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1

Hydraulic conductivity in upland blanket peat: measurement and variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key parameter used in wetland hydrological and landform development models is hydraulic conductivity. Head recovery tests are often used to measure hydraulic conductivity, but the calculation techniques are usually confined to rigid soil theory. This is despite reports demonstrating the misapplication of rigid soil theory to non-rigid soils such as peats. Although values of hydraulic conductivity calculated using compressible techniques have been presented for fenland peats, these data have never, to the authors' knowledge, been compared with such calculations in other peat types. Head recovery tests (slug withdrawal) were performed on piezometers at depths ranging from 10 to 80 cm from the surface on north Pennines blanket peats. Results were obtained using both rigid and compressible soil theories, thus allowing comparison of the two techniques. Compressible soil theory gives values for hydraulic conductivity that are typically a factor of five times less than rigid soil calculations. Hydraulic conductivity is often assumed to decrease with depth in upland peats, but at the study site in the northern Pennines it was not found to vary significantly with depth within the range of peat depths sampled. The variance within depth categories was not significantly different to the variance between depth categories showing that individual peat layers did not have characteristic hydraulic conductivity values. Thus, large lateral and vertical differences in hydraulic conductivity over short distances create problems for modelling but may help account for the high frequency of preferential flow pathways within what is otherwise a low matrix hydraulic conductivity peat. Hydraulic conductivity was found to vary significantly between sampling sites, demonstrating that hillslope- or catchment-scale variability may be more important than plot-scale variability. Values for compressibility of the peats are also reported. These generally decline with depth, and they also vary significantly between sampling sites. There are implications for the way in which measurements of hydraulic conductivity and other properties of blanket peat are interpreted, as the effects of environmental change in one part of a peat catchment may be very different to those in another.

Holden, J.; Burt, T. P.

2003-04-01

2

Fluxes of dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic carbon from an upland peat catchment: implications for soil respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses long-term water chemistry records for a circum-neutral peat stream to reconstruct a 7-year record of dissolved CO2 and DIC flux from the catchment. Combining catchment flux with a knowledge of in-stream metabolism and gas evasion from the stream surface enables an estimate of the dissolved CO2 content of water emerging from the peat profile to be made;

Fred Worrall; Tim Burt; John Adamson

2005-01-01

3

The effects of burning and sheep-grazing on water table depth and soil water quality in a upland peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotational burning of heather to improve grazing and grouse breeding is a common management practice for upland catchments in the UK. However, the effects of such practices on hydrology and water quality are not well understood because the timescale of burning rotation is typically between 7 and 20 years thus requiring long-term experiments in order to resolve the effects. Furthermore,

F. Worrall; A. Armstrong; J. K. Adamson

2007-01-01

4

Compression of peat soils  

SciTech Connect

One-dimensional compression of peat is characterized using a simple rheological model in which the structural viscosity is assumed to be linear. This model utilizes three empirical parameters pertaining to the primary compression, secondary compression, and the rate of secondary compression. Based on the analysis of 43 laboratory and 10 field compression-time data, it is found that the primary and secondary compressibility parameters depend on the stress level and therefore can be determined in the laboratory. However, the values obtained in the laboratory tend to overestimate the field rate of compression and underestimate the magnitude of secondary compression. These parameters must be corrected for the effects of the non-linearity of peat behavior for accurate field prediction. Successful field predictions also require consideration of other important factors such as deviations from one-dimensional compression conditions, decomposition, vertical and lateral variability, and temperature effects. The compression behavior of precompressed peat under the final stress (reduced load) is affected by the amount of preloading ratio (ratio of the surcharge stress to the final stress). The magnitudes of primary, secondary, and tertiary compressibility parameters increase as the magnitude of the final stress increases relative to the surcharge stress while the viscosity of peat structure during secondary and tertiary compressions becomes smaller. The available criteria for selecting the surcharge stress application period developed for clay soils are not directly applicable to peat soils. A method to determine the compression parameters of peat using a constant rate of strain triaxial compression test is developed.

Mochtar, N.E.

1985-01-01

5

Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of large stores of carbon in boreal forest soils to global warming is a major uncertainty in predicting the future carbon budget. We measured the temperature dependence of decomposition for upland boreal peat under black spruce forest with sphagnum and feather moss understory using incubation experiments. CO2 efflux rates clearly responded to temperature, which ranged from -10° to +8°C by ~2°C increments. At temperatures below 0°C, significant decomposition was observed in feather moss peat but not in wetter sphagnum peat. Above 0°C, decomposition was exponentially related to temperature, corresponding to a Q(10) (the ratio of the rate of CO2 evolution at one temperature divided by that at a temperature 10°C cooler) of 4.4 for feather moss and 3.1 for sphagnum peat. The greatest change in CO2 evolution rate with temperature occurred between -2° and 0°C, which coincided with the phase transition of soil water. We saw no large change in the rate of CO2 evolution between incubation experiments separated by a 6 month storage period for feather moss peat. Stable C isotope measurements of evolved CO2 and the rate of change of CO2 evolution with time suggest different substrates are used to sustain heterotrophic respiration above and below freezing. Radiocarbon signatures of CO2 respired from both types of peat reflected significant contributions from C fixed in the last 35 years (``bomb'' 14C) as well as C fixed prior to 1950. We observed no change in the ?14C of respired CO2 with temperature. Isotopic signatures of peat components showed that a combination of substrates must contribute to the CO2 evolved in our incubations. Decomposition of fine roots (which made up less than 7% of the total peat C) accounted for ~50% of respired CO2 in feather moss peat and for ~30% of respired CO2 in sphagnum peat. Fine-grained (<1 mm), more humified material that makes up 60-70% of the bulk peat organic carbon contributed significantly to heterotrophic respiration (~30% in feather moss and ~50% in sphagnum moss peat), despite slow decomposition rates. Increased temperatures caused enhanced decomposition from all pools without changing their relative contributions. Because the contribution of peat decomposition is a small portion of total soil respiration at the study site, increased respiration rates would be difficult to measure as increased fluxes in the field. Nonetheless, sustained warming could lead to significant loss of C from these peat layers.

Dioumaeva, Irina; Trumbore, Susan; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Goulden, Michael L.; Litvak, Marcy; Hirsch, Adam I.

2003-02-01

6

Decomposition of peat from upland boreal forest: Temperature dependence and sources of respired carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of large stores of carbon in boreal forest soils to global warming is a major uncertainty in predicting the future carbon budget. We measured the temperature dependence of decomposition for upland boreal peat under black spruce forest with sphagnum and feather moss understory using incubation experiments. CO2 efflux rates clearly responded to temperature, which ranged from -10° to +8°C by ˜2°C increments. At temperatures below 0°C, significant decomposition was observed in feather moss peat but not in wetter sphagnum peat. Above 0°C, decomposition was exponentially related to temperature, corresponding to a Q(10) (the ratio of the rate of CO2 evolution at one temperature divided by that at a temperature 10°C cooler) of 4.4 for feather moss and 3.1 for sphagnum peat. The greatest change in CO2 evolution rate with temperature occurred between -2° and 0°C, which coincided with the phase transition of soil water. We saw no large change in the rate of CO2 evolution between incubation experiments separated by a 6 month storage period for feather moss peat. Stable C isotope measurements of evolved CO2 and the rate of change of CO2 evolution with time suggest different substrates are used to sustain heterotrophic respiration above and below freezing. Radiocarbon signatures of CO2 respired from both types of peat reflected significant contributions from C fixed in the last 35 years ("bomb" 14C) as well as C fixed prior to 1950. We observed no change in the ?14C of respired CO2 with temperature. Isotopic signatures of peat components showed that a combination of substrates must contribute to the CO2 evolved in our incubations. Decomposition of fine roots (which made up less than 7% of the total peat C) accounted for ˜50% of respired CO2 in feather moss peat and for ˜30% of respired CO2 in sphagnum peat. Fine-grained (<1 mm), more humified material that makes up 60-70% of the bulk peat organic carbon contributed significantly to heterotrophic respiration (˜30% in feather moss and ˜50% in sphagnum moss peat), despite slow decomposition rates. Increased temperatures caused enhanced decomposition from all pools without changing their relative contributions. Because the contribution of peat decomposition is a small portion of total soil respiration at the study site, increased respiration rates would be difficult to measure as increased fluxes in the field. Nonetheless, sustained warming could lead to significant loss of C from these peat layers.

Dioumaeva, Irina; Trumbore, Susan; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Goulden, Michael L.; Litvak, Marcy; Hirsch, Adam I.

2002-02-01

7

Soil zonality of the Chukotka Upland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical soil-geographic zonality of the Chukotka Upland in the area of the Amguema River valley can be considered a model vertical zonality in the Low Arctic regions at the interface between the continental and oceanic climates. The plain bottom of the valley has a continental climate. The surrounding mountains are under the influence of an oceanic climate, which is more pronounced in the low mountains and less pronounced in the medium-high mountains. Three altitudinal soil zones are distinguished: (1) the plain Subarctic zone with the absolute heights below 200-400 m a.s.l., where cryoturbated humus-impregnated peat-mucky gleyzems are developed from loamy substrates, and gleyed soddy podburs are developed from loamy sandy substrates; (2) the low-mountain zone of a creeping alder forest (the forest-tundra zone?) of the Low Arctic at the heights of 400-700 m a.s.l., where mucky-gray-humus humus-impregnated podzolized gleyzems are developed under tundra patches, cryoturbated peat-mucky high-humus-impregnated podzolized gleyzems are developed under creeping alder thickets, and pedoliths are exposed in the zones of landslides; and (3) the mountain Middle Arctic zone at elevations above 700 m a.s.l., where very thin soil films predominate; gray-humus cryometamorphic lithozems are developed from the eluvium of magmatic rocks, and humus-impregnated cryometamorphic soils with quicksand suprapermafrost horizons are developed from the eluvium of hard sedimentary rocks.

Karavaeva, N. A.

2013-05-01

8

Degradation of drained peat soils in Belarus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Belarusian classification, the drained peat soils with peat layer less then 30 cm and containing organic substance less then 50% are degraded soils. Degraded peat soils made up 190.2 thousand hectares in 2001 from a total area of 1062,2 thousand hectares of drained peat soils for agriculture in Belarus, but the process of degradation is prolonging now and it is expected, that their area will be extended additionally on 12 % till 2020. The degradation of peat soils is most widespread in the region of Polesie, where the area of degraded soils makes up already several thousand hectares in some administrative districts. The degradation of peat soils takes place jet locally on the comparatively not big plots but on the very many places. There is the threat of joining up of the existing now spots of degraded soils in the near future, and the new spots of degraded soils will appear in a very big amount as well. The large tracts of land will appear in the nearest 20-30 years and may be earlier. The degradation of drained peat soils proceeds step by step, and three morphological groups of new soils are forming depending on degree of humification of organic matter, namely: raw humic, humus-fibrous and humus peat soils. The complicated soil complexes with many alternating soil plots containing organic substance both more than 50 % and from 2 till 50 % are forming within one field in result of degradation. For the reason given above a rather not uniform structure of soil cover with unsatisfactory micro relief, big differences of aquatic, thermal and nutritious regimes is forming on agricultural fields, that leads to the substantial decrease of their productivity. In this connection big expanses will require to the rearrangement of drainage systems and leveling of soil fertility within every such field. A fertility of drained peat soils with the depth of peat layer more then 1 m has been estimated as 69 points, with the depth of peat layer 0.3-0.5 m as 62 points, and degraded peat soils - from 22 till 58 points depending on the content of organic substance and granulometric composition of underlying rocks. The main cause of increasing degradation of peat soils is cultivation of raw and grain crops. The necessity to change the structure of sown area on drained peat soils is quite obvious. It is necessary and obligatory to exclude fully the cultivation of raw crops and to decrease very much cultivation of grain crops on peat soils. Especially perspective a cultivation of long-term meadows without disturbance of sod. A second perspective measure is the use of peat soils by the method of German sand-mix culture. Our 30-years field investigations in Belarus have shown, that this method allows to move near the balance of organic matter in soil to zero. It means, that the soil formation process and the balance of organic matter under condition of sand-mix culture are in the equilibrium position. Besides that it is need to change the Belarusian soil classification in order to move near it to European one, in particular, it should refer to degraded peat soils only those ones, which contain organic matter less then 30 %, but not 50 %. In this case it will be possible to distinguish degraded peat soils and not degraded ones by morphological signs directly in the field.

Bambalov, N. N.

2009-04-01

9

Phosphorus Adsorption Characteristics of the Unburned and Burned Peat Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat fires affect many soil properties. This study was performed to determine the effect of peat fires on P sorption characteristics of the soils of the G avur Lake Peatland. The results showed that peat f ires significantly affected P sorption in peat soils. The unburned soi ls had significantly lower native adsorbed P (S o) but higher linear adsorption

Tolga TÜRKMEN; Hüseyin D

2007-01-01

10

Lead contamination of fluvial sediments in an eroding blanket peat catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years there has been growing concern over the mobilisation of anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited Pb from upland blanket peat soils to receiving surface waters. The near-surface layer of blanket peat soils of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK, is severely contaminated with high concentrations of Pb. Erosion of peat soils in this upland area may be

J. J. Rothwell; M. G. Evans; T. E. H. Allott

2007-01-01

11

Effects of Redox on Aggregate Stability of Upland Soils.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Upland soils in the US Midwest often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring. The redox effect on the aggregate/structural stability of upland soils is not well understood. We hypothesized that aggregate stability would decrease under reducing conditions. Thre...

12

Characterizing Pb mobilization from upland soils to streams using (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotopic ratios.  

PubMed

Anthropogenically deposited lead (Pb) binds efficiently to soil organic matter, which can be mobilized through hydrologically mediated mechanisms, with implications for ecological and potable quality of receiving waters. Lead isotopic ((206)Pb/(207)Pb) ratios change down peat profiles as a consequence of long-term temporal variation in depositional sources, each with distinctive isotopic signatures. This study characterizes differential Pb transport mechanisms from deposition to streams at two small catchments with contrasting soil types in upland Wales, U.K., by determining Pb concentrations and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios from soil core profiles, interstitial pore waters, and stream water. Hydrological characteristics of soils are instrumental in determining the location in soil profiles of exported Pb and hence concentration and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in surface waters. The highest Pb concentrations from near-surface soils are mobilized, concomitant with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports, from hydrologically responsive peat soils with preferential shallow subsurface flows, leading to increased Pb concentrations in stream water and isotopic signatures more closely resembling recently deposited Pb. In more minerogenic soils, percolation of water allows Pb, bound to DOC, to be retained in mineral horizons and combined with other groundwater sources, resulting in Pb being transported from throughout the profile with a more geogenic isotopic signature. This study shows that (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios can enhance our understanding of the provenances and transport mechanisms of Pb and potentially organic matter within upland soils. PMID:19954181

Dawson, Julian J C; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Carey, Anne-Marie; Raab, Andrea; Soulsby, Chris; Killham, Kenneth; Meharg, Andrew A

2010-01-01

13

Spectrophotometric properties of surface water dissolved organic matter in an afforested upland peat catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many upland catchments in the UK have undergone afforestation; their characteristic waterlogged soils require extensive pre-plantation ground drainage to allow tree establishment. In peatland areas this can result in very highly coloured runoff and enhanced dissolved organic matter (DOM) export in rivers of naturally high concentrations. In 1966, the Coalburn Experimental Catchment, northern England, was established to investigate the impact

Andy Baker; Lucy Bolton; Malcolm Newson; Robert G. M. Spencer

2008-01-01

14

Soil fungal community structure in a temperate upland grassland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in soil microfungal community structure across a transect between a semi-natural upland grassland and an agriculturally improved enclosure were assessed using an indirect measurement of active fungal biomass (ergosterol), together with a nucleic acid approach, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), which was compared to a commonly used but less sensitive community fingerprinting technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

Eoin Brodie; Suzanne Edwards; Nicholas Clipson

2003-01-01

15

Influence of peat-bog fire on physical properties of peat-mull soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years in Poland disseminated the curse of grassland (either peat meadows) burning. Peat-bogs drained long time ago, where peat-mull soils occur are subjected on fire in particular, because they are often dried. After burned peat remain pits various depth and land irregularity. The aim of the work is morphological characteristics of soil profiles and comparison of chosen physical properties of peat-mull soils on former fire and adjacent area. Research was carried out on the mid-forest peat-bog Wielkie Bloto in Puszcza Niepolomicka. The method used in the work is routinely accepted in soil science. The results show that values of ash content, density and moisture are higher than the ones for soils of adjacent areas. In top stratum of post fire soils bulk density is lower in comparison with upper layers of adjacent soils. Contractility of soils degraded by fire is lower than for soils of adjacent areas.

Stabryla, J.; Lipka, K.

2009-04-01

16

Load-bearing capacity improvement for peat soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a laboratory study of improvement in the load-bearing capacity of peat soil by stabilizing it with ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Air curing technique was used to strengthen the stabilized peat soil during the curing periods. Along with index property tests, laboratory tests used for the strength evaluations of stabilized peat soil are unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and

Behzad Kalantari; B B K Huat

2009-01-01

17

Hydraulic properties of fen peat soils in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydraulic properties of fen peat soils from the Biebrza River Valley in the north-east of Poland were investigated. 87 soil samples were collected from nine typical peat-moorsh soil profiles representing three types of peat: moss with fibrous structure, herbaceous and wooden peat characterised by amorphous structure with high humus content. The multi-step outflow method was used to determine the

Tomasz Gnatowski; Jan Szaty?owicz; Tomasz Brandyk; Cedric Kechavarzi

2010-01-01

18

Correlations Between Chemical Weathering and Soil Production in Soil-Mantled, Upland Landscapes, Central California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying and understanding the coupling between chemical and mechanical weathering in soil-mantled, upland hillslope development is an area of active research. Recent work on hillslope development from soil-mantled, upland landscapes has observed that maximal soil production from bedrock occurs within a narrow range of soil depths. Here we present initial results from an extensive field and laboratory investigation seeking to

B. C. Burke

2002-01-01

19

Correspondence between Vegetation and Soils in Wetlands and Nearby Uplands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between vegetation and soils from a geographically broad sampling of wetlands and adjoining uplands is reported\\u000a for 38 hydric and 26 nonhydric soils, as recognized in the hydric soils list of the Soil Conservation Service. Wetlands represented\\u000a in the study include estuaries, pitcher plant bogs, prairie depressional wetlands, and western riparian lands. The agreement\\u000a between vegetation and soils

Michael L. Scott; William L. Slauson; Charles A. Segelquist; Gregor T. Auble

1989-01-01

20

Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

2013-04-01

21

DOC export from an upland peat catchment in the Flow Country, northern Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow Country blanket bogs in northern Scotland are the most expansive in Europe covering an area of ~4000 km2, and they significantly impact the global carbon cycle because of their high rates of carbon production and storage, as well as their role in the transfer of carbon to oceans through rivers or greenhouse gas exchange (Moore et al., 1998). These upland areas are highly susceptible to climatic and landuse changes, and currently, large areas of previously drained and forested peatlands are being felled and blocked to increase the water table level and rejuvenate the peatlands (LIFE Peatlands Project 2001-2006; Holden et al., 2004). This study is examining the event-based export of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) from one of the main upland Flow Country catchments that drains into the north-draining Halladale River. For a time-series of summer rainfall events, we have focussed particularly on a comparison of DOC/POC exports from three different land use areas in the catchment: forested plots, felled to waste (restoration) plots (felled between 2005-2007), and near-pristine bog sites. DOC concentrations have been measured using a combination of methods including TOC and EA analyses, and in situ absorbance measurements using a spectrophotometer (Thurman, 1985; Worrall et al., 2002). Our results show that the stream water draining the felled to waste site records the highest levels of DOC concentration (and DOC variability), and the near-pristine site has the lowest export rate of DOC (and lowest variability). All sites exhibit positive DOC responses to the flood hydrograph, and the near-pristine and forested sites have a similar maximum concentrations of DOC. The felled site concentrations are about 2times greater than the near-pristine and forested sites, and the non-linear response to flow reflects the hydrophobic nature of peats after a period of drought, and the lag time required for them to saturate. The integrated downstream DOC concentrations on forested land and on the main stem of the Halladale River have 'forest-like' values reflecting a dilution in DOC concentrations from the felled site, and mixing of stream water from other sources. The initial results from this study imply that i) the felled to waste site (after 2-3 years) releases the highest (up to x2) DOC into stream waters that drain them, ii) DOC concentrations are more sensitive to hydrological variation in sites felled to waste but not yet fully restored, and iii) saturation-excess overland flow is the predominant response of near-pristine site to the rainfall events. References: Holden J., Chapman P.J., and Labadz J.C. 2004. Artificial drainage of peatlands: hydrological and hydrochemical process and wetland restoration. Progress in Phy Geography, 28, 1, pp: 95-123. Life Peatlands Project 2001-2006. www.lifepeatlandsproject.com Moore T.R., Roulet N.T. and Waddington J.M. 1998. Uncertainty in Predicting the Effect of Climatic Change on the Carbon Cycling of Canadian Peatlands. Climate Change, 40, 2, pp: 229-245. Thurman E.M. 1985. Organic Geochemistry of Natural Waters. Netherlands, Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W.Junk Publishers. Worrall F., Burt T. P., Jaeban R. Y., Warburton ,J. and R. Shedden, 2002. Release of dissolved organic carbon from upland peat. Hydrol. Process. 16, 3487-3504.

