen and vegetation near removed Russian olive to areas lacking Russian olive. The soil seed bank contained more riparian plants, more native and fewer exotic plants than the extant vegetation. Both shrub removal methods decreased exotic plant cover, decreased tamarisk and Russian olive seed inputs, and increased native plant cover after 2 years. Neither method increased ground water levels. Soil near dead Russian olive trees indicated a short-term increase in soil nitrogen following plant removal but did not influence vegetation composition compared to areas without Russian olive. Following tamarisk and Russian olive removal, our study sites were colonized by upland plant species. Many western North American rivers have tamarisk and Russian olive on floodplains abandoned by channel incision, river regulation or both. Our results are widely applicable to sites where drying has occurred and vegetation establishment following shrub removal is likely to be by upland species.

  16. Soil physical characteristics after EDTA washing and amendment with inorganic and organic additives.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Vesna; Kastelec, Damijana; Lestan, Domen; Grcman, Helena

    2014-03-01

    Soil washing has been established as suitable remediation technology, with most research focused on metal removing efficiency and toxic effect on plants, less on the influence on soil physical characteristics, which was the focus of this study. In soil column experiment highly contaminated soil and soil washed with EDTA, mixed with additives (gypsum, hydrogel, manure, peat) were tested. White clover was used as a soil cover. Yield, metal concentration in soil and plant, aggregate fractionation and stability, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention of the soil were measured. Soil washing decreased metal concentration in soil and plants, but yield of white clover on remediated soil was significantly lower compared to the original soil. Significant differences in water retention characteristics, aggregate fractionation and stability between original and remediated soil have been determined. Gypsum, hydrogel and peat increased plant available water, manure and peat increased yield on remediated soil. PMID:24361565

  17. Changuinola peat deposit of northwest Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Ramirez, A.

    1990-09-01

    We studied the economics of generating electricity in a 30-MW power plant using peat as a fuel. We calculated the breakeven point; that is, the point at which the cost of producing electricity from a coal- or an oil-fueled facility was equal to the cost of producing electricity from a peat-fueled facility, both a fluidized-bed and a conventional suspension boiler and for wet-mined and milled peat production. In the base case, the price range for oil was assumed to be $0.09 to $0.108 per liter, and the price range for coal was assumed to be $35 to $42 per metric ton. Parametric studies were done varying the capacity factor, real cost of money, and the mining costs. The parametric studies indicate that a peat-fueled plant can remain competitive with an oil-fueled plant when each of the parameters, considered separately, have the following values: (1) capacity factor greater than 65%; (2) real cost of money less than 9%; and (3) actual peat mining cost, not exceeding the estimated cost by more than 25%. 9 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Explosive silicic eruptions in Iceland: from vent to peat bog

    E-print Network

    Explosive silicic eruptions in Iceland: from vent to peat bog OUTLINE Microtephra horizons, found be found in peat bogs and lake sediments across Scotland and the rest of Northern Europe (Figure 1; Larsen

  19. Carbon Emissions from Smouldering Peat in Shallow and Strong Fronts 

    E-print Network

    Rein, Guillermo; Cohen, Simon; Simeoni, Albert

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments of shallow and strong smouldering fronts in boreal peat have been conducted under laboratory conditions to study the CO and CO2 emissions. Peat samples of 100 mm by 100 mm in cross section and 50 ...

  20. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Adsorption and transport of pyrithiobac in soils 

    E-print Network

    Matocha, Christopher John

    1996-01-01

    adsorbents (Gonzales bentonite, Georgia kaolinite, goethite, and Michigan peat) and four soils (Houston Black c, Hidalgo sl, Orelia scl, and Ships sic) having a wide range of physical and chemical properties. Adsorption isotherms were developed...

  2. Hydrological Simulation of Runoff from Peat Harvesting Areas Using DRAINMOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadighavam, Shahram; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Peatland drainage and harvesting cause considerable impacts on runoff water quantity and quality. A crucial water quality problem is leaching of nutrients and sediment that occur after summer rainfall and leaching of acid water after groundwater level drawdown on peatlands overlaying acid sulphate soils. Groundwater fluctuations and drain runoff are important parameters that should be better predicted and monitored for load prediction. Also performance and efficiency of drainage network and different water treatment methods depend on good prediction of these parameters during design phase. In order to prevent and control pollution from drained peatlands, The DRAINMOD model has been developed for soils with shallow water table (Skaggs, 1980). The model simulates hourly hydrological response to rainfall using soil characteristics, drainage specifications and climatological data as input. The main objective of this research is to test the model for hydrological simulation of groundwater level fluctuations and estimation the amount of drained water in two peat harvesting areas in north of Finland. In order to collecting data different loggers are installed in each area to observe groundwater level, drainage water and rain continuously since summer of 2012. Several soil profiles were taken from mentioned sites and tested in the laboratory and some measuring were done in the field to determine soil characteristics as well. Water table depth (WTD) data that were collected during observation period are used for model calibration and validation. Some outliers occurred for certain events, but most simulated values of WTD are matched with observed data, both in terms of timing and quantity, thus, it can be concluded that the model performed satisfactorily for peat harvesting sites. The model allow to simulate daily amount of infiltration, evapotranspiration, runoff, drainage water and water table depth that are useful in the design of control structures, storage and sediment ponds, pump stations and treatment facilities. References Skaggs, R. W. 1980. DRAINMOD reference report. Fort Worth, Tex.: USDA-SCS South National Technical Center. Available at: www.bae.ncsu.edu/soil_water/documents/drainmod/chapter1.pdf

  3. Soils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    1995-08-29

    The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

  4. Electro-Osmotic Consolidation Studies on Peat and Clayey Silt Using Electric Vertical Drain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shenbaga R. Kaniraj; H. L. Huong; J. H. S. Yee

    2011-01-01

    Peat and soft soil deposits are abundant in Malaysia. Studies using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG) such as prefabricated\\u000a electric vertical drains (EVD or ePVD) have shown the potential for the application of these materials in electrokinetic strengthening\\u000a of soft clays and increasing solids content in mining tailings and sludges. There are no studies reported on the effectiveness\\u000a of electro-osmosis using EVD

  5. Ecosystem Respiration in a Cool Temperate Bog Depends on Peat

    E-print Network

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    Ecosystem Respiration in a Cool Temperate Bog Depends on Peat Temperature But Not Water Table P-summer (July-August). As anticipated, there was a strong relationship between ER and peat temperatures (r2 = 0-table depth (r2 = 0.11). A laboratory incubation of peat cores at different moisture contents showed that CO2

  6. Origin of Lead in Eight Central European Peat Bogs Determined

    E-print Network

    Wieder, R. Kelman

    Research Origin of Lead in Eight Central European Peat Bogs Determined from Isotope Ratios was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60 000 km2 with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11 000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb

  7. Mass movements in peat: A formal classification scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan P. Dykes; Jeff Warburton

    2007-01-01

    Published accounts of peat mass movements throughout the last 500 years reveal common characteristics among the failures; however, there has been no consistency in the terminology used to describe them. Given the apparently increasing frequency of peat failures in the British Isles and the possibility of more peat failures elsewhere in the world as a consequence of climate change, there is

  8. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Shen, Libo; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd. In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend. Compared to arsenate, there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted, and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil. In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions. Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha. The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment. Thus, water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice. Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd. PMID:25597681

  9. Mangrove peat analysis and reconstruction of vegetation history at the Pelican Cays, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    The substrate beneath mangrove forests in the Pelican Cays complex is predominately peat composed mainly of mangrove roots. Leaves and wood account for less than 20% of the peat mass. At Cat Cay, the depth of the peat ranges from 0.2 m along the shoreline to 1.65 m in the island center, indicating that the island has expanded horizontally as well as vertically through below-ground, biogenic processes. Mangrove roots thus play a critical role in the soil formation, vertical accretion, and stability of these mangrove cays. The species composition of fossil roots changes markedly with depth: Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the initial colonizer on a coral base, followed by Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), which increased in abundance and expanded radially from the center of the island. The center of the Avicennia stand ultimately died, leaving an unvegetated, shallow pond. The peat thus retains a record of mangrove development, succession, and deterioration in response to sea-level change and concomitant hydroedaphic conditions controlling dispersal, establishment, growth, and mortality of mangroves on oceanic islands in Belize.

  10. Analysis of ecological factors limiting the destruction of high-moor peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2014-03-01

    This review presents an analysis of literature data and original studies by the authors aimed at revealing the factors inhibiting the destruction of high-moor (oligotrophic) peat. Each of the ecological factors that prevent the decomposition of the high-moor peat by different groups of microorganisms is considered. The acid reaction, low temperatures, and lack of nutrients were found not to be the primary factors inhibiting the destruction of the peat. The limited content of oxygen in the peatbogs leads to a drastic decrease in the number of mycelial microorganisms and a reduction of the activity of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes. The main factor inhibiting the decomposition of sphagnum is its mechanical and chemical stability, since animals crushing sphagnum are absent in the soil, and this moss has polysaccharides of special composition. The toxicity of phenol compounds, which is manifested under the aerobic conditions, prevents the activity of all the hydrolytic enzymes. This is the main reason for the slow decomposition of sphagnum peat and the long-term preservation of the residues of bodies and food in high-moor peatlands.

  11. Effects of field-applied composted cattle manure and chemical fertilizer on ammonia and particulate ammonium exchanges at an upland field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Hayashi; Nobuhisa Koga; Yosuke Yanai

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the NH3 volatilization loss from field-applied compost and chemical fertilizer and evaluate the atmosphere–land exchange of NH3 and particulate NH4+ (pNH4) at an upland field with volcanic ash soil (Andosol) in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Two-step basal fertilization was conducted on the bare soil surface. First, a moderately fermented compost of cattle manure was applied

  12. Acaulospora brasiliensis comb. nov. and Acaulospora alpina ( Glomeromycota ) from upland Scotland: morphology, molecular phylogeny and DNA-based detection in roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Krüger; Christopher Walker; Arthur Schüßler

    2011-01-01

    Spores of two supposedly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, new to the United Kingdom and recently described as Acaulospora alpina and Ambispora brasiliensis (Glomeromycota), were discovered in soil samples from moorland in upland Scotland. Soil and plant trap pot cultures were established, but\\u000a attempts to establish these fungi in single-species pot cultures with Plantago lanceolata as host were unsuccessful. Nevertheless, based

  13. GAM & RF for 3D mapping of multinomial peat properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; Aalders, Inge; Morrice, Jane; Hough, Rupert

    2013-04-01

    Different statistical methods have been proposed for fitting the empirical quantitative function linking the soil information to the scorpan factors, while taking into account the spatial structure of the data . Regression kriging extends the methods of kriging and co-kriging and it has been further extended by the use of GAMs (Generalized Additive Models) with the estimation of uncertainty. When multinomial data are modelled, advanced non-parametric methods, such as CART (Classification and Regression Tree), can be used. CARTs have been used widely to estimate soil properties. Bagging trees and Random Forest (RF) approaches have among the best performances among CART methods. CARTs have been used in DSM applications, While RF have often been used in ecological modelling, fewer examples exist in DSM, such as soil erosion occurrence, soil types prediction and soil organic carbon content. In this paper we propose a methodology to map multinomial peat properties in 3D space with a combination of GAMs and RF. The methodology was applied to the humification (according to the VonPost classification) classes in a bog (18 km2) in the north-east of Scotland. A large survey campaign was carried out in 1955 and humification information were collected at 125 points. In order to integrate the information from the GAM in the RT, a series of binary GAMs were fitted using DEM-derived information as covariates. The binary GAMs were fitted assigning 1 if the class considered was present at the location, 0 if the class considered was absent. The probability predictions resulting from the binary GAMs, were included in the pool of covariates used for the RT together with other ancillary covariates. The model diagnostics had a fair to good agreement between measured and modelled values (K statistics). The probability predictions resulting from the binary GAMs proved to be important variables, increasing the agreement of the model. The obtained spatial distribution of values on the surface of the bog presented higher humification degree in the northern part and where the peat is shallower. The lowest values are in the steeper regions and on the borders of the bog, while intermediate classes can be found in the area of the raised basin. The study was implemented using open source software, in particular GRASS and R.

  14. Contributions of organic matter and organic sulfur redox processes to electron flow in anoxic incubations of peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YU, Zhiguo; Peiffer, Stefan; Göttlicher, Jörg; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic decomposition of peat soils involves a number of interdependent microbial processes that ultimately generate CO2 and CH4. In many peat soils, a high ratio of CO2:CH4 was reported, which presumably results from a direct or indirect role of soil organic matter serving as an electron acceptor. Therefore, in this study we intended to test the hypothesis that organic matter (OM) suppresses methanogenesis and sustains anaerobic CO2 production, serving as i) direct electron acceptor or ii) via supporting internal sulfur cycling to maintains CO2 production through bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). We incubated peat samples of commercial bog peat, inoculated with a small amount of fresh peat to introduce an active microbial community. Samples were amended with sulfate or sulfide and incubated under anoxic conditions for 6 weeks at 30 ° C. Upon anaerobic incubation of peat virtually devoid of inorganic electron acceptors, CO2 and CH4 were produced at a ratio of 3.2. According to the electron budget, the calculated electron accepting capacity (EAC) of OM was 2.36 ?eq cm3 d-1. Addition of sulfate significantly increased CO2 production and effectively suppressed CH4 production. After subtracting the EAC provided though sulfate addition (0.97~2.81 ?eq cm-3 d-1), EACs supplied by OM reached 3.88 to 4.85 ?eq cm-3 d-1.The contribution of organic sulfur was further evaluated by XANES spectroscopy and using natural abundance of ?34S as a tracer. Results demonstrated that BSR involved both addition of H2S and sulfate to OM leading to a formation of reduced organic sulfur and partial changes of oxidized organic sulfur species. The original peat prior to incubation contained 70.5% reduced organic S (R-S-H, R-S-R, R-S-S-R), and 25.9% oxidized S (R-SO3, R-SO2-R, R-SO4-R), whereas the treatment with H2S or sulfate addition comprised 75.7~ 81.1% reduced organic S, and only 21.1~18.9 % oxidized S. Our results imply that that organic matter contributes to anaerobic respiration i) directly by electron accepting capacity of redox active functional groups ii) directly by oxidized organic sulfur and iii) indirectly by recycling of sulfide to maintain BSR. Moreover, investigating the stability of organic sulfur compounds in peat soil towards abiotic and biotic reduction and oxidation is essential for the understanding of environmental sulfur cycling in anaerobic systems. Keywords: Methanogenesis; Electron transfer; organic sulfur; Redox processes; Freshwater systems;

  15. Changes in upland wildlife habitat on farmland in Illinois 1920-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.; Warner, R.E.; Mankin, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    An index of upland wildlife habitat was developed to investigate patterns and changes in habitat over time, using four years (1920, 1940, 1964, 1987) and the state of Illinois as an example. The index was composed of two subdivisions that described, at the county level, the quantity of wildlife habitat and a third subdivision that described farming disturbances that impacted the quality of the habitat. Data came from the US Census of Agriculture. The first subdivision that reflected quantity of habitat was called the wildlife habitat subdivision and was the sum of percentage woodland on farms, percentage farmland in nonrow crops, and percentage farmland in set-aside programs. The second subdivision that reflected the quantity of habitat was termed the soil-related features subdivision and was the sum of the percentage of farmland that was not highly erodible, the percentage of farmland in soil-protecting crops, and the percentage of farmland in conservation tillage. The third subdivision, reflecting the quality of the habitat, was the farming disturbance subdivision and was the sum of the percentage of grazing and the percentage of land on which fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides were applied. Overall, major decreases occurred between 1920 and 1987 in the subdivisions reflecting the quantity of wildlife habitat and a major increase occurred in the subdivision associated with farming disturbance, reflecting the intensification of agriculture in the state. However, there was variability throughout the state, with some counties being more favorable to wildlife (as measured by the subdivisions) than others. Most of the changes within the state for the subdivisions reflecting quantity of upland wildlife habitat occurred during 1940 while changes in the farming disturbance subdivision (reflecting habitat quality) occurred in 1964. By 1987, the western and southern parts of Illinois were the most favorable for wildlife as reflected in all three subdivisions. Upland wildlife harvest indices were related to the subdivisions in 1964 and 1987, when harvest indices were available. Cottontail and northern bobwhite harvests were higher in counties with higher amounts of the wildlife habitat subdivision in both years. Cottontail harvest was also higher in counties with lower levels of the farming disturbance subdivision in 1964 and higher levels of soil-related features subdivision in 1987. Indices at the county level have the potential to be used in a multiscale analysis to investigate the impact of policy changes on large- scale areas of the Midwest and to develop regional perspectives of the impacts of agriculture on upland wildlife and their habitats.

  16. Rebuilding Peatlands on Mineral Soils Utilizing Lessons Learned from Past Peatland Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitt, D. H.; Koropchak, S. C.; Xu, B.; Bloise, R.; Wieder, R.; Mowbray, S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent surveys of peatland initiation during the past 10,000 years in northeastern Alberta have revealed that nearly all peatlands, regardless of whether they are currently bogs and fens, were initiated by paludification, or swamping of upland soils. Terrestrialization (or infilling of water bodies) rarely if ever was involved in the initiation of peatlands across the mid boreal of Canada. Although the importance of paludification as a significant natural process in the initiation of peatland ecosystems has long been known by peatland ecologists, this knowledge has not been transferred to peatland and wetland restoration methodologies. We initiated this study to determine if wetland structure and function could be re-established on mineral gas/oil pads that were originally placed on organic soils. We have attempted to emulate the paludification process by removing mineral material to near the surrounding peatland natural water level and introducing a suite of wetland plants to the rewetted mineral soils. The experimental design comprised two well sites at the Shell Carmon Creek in situ plant near Peace River, Alberta. We placed 292 2 x 2 m plots over a series of fertilizer, water level, cultivation, and amendment treatments. In this presentation, we address four questions: 1) Will locally available peatland vascular plant species establish on these wet, compacted, mineral soils? If so; 2) Are species responses affected by water level, amendment, cultivation, and fertilization treatments, 3) Are invasive weeds a concern in these re-establishment trials, and 4) Will the surrounding bog water chemistry have an effect on water in contact with the mineral soils? Results after three growing season are: 1) All three species originally planted (a sedge, a willow, and tamarack) have successfully established at both well sites; 2) Carex aquatilis has performed well and responses to differing water levels and cultivation are not significant; 3) The plant responses to amendments are, in general, not different from the control plots; 4) The abundance of weeds is significantly different among some of the amendment types; and 5) Water chemistry (pH and electrical conductivity) of the ditches is affected by the surrounding bog waters. In addition, a fifth question was asked: Can Carex aquatilis establish by seed and if so, do C. aquatilis seeds require a peat amendment? In May 2009, three blank 4 m2 plots were selected on each of the experimental well site reclamations. Half of each plot was covered with approximately 4 cm of peat and the other half remained a mineral soil substrate. Each plot half was divided into 2 halves (1 m2); one that had approximately 600 Carex aquatilis seeds scattered across it and one that had no seeds added. Results from reassessment in July 2010 showed that subplots with added seeds had more seedlings than the subplots without added seeds. There was no difference between the number of seedlings between the peat and mineral soil subplots on either site, but on one of the sites, the subplots with peat had much higher percent cover of weeds than the mineral soil subplots.

  17. Characterizing the propagation of smouldering fires under the influence of heterogeneous moisture distributions in peat fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Nuria; Belcher, Claire; Hadden, Rory; Rein, Guillermo; Yearsley, Jon

    2013-04-01

    Smouldering is a slow, flameless form of combustion affecting soil layers with high organic matter content (e.g. peat, humus, duff). Smouldering fires are difficult to extinguish and can spread through soil layers for weeks and months. Such fires remove large quantities of soil, damage root systems and soil biota, cause habitat loss and release substantial carbon emissions. Moisture content distribution in organic soil layers is known to be one of the most important variables affecting combustion. In real systems soil moisture content has a heterogeneous distribution but the effects of the heterogeneity on the behaviour of the smouldering front propagation have not been studied. In this study we focus on characterizing the smouldering combustion of peat under different heterogeneous moisture contents. We present the results from a series of small-scale experiments (in a 20x20x5cm tray) looking at the effect of different moisture configurations on smoulder spread rate and burn duration. We contrast burns undertaken un both heterogeneous and homogeneous moisture distributions in order to compare the influence on the propagation behaviour of smouldering fires. We then fit this data to a cellular automaton model of smouldering propagation (FIREOX3) and will discuss the preliminary findings.

  18. Saline soils under dryland agriculture in southeastern Saskatchewan (Canada) and possibilities for their improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lüken

    1962-01-01

    Summary Two experiments to study the effects of organic matter applications on saline soils and crop yields were carried out in a growth room and in the field, respectively. In the growth room experiment peat incorporations improved the yields of barley (fresh weight) over the full range from non-saline to highly saline soils, providing the peat-induced moisture stresses in the

  19. Soil–Methanogen Interactions in Two Peatlands (Bog, Fen) in Central New York State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Dettling; Joseph B. Yavitt; Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz; Christine Sun; Stephen H. Zinder

    2007-01-01

    Rates of methanogenesis vary widely in peat soils, yet the reasons are poorly known. We examined rates of methanogenesis and methanogen diversity in relation to soil chemical and biological characteristics in 2 peatlands in New York State. One was an acidic (pH < 4.5) bog dominated by Sphagnummosses and ericaceous shrubs, although deeper peat was derived from sedges. The other

  20. Holocene peat development in the Pyeongtaek blanket peat bog, Korea: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, W.; Yi, S.; Kim, J.; Park, Y.; Kim, J.; Yang, D.; Doh, S.; Yu, K.

    2006-12-01

    Preliminary results of multi-pronged investigation of two peat trench sections from the Pyeongtaek blanket peat bog, mid-western Korean Peninsula are reported. Multiple peat layers are recorded from both HS (Hwangsan) and HY (Hwayang) trench sections. Peat layers are typically underlain by homogeneous, dark olive black (2.5Y 3/3) to olive black (7.5Y 2/2) mud with <10 wt% of total organic carbon (TOC). Abundant plant fragments and Trapa (water Chestnut) can be found in the mud layer. The peat layers (HS Unit 3; HY Unit 3) are mostly consisting of partly decomposed vegetal remains with higher (more than 30 wt%) but varying TOC content. The TOC/TN ratios range from 10 to 20 in general. The 14C age of peat layers indicates that these layers to be about 6200 14C yrBP (HY Unit 3) and 6130 14C yrBP (HS Unit 3). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) of sediment is a physical property controlled by the concentration of magnetic minerals in detrital sediment, and thus high MS could serve as an analogous evidence for enhanced sediment transportation. Peaks in MS occur in HS Units 4 and 6 as well as in HY Units 4 and 6, indicating an increase in magnetic mineral concentration. It has been found that TOC content of peat layers shows negative correlation to MS value. The onset of peat accumulation in the study area started around 6130~6200 14C yrBP, possibly the result of decrease in precipitation. The age of low TOC layers (HS Units 4 and 6; HY Units 4 and 6) is different from each section, indicating that the controlling factor of the enhanced sediment transportation is not area-wide, but probably related to the activities of ephemeral river system.

  1. INFLUENCE OF PEAT ON FENTON OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A diagnostic probe was used to estimate the activity of Fenton-derived hydroxyl radicals (@OH), reaction kinetics, and oxidation efficiency in batch suspensions comprised of silica sand, crushed goethite ("-FeOOH) ore, peat, and H2O2 (0.13 mM). A simple method of kinetic analysi...

  2. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  3. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Pommer; I. A. Breger

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups.

  4. Humus composition of peat land plant remains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renzô Kondô

    1974-01-01

    Plant remains of peat collected in Hokkaido were examined with regard to humus compositions by means similar to those used by Kumadaet al. The examined samples of plant remains covered 34 species, 24 genera, and 19 families. The results were as follows:(1) HT, HE, and PQ varied considerably with the samples over a fairly large range, implying their relationships with

  5. Variety in dustiness and hygiene quality of peat bedding.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Sanna; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Laitinen, Juha; Laitinen, Sirpa; Linnainmaa, Markku; Rautiala, Sirpa

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to organic dust induces chronic pulmonary diseases both in farmers and horses. The aim of this study was to examine the variation of dustiness and hygiene quality of peat moss bedding. Materials studied were weakly decomposed sphagnum peat (A), weakly decomposed sphagnum peat warmed up in storage (> 30 degrees C) (B) and two more decomposed few-flowered sedge peats (C and D). The geometric mean of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinomycetes were determined from the material. Samples of inhalable dust and endotoxins were collected with IOM samplers and respirable dust with 10M foam samplers when the peat was rotated in a cylinder. The number of particles was detected with an optical particle counter. An LAL assay was used for analysing endotoxins from the filter samples. There were differences in the hygiene quality and dustiness between peat materials (p < 0.01). The geometric mean of fungi was smallest in material A. Warming-up increased the number of fungi in sphagnum peat, but on the other hand, it decreased the content of endotoxin (p < 0.01). Few-flowered peat materials contained thermophilic actinomycetes and material D also contained Aspergillus fumigatus. The concentrations of inhalable dust, respirable dust and the number of particles were smaller in the few-flowered peats (C-D) than in the sphagnum peats (A-B). It is concluded that there are differences in the dustiness and hygiene quality of peat bedding. PMID:16028867

  6. Development and Carbon Fluxes of Tropical Peat Domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, A.; Hoyt, A.; Gandois, L.; Su'ut, N. S.; Abu Salim, K.; Ali Ahmad, J.; Jalil, J.; Yussof, M.; Harvey, C.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peatlands hold large carbon stocks and their degradation has led to large fluxes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, from peat decomposition and fires. Existing lumped and steady-state peatland models do not address the development and dynamics of tropical peatlands on the spatial scale of peat domes and time scales of their hydrological response. Our distributed model for tropical peat dynamics, parameterized by measurements in Brunei Darussalam, show that tropical peat domes approach a solution to Poisson's equation as they grow. They approach this stable topography centripetally from the boundaries, so that rates of carbon upake are proportional to the area of the growing interior. Exponentially greater drainage at higher water table leads to strong dependence of peat accumulation or loss on variability of rainfall. Our findings imply a fundamental link between statistics of climate, hydrological properties of peat, metrics of peat landscape topography, and dynamics of carbon sequestration and release.

  7. Peat resource estimation in Minnesota: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) completed and published reconnaissance-level investigations for four areas in Minnesota. Approximately 1,061,000 ha (2,622,000 ac) of peatland were surveyed in Aitkan, northern Beltrami Koochiching Lake of the Woods, and southwestern St. Louis counties. Within these areas, approximately 812,000 ha (2,007,000 ac) of peatland are administratively available. And, based on DOE's criteria, approximately 276,000 ha (681,900 ac) of peatland are fuel-grade resources. Calculated in terms of the higher heating value, the energy value of these deposits is 16.47 quads. Reconnaissance investigations were completed for Carlton and Itasca counties and portions of Cass, Lake, and St. Louis counties, but because of the minimal interest in fuel peat, reports were not published. These investigations examined approximately 346,600 ha (856,500 ac) of peatland, of which 191,940 ha (474,280 ac) are administratively available. The results of the investigations are recorded on file maps and stored in the state's computer system. The DNR completed four detailed investigations at peatland sites thought to have high fuel peat potential. As a pilot project, peat sods were produced from the Fens Peatland. Peatland surveys for Boise Cascade, International Falls and the Hibbing Public Utility have produced encouraging results in conjunction with modeling that projected fuel costs. The cost of milled peat production in Minnesota can be competitive with the cost of western coal in certain production scenarios. The principles in the study have plans to continue engineering studies on conversion to fuel peat. 32 refs., 5 figs. 17 tabs.

  8. 24 CFR 3285.202 - Soil classifications and bearing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...classification and type. (f) If the soil appears to be composed of peat, organic clays, or uncompacted fill, or appears to have...12-17 175-275. 5 OL, OH, PT Uncompacted fill; peat; organic clays Refer to 3285.202(e) 0-11 Less...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.202 - Soil classifications and bearing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...classification and type. (f) If the soil appears to be composed of peat, organic clays, or uncompacted fill, or appears to have...12-17 175-275. 5 OL, OH, PT Uncompacted fill; peat; organic clays Refer to 3285.202(e) 0-11 Less...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.202 - Soil classifications and bearing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...classification and type. (f) If the soil appears to be composed of peat, organic clays, or uncompacted fill, or appears to have...12-17 175-275. 5 OL, OH, PT Uncompacted fill; peat; organic clays Refer to 3285.202(e) 0-11 Less...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.202 - Soil classifications and bearing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...classification and type. (f) If the soil appears to be composed of peat, organic clays, or uncompacted fill, or appears to have...12-17 175-275. 5 OL, OH, PT Uncompacted fill; peat; organic clays Refer to 3285.202(e) 0-11 Less...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.202 - Soil classifications and bearing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...classification and type. (f) If the soil appears to be composed of peat, organic clays, or uncompacted fill, or appears to have...12-17 175-275. 5 OL, OH, PT Uncompacted fill; peat; organic clays Refer to 3285.202(e) 0-11 Less...

  13. Genetic resources of primitive upland rice in Laos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ishikawa; S. Yamanaka; K. Kanyavong; Y. Fukuta; Y. I. Sato; L. Tang; T. Sato

    2002-01-01

    Primitive upland cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) were collected in northern Laos. One-hundred-thirty-two cultivars were collected in upland fields at 27 sites. Morphological\\u000a and physiological traits were recorded. The materials were classified intoindica and japonica types based on isozyme genotypes. We classified 106japonica, 16indica, two intermediate, and eight heterozygous cultivars. Thejaponica cultivars were characterized by glabrous hulls and sticky grains. Only

  14. Relationships between upland rice canopy characteristics and weed competitiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dingkuhn; D. E. Johnson; A. Sow; A. Y. Audebert

    1999-01-01

    Weed-competitive upland rices with an acceptable yield potential are needed for labor-limited systems in Africa, particularly where shortened fallow periods have increased weed pressure. Crosses between weed-competitive but low-yielding African rice, Oryza glaberrima, and improved Oryza sativa tropical-japonica rices, might reduce tradeoffs between competitiveness and yield potential. Parallel field studies under moist upland conditions were conducted during the 1996 and

  15. Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A W of P, N, C, and related physico-chemical parameters in the peat soils (Histosols) of Water Conservation

  16. Soil Core Sample #1

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Soil core obtained from existing goose grazing lawn along the Smith River in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska.  The buried layer of peat beneath goose grazing lawn demonstrates that vegetation change has occurred in this area....

  17. Airborne Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for peat analyses in the Canadian Northern wetlands study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier-Travis, Ramona E.

    1991-01-01

    The study was conducted as part of the NASA Biospherics Research on Emissions from Wetlands (BREW) program. An important aspect of the program is to investigate the terrestrial production and atmospheric distribution of methane and other gases contributing to global warming. Multi-kilometer transects of airborne (helicopter) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data were collected periodically along the 100 km distance from the coast inland so as to obtain a regional trend in peat depth and related parameters. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were simultaneously collected from the helicopter to properly georeference the GPR data. Additional 50 m ground-based transects of GPR data were also collected as a source of ground truthing, as a calibration aid for the airborne data sets, and as a source of higher resolution data for characterizing the strata within the peat. In situ peat depth probing and soil characterizations from excavated soil pits were used to verify GPR findings. Results from the ground-based data are presented.

  18. Relationships between soil microbial communities and soil carbon turnover along a vegetation and moisture gradient in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrop, M. P.; Harden, J. W.; Turetsky, M. R.; Petersen, D. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Briones, M. J.; Churchill, A. C.; Doctor, D. H.; Pruett, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal landscapes are characterized by a mosaic of uplands and lowlands, which differ in plant species composition, litter biochemistry, and biogeochemical cycling rates. Boreal ecosystems, from upland black spruce stands to lowland fens, are structured largely by water table position and contain quantitatively and qualitatively different forms of soil organic matter. Differences in carbon (C) availability among ecosystems likely translate to differences in the structure of soil microbial communities, which in turn could affect rates of organic matter decomposition and turnover. We examined relationships between microbial communities and soil C turnover in near-surface soils along a topographic soil moisture and vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. We tested the hypothesis that upland black spruce sites would be dominated by soil fungi and have slow rates of C turnover, whereas lowland ecosystems would be dominated by bacteria and mesofauna (enchytraeids) and have more rapid rates of C turnover. We utilized several isotopic measures of soil C turnover including bomb radiocarbon techniques, the ?15N of SOM, and the difference between ?13C of SOM, DOC, and respired CO2. All three measures indicated greater C turnover rates in the surface soils of the lowland fen sites compared to the more upland locations. Quantitative PCR analyses of soil bacteria and archaea, combined with enchytraed counts, confirmed that surface soils from the lowland fen ecosystems had the highest abundances of these functional groups. Fungal biomass was highly variable and tended to be more abundant in the upland forest sites. Soil enzymatic results were mixed: potential cellulase activities were higher in the more upland soils even though rates of microbial activity were generally lower. Oxidative enzyme activities were higher in fens, even though these ecosystems are saturated and partly anaerobic. Overall our data support soil food web theory which argues that rapidly cycling systems are bacterial dominated with mesofaunal grazing, whereas slowly cycling systems have characteristic higher fungal:bacterial ratios.

  19. Integration of crop rotation and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculum application for enhancing AM activity to improve phosphorus nutrition and yield of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Maiti, Dipankar; Toppo, Neha Nancy; Variar, Mukund

    2011-11-01

    Upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major crop of Eastern India grown during the wet season (June/July to September/October). Aerobic soils of the upland rice system, which are acidic and inherently phosphorus (P) limiting, support native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) activity. Attempts were made to improve P nutrition of upland rice by exploiting this natural situation through different crop rotations and application of AM fungal (AMF) inoculum. The effect of a 2-year crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L.) followed by horse gram (Dolichos biflorus L.) in the first year and upland rice in the second year on native AM activity was compared to three existing systems, with and without application of a soil-root-based inoculum. Integration of AM fungal inoculation with the maize-horse gram rotation had synergistic/additive effects in terms of AMF colonization (+22.7 to +42.7%), plant P acquisition (+11.2 to +23.7%), and grain yield of rice variety Vandana (+25.7 to +34.3%). PMID:21448812

  20. Filling holes in regional carbon budgets: Predicting peat depth in a north temperate lake district

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    Filling holes in regional carbon budgets: Predicting peat depth in a north temperate lake district] Peat deposits contain on the order of 1/6 of the Earth's terrestrial fixed carbon (C), but uncertainty in peat depth precludes precise estimates of peat C storage. To assess peat C in the Northern Highlands

  1. Short-Term Reducing Conditions Decreases Soil Aggregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland soils in Midwestern US are often ponded during the spring for days or weeks and may undergo reducing state. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and that may affect soil aggregation. The objective of this paper was to determine how changes in the redox status of the...