Vinjili, Shailaja; Robinson Robinson, Ruth; Arn Teh, Yit; Waldron, Susan; Singer, Michael

2010-05-01

22

UCS evaluaton tests for cement treated peat soil with polypropylene fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat soil is one of the softest types of soil. Various methods have been used in the past to strengthen peat soil deposits. In this research, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of peat soil was studied while the peat soil was in its undisturbed state, stabilized with ordinary Portland cement, and mixed with polypropylene fibers. Unconfined compressive strength for either stabilized

B Kalantari; B B K Huat

2010-01-01

23

Some factors affecting growth and survival of Rhizobium spp. in soil-peat cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The growth and survival of rhizobium were studied in neutralized and sterilized soil-peat cultures containing alder bog peat,\\u000a old moss peat, young reed peat, or young moss peat enriched with lucerne meal and sucrose. Although all these media proved\\u000a to be excellent carriers for rhizobium, old moss peat from the 0–20 cm layer was less favourable than old moss peat

D. A. van Schreven

1970-01-01

24

Regulation of nitrification in upland forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest soils often have low nitrate levels and are slow to produce NOâ⁻-N when incubated in the laboratory or after site disturbance. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the patterns of nitrification that have been observed in forests ecosystems. These hypotheses suggest that nitrification is limited by low soil pH, NHâ\\/sup +\\/-N availability, the presence of allelopathic inhibitors or

Donaldson

1987-01-01

25

Denitrification in the top and sub soil of grassland on peat soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denitrification is an important process in the nitrogen (N) balance of intensively managed grassland, especially on poorly drained peat soils. Aim of this study was to quantify the N loss through denitrification in the top and sub soil of grassland on peat soils. Sampling took place at 2 sites with both control (0 N) and N fertilised (+ N) treatments.

J. G. Koops; O. Oenema; M. L. Beusichem

1996-01-01

26

RECOVERY RATES OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER APPLIED ON PEAT SOILS IN DIFFERENT SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND LANDUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhausting of fertile soils in Indonesia has led to the use of marginal land such as peat soils for growing oil palm. Nitrogen is one of essential nutrients needed for the growth of all the plant, including oil palm. However, few studies were conducted to evaluate the fate of nitrogen fertilizer applied in peat soils. A laboratory study was conducted

Benito Heru Purwanto

27

Remediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil using peat  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated a remediation process for diesel-contaminated soil, in which water was used to remove the diesel from the soil and peat was used to absorb the diesel layer formed on the surface of the water. The percolation of water through the soil was uniform. The time required for water to percolate the soil and for the layers (soil, water, and diesel) to separate depended on the soil depth. Both the depth of soil and mixing affected the thickness of the diesel layer and thus diesel recovery from the contaminated soil. Higher diesel recovery was achieved with smaller soil depth and mixing. The initial moisture content and the lower heating value of the peat were 7.1% and 17.65 MJ/kg, respectively. The final moisture content and lower heating value of the diesel-contaminated peat obtained from the experiment with mixing were 8.65--10.80% and 32.57--35.81 MJ/kg, respectively. The energy content of the diesel-contaminated peat is much higher than that of coal, and the moisture content is within the range recommended for biomass gasification.

Ghaly, R.A.; Pyke, J.B.; Ghaly, A.E.; Ugursal, V.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1999-11-01

28

Accounting for variability in soil microbial communities of temperate upland grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the factors which regulate soil microbial community organisation and function in temperate upland grassland ecosystems. Soil microbial biomass (Cmic), activity (respiration and potential carbon utilisation) and community structure (phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, culturing and community level physiological profiles (CLPP) (Biolog®)) were measured across a gradient of three upland grassland types; Festuca–Agrostis–Galium grassland (unimproved grassland,

S. J. Grayston; G. S. Griffith; J. L. Mawdsley; C. D. Campbell; R. D. Bardgett

2001-01-01

29

Peat soil stabilization, using Ordinary Portland Cement, Polypropylene fibers, and Air Curing Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a laboratory study on stabilizing peat soil using Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as binding agent and Polypropylene fibers as additive. Due to high initial water content of the stabilized peat soil samples and in-order to gradually reduce their moisture content, the stabilized peat soil samples kept in normal air temperature and out of water intrusions to drier

Behzad Kalantari; Bujang B. K. Huat

2008-01-01

30

Simple Method of Purifying Humic Acids Isolated from Tropical Hemists (Peat Soil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The objectives of this study were: To investigate whether a purification period of HA isolated from Hemists peat soils could be reduced and to investigate whether distilled water could be used to purify HA isolated from Hemists peat soils. Standard procedures were used to extract and fractionate HA in a Hemists peat soil. The isolated HA was purified by

Susilawati Kasim; Osumanu Haruna Ahmed; Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid; Mohd Khanif Yusop

31

Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58Ë? 22' N, 26Ë? 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were chosen by following criteria: (1) plantcover age; (2) cultivated plant species; (3) utilized agrotechnology; (4) comparisons between different factors were created by using natural growth areas of Vaccinaceae (natural bog area, Vaccinaceae growth area on mineral soil). For the investigation is important to choose areas with different age of plant covers, because according to plants age the surface of exhausted peat land will be covered in relation to the width of plants. The purpose of current article is to investigate the biological and chemical parameters co-influences in peat soil. Thus, the major interest is on the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid distribution and dynamics in peat soil and dependence of plant cover, also its influence to the plants growth. Moreover, its contribution to yield and new growth area invasion will be discussed.

Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

2009-04-01

32

Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

Nikonov, V.V.

1981-01-01

33

Soil water flow dynamics in a managed cutover peat field, Quebec: Field and laboratory investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper concerned with soil water dynamics in a managed cutover peat field, the microscale hydrological processes and parameters governing water flow and storage through variably saturated peat are investigated. An open water ditch-reservoir enhanced wetting of adjacent cutover peat, maintaining the water table depth above 43 cm during the summer, surface soil moisture above 45%, and water tension

Susanne M. Schlotzhauer; Jonathan S. Price

1999-01-01

34

Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Pozna?, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wysko? ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at ?max=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci et al. (2000). In peat the highest activities of phenol oxidase was observed in the combinations marked as Shelterbelt and whereas the lowest - in Zbechy, Bridge and Hirudo. Activities of this enzyme in peat ranged from 15.35 to 38.33 ?mol h-1g d.m soil. Increased activities of phenol oxidase have been recorded on the depth 50-100cm - catotelm (21.74-38.33 ?mol h-1g d.m soil) in comparison with the depth 0-50cm - acrotelm (15.35-28.32 ?mol h-1g d.m soil). References Freeman, C., Ostle N.J., Fener, N., Kang H. 2004. A regulatory role for phenol oxidase during decomposition in peatlands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 1663-1667. Matocha Ch.J., Haszler G.R., Grove J.H. 2004. Nitrogen fertilization suppresses soil phenol oxidase enzyme activity in no-tillage systems. Soil Science, 169/10, 708-714. Perucci P., Casucci C., Dumontet S. 2000. An improved method to evaluate the o-diphenol oxidase activity of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1927-1933. Sokolowska Z., Szajdak L., Matyka-Sarzy?ska D. 2005. Impact of the degree of secondary transformation on amid-base properties of organic compounds in mucks. Geoderma, 127, 80-90. Szajdak L., Szczepa?ski M., Bogacz A. 2007. Impact of secondary transformation of peat-moorsh soils on the decrease of nitrogen and carbon compounds in ground water. Agronomy Research, 5/2, 189-200.

Sty?a, K.; Szajdak, L.

2009-04-01

35

Mercury and Methylmercury in Upland and Wetland Acid Forest Soils of a Watershed in NE-Bavaria, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) are global pollutants, but little information is available on their distribution and mobility in soils and catchments of Central Europe. The objective of this study was to investigate the pools and mobility of Hg and CH3Hg+ in different forest soils. Upland and wetland forest soils, soil solutions and runoff were sampled. In upland soils the

D. Schwesig; G. Ilgen; E. Matzner

1999-01-01

36

Influence of water table level and soil properties on emissions of greenhouse gases from cultivated peat soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysimeter method using undisturbed soil columns was used to investigate the effect of water table depth and soil properties on soil organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cultivated peat soils. The study was carried out using cultivated organic soils from two locations in Sweden: Örke, a typical cultivated fen peat with low pH and high organic

Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

2011-01-01

37

Rehabilitation of the Soil Quality of a Degraded Peat site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rewetting or Deep-Plow-Sand-Covering are feasible procedures for the rehabilitation of soil quality of degraded Histosols. The choice of the procedure depends on the desired future land use. In Oct. 1988, a degraded 20 ha, shallow peat site located in the Upper Rhinluch region (Northeast Germany) was deep-plowed and transformed into a Deep-Plow-Sand-Covering-Site (DPSC). In this study, the resulting changes in

U. Schindler; L. Müller

38

Can carbon offsetting pay for upland ecological restoration?  

PubMed

Upland peat soils represent a large terrestrial carbon store and as such have the potential to be either an ongoing net sink of carbon or a significant net source of carbon. In the UK many upland peats are managed for a range of purposes but these purposes have rarely included carbon stewardship. However, there is now an opportunity to consider whether management practices could be altered to enhance storage of carbon in upland peats. Further, there are now voluntary and regulated carbon trading schemes operational throughout Europe that mean stored carbon, if verified, could have an economic and tradeable value. This means that new income streams could become available for upland management. The 'Sustainable Uplands' RELU project has developed a model for calculating carbon fluxes from peat soils that covers all carbon uptake and release pathways (e.g. fluvial and gaseous pathways). The model has been developed so that the impact of common management options within UK upland peats can be considered. The model was run for a decade from 1997-2006 and applied to an area of 550 km2 of upland peat soils in the Peak District. The study estimates that the region is presently a net sink of -62 ktonnes CO2 equivalent at an average export of -136 tonnes CO2 equivalent/km2/yr. If management interventions were targeted across the area the total sink could increase to -160 ktonnes CO2/yr at an average export of -219 tonnes CO2 equivalent/km2/yr. However, not all interventions resulted in a benefit; some resulted in increased losses of CO2 equivalents. Given present costs of peatland restoration and value of carbon offsets, the study suggests that 51% of those areas, where a carbon benefit was estimated by modelling for targeted action of management interventions, would show a profit from carbon offsetting within 30 years. However, this percentage is very dependent upon the price of carbon used. PMID:19818993

Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin G; Bonn, Aletta; Reed, Mark S; Chapman, Daniel; Holden, Joseph

2009-10-09

39

Global Change Simulations Affect Potential Methane Oxidation in Upland Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric concentrations of methane (CH4) are higher now than they have ever been during the past 420,000 years. However, concentrations have remained stable since 1999. Emissions associated with livestock husbandry are unlikely to have changed, so some combination of reduced production in wetlands, more efficient capture by landfills, or increased consumption by biological CH4 oxidation in upland soils may be responsible. Methane oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in upland soils and little is known about how these bacteria respond to anthropogenic global change, and how they will influence - or already are influencing - the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Might ongoing and future global changes increase biological CH4 oxidation? Soils were sampled from two field experiments to assess changes in rates of CH4 oxidation in response to global change simulations. Potential activities of CH4 oxidizing bacterial communities were measured through laboratory incubations under optimal temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric CH4 concentrations (~18 ppm, or 10x ambient). The ongoing 6-year multifactorial Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated atmospheric N deposition, and increased wildfire frequency in an annual grassland in a Mediterranean-type climate in central California. The ongoing 1-year multifactorial Merriam Climate Change Experiment (MCCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, and reduced precipitation in four different types of ecosystems along an elevational gradient in a semi-arid climate in northern Arizona. The high desert grassland, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, and mixed conifer forest ecosystems range in annual precipitation from 100 to 1000 mm yr-1, and from productivity being strongly water limited to strongly temperature limited. Among JRGCE soils, elevated atmospheric CO2 increased potential CH4 oxidation rates (p=0.052) and wildfire decreased rates (p=0.014). These responses may be explained by improved soil aggregate stability in the first case, and reduced aggregate stability in the latter case. No effects of warming, elevated precipitation, elevated N deposition, or multifactor interactions were found. Among MCCE soils, similarly, no effects of elevated or reduced precipitation were found. While warming did not affect low elevation ecosystems, it did significantly decrease rates in the highest elevation mixed conifer forest (p=0.004). This suggests a vulnerability of cold-adapted CH4 oxidizing bacteria to elevated temperature. However, bacterial communities in all sampled ecosystems appear to be resistant to drier conditions and unaffected by wetter conditions. If biological oxidation is responsible for the current stability in atmospheric CH4 concentrations, then the improved function of this global CH4 sink is likely driven by indirect plant effects under elevated atmospheric CO2. Improved function, however, may be absent or reversed in future ecosystems that experience increased wildfire frequency and in high altitude and latitude ecosystems that experience rapid warming.

Blankinship, J. C.; Hungate, B. A.

2004-12-01

40

Is the blocking of drainage channels in upland peats an effective means of reducing DOC loss at the catchment scale?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only 3% of the earths land surface is covered by peatland yet boreal and subarctic peatlands store approximately 15-30% of the World's soil carbon as peat (Limpens et al. 2008). In comparison British bogs store carbon equivalent to 20 years worth of national emissions. The loss of carbon from these areas in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is increasing and it is expected to have grown by up to 40% by 2018. Extensive drainage of UK peatlands has been associated with dehydration of the peat, an increase in water colour and a loss of carbon storage. It has been considered that the blocking of these drainage channels represents a means of peat restoration and a way of reducing DOC loss. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of this drain blocking at both an individual drain scale and at a larger catchment scale. Gibson et al. (2009) considered the effects of blocking at a solely individual drain scale finding that a 20% drop in DOC export was recorded post blocking however this decrease was due to a reduction in water yield rather than a reduction in DOC concentration with the concentration record showing no significant reduction. The effect of external parameters become more pronounced as the DOC record is examined at larger scales. The catchment is an open system and water chemistry will be influence by mixing with water from other sources. Also it is likely that at some point the drains will cut across slope leading to the flow of any highly coloured water down slope, bypassing the blockages, and entering the surface waters downstream. Degradation of DOC will occur naturally downstream due to the effects of light and microbial activity. There is, consequently, a need to examine the wider effects of drain blocking at a catchment scale to ensure that what is observed for one drain transfers to the whole catchment. A series of blocked and unblocked catchments were studied in Upper Teesdale, Northern England. Drain water samples were taken at least daily at nine localities. These sites were located such that individual drains could be monitored in the context of a larger catchment. Water table depth, flow and weather parameters were recorded along with the collection of runoff and soil water samples. A detailed sampling programme was undertaken in which a series of drains were studied in the 12 months prior to and post blocking. This approach has allowed the effects of blocking on the carbon budget, water balance and flow pathways to be considered. Results indicate that the blocking of zero order drainage channels leads to a decrease in DOC export on an individual drain scale. However, this is due to a reduction in water yield rather than concentration. Concentrations are seen to rise by a small yet statistically significant amount in blocked zero order streams. The effect at a larger scale is more complex. Annual export values in the unblocked control catchment show a rise from zero to first order streams indicating that water is being added to the system at this scale from external spatially variable sources. This pattern is also recognised in the blocked catchment. The DOC concentration record in blocked drains at this larger scale however indicated a reduction relative to the unblocked catchment. This reduction points to a change in flow pathways post blocking as highly coloured water re-navigates its way downstream. References: Gibson H, Worrall F, Burt TP, Adamson JK (2009) DOC budgets of drained peat catchments: implications for DOC production in peat soils, Hydrological Processes 23(13) 1901-1911 Limpens J (2008) Peatlands and the carbon cycle: from local processes to global implications- a synthesis, Biogeosciences 5 1475-1491

Turner, Kate; Worrall, Fred

2010-05-01

41

Chemical alterations of tropical peat soils determined by Waksman's proximate analysis and properties of humic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to analyze the chemical characteristics of tropical peat soils under natural swamp forest and their changes after reclamation. Peat soils were sampled from coastal swamps in southern Thailand and southern Peninsular Malaysia. These soils were at various stages of reclamation. The contents of water-soluble constituents in plant materials such as polysaccharides, tannins, and hemicellulose

Koyo Yonebayashi; Jiraval Pechayapisit; Pisoot Vijarnsorn; Abu Bakar Zahari; Kazutake Kyuma

1994-01-01

42

ESTIMATION OF THE UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF PEAT SOILS: LABORATORY VERSUS FIELD DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As compared to mineral soils, few in-situ measurements are currently available of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of peat soils. We used parameter estimation (inverse) methods to estimate the water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions of drained peat soils from both laboratory and fi...