  2. Mires and Peat, Volume 6 (2010), Article 02, 1 6, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X 2010 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peat Society 1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2010-01-01

    Mires and Peat, Volume 6 (2010), Article 02, 1 6, http://www.mires-and-peat.net/, ISSN 1819-754X © 2010 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peat Society 1 The physical properties of peat: a key factor for modern growing media J-C. Michel AGROCAMPUS OUEST, Research Unit EPHOR, Angers

  3. Calluna vulgaris-dominated upland heathland sequesters more CO? annually than grass-dominated upland heathland.

    PubMed

    Quin, Samuel L O; Artz, Rebekka R E; Coupar, Andrew M; Woodin, Sarah J

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown in many habitats worldwide, that a shift in vegetation composition between woody shrub and graminoid dominance can influence carbon (C) cycling. Due to land management practices and environmental change, UK upland heath vegetation has historically undergone shifts in dominance from the woody dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris (Calluna) to species poor graminoid swards. The consequences of this for C sequestration are unknown. We compared annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO?) between building phase Calluna- and grass-dominated communities within three upland heaths in Scotland, measuring c. monthly over a year. Light and temperature response curves were generated, and the parameters derived were applied to continuous light and temperature data to extrapolate CO? fluxes over the full year and generate estimates of annual CO? sequestration for each vegetation type. Grass-dominated communities had higher ecosystem respiration rates than Calluna-dominated communities, attributed to graminoids having greater metabolic demands and producing more labile litter which decomposes readily. Both communities had similar gross primary productivity over the year; the net result being higher NEE within the Calluna-dominated than the grass-dominated community (-2.36 ± 0.23 and -1.78 ± 0.18 ?mol CO?m(-2)s(-1) respectively). Modelled CO? fluxes over a year showed both communities to be CO? sinks. The Calluna-dominated community sequesters -3.45 ± 0.96 t C ha(-1)yr(-1), double that sequestered by the grass-dominated community at 1.61 ± 0.57 t C ha(-1)yr(-1). Potential rate of C sequestration by upland heath is comparable to that of woodland and the increase in total sequestration that could be gained from habitat restoration may equate to c. 60% of the annual UK C sink attributed to forest land management. National C sequestration by heathlands is also more than double that by peatlands. Management of graminoid-dominated upland heath should promote Calluna re-establishment, thus providing a C benefit in addition to benefits to biodiversity, grazing and sporting interests. PMID:25461077

  4. The geology, botany and chemistry of selected peat-forming environments from temperate and tropical latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, C.C.; Esterle, J.S.; Palmer, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Peat has been studied in several geologic settings: (1) glaciated terrain in cold temperate Maine and Minnesota, U.S.A.; (2) an island in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Maine, where sea level is rising; (3) the warm temperate U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, where sea level has changed often; and (4) the tropical coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the tropical delta of the Batang Hari River, Sumatra, Indonesia. Most of these deposits are domed (ombrotrophic or partly ombrotrophic) bogs in which peat accumulation continued above the surface of the surrounding soil. However, the bogs of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains are comparatively not as domed, and many have almost level surfaces. In some bogs, aquatic or semi-aquatic plant materials accumulated, replaced water in the depressions, and formed a surface on which marsh or swamp vegetation could subsequently live, die, and accumulate. In others, the plant materials accumulated initially on level silt or sand surfaces supporting marshes or swamps. As the peat dome formed, plants growing on it changed from luxuriant ones near the base of the dome, where nutrients were brought into the bog by surface and ground water, to stunted ones at the top of the dome, where the raised bogs are fed by nutrient-poor precipitation. The physical and chemical changes that take place in the sequence of environments from the pond stage of deposit development, through the grassy marsh stage, through the forested swamp stage, and finally through the heath dome stage can be measured in terms of acidity and ash, volatile matter, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen contents, as well as in the kind and distribution of trace elements. The organic and inorganic contents of the deposits relate to geomorphology, and geomorphology relates to their settings. As models of coal formation, some domed peat deposits may help in solving problems of distribution and character of ancient coal beds. But clearly not all peat deposits are precursors of coal. Most Holocene peat deposits are subject to destruction by erosion, fire and decomposition through microbial and chemical oxidation before burial. The best environments for coal precursors have biomass accumulation, a continuously rising water table within the mass, and minimum influx of clay and silt until preservation by burial. The most suitable settings for future economic coal deposits are domed bogs that accumulate thick, widespread peat having low ash and low sulfur contents. The ombrotrophic peat deposits of tropical Sarawak and Sumatra are thick and extensive, contain low-ash and low-sulfur peat, and have high heating values. They are considered to be the best tropical coal analogs because of their extent and chances of preservation; the base of the peat is below adjacent river levels, and chemical and structural conditions are favorable for accumulation. ?? 1989.

  5. Only low methane production and emission in degraded peat extraction sites after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agethen, Svenja; Waldemer, Carolin; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2015-04-01

    In Central Europe rewetting of bogs after peat extraction is a wide spread technique to halt secondary aerobic decomposition and to reestablish plant species such as Sphagnum spp. and Eriophorum spp. that initialize accumulation of organic carbon in peat. Before extraction, such sites are often used for agriculture causing the aerobic degradation of peat and mobilization of phosphorus, ammonia, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In nutrient poor ecosystems such as bogs, additional supply of P and N does not only trigger the establishment of uncharacteristic vegetation but also the formation of more labile plant litter and DOM that is readily degradable. Therefore, after rewetting and the development of anoxic conditions especially in initial stages high methane (CH4) emissions are reported for these systems compared to pristine bogs. Regarding the potential of methane production and emissions we investigated three common practices to prepare extraction fields for restoration (years since rewetting): i) Filling of drainage ditches, passive rewetting (1 site, Altendorfer Moor, Stade, NW-Germany, ca. 20 yr.), ii) Removal of upper 30 cm peat layer, removed peat used for construction of polder dikes (2 sites, Königsmoor, Leer, NW-Germany, 2 and 3 yr.), iii) Removal upper peat layer down to 50 cm grown peat, not extracted peat used as polder walls (2 sites, Benthullener Moor, Wardenburg, NW-Germany, 3 and 7 yr.). In each site two vegetated replicate mesocosms (diam. 30 cm, depth 40 cm) were sampled and placed in a greenhouse from May-October 2014 to maintain the water table at surface level. Pore water concentrations of ions, fermentation products and DOM, DOM electron acceptor capacity (EAC), soil gas concentrations of CO2, CH4 and H2, gas fluxes as well as element composition and organic matter quality of DOM and SOM were analyzed. We found out that practice i) with least efforts of nutrient removal in the peat produced the highest CH4 emissions (3.5 mmol m-2 d-1) although still within the range of northern pristine bogs. Also practice ii) showed still inputs of external nutrients and labile DOM, but CH4 production was not yet developed (0.23 and 0.07 mmol m-2 d-1). Practice iii) was most effective in nutrient removal, but only in the 7 yr. site little methane (in the 3 yr. site 0.025 vs. 0.41 mmol m-2 d-1in the 7 yr. site) was emitted. The emissions were well in accord with soil gas concentrations, maximum values for CH4 in practice i) were 115 ?mol L-1, 2-5 ?mol L-1 in practice ii) and 0.5 vs. 16 ?mol L-1 in practice iii). Only small concentrations of inorganic electron acceptors such as sulfate imply the importance of organic matter as electron acceptor. The results show that restored bogs on former strongly degraded extraction fields do not necessarily act as exceptionally high CH4 sources. Contrary to other findings in early stages of rewetting CH4 emissions can also be very low until other electron acceptors are exhausted and methanogens become effective competitors for substrates which happens in the order of years.

  6. Phenological assessment in the Owhyee Uplands: integrating climate drivers and ecological response at local to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Hanser, S.; Tumbusch, M. L.; Bedford, D.

    2009-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of vegetation change in biomass, structure, and composition is a dominant landscape feature influencing many ecosystem components of the Owyhee Uplands particularly resident and migratory vertebrates and invertebrates. Encompassing portions of Idaho, Nevada, and Oregon, the Owyhee Uplands have remained relatively intact with climate, exotic plant invasions, and anthropogenic agents, such as grazing, acting as the principle causes of ecosystem stress. The sagebrush habitats of the Owyhee Uplands are a stronghold for several federal and state species of special concern, including the Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). We examined phenological variation in response to climate conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, soil moisture, solar irradiance, and snowfall at a range of spatial and temporal scales across a gradient of soil and landforms. We integrated/analyzed measures of greenness derived from ground-based cameras and several satellite sensors (AVHRR, MODIS, and Landsat), early and late season field-collected measures of plant species cover and passerine bird diversity and abundance, daily measurement of soil moisture conditions from in-situ sensors, site-level snow depth conditions from thermochron fitted snow poles, and climate conditions derived from a combination of site-based meteorological stations and interpolated PRISM data. Our objectives include 1) quantifying covariation between greenness-climate-soil-snow conditions and vertebrate and plant species phenology, 2) spatial interscale comparisons of the covariation, and 3) recommendations for on-going data collection and analysis methods to explore phenological response within the context of the natural range of variability and under climate change scenarios.

  7. Peat decomposition in a transitional mire in central Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Titlyanova; S. V. Shibareva; P. Bienkowski

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work was to estimate the rate of the peat formation and mineralization at two depths: 30 cm (the aerobic zone)\\u000a and 60 cm (the anaerobic zone). An experiment on peat incubation was performed for two years. In the first year, at the depth\\u000a of 30 cm, the peat lost about 14% of its mass in the

  8. Nitrate and sulphate dynamics in peat subjected to different hydrological conditions: Batch experiments and field comparison

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrate and sulphate dynamics in peat subjected to different hydrological conditions: Batch concentrations were investigated in bioreactors, using peat samples from field sites influenced by different hydrologic regimes. In this experiment, peat samples were subjected to similar conditions to address

  9. Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, R., Jr.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

  10. Soil texture and nitrogen mineralization potential across a riparian toposequence in a semi-arid savanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Scott Bechtold; Robert J. Naiman

    2006-01-01

    Soil texture is an important influence on nutrient cycling in upland soils, with documented relationships between mineral particle size distribution and organic matter retention, nitrogen (N) mineralization, microbial biomass and other soil properties. However, little is known of the role of mineral particle size in riparian soils, where fluvial sorting creates strong spatial contrasts in the size distribution of sediments

  11. Integrating parsimonious models of hydrological connectivity and soil biogeochemistry to simulate stream DOC dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkel, Christian; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2014-05-01

    To improve understanding and prediction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources and fluxes in northern peat-dominated catchments, we present the development and application of a parsimonious tracer-aided rainfall-runoff model coupled with a biogeochemistry subroutine able to concurrently simulate streamflow and DOC dynamics. The modeling approach which included quantitative assessment of associated uncertainties was conditioned by geochemical tracers which discriminate dominant water sources. Integration of DOC was predicated on statistical time series models which identified air temperature and streamflow as the key proxies that capture DOC supply and transport processes in two upland catchments in Scotland, UK. Conceptualizing the nonlinear partitioning of quick near-surface and slower groundwater runoff sources in combination with a DOC mass balance resulted in a coupled, low-parameter mechanistic model. Model tests showed mostly sensitive parameters and reasonable simulation results with seasonally controlled DOC supply and event-based DOC transport. Transport is facilitated even for smaller events by overland flow from saturated histosols connected to the stream network. However, during prolonged dry periods, near-surface runoff "switches off" and stream DOC is dominated by low concentration groundwaters. Furthermore, the model was able to explain subtle differences in DOC dynamics between the two catchments mainly reflecting the distribution of saturated soils and available storage. We conclude that tracers and statistical time series models can successfully guide the development of parsimonious yet structurally consistent water quality models. Parsimonious models provide tools for estimating DOC dynamics and loads with reduced uncertainty and potentially greater transferability.

  12. Simulated thaw development of a peat plateau-bog complex in a discontinuous permafrost region, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurylyk, Barret; Hayashi, Masaki; Quinton, William; Voss, Clifford

    2015-04-01

    Air temperatures at high latitudes have increased at rates that exceed globally averaged trends, and this warming has produced rapid permafrost degradation in many areas. In discontinuous permafrost regions of the Taiga Plains of northwestern Canada, past climate warming has created a complex landscape mosaic of fully thawed bogs/fens and remnant peat plateaus underlain by thin permafrost. The thawing of peat plateaus can alter the landscape hydrologic connectivity by creating pathways to efficiently convey water from bogs to nearby rivers and lakes. Extensive monitoring of the thermal regime of a peat plateau-bog complex in the Scotty Creek watershed (61.3° N, 121.3° W), Northwest Territories, Canada has identified rapid permafrost degradation in the past decade. In addition, satellite images indicate major landscape evolution due to permafrost thaw since 1970, and these changes have resulted in increased discharge at the watershed outlet. These long term comprehensive data facilitate the numerical modeling of idealized permafrost environments based on observed data. The objective of this research project is to elucidate fundamental processes that contribute to multi-dimensional permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes in discontinuous permafrost regions. The thaw evolution in this peat plateau-bog complex is simulated using SUTRA, a numerical groundwater flow and coupled heat transport model that has been modified to include dynamic freeze-thaw processes. To accommodate complex surface processes, measured climate data from 1900-2010 are used to drive a separate soil-vegetation-atmosphere energy transfer model. Near-surface temperatures produced by the vertical transfer model for the peat plateau and bog are applied as the upper thermal boundary conditions for the multi-dimensional subsurface heat transport simulations in SUTRA (1900-2010). The simulated thaw development of this peat plateau will be compared to satellite imagery to assess the ability of this sequential modeling approach to reproduce observed permafrost degradation.

  13. Usual and unusual CIELAB color parameters for the study of peat organic matter properties: Tremoal do Pedrido bog (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmartín, P.; Silva-Sánchez, N.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Prieto, B.

    2015-04-01

    We have tested the practical application of color measurements in the study of organic matter properties (C and N content, C/N ratios, degree of peat humification-DPH) of a 335 cm long peat core sampled at Tremoal do Pedrido bog. Usual and unusual CIELAB color parameters were measured on samples that were sectioned at high resolution (slices of 1 cm in thickness). The objective of the study is twofold: (i) describe a rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive method of assessing peat properties without the need of extractions and chemical methods and (ii) contribute to further research on applied colorimetry using the well-known CIELAB coordinates: L*, a*, b*, C*ab and hab (‘usual CIELAB color parameters’) and the less well-known CIELAB parameters: [a* x b*], [a*/b*], [(a*/b*) x 1000], [1000 x a*/(L*+ b*)], [2000 x a*/(L* x b*)] and RLab= [a*(a*2+b*2)1/2 1010]/(b* x L*6) (‘unusual CIELAB color parameters’). Our findings show that L* and hab coordinates as well as [(a*/b*) x 1000], [2000 x a*/(L* x b*)] and RLab parameters give the best bivariate Spearman's correlations. Linear regression equations were calculated to predict peat properties from all CIELAB parameters under study and a notable fit (R2: 0.65-0.79) was obtained. The evaluation presented here indicates that the determination of usual and unusual CIELAB parameters offers potential for the study of peat organic matter properties and encourages the routine application of this methodology on other peat cores and organic soils.

  14. The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution on modified peat–resin particle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingye Sun; Linzhang Yang

    2003-01-01

    Modified peat was prepared by mixing thoroughly raw peat with sulfuric acid, and modified peat–resin particle was obtained, by mixing modified peat with solutions of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and formaldehyde. In this paper, the adsorption of Basic Magenta and Basic Brilliant Green onto modified peat–resin particle is examined. The adsorption isotherm showed that the adsorption of basic dyes on modified peat–resin

  15. Comparison of different methods to determine the degree of peat decomposition in peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biester, H.; Knorr, K.-H.; Schellekens, J.; Basler, A.; Hermanns, Y.-M.

    2014-05-01

    Peat humification or decomposition is a frequently used proxy to extract past time changes in hydrology and climate from peat bogs. During the past century several methods to determine changes in peat decomposition have been introduced. Most of these methods are operationally defined only and the chemical changes underlying the decomposition process are often poorly understood and lack validation. Owing to the chemically undefined nature of many humification analyses the comparison of results obtained by different methods is difficult. In this study we compared changes in peat decomposition proxies in cores of two peat bogs (Königsmoor, KK; Kleines Rotes Bruch, KRB) from the Harz Mountains (Germany) using C / N ratios, Fourier transform infrared spectra absorption (FTIR) intensities, Rock Eva® oxygen and hydrogen indices, ?13C and ?15N isotopic signatures and UV-absorption (UV-ABS) of NaOH peat extracts. In order to explain parallels and discrepancies between these methods, one of the cores was additionally analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC-MS). Pyrolysis-GC-MS data provide detailed information on a molecular level, which allows differentiation of both changes attributed to decomposition processes and changes in vegetation. Principal component analysis was used to identify and separate the effects of changes in vegetation pattern and decomposition processes because both may occur simultaneously upon changes in bog hydrology. Records of decomposition proxies show similar historical development at both sites, indicating external forcing such as climate as controlling the process. All decomposition proxies except UV-ABS and ?15N isotopes show similar patterns in their records and reflect to different extents signals of decomposition. The molecular composition of the KK core reveals that these changes are mainly attributed to decomposition processes and to a lesser extent to changes in vegetation. Changes in the molecular composition indicate that peat decomposition in the KK bog is mainly characterized by preferential decomposition of phenols and polysaccharides and relative enrichment of aliphatics during drier periods. Enrichment of lignin and other aromatics during decomposition was also observed but showed less variation than polysaccharides or aliphatics, and presumably reflects changes in vegetation associated with changes in hydrology of the bogs. Significant correlations with polysaccharide and aliphatic pyrolysis products were found for C / N ratios, FTIR-band intensities and for hydrogen index values, supporting that these decomposition indices provide reasonable information. Correlations of polysaccharide and aliphatic pyrolysis products with oxygen index values and ?13C was weaker, assumingly indicating carboxylation of the peat during drier periods and enrichment of isotopically lighter peat components during decomposition, respectively. FTIR, C / N ratio, pyrolysis-GC-MS analyses and Rock Eval hydrogen indices appear to reflect mass loss and related changes in the molecular peat composition during mineralization best. Pyrolysis-GC-MS allows disentangling the decomposition processes and vegetation changes. UV-ABS measurements of alkaline peat extracts show only weak correlation with other decomposition proxies and pyrolysis results as they mainly reflect the formation of humic acids through humification and to a lesser extent mass loss during mineralization.

  16. Peat bog Records of Atmospheric Dust fluxes - Holocene palaeoenvironmental and paleoclimatic implications for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanneste, Heleen; Bertrand, Sébastien; Coronata, Andrea; Gaiero, Diego; Le Roux, Gael

    2013-04-01

    Little attention has been given to pre-anthropogenic signals recorded in peat bogs, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Yet they are important to 1/ better understand the different particle sources during the Holocene and 2/ to tackle the linkage between atmospheric dust loads and climate change and 3/ to better understand the impact of dust on Holocene palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironments in a critical area for ocean productivity. In the PARAD project, we will explore the use of a broad range of trace elements and radiogenic isotopes (Pb, Nd, Hf) as dust proxies. Coupling these findings with biological proxies (plant macrofossils, pollen) and detailed age-depth modelling, we expect not only to identify and interpret new links between atmospheric dust chemistry and climate change. In this contribution, we will present the preliminary results on two peat records of natural atmospheric dust using the elemental and isotopic signature in Tierra del Fuego. Preliminary results on two peat sections covering the Holocene (Karukinka Bog, Chile, 8kyrs and Harberton bog, Argentina, 14kyrs) will be discussed. This encompasses density, ash content, elemental and isotopic geochemistry, macrofossil determination and radiocarbon dating. More specifically, Karukinka bog display several mineral peaks, which possible origin (soil particles, volcanism, cosmogenic dusts, marine aerosols…) will be discussed here as well as in Vanneste et al. (this conference, session Aeolian dust: Initiator, Player, and Recorder of Environmental Change).

  17. Analysis of sea-island cotton and upland cotton in response to Verticillium dahliae infection by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton Verticillium wilt is a serious soil-borne vascular disease that causes great economic loss each year. However, due to the lack of resistant varieties of upland cotton, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to this disease, especially to the pathogen Verticillium dahliae, remain unclear. Results We used the RNA-seq method to research the molecular mechanisms of cotton defence responses to different races of Verticillium dahliae by comparing infected sea-island cotton and upland cotton. A total of 77,212 unigenes were obtained, and the unigenes were subjected to BLAST searching and annotated using the GO and KO databases. Six sets of digital gene expression data were mapped to the reference transcriptome. The gene expression profiles of cotton infected with Verticillium dahliae were compared to those of uninfected cotton; 44 differentially expressed genes were identified. Regarding genes involved in the phenylalanine metabolism pathway, the hydroxycinnamoyl transferase gene (HCT) was upregulated in upland cotton whereas PAL, 4CL, CAD, CCoAOMT, and COMT were upregulated in sea-island cotton. Almost no differentially expressed genes in this pathway were identified in sea-island cotton and upland cotton when they were infected with V. dahliae V991 and V. dahliae D07038, respectively. Conclusions Our comprehensive gene expression data at the transcription level will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the cotton defence response to V. dahliae. By identifying the genes involved in the defence response of each type of cotton to V. dahliae, our data not only provide novel molecular information for researchers, but also help accelerate research on genes involved in defences in cotton. PMID:24314117

  18. Use of CT imaging to examine the coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat associated with creek bank Spartina alterniflora in fertilized and control creeks in Plum Island (MA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) to quantify the wet mass, abundance, and diameter of coarse roots and rhizomes as well as the wet mass and particle density of marsh peat in 7-year fertilized and control creeks in Plum Island (MA). In shallow soils (0 ? 10 cm) and at dep...

  19. PEAT ACCRETION HISTORIES DURING THE PAST 6000 YEARS IN MARSHES OF THE SACRAMENTO - SAN JOAQUIN DELTA, CALIFORNIA, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S; Brown, T A

    2009-07-20

    Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little assurance of sustainability under scenarios of increased sea-level rise in the future.

  20. Burned and unburned peat water repellency: Implications for peatland evaporation following wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettridge, N.; Humphrey, R. E.; Smith, J. E.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency alters soil hydrology after periods of wildfire, potentially modifying the ecosystem recovery to such disturbance. Despite this potential importance, the extent and severity of water repellency within burned peatlands and its importance in regulating peatland recovery to wildfire disturbance remains poorly understood. We characterised the water repellency of peat in a burned (one year post-fire) and unburned peatland in the Western Boreal Plain utilising the water drop penetration time and ethanol droplet molarity tests. Burned Sphagnum moss and feather moss sites had a more severe degree of water repellency than unburned sites, with differences being more pronounced between burned and unburned feather moss sites. Burned feather moss exhibited the most extreme water repellency, followed by unburned feather moss, and burned Sphagnum. The severity of water repellency varied with depth through the near surface of the moss/peat profile. This was most evident within the burned feathermoss where more extreme water repellency was observed at the near-surface compared to the surface, with the most extreme water repellency found at 1 and 5 cm depths. Unburned Sphagnum was completely hydrophilic at all depths. We suggest that the extreme water repellency in near-surface feather moss peat acts as a barrier that impedes the supply of water to the surface that replaces that lost via evaporation. This leads to drying of the near-surface vadose zone within feather moss areas and a concomitantly large decrease in peatland evaporation within feather moss dominated peatlands. This negative feedback mechanism likely enhances the resilience of such peatland to wildfire disturbance, maintaining a high water table position, thereby limiting peat decomposition. In comparison, such a feedback is not observed strongly within Sphagnum, leaving Sphagnum dominated peatlands potentially vulnerable to low water table positions post disturbance.

  1. Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs

    PubMed Central

    Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Panikov, Nicolai S.; Tiedje, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotrophic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values of 3 to 6. Enriched communities contained a mixture of rod-shaped bacteria arranged in aggregates with a minor contribution of Hyphomicrobium-like cells. The growth stoichiometry of isolates was characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria (CH4/O2/CO2=1:1.1:0.59), with an average apparent yield of 0.41 ± 0.03 g of biomass C/g of CH4-C. DNA from each enrichment yielded a PCR product of the expected size with primers for both mmoX and mmoY genes of soluble methane monooxygenase. Two types of sequences were obtained for PCR-amplified fragments of mmoX. One of them exhibited high identity to the mmoX protein of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group, whereas the other showed an equal level of divergence from both the Methylosinus-Methylocystis group and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and formed a distinct branch. The pH optimum for growth and for CH4 uptake was 4.5 to 5.5, which is very similar to that for the optimum CH4 uptake observed in the original peat samples. These methanotrophs are moderate acidophiles rather than acidotolerant organisms, since their growth rate and methane uptake were much lower at neutral pH. The growth of the methanotrophic community was enhanced by using media with a very low salt content (20 to 200 mg/liter), more typical of their natural environment. All four enriched communities grew on N-free medium. PMID:9501432

  2. Environmental impacts associated with using peat for energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Reed; L. D. Voorhees; P. J. Mulholland

    1981-01-01

    Peat is an attractive energy alternative in the north-central states and on the southeastern coastal plain because: (a) it provides an indigenous supply of energy; (b) it is found in surface deposits and therefore can be easily mined; (c) the technologies to convert peat to useable energy are either proven or appear to be feasible; and (d) attractive possibilities exist

  3. Using peat for energy: Potential environmental restraints. Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Reed; L. D. Voorhees; P. J. Mulholland

    1981-01-01

    Serious consideration is being given to using peat as an energy resource in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida, and some New England States. Potential environmental constraints for using peat as an energy resource are associated with disruption of important regional wetland ecosystems. Mining peatlands may significantly modify ground and surface water hydrology, degrade water quality in downstream receiving systems, contribute to

  4. Overview - using peat for energy: potential environmental constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Reed; L. D. Voorhees; P. J. Mulholland

    1981-01-01

    Serious consideration is being given to using peat as an energy resource in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida, and some New England States. Potential environmental constraints for using peat as an energy resource are associated with disruption of important regional wetland ecosystems. Mining peatlands may significantly modify ground and surface water hydrology, degrade water quality in downstream receiving systems, contribute to

  5. A multitracer study of peat profiles from Tunguska, Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tositti; M. Mingozzi; S. Sandrini; L. Forlani; M. C. Buoso; M. De Poli; D. Ceccato; D. Zafiropoulos

    2006-01-01

    Two peat columns from Tunguska (Siberia) were analysed for pollen, spores, charcoal, trace elements and ?-emitters in order to identify the fingerprints of the impact of a still unidentified cosmic body (TCB), which occurred in the summer of 1908, and the level of environmental pollution in a background area of central Siberia. Peat layers were subject to non-destructive ?-ray spectrometry

  6. The preparation of testate amoebae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda) samples from peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn Hendon; Daniel J. Charman

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of testate amoebae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda) in peat is proving to be a useful new quantitat ive technique for assessing hydrological change on peatlands. Preparation experiments were carried out on peat extracted from Coom Rigg Moss, Northumberland, England, in order to assess the impact of different procedures on the concentration and species composition of the faunas. Five replicates of

  7. The sorption of lead(II) ions on peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S Ho; G McKay

    1999-01-01

    The sorption of lead ions from aqueous solution onto peat has been studied. Kinetic studies have been carried out using an agitated batch and the effect of varying process parameters has been investigated; these include initial lead ion concentration, peat particle size, solution temperature and agitation speed. The data were analyzed using a pseudo-first order Lagergren equation and the data

  8. Metabolic and trophic interactions modulate methane production by Arctic peat microbiota in response to warming

    PubMed Central

    Tveit, Alexander Tøsdal; Urich, Tim; Frenzel, Peter; Svenning, Mette Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Arctic permafrost soils store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) that could be released into the atmosphere as methane (CH4) in a future warmer climate. How warming affects the complex microbial network decomposing SOC is not understood. We studied CH4 production of Arctic peat soil microbiota in anoxic microcosms over a temperature gradient from 1 to 30 °C, combining metatranscriptomic, metagenomic, and targeted metabolic profiling. The CH4 production rate at 4 °C was 25% of that at 25 °C and increased rapidly with temperature, driven by fast adaptations of microbial community structure, metabolic network of SOC decomposition, and trophic interactions. Below 7 °C, syntrophic propionate oxidation was the rate-limiting step for CH4 production; above this threshold temperature, polysaccharide hydrolysis became rate limiting. This change was associated with a shift within the functional guild for syntrophic propionate oxidation, with Firmicutes being replaced by Bacteroidetes. Correspondingly, there was a shift from the formate- and H2-using Methanobacteriales to Methanomicrobiales and from the acetotrophic Methanosarcinaceae to Methanosaetaceae. Methanogenesis from methylamines, probably stemming from degradation of bacterial cells, became more important with increasing temperature and corresponded with an increased relative abundance of predatory protists of the phylum Cercozoa. We concluded that Arctic peat microbiota responds rapidly to increased temperatures by modulating metabolic and trophic interactions so that CH4 is always highly produced: The microbial community adapts through taxonomic shifts, and cascade effects of substrate availability cause replacement of functional guilds and functional changes within taxa. PMID:25918393

  9. Organic matter dynamics control plant species coexistence in a tropical peat swamp forest.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tetsuya; Momose, Kuniyasu

    2005-07-22

    We studied the relationship between the coexistence of tree species and the dynamics of organic matter in forests. A tropical peat swamp forest was selected as a model ecosystem, where abiotic factors, such as geological topography or parent rock types, are homogeneous and only biological processes create habitat heterogeneity. The temporal or spatial variation of the ground elevation of peat soils is mainly caused by changes in the balance between organic matter inputs to soils and decomposition, which is affected by the growth and death of influential trees. To clarify the processes of elevation dynamics, we measured the microtopography around some tree groups, estimated organic matter (in the form of litter and roots) in soils under three kinds of microtopographic conditions, measured decomposition rates and detected dominant species' shifting distribution patterns in different stages of growth in relation to the locations of tree groups creating specific microtopographic conditions. We found that growth or death of buttressed trees has the greatest effects on the rising or sinking of ground surfaces through changes in litter supply and root production. We discuss here the possibility of extending our model to other forest types. PMID:16011926

  10. Ebullition of biogenic gas bubbles from samples of near-surface peat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, A.; Waldron, S.

    2004-05-01

    There is evidence that peat soils are not water-saturated below the water table (e.g. Rosenberry et al. 2003; Baird and Waldron, 2003), owing to accumulations of biogenic gas bubbles, consisting of poorly-soluble gases such as CH4. It has been shown that gas bubbles can block pores and reduce rates of water flow in peat soils (Baird and Waldron, 2003). It has also been shown that, beyond certain levels, biogenic gas bubble accumulations become unstable, giving rise to large but episodic ebullition events, and that ebullition may be an important mechanism of CH4 transfer between peat soils and the atmosphere (e.g. Romanowicz et al., 1995; Rosenberry et al., 2003). However, the studies that have been done on ebullition have looked at relatively deep peat where the bubbles were apparently held below a confining layer of low hydraulic conductivity. Very little is known about the degree to which gas bubbles accumulate in near-surface peat (i.e. the upper 40 cm) and whether they accumulate to such an extent that ebullition and transfer of carbon gases to the atmosphere occur. To address this lack of knowledge we conducted experiments on eight `undisturbed' samples of near-surface (depths of c. 8 cm to 30 cm) peat taken from two lowland raised bogs, one in SW Scotland and one in W Wales. The samples were c. 10 l in volume and were incubated at 12 deg. C with the water table maintained above the sample surface. Water was allowed to flow through the samples periodically for the measurement of hydraulic conductivity (not reported here). Gas traps were fitted to the tops of the samples and the volume of gas in these was measured c. every 2-3 days. Finally, the samples were fitted with TDR probes and gas permeation samplers to measure gas volume and to take gas samples for the measurement of gas content (CH4 and CO2) using a GC. Ebullition was recorded in every sample but only after a build up of biogenic gas bubbles had occurred. We found that ebullition was not episodic and that it appeared to match gas production. The amount of ebullition varied substantially between samples. In two samples from the Scottish bog consisting respectively of Sphagnum papillosum and S. magellanicum litter, over 400 ml of gas per sample was lost over a 90-day period. At the other extreme, virtually no ebullition occurred from one of the Welsh peat samples, with only 14.5 ml being lost in 125 days. Provisional calculations based on CH4 concentrations in our gas permeation samplers suggest that CH4 efflux from the peatland surface via ebullition is potentially as important as that via diffusional transfer. We consider how transportable our data are to field conditions.

  11. Isotopic evidence for nitrogen mobility in peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Stepanova, Marketa; Jackova, Ivana; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, R. Kelman; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Komarek, Arnost

    2014-05-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) input may reduce carbon (C) storage in peat. Under low atmospheric deposition, most N is bound in the moss layer. Under high N inputs, Sphagnum is not able to prevent penetration of dissolved N to deeper peat. Nitrogen may become available to the roots of invading vascular plants. The concurrent oxygenation of deeper peat layers, along with higher supply of labile organic C, may enhance microbial decomposition and lead to peat thinning. The resulting higher emissions of greenhouse gases may accelerate global warming. Seepage of N to deeper peat has never been quantified. Here we present evidence for post-depositional mobility of atmogenic N in peat, based on natural-abundance N isotope ratios. We conducted a reciprocal peat transplant experiment between two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe), differing in anthropogenic N inputs. The northern site VJ received as much as 33 kg N ha-1 yr-1 via spruce canopy throughfall. The southern site was less polluted (17.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Isotope signatures of living moss differed between the two sites (?15N of -3‰ and -7‰ at VJ and CB, respectively). After 18 months, an isotope mass balance was constructed. In the CB-to-VJ transplant, a significant portion of original CB nitrogen (98-31%) was removed and replaced by nitrogen of the host site throughout the top 10 cm of the profile. Nitrogen, deposited at VJ, was immobilized in imported CB peat that was up to 20 years old. Additionally, we compared N concentration and N accumulation rates in 210Pb-dated peat profiles with well-constrained data on historical atmospheric N pollution. Nationwide N emissions peaked in 1990, while VJ exhibited the highest N content in peat that formed in 1930. This de-coupling of N inputs and N retention in peat might be interpreted as a result of translocation of dissolved pollutant N downcore, corroborating our ?15N results at VJ and CB. Data from a variety of peat bogs along pollution and climatic gradients would be needed to test to what extent the record of atmospheric N inputs in peat is overprinted by variable, locally-controlled decomposition rates.

  12. Effects of fire on the thermal stability of permafrost in lowland and upland black spruce forests of interior Alaska in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jafarov, Elchin E.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, Anthony David; Marchenko, Sergey S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is an important factor controlling the composition and thickness of the organic layer in the black spruce forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. Fire that burns the organic layer can trigger dramatic changes in the underlying permafrost, leading to accelerated ground thawing within a relatively short time. In this study, we addressed the following questions. (1) Which factors determine post-fire ground temperature dynamics in lowland and upland black spruce forests? (2) What levels of burn severity will cause irreversible permafrost degradation in these ecosystems? We evaluated these questions in a transient modeling–sensitivity analysis framework to assess the sensitivity of permafrost to climate, burn severity, soil organic layer thickness, and soil moisture content in lowland (with thick organic layers, ~80 cm) and upland (with thin organic layers, ~30 cm) black spruce ecosystems. The results indicate that climate warming accompanied by fire disturbance could significantly accelerate permafrost degradation. In upland black spruce forest, permafrost could completely degrade in an 18 m soil column within 120 years of a severe fire in an unchanging climate. In contrast, in a lowland black spruce forest, permafrost is more resilient to disturbance and can persist under a combination of moderate burn severity and climate warming.

  13. Quantitative determination of minerals and anthropogenic particles in some Polish peat occurrences using a novel SEM point-counting method.

    PubMed

    Smieja-Król, Beata; Fia?kiewicz-Kozie?, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    A method is proposed for determining the mineral composition of peat using scanning electron microscope. In an illustrative example, five groups of particles occurring in amounts of >0.05% are distinguished in peat from Pu?cizna Ma?a bog in the Carpathian foreland, Poland. These are spheroidal aluminosilicate particles (SAP), feldspars, nondescript aluminosilicates (mainly clays), silica (quartz and opaline silica), and Fe(hydro)oxides. Two more site-specific groups (barite and ZnS) are distinguished in highly polluted fens (Bagno Bruch and Bagno Miko?eska) near a zinc smelter in Upper Silesia. At Bagno Bruch, peat contents of predominantly authigenic ZnS microspheroids range up to 1.1%. SAP originating from coal-burning power stations account for maximum concentrations of <21-39% of the inorganic fraction in the studied mires. SAP concentrations vary with depth, and mean spheroid diameters with distance from emission sources. A distinct feature of SAP is their common enrichment in Ti what questions the use of Ti as a proxy for soil dust in fly ash polluted bogs. As amounts of anthropogenic magnetic spherules, less abundant than SAP in all mires, relate to water table level position, they are unsuitable as tracers of air pollution. The proposed method is recommended for application with peats having ash contents?>?~4%. PMID:24442577

  14. Peat resources of southern and western Maine. [USA

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.C.; Mullen, M.K.; Lepage, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Peat has been used for many years in agriculture and horticulture primarily because of its ability to retain many times its own weight in water. It has also been used as a domestic fuel for hundreds of years. More recently, peat has been used by nations such as Ireland and the Soviet Union to generate electricity. At the present time, virtually all of the peat harvested in the United States is used in agriculture and horticulture. However, in light of the increasing costs of traditional energy sources, peat is being more closely scrutinized as an alternate fuel source. The State of Maine has significant peat resources, and current estimates suggest that there are as many as 6000 to 8000 individual peat deposits comprising a total land area of 500,000 to 750,000 acres. The current resource evaluation was developed to provide a more comprehensive analysis of available peat resources. This report summarizes the work conducted in southern and western Maine under the Maine Peat Resource Evaluation Program. It includes sketch maps, sections and laboratory analyses on which estimates of the resources are based. These data may be utilized to more accurately assesss the energy and agricultural potential of Maine's peatlands. Virtually all peat sold in the United States in 1979 was used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. It was marketed through nurseries, garden centers, and chain stores chiefly in suburban areas of the north-central, northeastern, and middle Atlantic states and Florida. Production during 1980 in the United States was estimated (Searles, 1981) at 790,000 short tons for agricultural use. Value of the 1980 production was about $17,000,000, and the average value per ton was about $21.80. Apparent consumption of peat in the United States during 1980, however, was 1,115,000 short tons, of which imports composed 355,000 short tons.

  15. Topsoil Removal in a Restored Peat Wetland: an Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausman, C. E.; Fraser, L.; de Szalay, F. A.