43

Soil erosion due to settled upland farming in the Himalaya: a case study in Pranmati watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common concept is that upland agriculture undertaken by local communities is a major factor causing large-scale soil erosion and other environmental problems in the Himalaya. Attempts to measure soil loss from farm fields are limited. This study was undertaken to measure the rate of soil loss from fields sown with crops during the rainy season and to examine the

K. K. Sen; K. S. Rao; K. G. Saxena

1997-01-01

44

Methane emissions from wet grasslands on peat soil in a nature preserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of wet grasslands on peat soil in the Netherlands is slowly increasing at the expense of drained, agriculturally used grasslands. This study aimed (i) to assess the contribution of wet grasslands on peat soil to methane (CH4) emissions, and (ii) to explain differences among sites and between years in order to improve our understanding of controlling factors. For

Agnes Dasselaar; Marinus L. Beusichem; Oene Oenema

1999-01-01

45

Effect of Skidding Operations on Soil Carbon Storage of a Tropical Peat Swamp Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: There is still lack of a study that compares the so il carbon storage of kuda-kuda skidding system and excavator skidding system in tropical peat swamp forests. The objective of this study was to determine whether skidding operations affect s soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted on two different plots

Anton Eko Satrio; Seca Gandaseca

2009-01-01

46

Evaluation of the soil carbon budget under different upland cropping systems in central Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the carbon budget in soils under different cropping systems, the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from soils was measured in a total of 11 upland crop fields within a small watershed in central Hokkaido over the no snow cover months for 3 years. The CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber method at bare plots established in each field

Zhijian Mu; Sonoko D. Kimura; Yo Toma; Ryusuke Hatano

2008-01-01

47

The role of soil moisture, temperature and nutrient amendment on CO 2 efflux from agricultural peat soil microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive drainage of UK lowland peat soils for agricultural production is considered a major contribution to the rate of degradation and the loss of peat resources. Microbial oxidation resulting from drainage accelerates decay rates of organic matter and the release of CO2 to the atmosphere and contributes to severe subsidence. We examined the effect of soil moisture, temperature and nutrient

C. Kechavarzi; Q. Dawson; M. Bartlett; P. B. Leeds-Harrison

2010-01-01

48

Rapid degradation of ?-HCH in upland soil after multiple applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1973, the authors have carried out a long-term upland field experiment by applying ?-HCH (?-BHC, lindane) every year in the same field in order to examine how the fate of ?-HCH was afrected in the long run. The disappearance-rate of ?-HCH increased with the increasing period of application. After the third and fourth applications of ?-HCH, more than 80%

Hidenori Wada; Keishi Senoo; Yasuo Takai

1989-01-01

49

Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession

M. Noormets; T. Tonutare; K. Kauer; L. Szajdak; R. Kolli

2009-01-01

50

Factors affecting the mobilization of DOC and metals in a peat soil under a warmer scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most climate change models predict an increase of temperature of 3-5°C in Southern Europe by the end of this century (IPCC 2007). However, changes in summer precipitations are more uncertain, and although a decrease in rainfall inputs is forecasted by most models, the magnitude of this effect has not been assessed properly (Rowell & Jones 2006). Peatland areas are very sensitive to climate change. In Galicia they survive in upland areas where cold temperatures and continuous moisture supply allow their presence. Besides abiotic factors, alterations in soil fauna activities can also affect peat turnover. Among them, enchytraeids are usually the most numerous invertebrate group in these systems and both temperature and moisture content regulate their abundances and vertical distribution. Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in their populations associated to increasing temperatures can significantly affect metal mobilization, namely iron and aluminium, together with an important decline in the acidity of the soil solution, which possibly eliminates one of the critical mechanisms restricting DOC release (Carrera et al., 2009). In this study we investigated whether changes in water content of the peat soil and soil invertebrate activities associated to increasing temperatures could alter the mobilization rates of Fe and Al and in turn, DOC. 72 undisturbed soil cores (6 cm diameter x 10 cm deep) with their associated vegetation were taken from a blanket bog in Galicia (NW Spain). Back at the laboratory they were sliced horizontally into two layers, (0-5cm and 5-10cm) which were defaunated by means of a wet extraction. Thereafter, the two soil layers derived from the same core were introduced in each microcosm by placing them in their original position but separated by a 1 mm nylon mesh to allow the vertical movements of the organisms. Half of the experimental units were adjusted to the used moisture values observed in the field (80% SWC, H1), whereas in the remaining half the moisture content was decreased to a lower value so that the activities of the soil organisms remained unaffected (60%, H2). Sixty enchytraeid individuals were inoculated into 18 units of each moisture treatment resulting in two animal treatments (+E and -E). Nine replicates of each treatment were incubated at 14°C and the rest were maintained at 19°C. Changes in enchytraeid populations during incubation were monitored by using a parallel series of 120 experimental units consisting of plastic containers which contained defaunated soil samples (two soil layers) separated by the nylon mesh and with the two moisture treatments as the microcosms (H1 and H2) following the same procedures as before. Next, the same number of enchytraeids was re-inoculated in half of these experimental units (+E and -E). The experiment run for 13 weeks; every 15 days, enchytraeid numbers, DOC, Fe and Al content in the leachates collected from each individual layer were determined. Results showed that both high temperature and moisture values promoted enchytraeid reproduction, with most individuals concentrated in the upper layer. This abundant enchytraeid population favoured the mobilization of DOC, Fe and Al to the soil solution. These findings suggest that modifications in soil faunal populations due to abiotic changes could enhance organic matter decomposition, contributing to the destabilization of these peatland systems. Increasing leaching of dissolved organic matter and metals could have negative implications, not only in terms of possible feed-backs to global warming but also as potential contaminants for aquatic ecosystems. References • Carrera N., Barreal M.E., Gallego P. & Briones M.J.I. (2009). Soil invertebrates control peatland C fluxes in response to warming. Functional Ecology 23: 637-648. • IPCC 2007. Climate change 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M. & Miller H.L. (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. • Rowell D.P. & Jones R.G. (2006). Cause

Carrera, Noela; Barreal, María. Esther; Briones, María. Jesús I.

2010-05-01

51

Nutrient dynamics from broiler litter applied to no-till cotton in an upland soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surface-applying broiler litter to a no-till cotton field increases the potential for loss of manure nutrients from the fields in runoff events and volitization of the NH4-N. An experiment was conducted on an upland Atwood silt loam soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Paleududalfs) at the Pontoto...

52

Response of common bean, upland rice, corn, wheat, and soybean to soil fertility of an Oxisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant nutrient deficiencies are the main yield?limiting factors in highly weathered acid soils around the world. Five greenhouse experiments were conducted on an Oxisol to identify nutrient deficiencies in common bean, upland rice, corn, wheat, and soybean. The treatments consisted of 13 fertility levels including an adequate level and remaining without application of one of the essential plant macro? or

N. K. Fageria; V. C. Baligar

1997-01-01

53

Macronutrient concentration in plant parts of cotton fertilized with broiler Litter in a marginal upland Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effectiveness of surface-applied unincorporated litter relative to conventional inorganic fertilizers under no-till or conventional-till cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems and the magnitude of litter benefit reduction associated with lack of incorporation in the upland soils of the so...

54

Soil warming in a cool-temperate mixed forest with peat soil enhanced heterotrophic and basal respiration rates but Q10 remained unchanged  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted soil warming experiment in a cool-temperate forest with peat soil in northern Japan, during the snowless seasons of 2007-2009. Our objective was to determine whether or not the heterotrophic respiration rate and the temperature sensitivity would change by soil warming. We elevated the soil temperature by 3 °C at 5 cm depth by means of overhead infrared heaters and continuously measured soil CO2 fluxes by using a fifteen-channel automated chamber system. Trenching treatment was also carried out to separate heterotrophic respiration and root respiration from the total soil respiration. The fifteen chambers were divided into three groups each with five replications for the control, unwarmed-trenched, and warmed-trenched treatments. We found that heterotrophic respiration contributed 71 % of the total soil respiration with the remaining 29 % accounted to autotrophic respiration. Soil warming enhanced heterotrophic respiration by 74 % (mean 6.11 ± 3.07 S.D. ?mol m-2 s-1) as compared to the unwarmed-trenched treatment (mean 3.52 ± 1.74 ?mol m-2 s-1). Soil CO2 efflux, however, was weakly correlated with soil moisture, probably because the volumetric soil moisture (33-46 %) was within a plateau region for root and microbial activities. The enhancement in heterotrophic respiration with soil warming in our study suggests that global warming will accelerate the loss of carbon from forested peatlands more seriously than other upland forest soils. On the other hand, soil warming did not cause significant change in the temperature sensitivity, Q10, (2.79 and 2.74 determined using hourly efflux data for unwarmed- and warmed-trenched, respectively), but increased their basal respiration rate at 0 °C (0.93 and 1.21 ?mol m-2 s-1, respectively). Results suggest that if we predict the soil heterotrophic respiration rate in future warmer environment using the current relationship between soil temperature and heterotrophic respiration, the rate can be underestimated.

Aguilos, M.; Takagi, K.; Liang, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Mukai, H.; Sasa, K.

2011-07-01

55

Sequential reduction processes and initiation of CH 4 production upon flooding of oxic upland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential reduction processes were studied in four oxic upland soils (cultivated, forest, savanna and desert soil) which were slurried and incubated under anoxic conditions. NO3?1 reduction began almost immediately and was followed by reduction of manganese(IV), sulfate and iron(III). The phases of reduction of Mn4+, SO42? and Fe3+ overlapped, with SO42? being depleted long before accumulation of Mn2+ and Fe2+

Verena Peters; Ralf Conrad

1996-01-01

56

New Anaerobic, Ammonium-Oxidizing Community Enriched from Peat Soil? †  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have been recognized as an important sink for fixed nitrogen and are detected in many natural environments. However, their presence in terrestrial ecosystems has long been overlooked, and their contribution to the nitrogen cycling in natural and agricultural soils is currently unknown. Here we describe the enrichment and characterization of anammox bacteria from a nitrogen-loaded peat soil. After 8 months of incubation with the natural surface water of the sampling site and increasing ammonium and nitrite concentrations, anammox cells constituted 40 to 50% of the enrichment culture. The two dominant anammox phylotypes were affiliated with “Candidatus Jettenia asiatica” and “Candidatus Brocadia fulgida.” The enrichment culture converted NH4+ and NO2? to N2 with the previously reported stoichiometry (1:1.27) and had a maximum specific anaerobic ammonium oxidation rate of 0.94 mmol NH4+·g (dry weight)?1·h?1 at pH 7.1 and 32°C. The diagnostic anammox-specific lipids were detected at a concentration of 650 ng·g (dry weight)?1, and pentyl-[3]-ladderane was the most abundant ladderane lipid.

Hu, Bao-lan; Rush, Darci; van der Biezen, Erwin; Zheng, Ping; van Mullekom, Mark; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Kartal, Boran

2011-01-01

57

Seasonal and management influences on bacterial community structure in an upland grassland soil.  

PubMed

Floristically diverse Nardo-Galion upland grasslands are common in Ireland and the UK and are valuable in agricultural, environmental and ecological terms. Under improvement (inputs of lime, fertiliser and re-seeding), they convert to mesotrophic grassland containing very few plant species. The effects of upland grassland improvement and seasonality on soil microbial communities were investigated at an upland site. Samples were taken at five times in one year in order to observe seasonal trends, and bacterial community structure was monitored using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), a DNA-fingerprinting approach. Differences in soil chemistry and bacterial community structure between unimproved and improved grassland soils were noted. Season was also found to cause mild fluctuations in bacterial community structure, with soil samples from colder months (October and December) more correlated with change in ribotype profiles than samples from warmer months. However, for the majority of seasons clear differences in bacterial community structures from unimproved and improved soils could be seen, indicating seasonal influences did not obscure effects associated with improvement. PMID:16329952

Kennedy, Nabla M; Gleeson, Deirdre E; Connolly, John; Clipson, Nicholas J W

2005-08-01

58

Growth of some new poplar clones on sand and peat soils  

SciTech Connect

Plantations of the Populus clones 'Blom' and Fritzi Pauley' (balsam poplars), 'Androscoggin' (balsam hybrid), 'Oxford', 'Rap', and 'Rochester' (balsam/black poplar hybrids) and 'Dorskamp' and 'Robusta' (black poplar hybrids), on 13 Netherlands sites considered unsuitable or only moderately suitable for poplars, were evaluated at 5-14 year old. The soils were chiefly sand and peat, some loamy soil and one heavy clay. Site indices at different ages and height m.a.i. are shown for each clone and its planting sites. Preliminary conclusions are that on the sand and peat soils the new clones grew well or fairly well, but reclaimed peat soils were an exception, mainly because of rooting problems. Very high water tables affected root development (and hence growth) and K uptake. Like other black poplar hybrids, P. 'Dorskamp' was not suitable for soils with low water tables in the growing season, despite rapid growth in the first years. Clay soils caused initial (but not lasting) rooting problems.

Vis, T.; Kolster, H.W.

1977-01-01

59

Molecular characterization of fungal communities in non-tilled, cover-cropped upland rice field soils.  

PubMed

This study aimed to characterize soil fungal communities in upland rice fields managed with tillage/non-tillage and winter cover-cropping (hairy vetch and cereal rye) practices, using PCR-based molecular methods. The study plots were maintained as upland fields for 5 years and the soils sampled in the second and fifth years were analyzed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) profiling and clone libraries with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and domain 1 (D1) of the fungal large-subunit (fLSU) rRNA (D1(fLSU)) as the target DNA sequence. From the 2nd-year-sample, 372 cloned sequences of fungal ITS-D1(fLSU) were obtained and clustered into 80 nonredundant fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in 4 fungal phyla. The T-RFLP profiling was performed with the 2nd- and 5th-year-samples and the major T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments) were identified using a theoretical fragment analysis of the ITS-D1(fLSU) clones. These molecular analyses showed that the fungal community was influenced more strongly by the cover-cropping than tillage practices. Moreover, the non-tilled, cover-cropped soil was characterized by a predominance of Cryptococcus sp. in the phylum Basidiomycota. We provided a genetic database of the fungal ITS-D1(fLSU)s in the differently managed soils of upland rice fields. PMID:21597240

Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Zhaorigetu; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Sato, Yoshinori; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Ohta, Hiroyuki

2010-01-01

60

Resistivity-based monitoring of biogenic gases in peat soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic free-phase gas (FPG) formation was induced in a peat block (dimensions 0.28 × 0.21 × 0.21 m) extracted from a peatland in Maine. Electrical resistivity (ER), surface deformation, and methane (CH4) flux from the peat surface was monitored over a 48-day period during which the temperature remained constant at 21 ± 1°C. ER measurements were made on 5 vertical

Lee Slater; Xavier Comas; Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis; Maitry Roy Moulik

2007-01-01

61

Heterogeneity of biogenic gas ebullition in subtropical peat soils is revealed using time-lapse cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested a set of biogenic gas traps combined with time-lapse cameras to investigate the heterogeneous nature of biogenic gas ebullition events in subtropical peat soils at both the laboratory and field scale. The main findings are: (1) ebullition events in peat soils are highly heterogeneous; (2) estimates of flux rate are directly influenced by temporal scale of measurement with rapid (i.e., hourly) releasing events exceeding daily averages by one order of magnitude; and (3) increases in atmospheric pressure result in gas release from shallow peat soils into the atmosphere (i.e., ebullition), as indicated by a positive linear relation between changes in biogenic gas content and changes in atmospheric pressure. These results suggest that biogenic gas releases from shallow subtropical peat soils are not constant with larger than average daily fluxes being potentially released within hours during periods of increased atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, this study also shows the potential of time-lapse cameras for autonomously assessing the temporal variation in biogenic gas flux to the atmosphere from peatlands, and questions what temporal scale of measurement should be appropriate to infer dynamics of biogenic gas release in peat soils.

Comas, Xavier; Wright, William

2012-04-01

62

Effect of hill fire on upland soil in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the soil chemical properties of a new burnt site and an old burnt site, which had experienced three and one fire(s) respectively since 1988. The new burnt site is presently reduced to grassland and the old burnt site to mixed grassland\\/scrubland. Repeated fires raised soil pH by 0.27–0.33 units, exchangeable H and K by over 100%,

Lawal M Marafa; K. C Chau

1999-01-01

63

Stabilization of Pb and Cu-contaminated soil using coal fly ash and peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization of metal contaminated soil is being tested as an alternative remediation method to landfilling. An evaluation of the changes in Cu and Pb mobility and bioavailability in soil induced by the addition of coal fly ash and natural organic matter (peat) revealed that the amount of leached Cu decreased by 98.2% and Pb by 99.9%, as assessed by

Jurate Kumpiene; Anders Lagerkvist; Christian Maurice

2007-01-01

64

Long term monitoring of biogenic gasses in peat soils using electromagnetic (EM) measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peatlands are a critical component of the global carbon cycle and play a major role in atmospheric fluxes. Peat soils are considered one of the largest natural sources for greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. methane and carbon dioxide) to the atmosphere, but the mechanisms of formation and spatial distribution of these gasses within the soil matrix still remain uncertain. In this

X. Comas; L. Slater; A. Reeve

2007-01-01

65

Planted legume fallows reduce weeds and increase soil N and P contents but not upland rice yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortened fallows have resulted in declining upland rice yields in slash-and-burn upland rice systems in northern Laos. We\\u000a studied the benefit of planted legume fallows for rice productivity, weeds, and soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability.\\u000a Four systems were evaluated over a 5-year period: 1-year fallow with native species, 1-year Cajanus cajan fallow, 1-year Leucaena leucocephala fallow, and continuous annual rice

K. Saito; B. Linquist; D. E. Johnson; S. Phengchanh; T. Shiraiwa; T. Horie

2008-01-01

66

Long term monitoring of biogenic gasses in peat soils using electromagnetic (EM) measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are a critical component of the global carbon cycle and play a major role in atmospheric fluxes. Peat soils are considered one of the largest natural sources for greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. methane and carbon dioxide) to the atmosphere, but the mechanisms of formation and spatial distribution of these gasses within the soil matrix still remain uncertain. In this work we investigate the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a geophysical tool to estimate the long term temporal evolution and spatial variability of biogenic gasses at the field scale. We performed high resolution EM measurements over a large section (4m x 4m x 6m) of a northern peatland (Caribou Bog, Maine) for almost an entire year. Methane emissions and surface peat deformation were concurrently monitored. All measurements were performed along a platform built to avoid disturbance of the peat surface and consistently revealed large shifts in gas content. Our results demonstrate that GPR measurements are a totally non-invasive way of investigating long term gas evolution without any disturbance to the natural gas regime (such as inserting monitoring probes), and provide unique information on the spatial distribution of biogenic gasses in peat soils. These findings also have implications for climate modeling efforts as related to biogenic gas emissions in peat soils and its impact on global warming.

Comas, X.; Slater, L.; Reeve, A.

2007-05-01

67

RESPONSE OF UPLAND RICE GENOTYPES TO SOIL ACIDITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many parts of the world on highly weathered Oxisols, acidity is one of the major factors that contributes to the reduction of crop yields. In addition to liming, use of acid tolerant crop species or cultivars within species, is a complimentary solution to improve crop production on such soils. A ...

68

RESPONSE OF UPLAND RICE GENOTYPES TO SOIL ACIDITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many parts of the world where the soils are highly weathered Oxisols, acidity is one of the major factors that contributes to the reduction of crop yields. In addition to liming, use of acid tolerant crop species or cultivars within species, is a complementary solution for the improvement of cro...

69

The Influence of Pedology and Changes in Soil Moisture Status on Manganese Release from Upland Catchments: Soil Core Laboratory Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese (Mn) contamination of drinking water may cause aesthetic and human health problems when concentrations exceed 50\\u000a and 500 ?g l?1, respectively. In the UK, the majority of Mn-related drinking water supply failures originate from unpolluted upland catchments.\\u000a The source of Mn is therefore soil, but the exact mechanisms by which it is mobilised into surface waters remain unknown.\\u000a Elevated Mn

A. M. Hardie; K. V. Heal; A. Lilly

2007-01-01

70

Effects of Converting Secondary Forest to Oil Palm Plantation on Peat Soil Carbon and Nitrogen and other Soil Chemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Peatlands are natural sequesters of carbon and nitr ogen. Once they are disturbed the tendency to lose carbon and nitrogen to the environment is very high. This study investigated the effect of converting peat land for est into oil palm plantation on soil chemical properties with particular emphasis on carbon and n itrogen storage. Approach: Soil samples were

Makilan Muniandy; Osumanu Haruna Ahmed; Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid; Mohd Khanif Yusop

2009-01-01

71

Differential response of archaeal and bacterial communities to nitrogen inputs and pH changes in upland pasture rhizosphere soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Grassland management regimens influence the struc- ture of archaeal communities in upland pasture soils, which appear to be dominated by as yet uncultivated non-thermophilic Crenarchaeota. In an attempt to determine which grassland management factors select for particular crenarchaeal community struc- tures, soil microcosm experiments were performed examining the effect of increased pH, application of inorganic fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) and

Graeme W. Nicol; Gordon Webster; L. Anne Glover; James I. Prosser

2004-01-01

72

Effectiveness of Sesbania rostrata and Phaseolus calcaratus as green manure for upland rice grown in acidic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field experiments on green manuring were conducted under upland acidic soil (pH = 4.35) conditions with the following objectives: (1) to determine the influence of inoculation site, P fertilization, and liming on the biomass production, N content, N accumulation, and N availability of S. rostrata grown in an acidic soil, (2) to compare the effectiveness of S. rostrata, P.