    2005-05-01

    Topsoil removal is a common practice in wetland restoration projects for eliminating the weed seed bank, any persistent herbicides or pesticides, as well as lowering the soil surface closer to the water table. In 2000, a peat wetland that was drained 85 years ago for agriculture was restored by removing 40-50 cm of topsoil, seeding wetland plants, and reestablishing wetland hydrology. In 2004, six 100m2 scraped plots and six adjacent 100m2 unscraped control plots were sampled in North and South fields. Plant percent cover and aboveground biomass was measured in each plot. Depth to the water table was greater in the North field because this field had a higher elevation than the South field, which was partially submerged. Total biomass was greater in the North field than in the South. In the North field, species diversity and richness were higher in treatment plots than control plots, but there was no difference in the South field. Dominant species were different between the control and treatment plots and between North and South fields. These results indicate that both water levels and topsoil removal have dramatic impacts on plant community establishment in restored wetlands.

  16. Soil structure, colloids, and chemical transport as affected by short-term reducing conditions: a laboratory study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland soils in the Midwestern US often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring and remain water saturated for days or weeks. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and may affect soil structure and solution chemical transport. The eff...

  17. Natural hybrids and gene flow between upland and lowland switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial grass native to the North American tallgrass prairie and savanna habitats and is broadly adapted to the central and eastern USA. Upland and lowland ecotypes represent the two major taxa within switchgrass, which have distinct, but overlapping distribu...

  18. Organic carbon export from upland and forested wetland watersheds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PATRICK J. MULHOLLAND; EDWARD J. KUENZLER

    1979-01-01

    Export of organic carbon per unit runoff from five small, eastern North Carolina watersheds with considerable swamp drainage was severalfold higher than the export rates from upland watersheds reported in the literature. This reflects the higher concentrations of organic carbon, especially dissolved forms, in swamp waters and is probably attributable to increased contact time between water and organic debris as

  19. Upland fiber changes due to ginning and lint cleaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine how upland cotton fiber length distribution was affected during ginning and how possible length changes might affect subsequent textile processing. The full range of ginning treatments currently commercially available in the U. S. cotton industry were utilized. These ...

  20. Utilization of Pee Dee germplasm in upland cotton breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Pee Dee germplasm enhancement program was initiated in 1935. Although initially focused on developing Sea Island cultivars for the southeast US, the program’s long-term objective has been to develop high yielding Upland germplasm with Sea Island fiber properties. The foundation of the P...

  1. Separation of homologous BAC contigs in the tetraploid Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland cotton has an allotetraploid genome. Separation of homologous BAC contigs to their sub-genomes and further to individual chromosomes is a great challenge for genome-wide integrated genetic and physical mapping. As a pilot experiment to test the feasibility of separating the contigs in sub-g...

  2. Identification of Upland Invasive Jeff Hutchinson

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    or wet soils #12;Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Habitats: ·Sandhills ·Maritime hammocks ·Bottomland.............B. trason 3b. Narrow elongated petals.....B. tarahumara #12;Grasses #12;Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica forest ·Lake shores ·Ruderal ·To 4 m in height ·Clump grass ·Spike-like panicle #12;Rose Natalgrass

  3. Classification of the field drainage and wetness by using aerial photographs in irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsuko, Fuchiyama; Takeshi, Ota; Michikazu, Fukuhara

    2013-04-01

    Information about field drainage/wetness is useful for farmers to plan field management in irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation field. Wet injury is a loss to farmers in upland crop farming, experience is the most common way of approaching this risk. In this study, we propose to provide efficient and objective classify and mapping method of such field drainage information using aerial photography. Study area (500 ha) is located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. In this area, we acquired multitemporalaerial photographs (ADS40) three times after the rain on winter. Digital Number (DN) of Blue, Green, Red and Near Infrared band were used to analyze. To analyze the relationship between each band DN and soil moisture, mass soil water content of 0-5cm depth was determined using the 100ml core sample at 22 sites on shooting date. And to verify our classification of the drainage and wetness, volumetric soil water content was monitored using TDR sensor (Decagon, ECH2O) at 5cm, 10cm and 20 cm depth at 16 sites. First, optimum band was selected from correlation analysis of mass soil water content and DN. Next, optimum band DN of three aerial photographs at field area was grouped by cluster analysis (ISODATA method). We found a good positive correlation between mass soil water content and red band DN, by selecting optimum bands. 17 groups were found from cluster analysis using three aerial photographs with different soil moisture conditions. After that, we classified them into five levels of field drainage based on red band DN values. We generated maps of drainage/wetness based on these results. We compared volumetric soil water content at the monitoring site for the "Dry" and "Wet" points, water was drained quickly at the "Dry" site but it needed more than 1 week the volume soil water content back to revert before rain at the "Wet" site. By the result, we positively verified our classification. We used three aerial photographs with different soil moisture conditions as proxy of top soil moisture content. It is thought to be an indication of drainage/wetness. Generally, estimating soil water content at field scale from a remote sensing data was difficult. But this method can classify the study area relatively. We think it is enough as a soil information for farmers.

  4. Destabilization of subarctic peat plateau-thermokarst lake complexes under warmer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannel, B. A.; Kuhry, P.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Large quantities of soil organic carbon are stored in northern peatlands located in the southern continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones, where permafrost degradation can be expected to occur as a result of changes in climatic conditions (e.g. Tarnocai, 2006). In this region, peat plateaus dotted with thermokarst lakes and fens are common landscape features. Permafrost thawing caused by warming or increased precipitation can result in increased thermokarst lake formation, lateral expansion and/or drainage. A better understanding, and quantification, of spatio-temporal variations in these landforms in relation to climate change is important for predicting the future thawing permafrost carbon feedback. Aim, study area and methods The objective of this study has been to quantify dynamics in thermokarst lake extent in subarctic peat plateaus located along a climate/permafrost gradient during the last ~35-50 years (Sannel and Kuhry, in press). At three study sites; Hudson Bay Lowlands in west-central Canada, Rogovaya in east-European Russia and Tavvavuoma in northern Sweden, remote sensing time-series analysis of historical panchromatic aerial photographs and QuickBird/IKONOS scenes has been performed. For the land-water separation manual delineation in combination with binary encoding of transects perpendicular to the shoreline was used, as this method was identified to be most accurate for high spatial resolution mapping of thermokarst lakes (Sannel and Brown, 2010). Results and conclusions From the mid 1970s until the mid 2000s there has been an increase in mean annual air temperature (MAAT), winter precipitation and ground temperature in all three study areas. The two peat plateaus located in the southern continuous and the discontinuous permafrost zones, where MAATs are below -5°C and ground temperatures are -2°C or colder, have experienced small changes in thermokarst lake extent (<0.4% per decade). In the peat plateau located in the sporadic permafrost zone where the MAAT is around -3°C, and the ground temperature is close to 0°C, extensive lake drainage (~8% per decade) and infilling with fen vegetation has taken place and at the same time many new thermokarst lakes have formed. Our results suggest that warmer MAAT, and subsequent warmer ground temperatures, can cause rapid destabilization of peat plateau-thermokarst lake complexes, and that the critical threshold in MAAT is between -3°C and -5°C. In a future warmer climate, permafrost degradation can cause significant impacts on landscape patterns, hydrology and carbon exchange also in areas with extensive peat plateaus which at present experience stable permafrost conditions. References Sannel, A.B.K. and Brown, I.A. 2010. High resolution remote sensing identification of thermokarst lake dynamics in a subarctic peat plateau complex. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 36, S26-S40. Sannel, A.B.K. and Kuhry, P. in press. Warming-induced destabilization of peat plateau/thermokarst lake complexes. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences. Tarnocai, C. 2006. The effect of climate change on carbon in Canadian peatlands. Global and Planetary Change 53, 222-232.

  5. Transport and interaction of arsenic, chromium, and copper associated with CCA-treated wood in columns of sand and sand amended with peat

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ligang; Diez-Rivas, Cristina; Hasan, A. Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the transport and interaction of As, Cr, and Cu associated with CCA-treated wood in sand with and without peat amendment. Results showed that leaching behavior of As, Cr, and Cu in these substrates were totally different. Substrate characteristics and microorganism activity posed distinct effects on the transport and transformation of these three elements. Arsenic was rapidly leached out from the columns with or without the amendment of peat, while Cr remained in all columns during the entire experimental period (215 days). Copper was leached out only in the substrate column without peat. The presence of microorganism clearly facilitated the transport of As, while it did not show obvious effects on the transport of Cr and Cu. Interactions among these three elements were observed during the processes of adsorption and transport. The adsorption of Cu on soil was enhanced with the adsorption of As, likely caused by a more negatively charged soil surface because of As adsorption. The adsorption of Cr on soil increased the adsorption of As due to the additional As binding sites induced by Cr adsorption. These results suggest that As concentrations in the soil affected by CCA-treated wood could largely exceed predictions based on soil adsorption capacity for As. The evaluation of the impact on human health associated with CCA-treated wood should take consideration of the distinct transport characteristics of three elements and their interactions in soils. PMID:20053417

  6. Studies in the Vegetational History of Scotland. IV. Pine Stumps in Scottish Blanket Peats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary H. Birks

    1975-01-01

    The palaeoecology of six Scottish blanket peat profiles containing pine stumps was investigated by means of peat stratigraphy, pollen analysis, and radiocarbon dating. In addition, several other pine and birch remains from peat in other areas of Scotland were radiocarbon dated. Three peat profiles were selected in each of two contrasting regions. The Cairngorm area is within the distributional area

  7. Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps examined the effects of nutrient increases on peat decomposition. I analyzed peat and porewater nutrients of surface water nutrients. The initial C:N and C:P ratios of the peat were higher than the molar ratios

  8. Algal flora of subalpine peat bog pools in the Krkonose Mts asy tn krkonosskch subalpnskch raselinis

    E-print Network

    Algal flora of subalpine peat bog pools in the Krkonose Mts asy tní krkonosských subalpínských, Czech Repub- lic, e-mail: sylnova@natur.cuni.cz Nováková S. (2002): Algal flora of subalpine peat bog raselinist peat bog and the Pancavské raselinist peat bog in the Krkonose Mts (Czech Republic) about 228 taxa

  9. Geologic evolution of Trail Ridge eolian heavy-mineral sand and underlying peat, northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Force, E.R.; Rich, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Trail Ridge ilmenite-ore sand is eolian in origin. Underlying freshwater-swamp peats are the same age, and sand impurities in peat record the approach of the dune. The original alteration state of detrital heavy minerals is preserved in the peat also. This book discusses the geologic evolution of Trail Ridge eolian heavy-mineral sand and underlying peat.

  10. Illitization in a Paleozoic, peat-forming environment as evidence for biogenic potassium accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Susan; Yemane, Keddy

    1999-07-01

    Potassium enrichment is common in surface horizons of many paleosols and has been attributed to the formation of authigenic illite from smectites during burial diagenesis. In such cases, the presence of primary smectite is key to the illitization process, which then results in potassium enrichment as a byproduct. Potassium enrichment in paleosols where no primary smectite was present, however, requires a different process of accumulation. A Lower Pennsylvanian, tropical Ultisol from the Southern Anthracite Field in Pennsylvania is enriched in potassium in the surface horizon and formed in an environment unfavorable for smectite accumulation. Kaolinite dominates clay mineral fractions of soils that form in such highly weathering environments. In the absence of primary smectite to scavenge potassium during illitization, there should be no potassium enrichment during burial diagenesis. However, in Lykens Valley paleosol, the pattern of potassium concentration, organic matter distribution and authigenic illite growth suggests that organic matter may have provided an important source of potassium for illite formation. Illitization of kaolinite in the organic-rich surface horizon is complete but, illite coexists with kaolinite in the B horizon. Within the paleosol matrix, illitization is more complete in areas of high organic concentration where organic fragments often have illite haloes with illite whorls growing from their edges. We propose that the potassium enrichment both in the soil profile and in the overlying coal is the result of the luxury uptake of potassium by peat-forming plants (nutrient intake at rates exceeding metabolic requirements). Further, potassium immobilized by adsorption on the peat provided interlayer cations for illite authigenesis to begin. If, as we suggest, luxury nutrient uptake during peat formation sequestered sufficient potassium to promote later illite formation, the pattern and extent of illitization within the paleosol profile reflects early biogenic nutrient accumulation. Thus, illite, in some paleosols, may represent fossil evidence for a biological process: the luxury uptake of potassium.

  11. Adaptation to flooding in upland and lowland ecotypes of Cyperus rotundus, a troublesome sedge weed of rice: tuber morphology and carbohydrate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Fronteras, Jennifer T.; Villalobos, Mizpah C.; Baltazar, Aurora M.; Merca, Florinia E.; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Johnson, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims In recent years, Cyperus rotundus has become a problem weed in lowland rice (Oryza sativa) grown in rotation with vegetables in the Philippines. As the growth of C. rotundus is commonly suppressed by prolonged flooding, the ability of the weed to grow vigorously in flooded as well as upland conditions suggests that adapted ecotypes occur in these rotations. Studies were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms that permit C. rotundus to tolerate flooded soil conditions. Methods Upland and lowland ecotypes of C. rotundus were compared in terms of growth habit, carbohydrate reserves and metabolism, and activities of enzymes involved in alcoholic fermentation – alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Key Results The lowland ecotype has much larger tubers than the upland ecotype. Prior to germination, the amylase activity and total non-structural carbohydrate content in the form of soluble sugars were greater in the tubers of lowland plants than in those of upland C. rotundus. At 24 h after germination in hypoxic conditions, PDC and ADH activities in the lowland plants increased, before decreasing at 48 h following germination. In contrast, ADH and PDC activities in the upland plants increased from 24 to 48 h after germination. Conclusions Tolerance of lowland C. rotundus of flooding may be attributed to large carbohydrate content and amylase activity, and the ability to maintain high levels of soluble sugars in the tubers during germination and early growth. This is coupled with the modulation of ADH and PDC activities during germination, possibly to control the use of carbohydrate reserves and sustain substrate supply in order to avoid starvation and death of seedlings with prolonged flooding. PMID:18515404

  12. Influence of porewater velocity and ionic strength on DOC concentrations in and losses from peat-sand mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffner, Nora; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Fiedler, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    Organic soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle as they can act as a source or a sink for greenhouse gas emissions. The new IPCC Wetlands Supplement accounts for the first time for CO2 emissions from the decomposition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). While there is a wealth of studies on "true" peat soils, knowledge on DOC losses from organic soils heavily disturbed by e.g. mixing with sand is fragmentary. Moreover, there are only a few studies on the influence of soil hydrological properties on DOC transport. This study investigates physico-chemical controls on the concentration and losses of DOC from a peat-sand mixture in a saturated column experiment with undisturbed columns. The soil originates from the study site "Grosses Moor" (Northern Germany) which is a former bog where peat layers remaining after peat mining were mixed with the underlying mineral soil. We studied the influence of the flow regime and the ionic strength of the irrigation solution on DOC concentrations and losses. Three different pumping rates and two different ionic strengths determined by different concentrations of a sodium chloride-calcium chloride mixture in the irrigation solution were applied. Transport properties of the soil were obtained by analyzing breakthrough curves (BTCs) of a conservative tracer (potassium bromide). For interpretation of the BTCs, the transport model STANMOD which is based on the two-region (mobile/immobile) non-equilibrium concept was fitted to the data. The shape of the BTCs and the STANMOD results showed that three of the four columns had a dual porosity structure, which affects the porewater velocity and the contact area. After a large initial peak, DOC concentrations equilibrated to nearly constant values. Increased porewater velocities decreased the concentration of DOC, but increased the losses. A new equilibrium concentration was reached after nearly all changes of the porewater velocity. At maximum pumping rates as determined from field infiltration experiments, no saturation of the losses could be observed. A high ionic strength caused a strong reduction of the pH-value. The combination of these two factors strongly reduced the DOC concentration in the effluent and supported iron flocculation and coagulation. The strong response of the DOC concentrations on the high ionic strength or on the low pH-value suggests that DOC concentrations and losses in these soils are controlled by its coagulation properties, but limited by the actual flow regime and the presence or absence of immobile zones.

  13. Relating changes of organic matter composition of two German peats to climatic conditions during peat formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Knicker; Radoslava Nikolova; Cornelia Rumpel; Francisco González-Vila J; Matthias Drösler

    2010-01-01

    Peatlands have been recognized as an important factor within the global C-cycle, since they store about one-third of the global terrestrial C-pool. Furthermore, peat deposits have the potential to record detailed paleoclimatic and - vegetational changes. They are formed in peculiar paleoecosystems where the slow biodegradation of plant residues depends on a series of pedo-climatic and hydromorphic factors leading to

  14. Peat pyrolysis and the analytical semi-empirical model

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Green, A.E.S. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Clean Combustion Technology Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis of peat could convert this material into useful fuels and valuable hydrocarbons. A study of peat pyrolysis can also serve as a useful bridge between studies of coal pyrolysis and biomass pyrolysis. Using an analytical model of pyrolysis that has previously been applied to biomass and to coal, we present here the results of applications of this model to a representative peat. The analysis suggests means of organizing and processing rate and yield data that should be useful in applications of pyrolysis for the production of fuels and chemicals.

  15. Proficiency Testing of Growing Media, Soil Improvers, Soils, and Nutrient Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. de Kreij; G. Wever

    2005-01-01

    At Applied Plant Research two (interlaboratory) proficiency tests for (peat?based) growing media, soil improvers, soil, and nutrient solution were being organized; one for the national and one for the European methods. Data were compiled according to ISO 5725. Reports containing all data, where the laboratories were identified only by a reference number were being sent to each of the participants.

  16. Substrate Geochemistry and Soil Development in Boreal Forest and Tundra Ecosystems in the

    E-print Network

    Substrate Geochemistry and Soil Development in Boreal Forest and Tundra Ecosystems in the Yukon;Substrate Geochemistry and Soil Development in Boreal Forest and Tundra Ecosystems in the Yukon and soil development in boreal forest and tundra ecosystems in the Yukon­Tanana Upland and Seward Peninsula

  17. Soil microbial communities and activities in sand dunes of subtropical coastal forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed-Haun Chang; Chien-Teh Chen; Tsai-Huei Chen; Chih-Yu Chiu

    2011-01-01

    To understand the soil microbial activities and community structures in different forests in a sand-dune ecosystem, we conducted a study of 2 topographic conditions, upland and lowland, under a Casuarina forest. As well, in the lowland site, we compared forest soil microbial properties under 3 coastal forests (Casuarina, Hibiscus and mixed stand). The soil microbial biomass did not significantly differ

  18. Nitrogen dynamics in soils of forests and active pastures in the western Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Neill; Marisa C. Piccolo; Paul A. Steudler; Jerry M. Melillo; Brigitte J. Feigl; Carlos C. Cerri

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the influence of forest conversion to pasture on soil N transformations, we compared soil inorganic-N pools and net mineralization and nitrification rates along two chronosequences of upland (terra firme) forest and pastures ranging in age from 4 to 82 years in the state of Rondônia in the western Brazilian Amazon Basin. Forest and pasture soils had similar total

  19. Atmospheric mercury accumulation rates between 5900 and 800 calibrated years BP in the High Arctic of Canada recorded by peat hummocks.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Goodsite, Michael E; Cheburkin, Andriy K; Shotyk, William

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we present the first comprehensive long-term record of preanthropogenic rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in dated peat deposits for the High Arctic of Canada. Geochemical studies of two peat hummocks from Bathurst Island, Nunavut reveal substantial inputs from soil dust (titanium), marine aerosols (bromine), and mineral-water interactions (uranium). Mercury, however, was supplied to these peat mounds exclusively by atmospheric deposition. Mercury concentration measurements and age dating of the peat profiles indicate rather constant natural "background" mercury flux of ca. 1 microgram per square meter per year from 5900 to 800 calibrated years BP. These values are well within the range of the mercury fluxes reported from other Arctic locations, but also by peat cores from southern Canada that provide a record of atmospheric Hg accumulation extending back 8000 years. Thus, preanthropogenic Hg fluxes in the Arctic were not significantly different from atmospheric Hg fluxes in the temperate zone. In preindustrial times, therefore, the High Arctic was no more important as a sink for global atmospheric mercury than was the temperate zone. PMID:15506187

  20. Warming-induced reduced peat accrual rates and potential C losses in Northern U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissore, C.; Nater, E. A.; Moskun, A.; Klein, A.; Le, T.

    2013-12-01

    Peatlands located at northern latitudes represent a sink of carbon (C) that is at risk of being lost to the atmosphere if current and expected changes in climate accelerate existing C stock decomposition rates. The extent of such potential loss is still unknown, but recent studies suggest that accrual rate of this critical C stock may be in decline due to more rapid decomposition of plant material reaching the soil. The consequences for our climate system can be significant. If large amounts of C currently ';locked' belowground in peatland ecosystems were to be decomposed and hence lost to the atmosphere, atmospheric concentration of CO2 would increase, causing further warming and hence even more rapid decomposition of peatland C. Our objective in this study is to investigate and compare past and more recent rates of C accrual in peatlands to determine if the rates of C accrual are declining. We collected intact frozen blocks of peat from three sites in Northern Minnesota and sectioned them into horizontal slices, which are being dated by 137Cs and 14C. Atmospheric concentrations of both 137Cs and 14C spiked in the 1960's due to nuclear bomb testing, leaving a ';signature' in organic matter (14C) and sediments (137Cs). The signal has steadily declined since that time. Detection of the signal in current soil samples will allow us to date the sample and consequently to measure the quantity of C accrued in the peat over various measured time intervals.

  1. Solute movement through unsaturated fen peat: Lab and greenhouse experiments for transport study of contaminants from Athabasca oil sands tailing pond water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. S.; Rezanezhad, F.; Graf, M.; Rochefort, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region, wetlands specially peatland dominate the landscape. Processing oil sands produces large volumes of wet material called oil sands tailing water. Discharge of organic liquid contaminants such as Naphthenic Acids (NA) and Sodium (Na) from tailing waters have a toxic effect on plants in this region. One of the greatest barriers to peatland creation will be the elevated amount of toxins (naphthenic acid, metals and salinity) present in the post-mined landscapes. Variability in solute transport properties in the unsaturated zone is of growing concern due to environmental hazards and there are no many scientific challenges in the field of organic liquid contaminants transport through the unsaturated peat soils. The attenuation, degradation and transport of NA and Na in peat are essentially unknown. The ionizable nature of NA and Na along with the complex structure of peat soils poses challenges to characterizing the transport properties of NA and Na in the filed and laboratory. In this experimental research project, we examine the plant responses in 64 greenhouse tubs filled with peat and process-water; and study the transport and attenuation processes of NA and Na through peat in a series of laboratory column experiments. We developed an analytical method for evaluating the transport and adsorption characteristics of NA and Na to derive a clear understanding of the transport, sorption mechanisms and desorption behaviour of NA and Na with temporal evolution of the solute concentration distribution from groundwater to fen plants. The goal of this research project is to investigate how oil sands process-affected waters will affect peatland vegetation, specifically fen vegetation. In particular, we would like to know how contaminants present in oil sand process affected water will be transported through peat and how typical fen vegetation will react to a realistic contamination scenario in a controlled macrocosm environment? Research that responds to the above-mentioned questions will be taking a clear step towards addressing the future outcomes of oil sand affected landscapes.

  2. A genomic perspective on the important genetic mechanisms of upland adaptation of rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cultivated rice consists of two important ecotypes, upland and irrigated, that have respectively adapted to either dry land or irrigated cultivation. Upland rice, widely adopted in rainfed upland areas in virtue of its little water requirement, contains abundant untapped genetic resources, such as genes for drought adaptation. With water shortage exacerbated and population expanding, the need for breeding crop varieties with drought adaptation becomes more and more urgent. However, a previous oversight in upland rice research reveals little information regarding its genetic mechanisms for upland adaption, greatly hindering progress in harnessing its genetic resources for breeding and cultivation. Results In this study, we selected 84 upland and 82 irrigated accessions from all over the world, phenotyped them under both irrigated and dry land environments, and investigated the phylogenetic relations and population structure of the upland ecotype using whole genome variation data. Further comparative analysis yields a list of differentiated genes that may account for the phenotypic and physiological differences between upland and irrigated rice. Conclusions This study represents the first genomic investigation in a large sample of upland rice, providing valuable gene list for understanding upland rice adaptation, especially drought-related adaptation, and its subsequent utilization in modern agriculture. PMID:24920279

  3. Biogenic arsenopyrite in holocene peat sediment, India.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Anjum; Bajpai, Usha

    2003-06-01

    The plant organic matter in the peat layer deposited around 6650+/-110 and 4800+/-80 years BP, during the transgressive and regressive phases of sea level changes, respectively in the dried part (playa) of the present Pulicat lagoon in Palar Basin (southeast coast of India) was studied to elucidate the biogenic pyrite generation and associated trace elements. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations show strongly curved unique C-shaped bacteria of uniform coccoidal shape and size (1 microm) freely scattered on the plant epidermal microfragments. These form spheroidal microcolonies 8-15 microm in diameter attached to the epidermis in a linear fashion or haphazardly enclosed in the translucent sheath as observed in surface view. These colonies are dense with a number of toxic trace elements as analyzed under an SEM-EDX spectrometer indicating its affinity toward metal binding. On maturity the sheath ruptures disseminating tetrad form of bacteria along with some C-shaped bacteria and few rhombohedral crystals of framboidal pyrite. The pyrite crystals intact in spheroidal shape in cavities on the epidermal fragments indicate its biogenic precipitation mediated by the bacteria. The pyrite crystals are rich in sulfur, iron, and traces of arsenic when analyzed by the SEM-EDX spectrometer. It is suggested that cubic and pyritohedran forms of crystals are perhaps arsenopyrite precipitated biogenically in saturated coastal wetland ecosystem in the past mediated by tetrad strain of the observed coccoid bacteria. Thus, the strata-bound peat layer could be the potent residing place for arsenopyrite or other toxic trace elements that may contaminate the groundwater aquifer. PMID:12742362

  4. Low-frequency electrical properties of peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, Xavier; Slater, Lee

    2004-12-01

    Electrical resistivity/induced polarization (0.1-1000 Hz) and vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) measurements of peat samples extracted from different depths (0-11 m) in a peatland in Maine were obtained as a function of pore fluid conductivity (?w) between 0.001 and 2 S/m. Hydraulic conductivity increased with ?w (Kv ? ?w0.3 between 0.001 and 2 S/m), indicating that pore dilation occurs due to the reaction of NaCl with organic functional groups as postulated by previous workers. Electrical measurements were modeled by assuming that "bulk" electrolytic conduction through the interconnected pore space and surface conduction in the electrical double layer (EDL) at the organic sediment-fluid interface act in parallel. This analysis suggests that pore space dilation causes a nonlinear relationship between the "bulk" electrolytic conductivity (?el) and ?w (?el ? ?w1.3). The Archie equation predicts a linear dependence of ?el on ?w and thus appears inappropriate for organic sediments. Induced polarization (IP) measurements of the imaginary part (??surf) of the surface conductivity (?*surf) show that ??surf is greater and more strongly ?w-dependent (??surf ? ?w0.5 between 0.001 and 2 S/m) than observed for inorganic sediments. By assuming a linear relationship between the real (?'surf) and the imaginary part (??surf) of the surface conductivity, we develop an empirical model relating the resistivity and induced polarization measurements to ?w in peat. We demonstrate the use of this model to predict (a) ?w and (b) the change in Kv due to an incremental change in ?w from resistivity and induced polarization measurements on organic sediments. Our study has implications for noninvasive geophysical characterization of ?w and Kv with potential to benefit studies of carbon cycling and greenhouse gas fluxes as well as nutrient supply dynamics in peatlands.

  5. Upland-wetland connectivity provides a significant nexus between isolated wetlands and downstream water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Kaplan, D. A.; Cohen, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court have limited federal protection over isolated wetlands, requiring documentation of a 'significant nexus' to a navigable water body to ensure federal jurisdiction. Despite geographic isolation, isolated wetlands influence the surficial aquifer dynamics that regulate baseflow to surface water systems. Due to differences in specific yield (Sy) between upland soils and inundated wetlands, responses of the upland water table to atmospheric fluxes (precipitation, P, and evapotranspiration, ET) are amplified relative to wetland water levels, leading to reversals in the hydraulic gradient between the two systems. As such, wetlands act as a water sink during wet cycles (via wetland exfiltration) and a source (via infiltration) during drier times, regulating both the surficial aquifer and its baseflow to downstream systems. To explore the importance of this wetland function at the landscape scale, we integrated models of soil moisture, upland water table, and wetland stage to simulate the hydrology of a low-relief, depressional landscape. We quantified the hydrologic buffering effect of wetlands by calculating the relative change in the standard deviation (SD) of water table elevation between model runs with and without wetlands. Using this model we explored the effects wetland area and spatial distribution over a range of climatic drivers (P and ET) and soil types. Increasing wetland cumulative area and/or density reduced water table variability relative to landscapes without wetlands, supporting the idea that wetlands stabilize regional hydrologic variation, but also increased mean water table depth because of sustained high ET rates in wetlands during dry periods. Maintaining high cumulative wetland area, but with fewer wetlands, markedly reduced the effect of wetland area, highlighting the importance of small, distributed wetlands on water table regulation. Simulating a range of climate scenarios suggested that the capacity of wetlands to buffer water table variation is most pronounced along a 'sweet spot' where P and ET are relatively balanced. High P and low ET yielded consistently high water tables with wetlands acting predominantly as sinks (i.e., little switching behavior), while low P and high ET scenarios limited wetland inundation. On the other hand, when both P and ET were moderate, the SD of the regional water table was reduced by nearly 50% for landscapes with 30% wetland area distributed over ~1 ha watersheds. Additionally, we found these buffering effects to be stronger in coarser soils compared with finer soils. Considering the strong influence of regional water table on downstream surface water systems, loss of isolated wetland area or mitigation of this loss at the expense of wetland density (i.e., large mitigation banks to replace small distributed systems) has the potential to significantly impact downstream water bodies. Isolated wetlands buffer surficial aquifer dynamics by providing water storage capacitance at the landscape scale and ultimately exert hydraulic regulation of regional surface waters through an indirect, but significant nexus.

  6. Geochemistry and radiometric dating of a Middle Pleistocene peat

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, P.J.; Atkinson, T.C. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom); Richards, D.A.; Bottrell, S.H.; Cliff, R.A. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); and others

    1997-10-01

    Uranium, lead, and sulphur data for a Middle Pleistocene interglacial peat deposit from Norfolk, UK, suggest that uptake of these elements was synchronous and confined to a single early diagenetic episode, probably coeval with peat formation. Sulphur isotope data indicate that reducing conditions have been maintained within the deposit throughout its history. Both uranium and lead concentration profiles show a marked discontinuity near the middle of the bed, probably indicating an environmental change, possibly emergence. The lead isotope data are compatible with a single lead component below the discontinuity and two components above. Groundwater is thought to be the dominant source of lead with an additional airfall component present in the upper peat. The uranium and lead concentration profiles below the discontinuity and the sulfur isotope profile throughout the peat support the view that these elements were sequestered from upwelling groundwaters. 35 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Effects of Atmospheric Nitrate on an Upland Stream of the Northeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Shanley, J. B.; Boyer, E. W.; Kendall, C.

    2009-05-01

    Excess nitrogen cascades through terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and affects stream nitrate concentrations in upland forests where atmospheric deposition is an important source of anthropogenic nitrogen. We will discuss approaches including high-frequency sampling, isotopic tracers, and end-member mixing analysis that can be used to decipher the sources, transformations, and hydrological processes that affect nitrate transport through forested upland catchments to streams. We present results of studies at the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, USA, a site where we have intensively measured stream nitrate concentrations during baseflow and stormflow. Stream nitrate concentrations are typically low and nearly 75% of annual inorganic N inputs from atmospheric deposition are retained within the catchment. However, high concentrations and stream loadings of nitrate occur during storm events due to source variation and hydrological flushing of nitrate from catchment soils. Using isotopic tracers and end-member mixing analysis, we have quantified source inputs of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate and show that this stream is directly affected by nitrogen pollution. Using a long-term record of stream hydrochemistry and our findings on event- scale nitrate flushing dynamics, we then explore how stream nitrate loading may respond to anthropogenic climate forcing during the next century. Results suggest that stream runoff and nitrate loadings will change during future emission scenarios (i.e. longer growing seasons and higher winter precipitation rates). Understanding the timing and magnitude of hydrological and hydrochemical responses is important because climate change effects on catchment hydrology may alter how nitrate is retained, produced, and hydrologically flushed in headwater ecosystems with implications for aquatic metabolism, nutrient export from catchments, and downstream eutrophication.

  8. Denitrification triggered by nitrogen addition in Sphagnum magellanicum peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André-Jean Francez; Gilles Pinay; Nathalie Josselin; Berwyn L. Williams

    Ombrotrophic (rain-fed) Sphagnum-mires do not significantly contribute to gaseous nitrogen (N) emissions to the atmosphere. However, increasing levels of\\u000a N deposition reduce Sphagnum growth and moss cover. As a consequence, higher amounts of mineral N reach the underlying peat beneath the moss layer. The\\u000a aim of our work was to determine the effects of supplementary N inputs to peat beneath

  9. Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

  10. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Roslan; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  11. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a ‘win-win’ solution for farmers and conservationists. PMID:24551216

  12. Crop\\/weed competition studies in upland rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govindra Singh; S. R. Yadav; D. Singh

    1987-01-01

    Critical period of crop\\/weed competition was studied in upland rice during monsoon season from 1981 to 1983. Echinochloa colonum, Seirpus grossus, Dactyloctenlum aegyptium, Cyperus rotundus, C. iria and Trianthema monogyna were the major weed species. Competition from weeds during the first 15 days after sowing (d.a.s.) had no significant effect on the grain yield of rice. Competition beyond 15 d.a.s.

  13. Optimal weeding treatments in upland rice: A crop competition experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. C. Legaspi Jr; C. P. Medina; J. C. Alagos; F. P. Lansigan

    1989-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to determine the effects of different times and frequencies of handweeding on grain yields in upland rice. Five weeding treatments were done. These treatments consisted of single weedings at 20 and 35 days after emergence (d.a.e.) and double weedings at 10 and 15 d.a.e., 20 and 35 d.a.e. and 30 and 45 d.a.e. Two controls

  14. Microbial enzyme activities of peatland soils in south central Alaska lowlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial enzyme activities related to carbon and nutrient acquisition were measured on Alaskan peatland soils as indicators of nutrient limitation and biochemical sustainability. Peat decomposition is mediated by microorganisms and enzymes that in turn are limited by various ph...

  15. The effects of compaction of different golf green soil mixtures on plant growth 

    E-print Network

    Kunze, Raymond John

    1956-01-01

    concrete sand as determined by a sieve analysis' o ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 11 20 Mixtures of various particle sixes and of various ssnd- clsy soil peat ratios tested in the experimento ~ oo ~ o ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 11 The amount of compactive...

  16. Spatial variations in soil and plant delta 13 C and delta 15 N values in a subtropical savanna: implications for vegetation change and nutrient dynamics 

    E-print Network

    Bai, E

    2009-05-15

    lower-lying portions of the landscape are dominated by closed-canopy woodlands. I used soil ?13C in conjunction with aerial photography and geostatistics to quantify landscape-scale vegetation dynamics in uplands of this savanna parkland. Spatial...

  17. Interannual variation of soil respiration in two New England forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, K. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2001-06-01

    Soil respiration is an important component of the annual carbon balance of forests, but few studies have addressed interannual variation in soil respiration. The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal and interannual variation in soil respiration, temperature, precipitation, and soil water content in two New England forest soils and to develop and evaluate empirical models for predicting variations in soil respiration using temperature and soil moisture content. We have been measuring soil respiration, using dynamic chambers in well-drained upland sites and poorly drained wetland sites since 1995 at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and since 1996 at the Howland Forest, Maine. The upland sites had consistently greater rates of respiration than wetlands. Prolonged drought periods in 1995, 1998, and 1999 at the Harvard Forest resulted in decreased soil respiration rates in the uplands, particularly once soil moisture contents decreased below about -150 kPa. In contrast, wetland respiration increased upon drying. The interannual variation in soil respiration at the Harvard Forest, 0.23 kg C m-2 yr-1, exceeds the interannual variation in net ecosystem exchange (NEE), 0.14 kg C m-2 yr-1 previously measured for this forest, indicating that interannual variation in soil respiration can have an important influence on NEE. Interannual variation was lower at the Howland Forest, and the effects of low soil moisture content on respiration rates were more subtle. The onset of spring was variable among years at both forests, owing to variation in both temperature and precipitation, and contributed to 33-59% of the annual variability in total carbon release. At the upland sites, parameterization of empirical regression models for respiration as a function of soil temperature was inconsistent among years, indicating an important effect of interannual variation in soil water content. The negative residuals of the Harvard Forest temperature regression model were best explained by drought conditions (soil matric potentials ?-150 kPa). This function was only applicable during severe drought and did not account for less severe dry periods that also reduced soil moisture and soil respiration. An empirical regression model for the wetlands as a function of temperature was significantly improved with the addition of a soil moisture function, which increased respiration rates under dry conditions and decreased it under wet conditions. Climatic changes resulting in drier conditions will likely decrease soil respiration rates in uplands and increase soil respiration in wetlands.