I. J. Manguiat; P. W. Singleton; P. M. Rocamora; M. U. Calo; E. E. Taleon

1997-01-01

73

Incorporation of nitrogen from urea fertilizer into soil organic matter in rice paddy and cassava upland fields in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of newly-immobilized N into major soil organic matter fractions during a cropping period under paddy and upland cropping systems in the tropics was investigated in Jawa paddy fields with and without fish cultivation and a Sumatra cassava field in Indonesia. N-labelled urea (N urea) was applied as basal fertilizer, and the soil samples were collected after harvest. The percentage

Tomonori Abe; Sambudhi S. Suwandhi; Wayan Sabe Ardjasa; Ho Ando; Akira Watanabe

2002-01-01

74

Distribution and cultivation intensity of agricultural peat and gyttja soils in Sweden and estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated peat soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digitised maps of Quaternary deposits, 40K radiation data and Integrated Agricultural Control System databases (IACS) were used in a GIS analysis to estimate the distribution and land use of agricultural peat and gyttja soils in Sweden. The total area of agricultural land (cropland and pastures) in Sweden was estimated at 3,496,665 ha and 8.6% of this area (301,489 ha) was classified as

Ö. Berglund; K. Berglund

2010-01-01

75

Organic carbon transformations in high-Arctic peat soils: key functions and microorganisms  

PubMed Central

A substantial part of the Earths' soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in Arctic permafrost peatlands, which represent large potential sources for increased emissions of the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2 in a warming climate. The microbial communities and their genetic repertoire involved in the breakdown and mineralisation of SOC in these soils are, however, poorly understood. In this study, we applied a combined metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach on two Arctic peat soils to investigate the identity and the gene pool of the microbiota driving the SOC degradation in the seasonally thawed active layers. A large and diverse set of genes encoding plant polymer-degrading enzymes was found, comparable to microbiotas from temperate and subtropical soils. This indicates that the metabolic potential for SOC degradation in Arctic peat is not different from that of other climatic zones. The majority of these genes were assigned to three bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes. Anaerobic metabolic pathways and the fraction of methanogenic archaea increased with peat depth, evident for a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyles. A population of CH4-oxidising bacteria closely related to Methylobacter tundripaludum was the dominating active group of methanotrophs. Based on the in-depth characterisation of the microbes and their genes, we conclude that these Arctic peat soils will turn into CO2 sources owing to increased active layer depth and prolonged growing season. However, the extent of future CH4 emissions will critically depend on the response of the methanotrophic bacteria.

Tveit, Alexander; Schwacke, Rainer; Svenning, Mette M; Urich, Tim

2013-01-01

76

Distribution of radiocesium in the soil-plant systems of upland areas of Europe  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and behavior of Cs in the soil-plant systems at some upland sites in Northeastern Italy, Scotland, and Norway have been investigated. From the limited range of samples taken, there appears to be no dominant physicochemical control on the plant availability of Cs. The presence of micaceous minerals or illitic clays does not significantly inhibit Cs uptake, either because of recycling in the organic surface horizons or because of clay-organic complex formation. Lower plants (bryophytes and lichens) show the highest Cs accumulation. Of the higher plants, ericaceous species take up Cs more than the others.

Livens, F.R.; Horrill, A.D.; Singleton, D.L. (Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-Over-Sands, Cumbria (England))

1991-04-01

77

Impact of drainage on wettability of fen peat-moorsh soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High water retention in peat is attributed to structural voids (macro-pores) due to the partial degradation of the structure of peat-forming plants, and molecular absorption sites (micro-pores) associated with the formation of humic substances. Water retention by the heterogeneously-structured system in peat organic matter depends on the chemical structure of solid surfaces. These naturally wet solids, if dried sufficiently, lose the ability to rewet quickly when immersed in water. The ability of peat surfaces to attract and hold water is attributed to hydrophilic functional groups which characterize the organic substances of peat. The investigations of chemical and physical properties were performed for three different peat-moorsh soils located in the Biebrza River Valley in Poland. All examined soils were used as meadow. Soil samples were taken from two depths: 5-10 cm (moorsh) and 50-80 cm (peat). Total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and humic acids (HA) extracted from these samples were analysed. Also basic physical properties such as ash content and bulk density were measured. Wetting behavior of soils was quantified using water drop penetration time test (WDPT) and measured values of the soil-water contact angle using sessile drop method. The measurements were conducted on air-dry soil samples which volumetric moisture content was not exceeding 7%. The significant differences in the concentrations of TOC, DOC and properties of HA between two investigated depth of among peat and moorsh samples were observed. The measured concentrations of total organic carbon in the considered soils ranged from 37.2 to 45.6%. Generally, the decrease of total organic carbon concentration with depth of profiles was observed. The contents of dissolved organic carbon in the soils ranged from 5.3 to 19.4%. The quantities of dissolved organic carbon decreased simultaneously with E4/E6 values and with the depth of the soil profiles. For the investigated peat's, an increase of the depth is accompanied by the decrease in the degree of humification or an increase in chemical maturity of HA. The measured values of the contact angle for investigated soils were in the range from 81.4? to 114.3? what indicates their high water repellency. The WDPT was positively correlated with total organic carbon, organic matter and humic acids content while ash content, soil bulk density, pH and absorbance were correlated negatively. The highest value of correlation coefficient (statistically significant) was obtained for relation between WDPT and ash content. The soil water contact angle was less correlated with peat-moorsh soil properties in comparison with WDPT with one exception pH. The pH against the contact angle indicates tendency of increasing the contact angle with decreasing pH.

Szajdak, L.; Szaty?owicz, J.; Brandyk, T.

2009-04-01

78

Contrasting denitrifier communities relate to contrasting N2O emission patterns from acidic peat soils in arctic tundra.  

PubMed

Cryoturbated peat circles (that is, bare surface soil mixed by frost action; pH 3-4) in the Russian discontinuous permafrost tundra are nitrate-rich 'hotspots' of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions in arctic ecosystems, whereas adjacent unturbated peat areas are not. N(2)O was produced and subsequently consumed at pH 4 in unsupplemented anoxic microcosms with cryoturbated but not in those with unturbated peat soil. Nitrate, nitrite and acetylene stimulated net N(2)O production of both soils in anoxic microcosms, indicating denitrification as the source of N(2)O. Up to 500 and 10??M nitrate stimulated denitrification in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Apparent maximal reaction velocities of nitrite-dependent denitrification were 28 and 18?nmol N(2)O?g(DW)(-1)?h(-1), for cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing of narG, nirK/nirS and nosZ (encoding nitrate, nitrite and N(2)O reductases, respectively) yielded ?49?000 quality-filtered sequences with an average sequence length of 444?bp. Up to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units were detected per soil and gene, many of which were distantly related to cultured denitrifiers or environmental sequences. Denitrification-associated gene diversity in cryoturbated and in unturbated peat soils differed. Quantitative PCR (inhibition-corrected per DNA extract) revealed higher copy numbers of narG in cryoturbated than in unturbated peat soil. Copy numbers of nirS were up to 1000 × higher than those of nirK in both soils, and nirS nirK(-1) copy number ratios in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils differed. The collective data indicate that the contrasting N(2)O emission patterns of cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils are associated with contrasting denitrifier communities. PMID:22134649

Palmer, Katharina; Biasi, Christina; Horn, Marcus A

2011-12-01

79

Microbial Community and Rate of Cellulose Decomposition in Peat Soils in a Mire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was carried out from April to October, 1992 in the Miyatoko Mire in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, to determine the characteristics of the microbial community and cellulose decomposition rates in the peat soil. A total of 14 study sites were selected, including three types; hummocks (type I), hollows covered with Sphagnum (type II), hollows and streams without Sphagnum

Mikiya Hiroki; Makoto M. Watanabe

1996-01-01

80

Prediction of Soil Erosion from Uplands under Climate Change Scenarios in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major impacts of climate change expect that soil erosion rate may increase during the 21st century. This study was conducted to assess the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion by water in Korea. The soil loss was estimated for regions with the potential risk of soil erosion on a national scale. For computation, Universal soil loss equation (USLE) with rainfall and runoff erosivity factors (R), cover management factors (C), support practice factors (P) and revised USLE with soil erodibility factors (K) and topographic factors (LS) were used. RUSLE, the revised version of USLE, was modified for Korean conditions and re-evaluated to estimate the national-scale of soil loss based on the digital soil maps for Korea. The changes of precipitation for 2010 to 2090s were predicted under A1B scenarios made by National Institute of Meteorological Research in Korea. Future soil loss was predicted based on a change of R factor. As results, the predicted precipitations were increased by 6.7% for 2010 to 2030, 9.5% for 2040 to 2060s and 190% for 2070 to 2090s, respectively. The total soil loss from uplands in 2005 was estimated approximately 28?106 ton. Total soil losses were estimated as 31?106 ton in 2010 to 2030s, 31?106 ton in 2040 to 2060s and 33?106 ton in 2070 to 2090s, respectively. As precipitation increased by 17% in the end of 21st century, the total soil loss was increased by 12.9%. Overall, these results emphasize the significance of precipitation. However, it should be noted that when precipitation becomes insignificant, the results may turn out to be complex due to the large interaction among plant biomass, runoff and erosion. This may cause increase or decrease the overall erosion.

Kim, Min-Kyeong; Ko, Byong-Gu; Hur, Seung-Oh; Kim, Min-Young; Lee, Deog-Bae

2010-05-01

81

Spatial and vertical distribution of mercury in upland forest soils across the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Assessing current Hg pools in forest soils of the northeastern U.S. is important for monitoring changes in Hg cycling. The forest floor, upper and lower mineral horizons were sampled at 17 long-term upland forest sites across the northeastern U.S. in 2011. Forest floor Hg concentration was similar across the study region (274 ± 13 ?g kg(-1)) while Hg amount at northern sites (39 ± 6 g ha(-1)) was significantly greater than at western sites (11 ± 4 g ha(-1)). Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, soil pH, latitude and mean annual precipitation and these variables explained approximately 70% of the variability when multiple regressed. Mercury concentration and amount in the lower mineral soil was correlated with Fe, soil organic matter and latitude, corresponding with Bs horizons of Spodosols (Podzols). Our analysis shows the importance of regional and soil properties on Hg accumulation in forest soils. PMID:23911621

Richardson, Justin B; Friedland, Andrew J; Engerbretson, Teresa R; Kaste, James M; Jackson, Brian P

2013-07-31

82

Diversity of Nitrite Reductase (nirK and nirS) Gene Fragments in Forested Upland and Wetland Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic heterogeneity of nitrite reductase gene (nirK and nirS) fragments from denitrifying prokaryotes in forested upland and marsh soil was investigated using molecular methods. nirK gene fragments could be amplified from both soils, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only from the marsh soil. PCR products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and representative

A. Prieme; Gesche Braker; James M. Tiedje

2002-01-01

83

Determinants of spatial variability of methane emissions from wet grasslands on peat soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane (CH4) emissions from soils, representing the consequence of CH4 production, CH4 consumption and CH4 transport, are poorly characterised and show a large spatial variability. This study aimed to assess the determinants of field-scale spatial variability of CH4 emissions from wet grasslands on peat soil. Mean CH4 emission rates of a three-year experiment at 18 plots distributed over three sites

Agnes Dasselaar; Marinus L. Beusichem; Oene Oenema

1999-01-01

84

Spatial structure in soil chemical and microbiological properties in an upland grassland.  

PubMed

We characterised the spatial structure of soil microbial communities in an unimproved grazed upland grassland in the Scottish Borders. A range of soil chemical parameters, cultivable microbes, protozoa, nematodes, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, community-level physiological profiles (CLPP), intra-radical arbuscular mycorrhizal community structure, and eubacterial, actinomycete, pseudomonad and ammonia-oxidiser 16S rRNA gene profiles, assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were quantified. The botanical composition of the vegetation associated with each soil sample was also determined. Geostatistical analysis of the data revealed a gamut of spatial dependency with diverse semivariograms being apparent, ranging from pure nugget, linear and non-linear forms. Spatial autocorrelation generally accounted for 40-60% of the total variance of those properties where such autocorrelation was apparent, but accounted for 97% in the case of nitrate-N. Geostatistical ranges extending from approximately 0.6-6 m were detected, dispersed throughout both chemical and biological properties. CLPP data tended to be associated with ranges greater than 4.5 m. There was no relationship between physical distance in the field and genetic similarity based on DGGE profiles. However, analysis of samples taken as close as 1 cm apart within a subset of cores suggested some spatial dependency in community DNA-DGGE parameters below an 8 cm scale. Spatial correlation between the properties was generally weak, with some exceptions such as between microbial biomass C and total N and C. There was evidence for scale-dependence in the relationships between properties. PLFA and CLPP profiling showed some association with vegetation composition, but DGGE profiling did not. There was considerably stronger association between notional sheep urine patches, denoted by soil nutrient status, and many of the properties. These data demonstrate extreme spatial variation in community-level microbiological properties in upland grasslands, and that despite considerable numeric ranges in the majority of properties, overarching controlling factors were not apparent. PMID:19712414

Ritz, K; McNicol, J W; Nunan, N; Grayston, S; Millard, P; Atkinson, D; Gollotte, A; Habeshaw, D; Boag, B; Clegg, C D; Griffiths, B S; Wheatley, R E; Glover, L A; McCaig, A E; Prosser, J I

2004-08-01

85

Production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane (THM) precursor from peat soils.  

PubMed

Water passing through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane (THM) precursor relative to upstream waters from the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River. Drainage from agricultural peat soils has been identified as one of the major sources of DOC and THM precursor. A series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate abiotic and biotic effects on the quantity and the nature of DOC and THM precursors produced from oxidized surface and reduced subsurface soils in the Delta. For abiotic effects, DOC was extracted from both soils with synthetic solutions containing a range of salinity (0-4 dS/m) and sodicity (0 to infinity ). The results showed that an increase in salinity significantly decreased the concentration of DOC in the soil-water from both soils but increased its aromaticity, as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA). For biotic effects, peat soils were incubated over a range of temperatures (10 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C) and soil moisture contents (0.3-10 g water/g soil). After 8 weeks of incubation, only extracted DOC from flooded conditions and flooded and non-flooded cycles showed an increase in DOC. These findings indicate that neither salinity nor sodicity is the major factor for DOC production, but both can affect the solubility and mobility of DOC in the Delta soils. We believe wetting processes in oxidized peat soils produce significant amounts of DOC found in agricultural drainage discharged into the Delta waters. PMID:14511718

Chow, Alex T; Tanji, Kenneth K; Gao, Suduan

2003-11-01

86

Gas Diffusion Coefficient in Variably Saturated Peat Soil: Development and Tests of Predictive Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil-gas diffusion coefficient (Dp) and its dependency on air-filled porosity (?) govern gas diffusion and reaction processes in soil. Accurate Dp(?) prediction models for variably saturated peat soils are needed to evaluate vadose zone transport and fate of greenhouse gases such as methane in peaty wetlands. In this study, we measured Dp on undisturbed peat soil samples at different soil-water matric potentials, and developed new, linear and nonlinear expressions for describing and predicting Dp(?). The new Dp(?) models together with existing Dp(?) models were tested against both measured data and independent data sets from literature. Twelve undisturbed 100cm3 peat soil cores were taken between the soil surface and down to 30-cm depth at Bibai wetland, Hokkaido, Japan. The soil cores were initially saturated with water, and drained at given matric potentials, pF=1.0, 1.5, 1.8, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.1 (where pF equals to log | ? | , ?: the soil-water matric potential in cm H2O), using the hanging water and pressure plate methods. At each matric potential, simultaneous measurements of volume shrinkage, soil-water retention, and Dp were conducted. Literature datasets of Dp(?) for peat soil cores taken from different areas within the same wetland, specifically 12 samples from Iiyama and Hasegawa (2005) and 12 samples from Iiduka et al. (2008), were also used. A total of 191 measurements of Dp(?) at pF ? 2.0 were applied for developing new Dp(?) models for pF ? 2.0 where effects of shrinkage on Dp were assumed negligible. By modifying 3 existing Dp(?) models, the Buckingham (1904) model, the Macroporosity-Dependent Model (MPD; Moldrup et al., 2000), and the Penman-Call model (Moldrup et al., 2005), we suggested 3 new Dp(?) expressions for peat soil. In the Buckingham-based Dp(?) model, a variable X(?"w relationship (where X is the pore connectivity factor) derived from measurements was introduced in the Dp(?) expression. In the Penman-Call-based Dp(?) model, new expressions for the model parameters defining the linear Dp(?) relationship, the slope of Dp(?)/D0 and the threshold air-filled porosity where gas diffusion ceases due to complete water blockage, were derived from measured data. In the MPD-based Dp(?) model, a new Dp,100(?100) relationship for peat soil (where Dp,100 and ?100 are the gas diffusion coefficient and the air-filled porosity at pF2.0) was introduced in the model. To validate the new Dp(?) models, we tested the models against independent data for peat soil samples from Freijer (1994). The new Dp(?) models, except for the Penman-Call-based model, predicted well the independent data, and the Buckingham-based Dp(?) model performed the best among the existing and newly-developed models.

Unno, M.; Kawamoto, K.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

2008-12-01

87

Effect of land use change from paddy rice cultivation to upland crop cultivation on soil carbon budget of a cropland in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of land use change from paddy rice cultivation to upland crop cultivation on soil carbon budget (SCB) was studied by comparing three types of cropping system (single cropping of paddy rice (PR), single cropping of upland rice (UR) and double cropping of soybean and wheat (SW)) in an experimental field having the same history as consecutively cultivated paddy rice

Seiichi Nishimura; Seiichiro Yonemura; Takuji Sawamoto; Yasuhito Shirato; Hiroko Akiyama; Shigeto Sudo; Kazuyuki Yagi

2008-01-01

88

Mitigation of Diffuse Phosphorus Pollution during Rewetting of Fen Peat Soils: A Trans-European Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive cultivation of fen peat soils (Eutric Histosols) for agricultural purposes, started in Europe about 250 years ago,\\u000a resulting in decreased soil fertility, increased oxidation of peat and corresponding CO2-emissions to the atmosphere, nutrient transfer to aquatic ecosystems and losses in the total area of the former native wetlands.\\u000a To prevent these negative environmental effects set-aside programs and rewetting measures were

R. Meissner; P. Leinweber; H. Rupp; M. Shenker; M. I. Litaor; S. Robinson; A. Schlichting; J. Koehn

2008-01-01

89

Soil Bacterial and Fungal Community Structure Across a Range of Unimproved and Semi-Improved Upland Grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in soil microbial community structure due to improvement are often attributed to concurrent shifts in floristic community\\u000a composition. The bacterial and fungal communities of unimproved and semi-improved (as determined by floristic classification)\\u000a grassland soils were studied at five upland sites on similar geological substrata using both broad-scale (microbial activity\\u000a and fungal biomass) and molecular [terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism

Nabla Kennedy; Suzanne Edwards; Nicholas Clipson

2005-01-01

90

[Effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus content of upland red soil].  

PubMed

Aiming at the low content of available phosphorus in upland red soil of Southern China, this paper studied the effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus and organic carbon contents and the pH of this soil. With the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers, the soil physical and chemical properties improved to different degrees. As compared with the control, the soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents at different growth stages of oil rape after the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers all had an improvement, with the increments at bolting stage, flowering stage, and ripening stage being 16%, 24% and 26%, 23%, 34% and 38%, and 100%, 191% and 317% , respectively. The soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents were increased with the increasing amount of applied biochar. Under-the application of biochar, the soil available phosphorus had a significant correlation with the soil pH and soil organic carbon content. This study could provide scientific basis to improve the phosphorus deficiency and the physical and chemical properties of upland red soil. PMID:23898656

Jing, Yan; Chen, Xiao-min; Liu, Zu-xiang; Huang, Qian-ru; LiI, Qiu-xia; Chen, Chen; Lu, Shao-shan

2013-04-01

91

[Nitrogen-fixing activity in peat soils from a raised bog].  

PubMed

The nitrogenase (acetylene reductase) activity in monolithic and minced peat samples was found to be low, no more than 0.014-0.022 mg N/(kg h). Incorporation of the 15N2 isotope into organic compounds of peat soil was from 2.71-8.13 mg N/kg over 15 days. The nitrogen-fixing activity was the highest in a 10-20 cm layer of soil and much lower in the upper (under green moss) and deeper (20-30 cm) layers. The addition of glucose to soil samples stimulated nitrogen fixation considerably after 18-26 h. The maximum nitrogenase activity (3.5-3.8 mg N/(kg h)) observed after 60-70 h coincided with the peak of respiratory activity. A repeated addition of glucose after its exhaustion increased nitrogenase activity without a lag period to 8.5 mg N/(kg h). Investigation of the effect of environmental factors (temperature, pH, aeration, and light intensity) on potential nitrogen-fixing activity in peat samples revealed that nitrogen fixation could proceed in a wide range of pH values (from 3.0 to 7.5) and temperatures (from 5 to 35 degrees C). The nitrogen-fixing bacteria belonging to different trophic groups were enumerated by using nitrogen-free media with pH values and mineralization levels close to those in situ. In samples of peat soil, diazotrophic methanol-utilizing bacteria prevailed (2.0-2.5 x 10(6) cells/g); the second largest group was facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:12698801

Kravchenko, I K; Doroshenko, E V

92

Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ? †  

PubMed Central

Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Helene; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

2011-01-01

93

Influence of earthworms on soil properties and grass production in reclaimed cutover peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of earthworms on grass growth and soil structure in reclaimed peat were studied in a glasshouse bucket experiment.\\u000a Cumulative grass yields from 13 cuts taken over a period of 20 months were 89% higher in organically fertilized and 19% higher\\u000a in inorganically fertilized buckets with earthworms than in similarly fertilized buckets without earthworms. When fertilizers\\u000a were withheld from

K. E. Boyle; J. P. Curry; E. P. Farrell

1997-01-01

94

Temperature, water content and wet–dry cycle effects on DOC production and carbon mineralization in agricultural peat soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural peat soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California have been identified as an important source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane precursors in waters exported for drinking. The objectives of this study were to examine the primary sources of DOC from soil profiles (surface vs. subsurface), factors (temperature, soil water content and wet–dry cycles) controlling DOC production, and

Alex T. Chow; Kenneth K. Tanji; Suduan Gao; Randy A. Dahlgren

2006-01-01

95

A cost-efficient method to assess carbon stocks in tropical peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of belowground carbon stocks in tropical wetland forests requires funding for laboratory analyses and suitable facilities, which are often lacking in developing nations where most tropical wetlands are found. It is therefore beneficial to develop simple analytical tools to assist belowground carbon estimation where financial and technical limitations are common. Here we use published and original data to describe soil carbon density (kgC m-3; Cd) as a function of bulk density (gC cm-3; Bd), which can be used to rapidly estimate belowground carbon storage using Bd measurements only. Predicted carbon densities and stocks are compared with those obtained from direct carbon analysis for ten peat swamp forest stands in three national parks of Indonesia. Analysis of soil carbon density and bulk density from the literature indicated a strong linear relationship (Cd = Bd × 495.14 + 5.41, R2 = 0.93, n = 151) for soils with organic C content > 40%. As organic C content decreases, the relationship between Cd and Bd becomes less predictable as soil texture becomes an important determinant of Cd. The equation predicted belowground C stocks to within 0.92% to 9.57% of observed values. Average bulk density of collected peat samples was 0.127 g cm-3, which is in the upper range of previous reports for Southeast Asian peatlands. When original data were included, the revised equation Cd = Bd × 468.76 + 5.82, with R2 = 0.95 and n = 712, was slightly below the lower 95% confidence interval of the original equation, and tended to decrease Cd estimates. We recommend this last equation for a rapid estimation of soil C stocks for well-developed peat soils where C content > 40%.

Warren, M. W.; Kauffman, J. B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Anshari, G.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Kurnianto, S.; Purbopuspito, J.; Gusmayanti, E.; Afifudin, M.; Rahajoe, J.; Alhamd, L.; Limin, S.; Iswandi, A.

2012-11-01

96

Monitoring biogenic gas dynamics in peat soils using constant offset ground penetrating radar and deformation rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatlands are an important component of the global carbon cycle, accounting for up to 10 % of methane (CH4) flux to the atmosphere while acting as a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). While hydrologic methods have improved our understanding of biogenic gas dynamics in peatlands, many uncertainties still remain, particularly as related to variation in biogenic gas production and release with depth. The common-midpoint ground penetrating radar (GPR) method has recently been used to determine vertical distributions of biogenic gas in peatlands. This technique is labor-intensive, time consuming, offers limited information on spatial distribution of biogenic gas and is not readily deployable as a monitoring method. In this study we investigate the potential of GPR common offset (CO) measurements for delineation of vertical variations in in-situ biogenic gas content and changes with time in response to atmospheric pressure changes. Strong reflection events in CO profiles were used to investigate temporal variations in the distribution of biogenic gas content with depth from a simple measurement of variations in the two-way travel time to these reflections and application of existing petrophysical models. This approach requires a correction for the deformation of the peat fabric due to gas production and release, which was determined using elevation rods distributed with depth. Limited gas flux measurements were also recorded using a surface chamber. Our results show variations in gas content in shallow peat and in deeper portions of the peat column. However, whereas decreases in gas content in deep peat (i.e. ebullition events) coincide with periods of increased atmospheric pressure, gas content increases with atmospheric pressure in the shallow peat soils. Comparison of gas content estimates and changes obtained with the CO method show excellent agreement with estimates from CMP measurements. Our results suggest that the CO GPR method could be adopted in place of the labor intensive CMP method for measurement/monitoring of biogenic gas dynamics in peatlands.

Comas, X.; Slater, L. D.; Reeve, A. S.

2010-12-01

97

Homegardens on Amazonian Dark Earths, Non-anthropogenic Upland, and Floodplain Soils along the Brazilian Middle Madeira River Exhibit Diverging Agrobiodiversity 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homegardens on Amazonian Dark Earths, Non-anthropogenic Upland, and Floodplain Soils along the Brazilian Middle Madeira River\\u000a Exhibit Diverging Agrobiodiversity. We test the hypothesis that the agrobiodiversity associated with homegardens on three different soils—upland Amazonian Dark\\u000a Earths (ADE) and Oxisols (OX), and Fluvent Entisols (FL)—commonly found along the middle Madeira River in the municipality\\u000a of Manicoré, Amazonas State, Brazil, is different

James A. Fraser; André B. Junqueira; Charles R. Clement

2011-01-01

98

A cost-efficient method to assess carbon stocks in tropical peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of soil carbon stocks in tropical wetlands requires costly laboratory analyses and suitable facilities, which are often lacking in developing nations where most tropical wetlands are found. It is therefore beneficial to develop simple yet robust analytical tools to assess soil carbon stocks where financial and technical limitations are common. Here we use published and original data to describe soil carbon density (gC cm-3; Cd) as a function of bulk density (g dry soil cm-3; Bd), which can be used to estimate belowground carbon storage using Bd measurements only. Predicted carbon densities and stocks are compared with those obtained from direct carbon analysis for ten peat swamp forest stands in three national parks of Indonesia. Analysis of soil carbon density and bulk density from the literature indicated a strong linear relationship (Cd = Bd × 0.49 + 4.61, R2 = 0.96, n = 94) for soils with an organic C content >40%. As organic C content decreases, the relationship between Cd and Bd becomes less predictable as soil texture becomes an important determinant of Cd. The equation predicted soil C stocks to within 0.39% to 7.20% of observed values. When original data were included in the analysis, the revised equation: Cd = Bd × 0.48 + 4.28, R2 = 0.96, n = 678 was well within the 95% confidence intervals of the original equation, and tended to decrease Cd estimates slightly. We recommend this last equation for a rapid estimation of soil C stocks for well developed peat soils where C content >40%.

Warren, M. W.; Kauffman, J. B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Anshari, G.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Kurnianto, S.; Purbopuspito, J.; Gusmayanti, E.; Afifudin, M.; Rahajoe, J.; Alhamd, L.; Limin, S.; Iswandi, A.

2012-06-01

99

Plant soil interactions alter carbon cycling in an upland grassland soil  

PubMed Central

Soil carbon (C) storage is dependent upon the complex dynamics of fresh and native organic matter cycling, which are regulated by plant and soil-microbial activities. A fundamental challenge exists to link microbial biodiversity with plant-soil C cycling processes to elucidate the underlying mechanisms regulating soil carbon. To address this, we contrasted vegetated grassland soils with bare soils, which had been plant-free for 3 years, using stable isotope (13C) labeled substrate assays and molecular analyses of bacterial communities. Vegetated soils had higher C and N contents, biomass, and substrate-specific respiration rates. Conversely, following substrate addition unlabeled, native soil C cycling was accelerated in bare soil and retarded in vegetated soil; indicative of differential priming effects. Functional differences were reflected in bacterial biodiversity with Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria dominating vegetated and bare soils, respectively. Significant isotopic enrichment of soil RNA was found after substrate addition and rates varied according to substrate type. However, assimilation was independent of plant presence which, in contrast to large differences in 13CO2 respiration rates, indicated greater substrate C use efficiency in bare, Acidobacteria-dominated soils. Stable isotope probing (SIP) revealed most community members had utilized substrates with little evidence for competitive outgrowth of sub-populations. Our findings support theories on how plant-mediated soil resource availability affects the turnover of different pools of soil carbon, and we further identify a potential role of soil microbial biodiversity. Specifically we conclude that emerging theories on the life histories of dominant soil taxa can be invoked to explain changes in soil carbon cycling linked to resource availability, and that there is a strong case for considering microbial biodiversity in future studies investigating the turnover of different pools of soil carbon.

Thomson, Bruce C.; Ostle, Nick J.; McNamara, Niall P.; Oakley, Simon; Whiteley, Andrew S.; Bailey, Mark J.; Griffiths, Robert I.

2013-01-01

100

Plant soil interactions alter carbon cycling in an upland grassland soil.  

PubMed

Soil carbon (C) storage is dependent upon the complex dynamics of fresh and native organic matter cycling, which are regulated by plant and soil-microbial activities. A fundamental challenge exists to link microbial biodiversity with plant-soil C cycling processes to elucidate the underlying mechanisms regulating soil carbon. To address this, we contrasted vegetated grassland soils with bare soils, which had been plant-free for 3 years, using stable isotope ((13)C) labeled substrate assays and molecular analyses of bacterial communities. Vegetated soils had higher C and N contents, biomass, and substrate-specific respiration rates. Conversely, following substrate addition unlabeled, native soil C cycling was accelerated in bare soil and retarded in vegetated soil; indicative of differential priming effects. Functional differences were reflected in bacterial biodiversity with Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria dominating vegetated and bare soils, respectively. Significant isotopic enrichment of soil RNA was found after substrate addition and rates varied according to substrate type. However, assimilation was independent of plant presence which, in contrast to large differences in (13)CO2 respiration rates, indicated greater substrate C use efficiency in bare, Acidobacteria-dominated soils. Stable isotope probing (SIP) revealed most community members had utilized substrates with little evidence for competitive outgrowth of sub-populations. Our findings support theories on how plant-mediated soil resource availability affects the turnover of different pools of soil carbon, and we further identify a potential role of soil microbial biodiversity. Specifically we conclude that emerging theories on the life histories of dominant soil taxa can be invoked to explain changes in soil carbon cycling linked to resource availability, and that there is a strong case for considering microbial biodiversity in future studies investigating the turnover of different pools of soil carbon. PMID:24058360

Thomson, Bruce C; Ostle, Nick J; McNamara, Niall P; Oakley, Simon; Whiteley, Andrew S; Bailey, Mark J; Griffiths, Robert I

2013-09-10

101

CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

102

Hydrological modeling in swelling\\/shrinking peat soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peatlands respond to natural hydrologic cycles of precipitation and evapotranspiration with reversible deformations due to variations of water content in both the unsaturated and saturated zone. This phenomenon results in short-term vertical displacements of the soil surface that superimpose to the irreversible long-term subsidence naturally occurring in drained cropped peatlands because of bio-oxidation of the organic matter. These processes cause

M. Camporese; S. Ferraris; M. Putti; P. Salandin; P. Teatini

2006-01-01

103

Differential effects of surface and peat fire on soil constituents in a degraded wetland of the northern Florida Everglades.  

PubMed

The effects of surface (aboveground) and peat (belowground) fire on a number of soil constituents were examined within a hydrologically altered marsh in the northern Florida Everglades. Peat fire resulted in losses of total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and total calcium (TCa) concentrations increased. In addition, peat fire led to a more pronounced vertical gradient in constituent concentrations between upper and lower soil layers. Surface fire also affected soil constituents, but impacts were small relative to peat fire. The effects of physical versus chemical processes during burning were assessed using ratios of constituent to TCa concentrations. This measure indicated that increases in the levels of total phosphorus (TP) in peat-burned areas were due primarily to the physical reduction of soil, while decreases in TN and TC were the result of volatilization. Increases in concentrations of Pi fractions arose from both chemically and physically mediated processes. In an ecological context, the observed soil transformations may encourage the growth of invasive plant species, such as southern narrow-leaved cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.), which exhibits high growth rates in response to increased P availability. PMID:11790006

Smith, S M; Newman, S; Garrett, P B; Leeds, J A

104

Effect of Polypropylene Fibers on the California Be aring Ratio of Air Cured Stabilized Tropical Peat Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Peat soil is well known to deform and fail under a light surcharge load and is characterized with low shear strength, high compressibility and high water content. With the rising demand from the construction industry, utili zation of these soils is required and suitable technique needs to be found out for stabilizing the m. Approach: Model study had

Behzad Kalantari; Bujang B. K. Huat; Arun Prasad

105

Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 2: Laboratory phytotoxicity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation communities on metal- and arsenic-contaminated uplands surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana have been eliminated or highly modified. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using site soils from the impacted areas to determine whether the soils limit the ability of plants to establish and grow. The germination and growth of alfalfa, lettuce, and wheat in impacted area soils was compared

Lawrence A. Kapustka; Joshua Lipton; Hector Galbraith; Dave Cacela; Katherine LeJeune

1995-01-01

106

Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 1: Field evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of arsenic and metals in soils surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana were correlated with vegetative community structure and composition and wildlife habitat quality. Soils in the uplands surrounding the smelter were highly enriched with arsenic and metals. Concentrations of these analytes decreased with distance from the smelter and with soil depth, suggesting that the smelter is the source

Hector Galbraith; Katherine LeJeune; Joshua Lipton

1995-01-01

107

Decreasing soil water Ca2+ reduces DOC adsorption in mineral soils: implications for long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in southern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Positive trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration have been observed in surface waters throughout North America and northern Europe. Although adsorption in mineral soils is an important driver of DOC in upland streams, little is known about the potential for changes in DOC adsorption to contribute to these trends. We hypothesized that long-term declines in soil water Ca(2+) levels, in response to declining acid deposition, might influence DOC adsorption and that this could contribute to long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in south-central Ontario, Canada. Between 1987 and 2009, DOC concentrations increased significantly (p<0.05) in stream water and B horizon soil water (2 out of 3 sites). The null point DOC concentration (DOC(np)), which is a measure of the soil water DOC concentration at equilibrium with the soil, ranged from 1.27 to 3.75 mg L(-1) in B horizon soils. This was similar to the mean DOC concentrations of B horizon soil water (2.04-6.30 mg L(-1)) and stream water (2.20 mg L(-1)), indicating that soil and stream water DOC concentrations are controlled by equilibrium processes at the soil-water interface. Adsorption experiments using variable Ca(2+) concentrations demonstrated that as Ca(2+) decreased the DOC(np) increased (1.96 to 4.74 mg L(-1)), which was consistent with the observed negative correlation between DOC and Ca(2+) in B horizon soil water (p<0.05; r(2)=0.21). Additional adsorption experiments showed that Na(+) had no effect on DOC adsorption (p>0.05), indicating that changes in DOC adsorption might be related to cation bridging. We conclude that declines in soil water Ca(2+) concentration can contribute to increasing DOC trends in upland streams by reducing DOC adsorption in mineral soils. PMID:22554533

Kerr, Jason Grainger; Eimers, M Catherine

2012-05-01

108

Influence of N and non-N salts on atmospheric methane oxidation by upland boreal forest and tundra soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term (24?h) and medium-term (30?day) influence of N salts (NH4Cl, NaNO3 and NaNO2) and a non-N salt (NaCl) on first-order rate constants, k (h–1) and thresholds (CTh) for atmospheric CH4 oxidation by homogenized composites of upland boreal forest and tundra soils was assessed at salt additions ranging to 20??mol\\u000a g–1 dry weight (dw) soil. Additions of NH4Cl, NaNO3 and

S. C. Whalen

2000-01-01

109

Effects of peat moss and sawdust compost applications on N2O emission and N leaching in blueberry cultivating soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upland blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Read.) requires acidic and organic matter rich soils for its cultivation. Recently, the raised bed cultivation system has widely been used for blueberry cultivation, but it has a potential to cause nitrogen (N) losses via leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission especially with high rate of N application. We investigated the effects of organic amendments on

Imre Vano; Miwa Matsushima; Changyuan Tang; Kazuyuki Inubushi

2011-01-01

110

Manipulation of soil microbial community structure in bog and forest soils using chloroform fumigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform fumigation was used to manipulate the composition of microbial communities as a means of investigating relationships between community structure and the functioning of soil processes. Soils from two upland sites, a coniferous forest and a peat bog were fumigated with chloroform for 2, 12, 24 or 72 h. Samples were then incubated at 20°C for 4 weeks to investigate

H. E. Dickens; J. M. Anderson

1999-01-01

111

Physical, chemical and pedogenetical properties of soil in relation with altitude at Kazdagi upland black pine forest.  