  18. Sulfur in the Changuinola peat deposit, Panama, as an indicator of the environments of deposition of peat and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.; Bustin, R.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1996-01-01

    The sulfur (S) content of coal is often used to infer aspects of paleoclimate, trophic state, and proximity to marine influence, of the mire in which it was deposited. In this study, the S content of peat in a large back-barrier mire complex on the Caribbean coast of Panama is related to climatic, biological, and tectonic factors of the depositional environment. The S content is in proportion to the degree of humidification of the peat, and both are independent of the pH of the groundwater. The distribution of forms of organic and inorganic sulfur in the tropical peats are found to be comparable to published values for temperate and subtropical peats, despite differences in vegetation and climate.The distribution of high-sulfur peats in the eastern part of the deposit and low-sulfur peats in the western part, and the SE-NW transgression parallel to the trend of the coastline, reflects the regional structural trend of coseismic subsidence greatest to the southeast.

  19. Complex Catchment Processes that Control Stream Nitrogen and Organic Matter Concentrations in a Northeastern USA Upland Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Shanley, J. B.; Pellerin, B.; Saraceno, J.; Aiken, G. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Doctor, D. H.; Kendall, C.

    2009-05-01

    There is a need to understand the coupled biogeochemical and hydrological processes that control stream hydrochemistry in upland forested catchments. At watershed 9 (W-9) of the Sleepers River Research Watershed in the northeastern USA, we use high-frequency sampling, environmental tracers, end-member mixing analysis, and stream reach mass balances to understand dynamic factors affect forms and concentrations of nitrogen and organic matter in streamflow. We found that rates of stream nitrate processing changed during autumn baseflow and that up to 70% of nitrate inputs to a stream reach were retained. At the same time, the stream reach was a net source of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The in-stream nitrate loss and DOM gains are examples of hot moments of biogeochemical transformations during autumn when deciduous litter fall increases DOM availability. As hydrological flowpaths changed during rainfall events, the sources and transformations of nitrate and DOM differed from baseflow. For example, during storm flow we measured direct inputs of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate to streams that were as large as 30% of the stream nitrate loading. At the same time, stream DOM composition shifted to reflect inputs of reactive organic matter from surficial upland soils. The transport of atmospheric nitrate and reactive DOM to streams underscores the importance of quantifying source variation during short-duration stormflow events. Building upon these findings we present a conceptual model of interacting ecosystem processes that control the flow of water and nutrients to streams in a temperate upland catchment.

  20. Does ammonium-based N addition influence nitrification and acidification in humid subtropical soils of China?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhao; Zu-cong Cai; Zhi-hong Xu

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of ammonium-based N ($$ {\\\\text{NH}}^{ + }_{4} - {\\\\text{N}} $$) addition on soil nitrification and acidification were investigated in terms of kinetic mechanisms and major factors controlling\\u000a these soil processes for terrestrial ecosystems in subtropical China. Soil samples were collected from an upland soil derived\\u000a from a sandstone parent (SU), a brush-land soil from a granite (GB), and

  1. Fate and Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Upland Irish Headwater Lake Catchments

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Heidi E. M.; Aherne, Julian; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a concern due to their carcinogenicity and propensity for transboundary atmospheric transport. Ireland is located on the western periphery of Europe and assumed to receive clean Atlantic air. As such, it has been used as an atmospheric reference for comparison to other regions. Nonetheless, few studies have evaluated concentrations of PAHs within the Irish environment. In the current study, PAHs were measured at five upland (500–800?masl) headwater lake catchments in coastal regions around Ireland, remote from industrial point source emissions. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in lakes for a 6-month period in July 2009, and topsoils were sampled from each catchment during October 2010. The concentrations of PAHs were low at most study sites with respect to other temperate regions. Homologue groups partitioned between lake and soil compartments based on their molecular weight were: “lighter” substances, such as Phenanthrene and Fluorene, were found in higher proportions in lakes, whereas “heavier” compounds, such as Chrysene and Benz[a]anthracene, were more prominent in soils. Concentrations of PAHs were highest at the east coast sites, potentially due to contributions from historical transboundary and regional combustion sources. PMID:23346024

  2. Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance at a temperate upland forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Murphy, J. G.; Winsborough, C. L.; Basiliko, N.; Geddes, J. A.; Thomas, S.

    2012-12-01

    Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate upland forest in Central Ontario, Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve (45.28° N, 78.55° W) using the eddy covariance (EC) method. An off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS) Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA from Los Gatos Research, Inc.) operated at a sampling rate of 10 Hz allowed for simultaneous measurement of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water (H2O) over five months from June to October in 2011. Air was pulled from the top of a 32 m tower, 8 m above the forest canopy, to the bottom of the tower through 40 m of tubing to the instrument. A sonic anemometer and a LI-7500 open-path sensor were also used at the top of the tower to provide high frequency wind data and comparative open-path measurements of CO2 and H2O. A nearby soil station measured soil water content and soil temperature at 0, 3, and 10 cm below the surface. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux value (± standard deviation of the mean) of -2.7±0.13 nmol m-2 s-1. In early June when measurements commenced, the soil moisture was relatively high and CH4 flux values showed net emission. As the season advanced the soil became progressively drier, and there was an increasing trend in CH4 uptake, peaking in mid-September. There was also a diurnal trend in the CH4 flux, with increased uptake during the day, and decreased uptake between 0:00 and 08:00. The CH4 flux values correlated well with the horizontal wind speed measured within the forest canopy. We hypothesize that this may be due to a ventilation effect in which higher wind speed facilitates the introduction of CH4-rich air and removes CH4-depleted air near the methanotrophs in the soil. The measurements were made in an uneven-aged managed forest stand last harvested 15 years ago containing sandy and acidic soils (pH 4.0 - 5.0). Chamber flux measurements of CH4 were also performed at seven toposequences around the tower, every two weeks from June to October. These chamber flux values are qualitatively consistent with those measured by eddy covariance in terms of magnitude and seasonality. While the flux measurements indicate net uptake by soils, the diurnal cycle of mixing ratios often showed nighttime accumulation of methane, indicating that over the broader landscape around the tower, emissions may dominate.

  3. Simulation of the Effects of Surface Fluxes of Heat and Moisture in a Mesoscale Numerical Model 1. Soil Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. McCumber; Roger A. Pielke

    1981-01-01

    A parameterization for bare soil is developed, which is to be incorporated in a mesoscale numerical prediction model. This parameterization is generalized to aceomodate 11 types of soil in addition to peat, using mean soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the scheme to several soil parameters is evaluated by a series of one-dimensional simulations. It is shown that the most important

  4. Improvements of a dynamic global vegetation model and simulations of carbon and water at an upland-oak forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Mau, J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Dai, Yongjiu [Beijing Normal University; Woodward, F. I. [University of Sheffield; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Lomas, M. R. [University of Sheffield

    2007-01-01

    The interest in the development and improvement of the dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), which have the potential to simulate fluxes of carbon, water and nitrogen, and vegetation dynamics in an integrated system has been increasing. In this paper, some numerical schemes and a higher resolution soil texture dataset are employed to improve the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM). Using the eddy covariance-based measurements, we then test the standard version of the SDGVM and the modified version of the SDGVM. Detailed observations of daily carbon and water fluxes made at the upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in Tennessee, USA offered a unique opportunity for these comparisons. The results revealed that, the modified version of the SDGVM did a reasonable job of simulating the carbon flux, water flux and the variation of soil water content. However, at the end of the growing season, it failed to simulate the dynamics of limitations on the soil respiration and as a result underestimated the soil respiration. It was also noted that the modified version overestimated the increase in soil water content following summer rainfall, which was attributed to an inadequate representation of the ground water and thermal cycle.

  5. RETENTION TIME EFFECT ON METAL REMOVAL BY PEAT COLUMNS

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E

    2007-02-28

    The potential use of a peat bed to treat the H-12 Outfall discharge to bring it to new compliance limits was previously investigated and reported utilizing a 7 hour retention time. The influence of retention time (contact time) of water with peat moss on the removal of copper from the water was investigated under laboratory conditions using vertical flow peat moss columns. Reduction of the necessary retention time has a large influence on the design sizing of any peat bed that would be constructed to treat the H-12 discharge on a full scale basis. Retention times of 5 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour were tested to determine the copper removal by the peat columns using vertical flow. Water samples were collected after 4, 8, 12, and 16 water volumes had passed through the columns and analyzed for a suite of metals, with quantitative emphasis on copper. Laboratory results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the 3 retention times tested, ranging from 99.6 % removal at 5 and 3 hours to 98.8% removal at 1 hour. All these values are much lower that the new compliance limit for the outfall. The results also indicated that most divalent metals were removed to their normal reporting detection limit for the analytical methods used, including zinc. Lead levels in the H-12 discharge used in this study were below PQL in all samples analyzed. While each of the retention times studied removed copper very well, there were indications that 1 hour is probably too short for an operational, long-term facility. At that retention time, there was about 6% compaction of the peat in the column due to the water velocity, and this may affect long term hydraulic conductivity of the peat bed. At that retention time, copper concentration in the effluent was higher than the other times tested, although still very low. Because of the potential compacting and somewhat reduced removal efficiency at a 1 hour retention time, it would be prudent to design to at least a 3 hour retention time for water in any peat bed system that is proposed for the H-12 Outfall. A scope to design and install a pilot level study at H-12 is currently under development. This study will be designed to examine some of the engineering issues that are of concern regarding the scaling of an actual peat bed to treat the volumes of water that are typically discharged through the H-12 Outfall. Different hydraulic paths and configurations are expected to be part of that scope.

  6. Restructuring of a Peat in Interaction with Multivalent Cations: Effect of Cation Type and Aging Time

    PubMed Central

    Kunhi Mouvenchery, Yamuna; Jaeger, Alexander; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Tunega, Daniel; Diehl, Dörte; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al3+, Ca2+ or Na+, respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>>2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (<2 h) and was described by a Langmuir model. The maximum uptake increased with pH of cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (?3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for CaB and aging-induced structural reorganisation can enhance cross-link formation. PMID:23750256

  7. SIZE AND XAD FRACTIONATIONS OF TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS FROM SOILS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two soils (peat and mineral soils) of contrasting texture and organic carbon contents were extracted with deionized H2O and four electrolytes (Na+ and Ca2+). Water extractable organic carbon was fractionated by different pore size filters into colloidal organic carbon (COC), Fine colloidal organic ...

  8. Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Connections between Uplands and Streams in Contrasting Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Webb, R. M.; Hjerdt, K. N.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Peters, N. E.; Burns, D. A.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Campbell, D. H.; Clow, D. W.; Mast, M. A.; Walker, J. F.; Hunt, R. J.; Troester, J. W.; Larsen, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    We used combinations of hydrometric, chemical, and isotopic evidence to evaluate linkages between upland and riparian zones at the 5 small watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey Water Energy and Biogeochemical Budget (WEBB) program. These sites span a broad range of climate and topography. At Sleepers River, Vermont, snowmelt induced the water table on hillslopes to rise into the highly transmissive upper soil. The close timing of the groundwater and stream hydrographs suggests a large contribution of hillslope water to the stream. However, the chemistry of these upland groundwaters indicates that only limited areas of convergent groundwater flow directly contribute to streamflow. At Panola Mountain, Georgia, a thin saturated zone develops on the hillslope during large rainstorms. This hillslope groundwater is chemically distinct from riparian groundwater, and transits the riparian zone near land surface with little mixing. Based on chemical mixing analysis, the hillslope contributes up to 30% of the streamwater during moderate to large-sized rainstorms. The Trout Lake site in Wisconsin is a low-lying landscape in highly conductive sandy glacial outwash.Hillslope water chemistry is considerably more dilute (i.e. less evolved) than the regional groundwater that supplies baseflow. The lack of chemical response in streamwater during storms suggests that hillslope water makes a minimal contribution relative to regional groundwater flow. In the alpine/subalpine watershed of Loch Vale, Colorado, much of the subsurface flow occurs on steep slopes of talus. Water in the talus flow has a wide range of residence times. The talus deposits are biogeochemically active and play an important role in maintaining summer baseflow, regulating seasonal changes in streamwater chemistry, and exporting nitrogen from atmospheric deposition. The tropical Icacos watershed in the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico receives 4 meters of rainfall annually and has high physical and chemical weathering rates. Streamwater chemistry during baseflow is strongly controlled by groundwater interaction with weathered bedrock. Most hillslope runoff occurs through near-surface macropores with limited soil interaction. This source dominates during storms resulting in stream chemistry that resembles that of the extremely dilute precipitation.We will compare these field observations at each site with the aid of TOPMODEL-based simulation of residence times and observed water quality on the hillslope and riparian saturated zones.

  9. Afobazole protects rats exposed to peat smoke in utero.

    PubMed

    Gorbatova, D M; Litvinova, S A; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2015-03-01

    Female outbred albino rats were daily subjected to forced inhalations of peat smoke (4 cores packed with a mixture of peat (70%) and wood pulp (30%); 0.46 g, pH at least 5.5, core burning time 6 min,; total exposure 44 min) per se and in combination with oral afobazole (anxiolytic) in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg on days 1-20 of pregnancy. Some groups of females received oral afobazole (200 mg/kg) after delivery, due to which their newborn rats received the drug in doses of 1-10 mg/kg with maternal milk on days 1-20 of life. Exposure to peat smoke inhibited body weight gain in the progeny on days 5-60 of life. Afobazole treatment during the pre- and postnatal periods prevented this effect. Open field testing showed that exposure to peat smoke prolonged the motor activity in the progeny and impaired the loss of orientation and exploratory behavior during repeated testing. Oral afobazole (1 and 10 mg/kg) during the prenatal and/or postnatal period (with maternal milk) prevented the effects of peat smoke. PMID:25778655

  10. Magnitude and timing of peat-to-coal compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nadon, G.C. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences] [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1998-08-01

    The peat-to-coal transition is commonly assumed to be accompanied by compaction that decreases the thickness of the organic deposit to values of 10% or less of the original peat thickness. Decompaction modeling using such values for coal seams in contact with penecontemporaneous channel sandstones leads to impossible depositional geometries for the sandstones, which have a final thickness that is 90% of their original thickness. Similarly, decompaction modeling of the fragments of organic material within channel lags using the assumed large peat compaction value results in the destruction of the associated sedimentary structures, such as trough cross-beds. Dinosaur tracks in the roofs of coal mines show a shallow depth of penetration and a preservation of foot morphology that is not possible unless the peat the animals walked upon was very firm. These data confirm the macroscopic observations from coal balls that the compaction associated with the peat-to-coal transformation is minimal. Equally important, the data also show that most of the compaction occurs essentially at the surface and not at the depths where coalification takes place.

  11. Peat accretion histories during the past 6,000 years in marshes of the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; de Fontaine, Christian S.; Brown, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how vertical accretion rates in marshes vary through the millennia. Peat cores were collected in remnant and drained marshes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Cubic smooth spline regression models were used to construct age-depth models and accretion histories for three remnant marshes. Estimated vertical accretion rates at these sites range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm year-1. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the remnant marsh sites is generally stable (4.73% to 6.94%), whereas the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume has greater temporal variability (1.40% to 7.92%). The hydrogeomorphic position of each marsh largely determines the inorganic content of peat. Currently, the remnant marshes are keeping pace with sea level rise, but this balance may shift for at least one of the sites under future sea level rise scenarios.

  12. Distribution of mercury, methyl mercury and organic sulphur species in soil, soil solution and stream of a boreal forest catchment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Skyllberg; Jin Qian; Wolfgang Frech; Kang Xia; William F. Bleam

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of methyl mercury, CH3Hg (II), total mercury, Hgtot = CH3Hg (II) + Hg (II), and organic sulphur species were determined in soils, soil solutions and streams of a small (50 ha) boreal forest catchment in northern Sweden. The CH3Hg (II)\\/Hgtot ratio decreased from 1.2–17.2% in the peaty stream bank soils to 0.4–0.8% in mineral and peat soils 20 m

  13. A Reusable Process Control System Framework for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory and NPP Sounder PEATE missions

    E-print Network

    Mattmann, Chris

    PEATE missions Chris A. Mattmann, Dana Freeborn, Dan Crichton, Brian Foster, Andrew Hart, David Woollard missions: the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), and NPP Sounder PEATE projects. 1 Introduction Data volume

  14. Long-term carbon accumulation in tropical peat swamp forests in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnianto, S.; Warren, M.; Talbot, J.; Kaufman, B.; Frolking, S.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2012-12-01

    Almost half of the tropical peatland area is located in Indonesia, which historically was mostly covered by tropical peat swamp forests. Indonesian peat swamp forest cover has decreased at a rate of 2% per year, implying large carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Here we report on peat core carbon content data collected in summer 2012 in pristine peat swamp forest in Tanjung Puting National Park, West Kalimantan, in an oil palm plantation near Tanjung Puting, and in pristine peat swamp forest in Berbak National Park, Jambi, Sumatra. We also present long-term peat carbon accumulation simulation results using the Holocene Peat Model (HPM), which we have modified to be applicable for tropical peat forest settings. We compare the HPM results with the field data collected in West Kalimantan and Jambi, Indonesia.