PubMed

In this study an attempt was made to investigate the physical, chemical and pedogenetical soil properties of black pine forests at over 1400 metre (m) altitude of Kazdagi mountainous uplands. Soil profiles (37 numbers) were dug, examined and sampled considering the horizons and soil volume weight, fine soil weight, stoniness, pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and pedogenesis alterations were tried to be explored in relation with elevating altitude. While the altitude increased, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen values decreased at A horizon, and pH decreased at Bw horizons. Soil volume weight, fine soil weight, stoniness values of A horizon has positively and strong correlation with elevation with the coefficient values 0.699, 0.518 and 0.573 respectively at 0.01 significance. The highest regression values between altitude and volume weight, soil organic carbon contents (%) and soil total nitrogen contents (%) were detected with R2 coefficients 0.489, 0.295 and 0.247 for A and 0.556, 0.311 and 0.286 for Bw horizons respectively. The achieved results reveal that the elevation effect is remarkable in particular for the uppermost soil horizons. Furthermore the soil generation in fact functions well up to 1550 m altitude at Kazdagi mountainous land where we determined that at upper elevations Inceptisols replace with Alfisols in comparison with each other. PMID:20120457

Sevgi, Orhan; Tecomen, Huseyin Baris

2009-05-01

112

Carbon accumulation in soils of forest and bog ecosystems of southern Valdai in the Holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon stocks and accumulation rates in humus and peat horizons of the contiguous soil series of forest and bog ecosystems\\u000a have been studied in the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve, Tver Region. Upland soil types (soddy podzolic, brown, and\\u000a white podzolic) have been compared to paludified (peat-enriched gley podzolic and peaty gley) and bog soils differing in trophic\\u000a status, including

T. Yu. Minayeva; S. Ya. Trofimov; O. A. Chichagova; E. I. Dorofeyeva; A. A. Sirin; I. V. Glushkov; N. D. Mikhailov; B. Kromer

2008-01-01

113

Swelling of peat soil samples as determined by 1H NMR relaxometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The swelling of soil organic matter (SOM) rich samples like peat soils may affect sorption and desorption of nutrients and contaminants. In the course of swelling the state of water may change and SOM may form a gel phase. Two peat soil samples in different degradation states from one location in Germany were saturated with water. Their swelling kinetics were studied at 5°C, 19°C and 30°C using 1H NMR relaxometry at 7.5 MHz. CPMG pulse sequence and the inversion recovery method were used to determine transverse (T2) and longitudinal (T1) relaxation time distributions, respectively. The gel phase and the state of water were both characterized with 1H NMR relaxometry, Cryo-NMR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Three types of water were found in both peats: Non-freezing bound water and two types of freezable water which showed a splitting of the melting peak in the DSC thermogram. The stepwise water drainage of the peat samples by centrifugation revealed increasing T1/T2 ratios, which were not caused by proton relaxation, due to spin diffusion in internal field gradients. It can be assumed that both the splitting of the melting peak and the increasing T1/T2 ratios were caused by a phase separation of the "free" freezable water as found for conventional biopolymers like starch. Due to the organic surfaces one phase of the freezable water is structured which affects the rotational motion of water molecules, and thus caused different T1 and T2 values. From the swelling kinetics three processes (fast, medium, slow) of water dislocation from larger to smaller T2 values were distinguished. The time constants of the processes were found to be in the range of minutes (fast), hours (medium) and days/weeks (slow). The activation energies ranged between 15 - 50 KJ mol-1 suggesting that physical and physical/chemical processes are governing the swelling of SOM like a sterical re-orientation of SOM macromolecules, the water-structuring and hydration of SOM.

Jaeger, F.; Schaumann, G. E.

2009-04-01

114

Heavy metal contamination from historic mining in upland soil and estuarine sediments of Egypt Bay, Maine, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediments of Egypt Bay in Hancock County, Maine, are elevated above background levels. The source of the contamination is Cu mining that occurred in the uplands adjacent to Egypt Stream between 1877 and 1885. Egypt Stream is a tributary to Egypt Bay. Egypt Bay is part of the Taunton Bay estuary system. The Hagan Mine was one of the mines extracting metals from the sulfide deposits in Downeast Maine north of Penobscot Bay. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-AES after sample digestion with nitric acid. Soil collected from the coarse textured mine tailings pile contained elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, but the majority of the surface soils at the Hagan Mine site were not contaminated. Estuary sediments from the surface to 100 cm depth were collected in four locations within Egypt Bay. Below 40 cm, metal concentrations in sediments were similar to those in uncontaminated upland soils. Metal concentrations in the estuary sediments between the surface and 26 cm were above background levels. According to 210Pb dating, the sediment at 26-34 cm depth was likely to have been deposited at the time the historic mines were in operation. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediment from the 32-34 cm depth interval are similar to concentrations in the upland soil sample from the mine tailings pile. Elevated Pb concentrations in sediments from the surface to 24 cm are from atmospheric Pb deposition from anthropogenic sources. Sediment in the top 10 cm of the estuary has been mixed both by the polychaete worm Nereis virens and by those harvesting the worms for sale as fish bait.

Osher, L. J.; Leclerc, L.; Wiersma, G. B.; Hess, C. T.; Guiseppe, V. E.

2006-10-01

115

Hydrochemical modelling of the retention and transport of metallic radionuclides in the soils of an upland catchment.  

PubMed

The CHemistry of the Uplands Model (CHUM) describes the transport of chemicals through upland catchments with acid, organic-rich soils, by a combination of sub-models for equilibrium soil chemistry, hydrology, weathering, and nitrogen cycling. CHUM was used to simulate the retention and transport of metallic radionuclides (Co, Sr, Cs, UO(2), U(IV), Th, Am), in the soils of a small catchment in Cumbria, UK, for 2 years after their atmospheric deposition in a single hypothetical precipitation event. Export of radionuclides to streamwater is calculated to occur most readily following deposition of the dissolved elements at high water saturation of the catchment, when little incoming rainwater is required to make up the small moisture deficit of the organic surface horizon, and solutes can move to greater depths in the soil profile. Deposition when the catchment is drier, or of particulate radionuclides, leads to stronger retention. Radionuclide retention or transport depends on the strength of chemical interaction with the solid phases of the different soil horizons; this varies among the elements, and also with oxidation state, U(IV) species being more strongly retained than UO(2). For purely organic soils, the least strongly retained radionuclide is Cs, but the presence in the mineral soil horizon of small amounts of clay mineral with high selectivity towards Cs can markedly increase with high selectivity towards Cs can markedly increase its retention. For the actinides, binding by dissolved organic matter is important; for example, the rate of transport of Th to the stream is increased by more than two orders of magnitude by complexation with dissolved fulvic acid. The model assumptions suggest that, in the longer term, losses from the catchment of Co, Sr and Cs would take place on a time-scale of decades, whereas the actinides would be much more persistent. PMID:15093497

Tipping, E

1996-01-01

116

Heavy metals uptake from contaminated soils as affected by peat, lime, and chelates  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal contamination of soils may reduce yields as well as the suitability for consumption of crop growth (Keeney et al., Leeper). In an effort to find possible ways to counter this danger, the effect of lime, chelating agents, and peat applied to Zn-, Cu- and Pb-contaminated soils on the uptake of metal ions were studied. Pot experiments with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) plants and soils, humic podzols (haplohumads) contaminated with Zn (3030 mg kg/sup -1/) and with Pb, Zn and Cu (110, 630, and 40 mg kg/sup -//sub 1/, respectively) were carried out. The concentration of the acid extracts of soils and plants were determined with the aid of the simultaneous direct reading spectrograph and atomic absorption. In all cases, raising the pH of the soil by liming appeared to be the most efficient method for reducing plant absorption of toxic micronutrients and heavy metals. However, the uptake of Fe and Mn was more markedly dependent on pH than that of Zn and Cu.

Albasel, N.; Cottenie, A.

1985-01-01

117

Temperature, Water Content and Wet-Dry Cycle Effects on DOC Production and Carbon Mineralization in Agricultural Peat Soils.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of controlled laboratory experiments were utilized to examine factors affecting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production and C mineralization rates over a range of conditions experienced resulting from agricultural practices in peat soils from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. We conclude...

118

Use of MSW compost, dried sewage sludge and other wastes as partial substitutes for peat and soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of different materials; peat, sand or forest soil, in the production of substrates for ornamental plants and for revegetating sealed landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Therefore, the feasibility of using composted municipal solid wastes (MSW), sewage sludge and other organic wastes to produce alternative substrates for ornamental plants and to improve the re-vegetation

F. Ingelmo; R. Canet; M. A. Ibañez; F. Pomares; J. García

1998-01-01

119

Use of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Imaging for Quantifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-aided Tomography (CT) imaging was utilized to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard dens...

120

Oxidoreductase activity of peat soils as an indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs in West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate analysis unambiguously demonstrated the differentiation of oxidoreductase activity (catalase, peroxidase, and\\u000a dehydrogenase) in peat soils after a 20–25-year period of bog drainage and afforestation. The enzyme activity depended on\\u000a the drainage depth. A statistical model has been developed to predict the degree of humification of peat organic matter from\\u000a peroxidase activity and moisture of drained soils. Soil peroxidase activity

T. T. Efremova; T. M. Ovchinnikova

2007-01-01

121

[Oxidoreductase activity of peat soils as an indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs in west Siberia].  

PubMed

Multivariate analysis unambiguously demonstrated the differentiation of oxidoreductase activity (catalase, peroxidase, and dehydrogenase) in peat soils after a 20-25-year period of bog drainage and afforestation. The enzyme activity depended on the drainage depth. A statistical model has been developed to predict the degree of humification of peat organic matter from peroxidase activity and moisture of drained soils. Soil peroxidase activity can be an important indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs. PMID:17853699

Efremova, T T; Ovchinnikova, T M

122

Development and testing of an improved model of the thermal behaviour of peat soils.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biogeochemical processes in peats are temperature-sensitive. Despite this, little work has been done on characterising the thermal behaviour of peats. Most existing studies have looked only at 1-D thermal behaviour using simple models in which the thermal properties are constant with depth, and the temperature variation at the surface is specified from field measurements or is assumed to follow a sine wave. We report on the development and application of a more realistic thermal model of peat soils in which heat transfer is described by a system of `capacitors' or nodes and `resistors'. Its features include: 1. A realistic surface boundary condition where convective (sensible and latent) and radiative (short- and long- wave) heat transfers are accounted for by nodes representing the air/atmosphere above the peatland surface. 2. The ability to vary thermal properties with depth in order to simulate, for example, the effect of an unsaturated zone above the water table on thermal behaviour. 3. The ability to simulate 3-D patterns of heat transfer in patterned peatlands consisting of hummocks, lawns, hollows, and pools (microforms). In order that the model can be applied to a 3-D system, the standard large-scale parameterisation of the Penman-Monteith equation, used to calculate convective heat fluxes, has been improved. First, aerodynamic resistance has been calculated from newly developed sensitive self-logging atmometers, enabling measurement of potential evaporation at high frequencies and at different positions on and surrounding a microform, either at the ground surface or within the plant canopy. Secondly, dual probe heat pulse sensors (DPHPS) have enabled the measurement of soil thermal properties and volumetric water content of a small volume of soil at regular time intervals. In combination with measured water-table fluctuations, a stack of DPHPS within the unsaturated zone has enabled the accurate measurement of actual evapotranspiration, without the interference and labour requirements of a lysimeter. The model has been applied, in its 1-D form, to a Sphagnum hollow and lawn in order to evaluate these new approaches and to test the error that arises when advective heat transfer within the soil profile is ignored. Advective heat transfer has been ignored in the model because of the complex nature of unsaturated water transfer within Sphagnum litter and acrotelm peat. The prototype equipment enabled the successful parameterisation and accurate representation of the thermal behaviour of the Sphagnum hollow and lawn during dry periods. During wet periods model error increased slightly; however, negative feedback mechanisms at the surface boundary enabled the model to recover quickly. We discuss the future application of this model to a hummock-hollow complex and demonstrate how consideration of points 1, 2, and 3 above can lead to quite different patterns of heat transfer from those predicted in previous simple models.

Kettridge, N.; Baird, A.

2004-05-01

123

In situ measures of methanotroph activity in upland soils: A reaction-diffusion model and field observation of water stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory assays of methanotroph activity in upland (i.e., well-drained, oxic) ecosystems alter soil physical structure and weaken inference about environmental controls of their natural behavior. To overcome these limitations, we developed a chamber-based approach to quantify methanotroph activity in situ on the basis of measures of soil diffusivity (from additions of an inert tracer gas to the chamber headspace), methane concentration change, and analysis of results with a reaction-diffusion model. The analytic solution to this model predicts that methane consumption rates are equally sensitive to changes in methanotroph activity and diffusivity, but that doubling either of these parameters leads to only a ?2 increase in consumption. With a series of simulations, we generate guidelines for field deployments and show that the approach is robust to plausible departures from assumptions. We applied the approach on a dry grassland in north central Colorado. Our model closely fit measured changes in methane concentrations, indicating that we had accurately characterized the biophysical processes underlying methane uptake. Field patterns showed that, over a 7-week period, soil moisture fell from 38% to 15% water-filled pore spaces, and diffusivity doubled as the larger soil pores drained of water. However, methane uptake rates fell by ˜40%, following a 90% decrease in methanotroph activity, suggesting that the decline in methanotroph activity resulted from water stress to methanotrophs. We anticipate that future application of this approach over longer timescales and on more diverse field sites has potential to provide important insights into the ecology of methanotrophs in upland soils.

von Fischer, Joseph C.; Butters, Gregory; Duchateau, Paul C.; Thelwell, Roger J.; Siller, Richard

2009-03-01

124

The influence of environmental factors on the CO2 emission from the surface of oligotrophic peat soils in West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of various ecological factors (air and soil temperature, atmospheric pressure, level of peatland waters, and the content of CO2 in the atmosphere) on the emission of CO2 from the surface of a peat deposit of an oligotrophic peatland in the south taiga subzone of West Siberia was studied. On the basis of the investigations, day and seasonal dynamics of the emission of CO2 from the surface of the peat deposit were revealed. A detailed correlation analysis allowed us to describe the dependences of the CO2 flux from the surface of the peat deposit on the environmental parameters at various levels of averaging: hour, day, and month. It was shown that the temperature of the air and surface of the peat deposit have a reliable impact on the emission of CO2 on all time scales. The atmospheric pressure, as a factor that changes relatively slowly, influences the emission of CO2 weakly. The performed studies did not allow us to draw an unambiguous conclusion about the influence of the level of bog waters on the emission of CO2 from the surface of a peat deposit.

Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, E. A.

2012-06-01

125

Restoration of Upland Hardwood Tree Species on the Formerly Cultivated Soils in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied various approaches to restore upland hardwood species to formerly cultivated soils at the SRS. Studies with direct seedling were largely a failure and resulted in very low rates of establishment. Failure was a result of predation and drought. Growth and survival of planted oaks, dogwood and pine did not vary between hardwood overstory and pine overstory conditions. Soil trenching in a forty year old loblolly stand demonstrated dramatic increases in growth of planted oaks and dogwood. When compared, survival is similar if not slightly better when seedlings are planted in the understory of canopies vs. clearcuts. However, growth is better in recent clearcuts for dogwood and white oaks. Hickory does better underplanted.

Jones, R.H.; Waldrop, T.A.

2001-08-03

126

Assessing soil calcium depletion following growth and harvesting of Sitka spruce plantation forestry in the acid sensitive Welsh uplands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple mass balance has been used to estimate soil calcium depletion during the growth of a 50 year old Sitka spruce crop on acid, base-poor peaty podzol soils in upland Wales. Growth of the crop will deplete the soil calcium reserve by an amount (205 kg Ca ha-1) approximately equivalent to the exchangeable calcium pool to the bottom of the profile and equal to 14% of the total soil calcium reserve to the bottom of the B horizon. Despite these predictions, measurements of exchangeable calcium show no differences beneath mature forest and acid grassland, implying that i) weathering rates in forest soils are greater than long-term estimates and predictions by the PROFILE soil chemistry model ii) the trees can access other sources of calcium or iii) there are significant errors in the mass balance. Following stem-only harvesting, growth of a 50 year old second rotation crop will lead to further depletion of soil calcium, but this amount (79 kg Ca ha-1), is less than for a second rotation crop following whole-tree harvesting (197 kg Ca ha-1). After the first crop, stem-only harvesting would allow a further 18 rotations before depletion of the total calcium reserve to the bottom of the B horizon. Whole-tree harvesting would allow for seven rotations after the first crop. These calculations assume that all sources of calcium are equally available to the crop. This can only be resolved by dynamic modelling of the calcium cycle at the ecosystem scale based on appropriate field measurements. The potential for significant soil acidification is therefore greater following whole-tree harvesting and, in line with current recommendations (Nisbet et al., 1997), this technique should probably be avoided on acidic, nutrient-poor soils unless remedial measures are included to enhance the soil base cation status.

Reynolds, B.; Stevens, P. A.

127

The use of Geophysical Techniques to Monitor the Evolution and Spatial Distribution of Biogenic Gasses in Peat Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the mechanisms of formation and the spatial distribution of biogenic gasses in peat soils. In this work we investigate the utility of two geophysical measurements, resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR), to image the evolution and spatial location of gas formation in peat blocks. Two blocks were extracted from a large freshwater peatland in Maine, transported to the laboratory within 36 hours, and kept at 5°C until the experiment began. Geophysical measurements were made as temperature was increased 3°C d-1 from 5°C until 23°C was reached and held constant. One block was instrumented with 5 electrode arrays (1 cm electrode separation) and the second block was constructed to permit high-frequency GPR measurements (1.2 GHz frequency). Methane emissions and surface peat deformation were monitored concurrently by using a portable methane detector and elevation rods respectively. The results demonstrate that geophysical measurements can provide unique information on the spatial distribution of biogenic gasses forming in peat soils. These findings also have implications for the monitoring of temporal behavior of biogenic gas emissions to the atmosphere from peatlands and its impact on global warming.

Comas, X.; Roy-Moulik, M.; Slater, L.

2006-05-01

128

Hydrological, fine sediment and water colour response of managed upland wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many upland peats in the UK have been subject to artificial drainage mainly involving the cutting of ditches. The aim was to drain the ground for grazing and game but there is little evidence of any improvement for these purposes. Instead moorland ditching has been blamed for causing a wide range of problems including: increased flooding, decreased low flows, increased water discolouration (or loss of dissolved organic carbon), accelerated erosion and associated destruction of in-stream and wetland habitats and the removal of the terrestrial carbon store. However, there is conflicting evidence for the hydrological response of peatlands to drainage and little is known about the exact nature of the hydrological, fine sediment and water colour production, transport and storage processes involved. This poster presents the research outline for a new three year project that aims to examine the effects of wetland management (including ditch blocking and natural revegetation) on the production of runoff, fine sediment and water discolouration in upland blanket peats. Detailed process-based measurements will be combined with simultaneously collected yield data measured at a range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, monitoring of catchment outlets will be combined with measurement of hillslope flow processes including overland flow, subsurface pipeflow, and soil pore matrix and macropore flows. It is envisaged that the project will be extended to deal with the science of a detailed process-based carbon budget for managed upland peats.

Holden, J.

2003-04-01

129

Adaptability of blueberry species to various soil types: III. Final growth and tissue analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings of five blueberry progenies were planted in a range of soils, with or without the addition of peat moss, in an outdoor pot study to examine the adaptability of blueberries to upland soil conditions. Blueberry progenies ranged from essentially pure highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) to interspecific hybrids containing varying amounts of evergreen (V. darrowi Camp), lowbush (V. angustifolium Aiton),

R. F. Korcak

1989-01-01

130

Effect of Long-Term Paddy-Upland Yearly Rotations on Rice (Oryza sativa) Yield, Soil Properties, and Bacteria Community Diversity  

PubMed Central

A 10-year-long field trial (between 2001 and 2010) was conducted to investigate the effect of paddy-upland rotation on rice yield, soil properties, and bacteria community diversity. Six types of paddy-upland crop rotations were evaluated: rice-fallow (control; CK), rice-rye grass (RR), rice-potato with rice straw mulches (RP), rice-rapeseed with straw incorporated into soil at flowering (ROF), rice-rapeseed incorporated in soil after harvest (ROM), and rice-Chinese milk vetch (RC). Analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to determine microbial diversity among rotations. Rice yield increased for upland crops planted during the winter. RC had the highest average yield of 7.74?t/ha, followed by RR, RP, ROM, and ROF. Soil quality differences among rotations were found. RC and RP improved the soil mean weight diameter (MWD), which suggested that rice rotated with milk vetch and potato might improve the paddy soil structure. Improved total nitrogen (TN) and soil organic matter (SOM) were also found in RC and RP. The positive relationship between yield and TN/SOM might provide evidence for the effect of RC rotation on rice yield. A strong time dependency of soil bacterial community diversity was also found.

Chen, Song; Zheng, Xi; Wang, Dangying; Chen, Liping; Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Xiufu

2012-01-01

131

Effect of soil texture, tailwater height, and pore-water pressure on the morphodynamics of migrating headcuts in upland concentrated flows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rill and gully erosion in upland and agricultural areas can result in significant soil degradation worldwide, and headcuts are the primary mechanism by which this landscape dissection occurs. Experiments were conducted to further examine the morphodynamic behavior of actively migrating headcuts in u...

132

Copper tolerance of the biomass crops Elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed ( Phragmites australis) in soil culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot trials were conducted to study the influence of copper (Cu) on the growth and biomass of Elephant grass (EG, Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (VG, Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (UR, Phragmites australis). Cu toxicity in EG, VG and UR was positively correlated with the total and bioavailable Cu concentrations in the soil. Based on the EC50, dry

Xinghua Liu; Yixing Shen; Laiqing Lou; Chenglong Ding; Qingsheng Cai

2009-01-01

133

Hydrochemical heterogeneity in an upland catchment: further characterisation of the spatial, temporal and depth variations in soils, streams and groundwaters of the Plynlimon forested catchment, Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous nature of upland hard-rock catchments in terms of geology, geomorphology, superficial deposits, soil type and land use gives rise to a range of hydrochemical characteristics in stream waters. This is further complicated by the large and often rapid changes in stream flow typical of storm events. The sources of solutes and flow pathways in hard-rock catchments are still

P. Shand; A. H. Haria; C. Neal; K. J. Griffiths; D. C. Gooddy; A. J. Dixon; T. Hill; D. K. Buckley; J. E. Cunningham

2005-01-01

134

Chapter 31 The use of bamboo and bakau piles for soil improvements and application of pile raft system for the construction of embankment on peats and soft soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of embankment on peats and soft soils has always been faced by the problems of instability and large settlement. The conventional system conducted in practice by Indonesian engineers is the use of bamboo pile raft system (known as “cerucuk”), owing to its availability and low cost. Another aspect to be considered is simple technology. Bakau piles, Ulin and Gelam

Paulus P. Rahardjo

2005-01-01

135

Differential response of archaeal and bacterial communities to nitrogen inputs and pH changes in upland pasture rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Grassland management regimens influence the structure of archaeal communities in upland pasture soils, which appear to be dominated by as yet uncultivated non-thermophilic Crenarchaeota. In an attempt to determine which grassland management factors select for particular crenarchaeal community structures, soil microcosm experiments were performed examining the effect of increased pH, application of inorganic fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) and sheep urine deposition on both archaeal and bacterial communities in unmanaged grassland soil. As grassland management typically increases pH, a further experiment examined the effect of a reduction in pH, to that typical of unimproved grassland soils, on archaeal and bacterial communities. The RT-PCR amplification of 16S rRNA followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated a distinct and reproducible effect on bacterial communities after incubation for 28 or 30 days. In contrast, none of the treatments had a significant effect on the structure of the crenarchaeal community, indicating that these factors are not major drivers of crenarchaeal community structures in grassland soils. PMID:15250888

Nicol, Graeme W; Webster, Gordon; Glover, L Anne; Prosser, James I

2004-08-01

136

Influence of oil and stratal water contamination on the ash composition of oligotrophic peat soils in the oil-production area (the Ob' region)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral contamination of peat soils in the oil-production area differs considerably in the places of oil or stratal water spills. The time elapsed since the spill occurred is also an important factor of the changes in the chemical composition of the peat ash. The ash content rises drastically in the oil-contaminated peat, and the peat ash becomes rich in heavy metals (Mn, Ni, and Sr) and lanthanides (La and Ce). The content of K and Fe decreases, and that of P, S, Mg, Ca, Ni, and Pb increases with time at the site of old oil contamination. In the course of the self-rehabilitation of oil-contaminated peat, the content of Cl decreases more intensely than that of the heavier halogen Br. The ash content rises to a lesser extent in the peat contaminated with stratal water. The ash of the salinized peat is enriched in heavy alkaline-earth elements, i.e., Ba and Sr. Although most of the elements are leached with time, the content of Ba and Sr still remains 4-6 times higher than the background one even after long-term (more than 10 years) leaching. The concentrations of halogens rise considerably in the salinized peat, that of Cl in the peat ash decreases by 10 times, and the content of Ba virtually remains the same.

Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Avetov, N. A.; Savichev, A. T.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

2013-10-01

137

Humic-rich peat extracts inhibit sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and anaerobic respiration but not acetogenesis in peat soils of a temperate bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand why anaerobic ombrotrophic peats can be very low in methane after drainage related afforestation, we analyzed the competition of sulfate reducing, humus reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms by incubating ombrotrophic peats of the Mer Bleue bog, Ontario. Sulfate, sulfide, and sulfate containing peat dissolved organic matter (DOM) from an afforested site were added in reduced and oxidized redox state.

Stefanie Minderlein; Christian Blodau

2010-01-01

138

Impact of drainage on wettability of fen peat-moorsh soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

High water retention in peat is attributed to structural voids (macro-pores) due to the partial degradation of the structure of peat-forming plants, and molecular absorption sites (micro-pores) associated with the formation of humic substances. Water retention by the heterogeneously-structured system in peat organic matter depends on the chemical structure of solid surfaces. These naturally wet solids, if dried sufficiently, lose

L. Szajdak; J. Szatylowicz; T. Brandyk

2009-01-01

139

A Peat Moss-Based Technology for Mitigating Residues of the Explosives TNT, RDX, and HMX in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increased interest in how to balance military preparedness and environmental protection at Department of Defense (DoD) facilities. This research evaluated a peat moss-based technology to enhance the adsorption and biodegradation of explosive residues at military testing and training ranges. The evaluation was performed using 30-cm-long soil columns operated under unsaturated flow conditions. The treatment materials were placed at

Mark E. Fuller; Jean M. Lowey; Charles E. Schaefer; Robert J. Steffan

2005-01-01

140

Molecular analysis of the major capsid genes ( g23 ) of T4-type bacteriophages in an upland black soil in Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant biological entities on the planet and are important as the greatest genomic\\u000a reservoirs in both marine and terrestrial environments. In this study, we analysed T4-type phage communities in an upland\\u000a black soil by monitoring g23 clones in DNA extracted from seasonal soil samples with no fertilizer, chemical fertilizers, chemical fertilizers plus manure,\\u000a and natural

Guanghua Wang; Zhenhua Yu; Junjie Liu; Jian Jin; Xiaobing Liu; Makoto Kimura

2011-01-01

141

[Dynamics of upland field P pool under a long-term application of fertilizer P in yellow soil area and their effects on P concentration in runoff].  

PubMed

Studies on the dynamics of upland field P pool under a long-term application of fertilizer P in yellow soil area and their effects on P concentration in runoff showed that the contents of A1-P, Fe-P and Ca-P in soil cultivated layer increased greatly, and Olsen-P and algae-available P also accumulated obviously. The correlation coefficients of algae-available P content in the high-P soils (Olsen-P > 25 mg.kg-1) with the quantities of A1-P, Fe-P and Ca-P were 0.859**, 0.903** and 0.650*, respectively, of which, Fe-P was the most important. By a 30-min rainfall simulation experiment with a constant rainfall rate of 63.2 mm.h-1, the concentrations of dissolved reactive P and bio-available P in runoff from low-P upland fields (Olsen-P 4.62-15.9 mg.kg-1) were 2.81-4.17 micrograms.L-1 and 0.723-0.876 mg.L-1, respectively, whereas their concentrations in runoff from high-P upland fields (Olsen-P 29.4-59.2 mg.kg-1) were 0.026-0.714 mg.L-1 and 0.996-1.281 mg.L-1, respectively. Therefore, runoff from high-P upland fields could accelerate water eutrophication. PMID:12827870

Liu, Fang; Huang, Changyong; He, Tengbin; Qian, Xiaogang; Liu, Yuansheng; Luo, Haibo

2003-02-01

142

The solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) in upland soils of England and Wales.  

PubMed

Ninety-eight surface soils were sampled from the uplands of England and Wales, and analysed for loss-on-ignition (LOI), and total and dissolved base cations, Al, Fe, and trace heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb). The samples covered wide ranges of pH (3.4-8.3) and LOI (9-98%). Soil metal contents measured by extraction with 0.43 mol l-1 HNO3 and 0.1 mol l-1 EDTA were very similar, and generally lower than values obtained by extraction with a mixture of concentrated nitric and perchloric acids. Total heavy metal concentrations in soil solution depend positively upon soil metal content and [DOC], and negatively upon pH and LOI, values of r2 ranging from 0.39 (Cu) to 0.81 (Pb). Stronger correlations (r2=0.76-0.95) were obtained by multiple regression analysis involving free metal ion (Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+) concentrations calculated with the equilibrium speciation model WHAM/Model VI. The free metal ion concentrations depend positively upon MHNO3 and negatively upon pH and LOI. The data were also analysed by using WHAM/Model VI to describe solid-solution interactions as well as solution speciation; this involved calibrating each soil sample by adjusting the content of "active" humic matter to match the observed soil pH. The calibrated model provided fair predictions of total heavy metal concentrations in soil solution, and predicted free metal ion concentrations were in reasonable agreement with the values obtained from solution-only speciation calculations. PMID:12810315

Tipping, E; Rieuwerts, J; Pan, G; Ashmore, M R; Lofts, S; Hill, M T R; Farago, M E; Thornton, I

2003-01-01

143

Soil CO2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permafrost soils store nearly half of global soil carbon (C), and therefore permafrost thawing could lead to large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions via decomposition of soil organic matter. When ice-rich permafrost thaws, it creates a localized surface subsidence called thermokarst terrain, which changes the soil microenvironment. We used soil profile CO2 measurements to understand the response of belowground C

Hanna Lee; Edward A. G. Schuur; Jason G. Vogel

2010-01-01

144

Uncertainties in peat volume and soil carbon estimated using ground penetrating radar and probing  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the uncertainty in calculations of peat basin volume using high-resolution data . to resolve the three-dimensional structure of a peat basin using both direct (push probes) and indirect geophysical (ground penetrating radar) measurements. We compared volumetric estimates from both approaches with values from literature. We identified subsurface features that can introduce uncertainties into direct peat thickness measurements including the presence of woody peat and soft clay or gyttja. We demonstrate that a simple geophysical technique that is easily scalable to larger peatlands can be used to rapidly and cost effectively obtain more accurate and less uncertain estimates of peat basin volumes critical to improving understanding of the total terrestrial carbon pool in peatlands.

Parsekian, Andrew D. [Rutgers University; Slater, Lee [Rutgers University; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios [Rutgers University; Nolan, James [Rutgers University; Sebestyen, Stephen D [USDA Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MN; Kolka, Randall K [USDA Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MN; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL

2012-01-01

145

Distribution and speciation of mercury in the peat bog of Xiaoxing'an Mountain, northeastern China.  

PubMed

Most reports on mercury (Hg) in boreal ecosystems are from the Nordic countries and North America. Comparatively little information is available on Hg in wetlands in China. We present here a study on Hg in the Tangwang River forested catchment of the Xiaoxing'an Mountain in the northeast of China. The average total Hg (THg) in peat profile ranged from 65.8 to 186.6 ng g(-1) dry wt with the highest at the depth of 5-10 cm. THg in the peat surface was higher than the background in Heilongjiang province, the Florida Everglades, and Birkeness in Sweden. MethylHg (MeHg) concentration ranged from 0.16 to 1.86 ng g(-1) dry wt, with the highest amount at 10-15 cm depth. MeHg content was 0.2-1.2% of THg. THg and MeHg all decreased with the depth. THg in upland layer of soil (0-20 cm) was comparable to the peat surface, but in deeper layers THg concentration in peat was much higher than that in the forested mineral soil. THg in the peat bog increased, but MeHg decreased after it was drained. THg content in plant was different; THg contents in moss (119 ng g(-1) dry wt, n=12) were much higher than in the herbage, the arbor, and the shrubs. The peat bog has mainly been contaminated by Hg deposition from the atmosphere. PMID:12683981

Liu, Ruhai; Wang, Qichao; Lu, Xianguo; Fang, Fengman; Wang, Yan

2003-01-01

146

Effect of converting wetland forest to sago palm plantations on methane gas flux and organic carbon dynamics in tropical peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of changing wetland forest to sago palm plantations on methane gas flux and organic carbon dynamics in tropical peat soil was studied in the field and the laboratory using soil samples from the Peat Research Station, Sarawak, Malaysia. A small amount of methane was released from the soil surface of both the forest and plantation field, with no significant difference between the two sites (1·1+/-0·61 and 1·39+/-0·82 mg CH4 m-2 hr-1, respectively); thus, the amount of methane emission from the total area of tropical peat soil was estimated, preliminarily, as 2·43 Tg yr-1, contributing 0·45% of the total global methane emission and 2·1% of methane emissions from global natural wetland. However, large amounts of methane were accumulated in the deeper soil layers. Sago palm contained much less carbon as biomass, but lost more as the carbon dissolved in groundwater. Laboratory experiments showed that incorporation of rice straw into tropical peat soil increased methane formation significantly. Conversely, ammonium sulfate suppressed methane formation in tropical peat soil.

Inubushi, K.; Hadi, A.; Okazaki, M.; Yonebayashi, K.

1998-10-01

147

Predicting soil thickness and dust content in upland watersheds of the Mojave Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil thickness is an important input parameter for hydrologic models. As the spatial distribution of soil thickness is strongly variable at hillslope scales, modeling soil thickness at the watershed scale is needed if we are to accurately model hydrologic and geomorphic processes that depend on soil thickness. Recent studies have demonstrated that numerical models which assume a long-term balance between soil production and soil erosion can accurately predict the spatial distribution of soil thickness in semiarid and relatively humid areas, where soil thickness varies gradually along hillslope profiles. Yet, these models have not been tested in arid regions, where soil thickness varies abruptly and where the influence of dust accretion on soil thickness may be much more significant. In this study, we developed and tested a numerical model for the prediction of soil thickness and dust content in an arid mountainous area of the Mojave Desert, using field measurements of soil thickness, geochemical analyses of soil and bedrock samples, and quantitative analyses of LIDAR data. The study site is characterized by thin soils (<1-2 m) and extreme variability in soil thickness at essentially all spatial scales. Soil production rates in the model were quantified using exponential and humped soil production functions, and soil erosion rates were quantified using the nonlinear depth- and slope-dependent transport function, assuming that only the upper soil horizons (A+B) can be transported. We calibrated the soil production and dust accretion rates in various plutonic lithologies (granite, diorite, and quartz monzonite) using 1) field data of soil thickness, and 2) dust content of the soil estimated by analysis of immobile element concentrations. We validated the model results using measured data on soil thickness and the presence/absence of soil in an attempt to adequately represent the great spatial heterogeneity in soil thickness at our study sites. We found good agreement between observed and predicted soil thickness and dust content in soil. Our results show that we can simultaneously predict the soil thickness and the fraction of eolian dust in the soil at different sites across the landscape.

Crouvi, O.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.

2011-12-01

148

Catchment disturbance and stream metabolism: Patterns in ecosystem respiration and gross primary production along a gradient of upland soil and vegetation disturbance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Catchment characteristics determine the inputs of sediments and nutrients to streams. As a result, natural or anthropogenic disturbance of upland soil and vegetation can affect instream processes. The Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) exhibits a wide range of upland disturbance levels because of spatial variability in the intensity of military training. This gradient of disturbance was used to investigate the effect of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on rates of stream metabolism (ecosystem respiration rate [ER] and gross primary production rate [GPP]). Stream metabolism was measured using an open-system, single-station approach. All streams were net heterotrophic during all seasons. ER was highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer and autumn. ER was negatively correlated with catchment disturbance level in winter, spring, and summer, but not in autumn. ER was positively correlated with abundance of coarse woody debris, but not significantly related to % benthic organic matter. GPP was low in all streams and generally not significantly correlated with disturbance level. Our results suggest that the generally intact riparian zones of these streams were not sufficient to protect them from the effect of upland disturbance, and they emphasize the role of the entire catchment in determining stream structure and function. ?? 2005 by The North American Benthological Society.

Houser, J. N.; Mulholland, P. J.; Maloney, K. O.

2005-01-01

149

Catchment disturbance and stream metabolism: patterns in ecosystem respiration and gross primary production along a gradient of upland soil and vegetation disturbance  

SciTech Connect

Catchment characteristics determine the inputs of sediments and nutrients to streams. As a result, natural or anthropogenic disturbance of upland soil and vegetation can affect instream processes. The Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) exhibits a wide range of upland disturbance levels because of spatial variability in the intensity of military training. This gradient of disturbance was used to investigate the effect of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on rates of stream metabolism (ecosystem respiration rate [ER] and gross primary production rate [GPP]). Stream metabolism was measured using an open-system, single-station approach. All streams were net heterotrophic during all seasons. ER was highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer and autumn. ER was negatively correlated with catchment disturbance level in winter, spring, and summer, but not in autumn. ER was positively correlated with abundance of coarse woody debris, but not significantly related to % benthic organic matter. GPP was low in all streams and generally not significantly correlated with disturbance level. Our results suggest that the generally intact riparian zones of these streams were not sufficient to protect them from the effect of upland disturbance, and they emphasize the role of the entire catchment in determining stream structure and function.

Houser, Jeffrey N [ORNL

2005-01-01

150

Simulating the effect of land use and climate change on upland soil carbon stock of Wales using ECOSSE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within Wales soils hold between 400-500 MtC, over half of this carbon is stored in organic and organo-mineral soil which cover less than 20% of the land area of Wales. It has been predicted that climate change will increasingly have an impact on the C stock of soils in Wales. Higher temperatures will increase the rate of decomposition of organic matter, leading to increased C losses. However increased net primary production (NPP), leading to increased inputs of organic matter, may offset this. Land use plays a major role in determining the level of soil C and the direction of change in status (soil as a source or sink). We present here an assessment of the effect of land use change and climate change on the upland soil carbon stock of Wales in 3 different catchments i.e. Migneint, Plynlimon and Pontbren using a process-based model of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, ECOSSE. The uncertainties introduced in the simulations by using only the data available at national scale are determined. The ECOSSE model (1,2) has been developed to simulate greenhouse gas emissions from both organic and mineral soils. ECOSSE was derived from RothC (3) and SUNDIAL (4,5) and predicts the impacts of changes in land use and climate on emissions and soil carbon stock. Simulated changes in soil C are dependent on the type of land use change, the soil type where the land use change is occurring, and the C content of soil under the initial and final land uses. At Migneint and Plynlimon, the major part of the losses occurs due to the conversion of semi-natural land to grassland. Reducing the land use change from semi-natural to grassland is the main measure needed to mitigate losses of soil C. At Pontbren, the model predicts a net gain in soil C with the predicted land use change, so there is no need to mitigate. Simulations of future changes in soil C to 2050 showed very small changes in soil C due to climate compared to changes due to land use change. At the selected catchments, changes in soil C due to the impacts of land use change were predicted to be up to 1000 times greater than the changes predicted due to climate change. This is encouraging, as it illustrates the great potential for C losses due to climate change to be mitigated by changing land use. 1. Smith P, et al 2007. SEERAD Report. ISBN 978 0 7559 1498 2. 166pp. 2. Smith JU, et al 2009. RERAD Report. In press. 3. Coleman K & Jenkinson DS 1996. In: Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Models Using Existing, Long-Term Datasets, NATO ASI Series I, Vol.38 (eds Powlson DS, Smith P, Smith JU), pp. 237-246. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. 4. Bradbury NJ, et al 1993. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 121, 363-379. 5. Smith JU, et al 1996. Agronomy Journal 88, 38-42.