  15. Waterborne nutrient flow through an upland-peatland watershed in Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elon S. Verry; D. R. Timmons

    1982-01-01

    Water and nutrient flow were measured on a complex upland-peatland watershed in north central Minnesota. Annual water budgets for upland and peatland components and for the total watershed were developed. Nutrient input and output budgets were developed for each component on a seasonal basis, using net precipitation inputs, and an annual nutrient budget was developed for the entire watershed, using

  16. Effects of soil temperature, flooding, and organic matter addition on N2O emissions from a soil of Hongze Lake wetland, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Xu, Hongwen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effects of soil temperature, flooding, and raw organic matter input on N2O emissions in a soil sampled at Hongze Lake wetland, Jiangsu Province, China. The treatments studied were-peat soil (I), peat soil under flooding (II), peat soil plus raw organic matter (III), and peat soil under flooding plus organic matter. These four treatments were incubated at 20°C and 35°C. The result showed that temperature increase could enhance N2O emissions rate and cumulative emissions significantly; moreover, the flooded soil with external organic matter inputs showed the lowest cumulative rise in N2O emissions due to temperature increment. Flooding might inhibit soil N2O emissions, and the inhibition was more pronounced after organic matter addition to the original soil. Conversely, organic matter input explained lower cumulative N2O emissions under flooding. Our results suggest that complex interactions between flooding and other environmental factors might appear in soil N2O emissions. Further studies are needed to understand potential synergies or antagonisms between environmental factors that control N2O emissions in wetland soils. PMID:25133216

  17. Community heterogeneity of Early Pennsylvanian peat mires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gastaldo, R.A.; Stevanovic-Walls, I. M.; Ware, W.N.; Greb, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    Reconstructions of Pennsylvanian coal swamps are some of the most common images of late Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems. All reconstructions to date are based on data from either time-averaged permineralized peats or single-site collections. An erect, in situ Early Pennsylvanian forest preserved above the Blue Creek Coal, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, was sampled in 17 localities over an area of >0.5 km2, resulting in the first temporally and spatially constrained Pennsylvanian mire data set. This three-tiered forest was heterogeneous. Lycopsid and calamitean trees composed the canopy, and lepidodendrids, Lepidophloios, and sigillarians grew together at most sites. More juvenile than mature lycopsid biomass occurs in the forest-floor litter, indicating a mixed-age, multicohort canopy. Pteridophytes (tree fern) and pteridosperms (seed fern) dominated as understory shrubs, whereas sphenophyllaleans, pteridophytes, and pteridosperms composed the ground-cover and liana tier. The proportion of canopy, understory, and ground-cover biomass varied across the forest. Low proportions of ground-cover and liana taxa existed where canopy fossils accounted for >60% of the litter. There is a distinct spatial clustering of sites with more or less understory (or ground cover) where canopy contribution was <60%. Where canopy biomass was low (<50%), understory shrubs contributed more biomass, indicative of light interception and/or competition strategies. Sphenopteris pottsvillea, a ubiquitous ground-cover plant, is abundant in all sites except one, where pteridosperm creepers and lianas dominate the litter, interpreted to indicate total suppression of other ground-cover growth. Ecological wet-dry gradients identified in other Pennsylvanian swamps do not exist in the Blue Creek mire, with the interpreted wettest (Lepidophloios), driest (Sigillaria), and intermediate (Lepidodendron sensu latu) taxa coexisting in most assemblages. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  18. Hydrodynamic modelling of small upland lakes under strong wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2012-04-01

    Small lakes (Area < 1 km2) represent 46.3% of the total lake surface globally and constitute an important source of water supply. Lakes also provide an important sedimentary archive of environmental and climate changes and ecosystem function. Hydrodynamic controls on the transport and distribution of lake sediments, and also seasonal variations in thermal structure due to solar radiation, precipitation, evaporation and mixing and the complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind are not very well understood. The work presented here analyses hydrodynamic motions present in small upland lakes due to circulation and internal scale waves, and their linkages with the distribution of bottom sediment accumulation in the lake. For purpose, a 3D hydrodynamic is calibrated and implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. The model, based around the FVCOM open source community model code, resolves the Navier-Stokes equations using a 3D unstructured mesh and a finite volume scheme. The model is forced by meteorological boundary conditions. Improvements made to the FVCOM code include a new graphical user interface to pre- and post process the model input and results respectively, and a JONSWAT wave model to include the effects of wind-wave induced bottom stresses on lake sediment dynamics. Modelled internal scale waves are validated against summer temperature measurements acquired from a thermistor chain deployed at the deepest part of the lake. Seiche motions were validated using data recorded by high-frequency level sensors around the lake margins, and the velocity field and the circulation patterns were validated using the data recorded by an ADCP and GPS drifters. The model is shown to reproduce the lake hydrodynamics and reveals well-developed seiches at different frequencies superimposed on wind-driven circulation patterns that appear to control the distribution of bottom sediments in this small upland lake.

  19. Modeling Tidal Marsh Distribution with Sea-Level Rise: Evaluating the Role of Vegetation, Sediment, and Upland Habitat in Marsh Resiliency

    PubMed Central

    Schile, Lisa M.; Callaway, John C.; Morris, James T.; Stralberg, Diana; Parker, V. Thomas; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    Tidal marshes maintain elevation relative to sea level through accumulation of mineral and organic matter, yet this dynamic accumulation feedback mechanism has not been modeled widely in the context of accelerated sea-level rise. Uncertainties exist about tidal marsh resiliency to accelerated sea-level rise, reduced sediment supply, reduced plant productivity under increased inundation, and limited upland habitat for marsh migration. We examined marsh resiliency under these uncertainties using the Marsh Equilibrium Model, a mechanistic, elevation-based soil cohort model, using a rich data set of plant productivity and physical properties from sites across the estuarine salinity gradient. Four tidal marshes were chosen along this gradient: two islands and two with adjacent uplands. Varying century sea-level rise (52, 100, 165, 180 cm) and suspended sediment concentrations (100%, 50%, and 25% of current concentrations), we simulated marsh accretion across vegetated elevations for 100 years, applying the results to high spatial resolution digital elevation models to quantify potential changes in marsh distributions. At low rates of sea-level rise and mid-high sediment concentrations, all marshes maintained vegetated elevations indicative of mid/high marsh habitat. With century sea-level rise at 100 and 165 cm, marshes shifted to low marsh elevations; mid/high marsh elevations were found only in former uplands. At the highest century sea-level rise and lowest sediment concentrations, the island marshes became dominated by mudflat elevations. Under the same sediment concentrations, low salinity brackish marshes containing highly productive vegetation had slower elevation loss compared to more saline sites with lower productivity. A similar trend was documented when comparing against a marsh accretion model that did not model vegetation feedbacks. Elevation predictions using the Marsh Equilibrium Model highlight the importance of including vegetation responses to sea-level rise. These results also emphasize the importance of adjacent uplands for long-term marsh survival and incorporating such areas in conservation planning efforts. PMID:24551156

  20. Suggested protocol for collecting, handling and preparing peat cores and peat samples for physical, chemical, mineralogical and isotopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Le Roux, Gaël; Cheburkin, Andriy; Chen, Bin; Frank, Jutta; Goodsite, Michael E; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Rausch, Nicole; Rheinberger, Stefan; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Sapkota, Atindra; Scholz, Christian; Shotyk, William

    2004-05-01

    For detailed reconstructions of atmospheric metal deposition using peat cores from bogs, a comprehensive protocol for working with peat cores is proposed. The first step is to locate and determine suitable sampling sites in accordance with the principal goal of the study, the period of time of interest and the precision required. Using the state of the art procedures and field equipment, peat cores are collected in such a way as to provide high quality records for paleoenvironmental study. Pertinent field observations gathered during the fieldwork are recorded in a field report. Cores are kept frozen at -18 degree C until they can be prepared in the laboratory. Frozen peat cores are precisely cut into 1 cm slices using a stainless steel band saw with stainless steel blades. The outside edges of each slice are removed using a titanium knife to avoid any possible contamination which might have occurred during the sampling and handling stage. Each slice is split, with one-half kept frozen for future studies (archived), and the other half further subdivided for physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses. Physical parameters such as ash and water contents, the bulk density and the degree of decomposition of the peat are determined using established methods. A subsample is dried overnight at 105 degree C in a drying oven and milled in a centrifugal mill with titanium sieve. Prior to any expensive and time consuming chemical procedures and analyses, the resulting powdered samples, after manual homogenisation, are measured for more than twenty-two major and trace elements using non-destructive X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) methods. This approach provides lots of valuable geochemical data which documents the natural geochemical processes which occur in the peat profiles and their possible effect on the trace metal profiles. The development, evaluation and use of peat cores from bogs as archives of high-resolution records of atmospheric deposition of mineral dust and trace elements have led to the development of many analytical procedures which now permit the measurement of a wide range of elements in peat samples such as lead and lead isotope ratios, mercury, arsenic, antimony, silver, molybdenum, thorium, uranium, rare earth elements. Radiometric methods (the carbon bomb pulse of (14)C, (210)Pb and conventional (14)C dating) are combined to allow reliable age-depth models to be reconstructed for each peat profile. PMID:15152318

  1. Effects of organic matter on the physical and the physicochemical properties of an illitic soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdallah I Husein Malkawi; Ahmed S Alawneh; Osama T Abu-Safaqah

    1999-01-01

    The main thrust of this study is to investigate the effects of organic matter on the physical and the physicochemical properties of illitic soils. For this purpose, organic matter (peat) was added to inorganic illitic clayey soil at eight levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 30% by weight). The physicochemical properties of the resulting soils were determined

  2. Preliminary survey of the peat-bog Hummell Knowe Moss using various numerical methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Clymo

    1980-01-01

    (1)Hummell Knowe Moss is one of several fine and relatively undamaged peat bogs in northern England, close to the border with Scotland.(2)The central, eccentrically domed, mass of peat is ca 300×600 m, and much of this is 7 to 10 m deep.(3)A single profile has 8 m of bog peat overlying 2.5 m of Phragmites peat with seeds of Potamogeton

  3. Palaeoecology of Holocene peat deposits from Nordvestø, north-west Greenland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Bennike; Michael Goodsite; Jan Heinemeier

    2008-01-01

    Two extensive peat deposits on Nordvestø, between Greenland and Canada, were examined for macroscopic remains of plants and\\u000a animals. One of the peat deposits accumulated during the period from c. 7,100 to 5,100 cal. years BP. This peat is guanogenic and completely dominated by the coprophilous bryophyte Aplodon wormskioldii, and also contains frequent remains of feathers. The peat formed close

  4. Processes in the pore waters of peat deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Levshenko, T.V.; Efremova, A.G.; Galkina, Z.M.; Surkova, T.E.; Tolstov, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of the waters of modern peat bogs that have developed in the intracontinental regions under the conditions of bogs of the high-moor, mixed, and lowmoor types have been investigated for the case of a number of peat deposits of the Smolensk, Volgorad, and Pskov provinces. During the work the pH of the deposits and the C1-, Alk, SO/sup 2/-, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K- contents of the pore water of modern peat beds were studied. The thickness of the deposits studied amounted to 5-7 m. Samples were taken every 0.5 m in depth. The water was separated from the deposits by pressing out.

  5. An ecologic study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    The role of groundwater and surface runoff in controlling the water chemistry and development of peat landforms in northern Minnesota are described. The LANDSAT imagery taken duing spring break-up are particularly valuable in identifying potential zones of groundwater discharge. The vascular floras of raised bogs in eastern North Americas demonstrating the remarkabe uniformity of the ombrotrophic flora over broad geographic regions are described. The evolution of peat landforms in the major boreal peatlands of eastern America is examined. The LANDSAT imagery is used to determine the area of patterned to featureless peatlands, the area of ombrotrophic bog relative to minerotrophic fen, and the relative size and degree of streamlining of island landforms entirely composed of peat. Such measurements can be used to assess the role of climate, time, and hydrology in controlling the formation of peatland patterns across broad geographic regions.

  6. Investigation of occupational radiation exposures to NORM at an Irish peat-fired power station and potential use of peat fly ash by the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Organo, C; Lee, E M; Menezes, G; Finch, E C

    2005-12-01

    Annually, approximately 15% of Ireland's electricity requirement is provided through the combustion of 3 x 10(6) tonnes of peat. While the literature on coal-fired power generation is quite abundant, studies on the peat-fired power generation industry from a radiological point of view are scarce. A study of the largest Irish peat-fired power plant was initiated to review the potential occupational radiation exposures arising from the occurrence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at different stages of the industrial process and to investigate any radiological health consequences that may arise should peat fly ash be used as a component of building materials. Ambient gamma dose rate measurements, radon measurements, quantification of the occupational exposure from inhalation of airborne particles (personal air sampling) and gamma spectrometry analysis of peat, peat ash and effluent samples from the ash ponds were undertaken. The results indicate that the radiation dose received by any worker involved in the processing of the peat and the handling of the ash resulting from peat combustion does not exceed 150 microSv per annum. Regulatory control of the peat-fired power generation is therefore unnecessary according to the Irish legislation with regards to NORM. The potential use of peat fly ash as a by-product in the building industry was also found to have a negligible radiological impact for construction workers and for members of the public. PMID:16340073

  7. State of New York peat resource inventory. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mankinen, G.W.; Korpijaakko, E.; Shneyer, W.A.

    1982-07-01

    A comprehensive peat resource inventory of the State of New York has been prepared based on airphoto interpretation supported by field reconnaissance and detailed surveys of certain selected peatlands. The entire State, with the exception of Adirondack Park and a number of other protected areas, was included in the study. A total of 872 peatlands were identified, of which 235 individual deposits were judged usable for peak ;mining and were mapped using airphotos. Of these, approximately 5740 acres were selected for detailed surveys. Over 425 boreholes were made on these and other individual deposits across the State and 138 samples were taken for laboratory analysis. The results of the inventory have been recorded as a set of index maps at a scale of 1:250,000 showing the location of all the mapped and catalogued deposits. Also, maps at a scale of 1:24,000 outlining all the mapped deposits were prepared as well as at a scale of 1:10,000 for the deposits studied in detail. The study shows that the State of New York has over 145,910 acres of peatland containing an estimated 336 million tons of peat (at a 50% moisture content) located in deposits which may be technically mineable. However, various other factors, such as ownership, location in a park, wildlife management holdings and an existing use may exclude some of the otherwise potential deposits from possible use. The peat deposits of New York State generally contain high fuel grade peat. Laboratory analysis of over 100 samples taken from representative bogs revealed the average calorific value of New York peat to be 8860 Btu/lb (on a dry basis) and the ash content to be 13.1%. This compares favorably with the quality of fuel peats used in Europe.

  8. Detrimental effects of peat mining on amphibian abundance and species richness in bogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. Mazerolle

    2003-01-01

    Peat bogs of eastern North America are increasingly being mined for peat, which results in the extensive draining of these systems. First, I quantified the effects of peat mining on amphibian species richness and abundance in bog remnants adjacent to mining activity and unmined bogs. I then investigated amphibian occurrence patterns in bog remnants relative to the distance to the

  9. EFFECTS OF PEAT MINING INTENSITY ON GREEN FROG (RANA CLAMITANS) OCCURRENCE IN BOG PONDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. Mazerolle; Mario Cormier

    2003-01-01

    We assessed whether peat mining intensity influences the use of bog ponds by green frogs ( Rana clamitans). We selected 21 ponds in three areas undergoing different levels of peat mining: 1) mined (veg- etation completely removed exposing bare peat, presence of drainage ditches with little or no water), 2) in preparation to be mined (vegetation intact but presence of

  10. Testing of peats for removal of odors from liquid swine manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony M. Rizzuti; Arthur D. Cohen; Patrick G. Hunt; Matias B. Vanotti

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on research designed to investigate the capacities of different kinds of peat to remove odor?causing compounds from liquid swine manure (LSM). Two experiments were conducted. In experiment #1, five different peat types (both wet and dry) representing a wide range of properties were tested. Eight percent slurries (of peat\\/LSM) were measured for odor changes at 6, 24,

  11. Development of microsatellites for the peat moss Sphagnum capillifolium using ISSR cloning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JIM PROVAN; PAMELA J. W ILSON

    Sphagnum mosses are major components of peat bogs but populations of many species are under threat due to habitat fragmentation resulting from the cutting of peat for fuel. We have used an intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR)-based cloning method to develop nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellites for the peat moss species Sphagnum capillifolium . Between three and seven alleles per locus were

  12. Peat subsidence and its practical implications: a case study in Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. M. Wösten; A. B. Ismail; A. L. M van Wijk

    1997-01-01

    Due to pressure for land, substantial areas of peat swamps in South-East Asia have been and presently are being reclaimed for agriculture or for other land use. As soon as peat swamps are drained, the irreversible process of subsidence starts, which can only be stopped by waterlogging the peat again. Long-term subsidence recordings for a project area in peninsular Malaysia

  13. Mercury(II) Sorption to Two Florida Everglades Peats: Evidence for

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Mercury(II) Sorption to Two Florida Everglades Peats: Evidence for Strong and Weak Binding and Competition by Dissolved Organic Matter Released from the Peat R . T O D D D R E X E L , M A R K U S H A I 80309 The binding of mercury(II) to two peats from Florida Everglades sites with different rates

  14. Spatio-temporal community structure of peat bog benthic desmids on a microscale

    E-print Network

    Spatio-temporal community structure of peat bog benthic desmids on a microscale Jiri´ Neustupa- scale transects were delimited at 4 temperate lowland peat bog localities to investigate spatial represented by dynamics of the common species. Keywords Desmidiales Á Microscale Á Microphytobenthos Á Peat

  15. Geochemistry of peat over kimberlites in the Attawapiskat area, James Bay Lowlands, northern Canada

    E-print Network

    Geochemistry of peat over kimberlites in the Attawapiskat area, James Bay Lowlands, northern Canada by peatlands. Peat samples were examined in the Attawapiskat area, a region of discontinuous permafrost, where more than 19 kimberlite pipes have been found beneath a cover of peat (2­4 m thick) and Quaternary

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF A HORTICULTURAL PEAT FOR TREATING MINING ASAPO, Emmanuel S and COLES, Cynthia A

    E-print Network

    Coles, Cynthia

    CHARACTERIZATION OF A HORTICULTURAL PEAT FOR TREATING MINING WASTEWATER ASAPO, Emmanuel S and COLES. Peat has been identified as a cheap, natural and available material capable of adsorbing several heavy the properties of peat in order to capture dissolved heavy metals. This paper investigates the surface

  17. The role of peat decomposition in patterned mires: a case study from the central Swiss Alps

    E-print Network

    Bern, Universität

    The role of peat decomposition in patterned mires: a case study from the central Swiss Alps., Stefanova V., van Leeuwen J. F. N., van der Knaap W. O., Colombaroli D. & Tinner W. (2013): The role of peat and is unique in its pattern. In two of five pools there is in the contact zone between the basal peat

  18. Carbon isotope evidence for recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation

    E-print Network

    Carbon isotope evidence for recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat change. In this study, peat cores up to 2 m in depth from four moss banks on Signy Island were used included radiocarbon dating (to determine peat accumulation rates) and stable carbon isotope composition

  19. Title: Peat Resource Management in the Context of Climate Change in Malaysia Presenter: Shashi Kumaran

    E-print Network

    Title: Peat Resource Management in the Context of Climate Change in Malaysia Presenter: Shashi://register.eventarc.com/event/view/6129/tickets/peat-resource-management-in- the-context-of-climate-change-in-malaysia Abstract: As one-utilised and peat fires, which are linked with high emissions of carbon dioxide, have become an annually recurring

  20. Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna n

    E-print Network

    Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna´ n test Peat bog a b s t r a c t Spatial patterns on a very small scale (10 cm), and the effect microhabitat types were investigated. Samples were taken in a peat bog along linear transects on a scale of 10