Rani Nayak, Dali; Gottschalk, Pia; Evans, Chris; Smith, Pete; Smith, Jo

2010-05-01

151

Erodibility of a soil drainage sequence in the loess uplands of Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of loess soils in the lower Mississippi to runoff and erosion losses varies as a function of landscape position and mapping units. This study was conducted to determine the effects of soil drainage on physical and chemical properties that influence erodibility through their control of aggregate stability. Soil samples were collected from the A- and B-horizons of the

Fred E. Rhoton; Sjoerd W. Duiker

2008-01-01

152

The role of mineralization of the organic matter of soddy-podzolic and peat bog soils in the accumulation of 137Cs by plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) in the mobilization of 137Cs was estimated on the basis of data on the biokinetic fractionation of the organic matter of soddy-podzolic sandy-loam and peat bog soils and on the coefficients of the soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium under field conditions. The peat bog soils were richer than the soddy-podzolic soils in the total organic carbon (by 7.9-23.8 times), the potentially mineralizable carbon (by 2.4-6.5 times), and the carbon of the microbial biomass (by 2.9-4.6 times). The agricultural use of the soddy-podzolic and peat bog soils led to a decrease in the SOM mineralization capacity by 1.1-1.8 and 1.4-2.0 times, respectively. Simultaneously, the portions of the easily, moderately, and difficultly mineralizable fraction of the SOM active pool changed. The coefficients of the 137Cs transfer from the peat bog soils to plants were 3.3-17.6 times higher than those for the soddy-podzolic soils. The content of 137Cs in plants grown on the peat bog soils was 2-65 times higher than that in the mobile (salt-extractable) soil pool by the beginning of the growing season. Strong positive linear correlations were found between the coefficients of the soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs and the total content of the SOM, the content of the microbial biomass, the content of the potentially mineralizable carbon, and the intensity of its mineralization. It was concluded that the decisive factors controlling the intensity of the 137Cs transfer from mineral and organic soils into plants are the SOM content and its mineralization potential. The mineralization of the SOM is accompanied by the release of both 137Cs and mineral nitrogen; the latter facilitates the transfer of radiocesium into plants.

Tulina, A. S.; Semenov, V. M.; Tsybul'Ka, N. N.; Shapsheeva, T. P.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Arastovich, T. V.

2010-10-01

153

Method for determining the acid ameliorating capacity of plant residue compost, urban waste compost, farmyard manure, and peat applied to tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant residue compost, urban waste compost, farmyard manure, and peat can be used to ameliorate soil acidity. The diversity of these materials and their highly variable composition mean that their reliability in increasing the soil pH is uncertain because of lack of a method to test their acid ameliorating capacities. Incubation of a Spodosol from Sumatra, an Oxisol from Burundi

M. T. F. Wong; S. Nortcliff; R. S. Swift

1998-01-01

154

Acrocarpospora phusangensis sp. nov., isolated from a temperate peat swamp forest soil.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, strain PS33-18(T), that formed club-shaped and spherical structures borne on the tip of the aerial mycelia was isolated from a temperate peat swamp forest soil in Phu-Sang National Park, Phayao Province, Thailand. The isolate contained glutamic acid, alanine and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars of strain PS33-18(T) were glucose, madurose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose. The characteristic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipids. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The major cellular fatty acids were C17:1?8c, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PS33-18(T) was 71.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain PS33-18(T) should be classified in the genus Acrocarpospora. The level of similarity between this strain and the closely related species Acrocarpospora macrocephala NBRC 16266(T) was 98.3%, Acrocarpospora pleiomorpha NBRC 16267(T) was 97.9%, Acrocarpospora corrugata NBRC 13972(T) was 97.6%, Herbidospora sakaeratensis NBRC 102641(T) was 97.6% and Planotetraspora kaengkrachanensis NBRC 104272(T) was 97.3%. DNA-DNA hybridization results and physiological and biochemical properties indicated that strain PS33-18(T) could be distinguished readily from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Acrocarpospora phusangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PS33-18(T) (=BCC 46906(T)=NBRC 108782(T)). PMID:23125318

Niemhom, Nantawan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Tamura, Tomohiko; Thawai, Chitti

2012-11-02

155

Asanoa siamensis sp. nov., isolated from soil from a temperate peat swamp forest.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete strain, PS7-2(T), which produced spore chains borne on the tips of short sporophores, was isolated from soil collected from a temperate peat swamp forest in Phu-Sang National Park, Phayao province, Thailand. The isolate contained glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, 3-hydroxy-diaminopimelic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars were glucose, mannose, rhamnose and xylose, and the major phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H(8)) and MK-9(H(8)) and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.3 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain PS7-2(T) clustered with members of the genus Asanoa and appeared most closely related to the type strains of Asanoa hainanensis (99.5 % sequence similarity), Asanoa iriomotensis (99.0 %), Asanoa ishikariensis (98.9 %) and Asanoa ferruginea (98.5 %). DNA-DNA hybridizations and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that strain PS7-2(T) could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic evidence and DNA-DNA relatedness values, strain PS7-2(T) represents a novel species in the genus Asanoa, for which the name Asanoa siamensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is PS7-2(T) (=BCC 41921(T) =NBRC 107932(T)). PMID:22328605

Niemhom, Nantawan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Tamura, Tomohiko; Thawai, Chitti

2012-02-10

156

Does elevated nitrogen deposition or ecosystem recovery from acidification drive increased dissolved organic carbon loss from upland soil? A review of evidence from field nitrogen addition experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have risen in upland waters across large areas of Europe and North America.\\u000a Two proposed drivers of these increases are (1) deposition of atmospheric pollutant nitrogen (N) with consequent effects on\\u000a plant and decomposer carbon dynamics, and (2) soil recovery from acidification associated with decreasing sulphur deposition.\\u000a Examination of 12 European and North American field

Chris D. Evans; Christine L. Goodale; Simon J. M. Caporn; Nancy B. Dise; Bridget A. Emmett; Ivan J. Fernandez; Chris D. Field; Stuart E. G. Findlay; Gary M. Lovett; Henning Meesenburg; Filip Moldan; Lucy J. Sheppard

2008-01-01

157

Environmental Impact of Upland Streams on the Okefenokee Swamp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Okefenokee Swamp is the largest freshwater wetland in the U.S. The terrestrial upland component and associated upland streams are located primarily in the northwestern portion of the watershed. Low topographic relief, highly leached sandy soils, and p...

E. R. Blood

1981-01-01

158

Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in a California Upland Grassland Soil: Diversity and Response to Simulated Global Change  

PubMed Central

We investigated the diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria (i.e., methanotrophs) in an annual upland grassland in northern California, using comparative sequence analysis of the pmoA gene. In addition to identifying type II methanotrophs commonly found in soils, we discovered three novel pmoA lineages for which no cultivated members have been previously reported. These novel pmoA clades clustered together either with clone sequences related to “RA 14” or “WB5FH-A,” which both represent clusters of environmentally retrieved sequences of putative atmospheric methane oxidizers. Conservation of amino acid residues and rates of nonsynonymous versus synonymous nucleotide substitution in these novel lineages suggests that the pmoA genes in these clades code for functionally active methane monooxygenases. The novel clades responded to simulated global changes differently than the type II methanotrophs. We observed that the relative abundance of type II methanotrophs declined in response to increased precipitation and increased atmospheric temperature, with a significant antagonistic interaction between these factors such that the effect of both together was less than that expected from their individual effects. Two of the novel clades were not observed to respond significantly to these environmental changes, while one of the novel clades had an opposite response, increasing in relative abundance in response to increased precipitation and atmospheric temperature, with a significant antagonistic interaction between these factors.

Horz, Hans-Peter; Rich, Virginia; Avrahami, Sharon; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

2005-01-01

159

Evaluation of Enhanced VOC Removal with Soil Fracturing in the SRS Upland Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system per...

B. D. Riha K. Dixon L. Murdoch R. Hail W. K. Hyde

2005-01-01

160

Peat bogs and their organic soils: Archives of atmospheric change and global environmentalsignificance (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bog is much more than a waterlogged ecosystem where organic matter accumulates as peat. Peatlands such as bogs represent a critical link between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Plants growing at the surface of ombrotrophic bogs receive nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere. Despite the variations in redox status caused by seasonal fluctuations in depth to water table, the low pHof the waters, and abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve a remarkably reproducible history of atmospheric pollution, climate change, landscape evolution and human history. For example, peat cores from bogs in Europe and North America have provided detailed reconstructions of the changing rates and sources of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Tl, providing new insights into the geochemical cycles of these elements, including the massive perturbations induced by human activities beginning many thousands of years ago. Despite the low pH, and perhaps because of the abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve many silicate and aluminosilicate minerals which renders them valuable archives of atmospheric dust deposition and the climate changes which drive them. In the deeper, basal peat layers of the bog, in the minerotrophic zone where pore waters are affected bymineral-water interactions in the underlying and surrounding soils and sediments, peat serves as animportant link to the hydrosphere, efficiently removing from the imbibed groundwaters such trace elements as As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, V, and U. These removal processes, while incompletely understood, are so effective that measuring the dissolved fraction of trace elements in the pore waters becomes a considerable challenge even for the most sophisticated analytical laboratories. While the trace elements listed above are removed from groundwaters (along with P and S), elements such as Fe and Mn are added to the waters because of reductive dissolution, an important first step in the formation of lacustrine Fe and Mn nodules. While these important chemical reactions have taken place silently and imperceptibly over millenia acrossthe Earth wherever climate and water allow bogs to form, at the same time, peat bogs represent an important component of the biosphere and provide a home to many unique plants and animals, thereby contributing to the vast biodiversity found on Earth.

Shotyk, William

2013-04-01

161

SOIL AMENDMENT WITH DIFFERENT PEAT MOSSES AFFECTS VA MYCORRHIZAE ON ONION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Formation of VA mycorrhizae in soilless potting mixes that usually contain some proportion of peat moss has been inhibited in many cases. The cause o the inhibition has been reported to be high phosphorus (P) content in the media that suppresses spread of the fungal symbiont in the root tissue. How...

162

Influence of Chemical Properties on Soil Carbon Storage of a Tropical Peat Swamp Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: It is important to investigate the seriousness of degradation of peat swamp forest caused by skidding system in terms of its function as a carbon sink. In this study, we formulated assumptions that conditions of our resea rch site before the introduction of skidding system were in their natural states, thus that changes mea sured are clearly caused

Anton Eko Satrio; Seca Gandaseca; Osumanu Haruna Ahmed; Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid

2009-01-01

163

SOIL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINED FOOD CROP PRODUCTION IN UPLAND FARMING SYSTEMS IN THE TROPICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most soils in the tropical region are highly weathered and infertile. A sustainable crop production system must adopt an ecological approach, using balanced nutrient inputs from inor- ganic, organic and biological sources. Achieving food security for a rapidly expanding popula- tion in the tropics means intensifying food production on existing cropland through enhanced nu- trient input and recycling. While nitrogen

Lloyd R. Hossner; Anthony S. R. Juo

164

Effects of cattle husbandry on abundance and activity of methanogenic archaea in upland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that animal treading associated with a high input of organic matter would favour methanogenesis in soils used as overwintering pasture. Hence, methane emissions and methanogen populations were examined at sections with different degree of cattle impact in a Farm in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. In spring, methane emission positively corresponded to the

Viviane Radl; Andreas Gattinger; Alica Chro?áková; Anna N?mcová; Jiri ?uhel; Miloslav Šimek; Jean Charles Munch; Michael Schloter; Dana Elhottová

2007-01-01

165

Carbon Budget of Uk Upland Peats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power stations, bridges, constructions, etc.) are given.

Worrall, F.; Burt, T. P.

166

Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly–sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty–silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly–sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty–silty lowlands, 2–4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly–sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to centuries in peaty–silty lowlands with a legacy of complicated Holocene changes, and over centuries in silty uplands where ice-rich soil and ecological recovery protect permafrost.

Torre Jorgenson, M.; Harden, Jennifer; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; O’Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Ewing, Stephanie; Manies, Kristen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shur, Yuri; Striegl, Robert; Koch, Josh

2013-09-01

167

Methane flux response to nitrogen amendment in an upland pine forest soil and riparian zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) is an important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, up to 15% of which is consumed by terrestrial soils. In this field study of the CH4cycle of a pine forest, 18 plots were established at each of two sites, located 40 m apart. The upper site was well-drained and the lower site was poorly drained, but they shared similar overstory tree composition. Nitrogen was added as NH4NO3 incrementally across the 2009 growing season in a high (67 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 yr-1) and a low (5 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 yr-1) concentration. The sites were monitored for soil and air temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, air pressure, and NH4 and NO2+NO3 concentrations throughout the growing season. Across all treatments for the duration of the field season, average CH4 flux showed consumption of -0.84 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1, but CH4 flux differed between the upper and lower sites. Across all treatments, upper site CH4 flux averaged -5.38 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1, while lower site flux averaged 3.72 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1, with greater variance than was observed at the upper site. High N treatments caused greater CH4 release than the control in the lower, but not the upper, site. The main correlated variable with CH4 flux was soil moisture; however, it accounted for <14% of the variation. Statistics were run several different ways, resulting in multiple environmental factors contributing up to 84% of the variation in CH4flux. Long-term drainage differences between the sites likely drove the differences in CH4 flux.

Aronson, E. L.; Vann, D. R.; Helliker, B. R.

2012-09-01

168

Stereoisomerization of p-coumaric and ferulic acids during their incubation in peat soil extract solution by exposure to fluorescent light  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied two unknown substances which were produced by incubation of p-coumaric and ferulic acids in a peat soil extract solution. The substances were identified as the cisforms of these acids, which were isomerized from their trans-forms during the incubation by exposure to fluorescent light. Such isomerization did not take place during incubation under dark conditions. After 5 days of

Takao Katase

1981-01-01

169

Methane and carbon dioxide exchange potentials of peat soils in aerobic and anaerobic laboratory incubations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples (140) of peat collected from bogs, fens and swamps in boreal, subarctic and temperate regions of Canada were incubated at 15 or 20°C for 5 d in the laboratory to determine potential rates of CO2 and CH4 exchange under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Rates of CO2 production ranged between 0.07 and 5.0 mg g?1 d?1, with means of 1.0

T. R. Moore; M. Dalva

1997-01-01

170

[Isolation and characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum from the soil of a Sphagnum peat bog].  

PubMed

The presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum in the soils of acidic raised Sphagnum bogs is revealed for the first time. Three Azospirillum strains, B2, B21, and B22, were isolated as a component of methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures, whereas attempts to isolate them directly from peat samples have failed. The results of comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes, DNA-DNA hybridization, and the analysis of the sequences of the functional genes encoding nitrogenase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase reveal that all the newly obtained strains can be classified as Azospirillum lipoferum. Yet, unlike A. lipoferum. the isolates do not require biotin and utilize sucrose, inositol, and glycerol for growth. The cell morphology of strain B2 differs from that of the type strain and strains B21 and B22. The results obtained indicate the variability of morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties in closely related Azospirillum strains and suggest the existence of metabolic relationships between methanotrophic bacteria and the representatives of the genus Azospirillum under peat bog conditions. PMID:17410881

Doroshenko, E V; Bulygina, E S; Spiridonova, E M; Turova, T P; Kravchenko, I K

171

The effects of ecological restoration, on soil-pore water quality and DOC concentrations, on a British upland blanket bog.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polluted by past atmospheric deposition, eroded and burnt, the Bleaklow plateau (Peak district National Park, UK) has long been degraded. Peatlands are important carbon reservoirs and can act as sources or sinks of carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is carbon lost from peatlands via the fluvial pathway and as the major component of water colour it is costly to remove during water treatment processes. The Bleaklow Summit peatlands, were subjected to a large wildfire in 2003 devegetating 5.5km2. This fire prompted stakeholders to initiate a large-scale programme of restoration of the plateau. This study considered restoration techniques across four sites: all four sites were seeded with lawn grass, limed and fertilised; to raise the pH and allow establishment of vegetation. In addition to these interventions, one site also had a mulch of Calluna vulgaris applied to the surface to allow soil stabilisation and promote vegetation establishment and another site had biodegradable geojute textile mesh installed, to stabilize the steep gully surfaces. Another site had a gully block installed, to reduce peat desiccation and erosion. This study will compare the four restored sites to two types of comparators: bare soil sites where no restoration was undertaken and a naturally vegetated site unaffected by the 2003 wildfire. Each site had six replicate dipwells, installed in two groups of three. The depth to the water table was monitored and soil water samples collected for analysis, monthly for 5 years, from Nov 2006 - Jan 2012. No significant difference in DOC concentration was found between control and treated sites. There was, however, a significant difference in DOC composition between sites and over the 5 year period of monitoring. UV-vis absorbance of the samples is used to quantify the fulvic to humic components of DOC. The vegetated control was not significantly different to the bare sites; however the vegetated control had a significantly greater humic fraction of than the seeded, limed and fertilised only site, as well as the seeded, limed, C. vulgaris mulched site. This is possibly related to vegetation and litter layer establishment. A suite of water quality data (conductivity, pH and cation data) are now being analysed in combination with DOC to increase understanding of the relationship between bare site re-vegetation and DOC compositional change.

Qassim, Suzane; Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

2013-04-01

172

Mineralization and denitrification in upland, nearly saturated and flooded subtropical soilII. Effect of organic manures varying in N content and C:N ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and carbon mineralization of cattle manure (N=6?g kg–1; C:N=35), pressmud (N=17.4?g kg–1; C:N=22), green manure (N=26.8?g kg–1; C:N=14) and poultry manure (N=19.5?g kg–1; C:N=12) and their influence on gaseous N losses via denitrification (using the acetylene inhibition technique) in a semiarid\\u000a subtropical soil (Typic Ustochrepts) were investigated in a growth chamber simulating upland, nearly saturated, and flooded\\u000a conditions. Mineralization

M. S. Aulakh; Tejinder S. Khera; John W. Doran

2000-01-01

173

Runoff-driven export of particulate organic carbon from soil in temperate forested uplands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterise the sources, pathways and export fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in a headwater catchment in the Swiss Alps, where suspended sediment has a mean organic carbon concentration of 1.45%±0.06. By chemically fingerprinting this carbon and its potential sources using carbon and nitrogen elemental and isotopic compositions, we show that it derives from binary mixing between bedrock and modern biomass with a soil-like composition. The hillslope and channel are strongly coupled, allowing runoff to deliver recent organic carbon directly to the stream beyond a moderate discharge threshold. At higher flows, more biomass is mobilised and the fraction of modern carbon in the suspended load reaches 0.70, increased from 0.30 during background conditions. Significant amounts of non-fossil organic carbon are thus transferred from the hillslope without the need for extreme events such as landsliding. Precipitation is key: as soon as the rain stops, biomass supply ceases and fossil carbon again dominates. We use rating curves modelled using samples from five storm events integrated over 29-year discharge records to calculate long-term export fluxes of total POC and non-fossil POC from the catchment of 23.3±5.8 and 14.0±4.4 t km-2 yr-1 respectively. These yields are comparable to those from active mountain belts, yet the processes responsible are much more widely applicable. Such settings have the potential to play a significant role in the global drawdown of carbon dioxide via riverine biomass erosion, and their contribution to the global flux of POC to the ocean may be more important than previously thought.

Smith, Joanne C.; Galy, Albert; Hovius, Niels; Tye, Andrew M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Schleppi, Patrick

2013-03-01

174

Evidence for an eolian origin for the silt-enriched soil mantles on the glaciated uplands of eastern Upper Michigan, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We provide textural, geochemical, and mineralogical data on a thin, silty deposit that unconformably mantles glaciated uplands in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Previous research on this deposit, which we hypothesize to be loess, is nonexistent. The uplands were islands or narrow peninsulas within one or more glacial lakes. We compare the distribution, likely source and nature of the 20-60??cm thick silty mantle by using the loess formation model of Mason et al. [Mason, J.A., Nater, E.A., Zanner, C.W., Bell, J.C., 1999. A new model of topographic effects on the distribution of loess. Geomorphology 28, 223-236], which focuses on the generation of eolian silt by saltating sand across upwind, barren surfaces. Parabolic dunes, with arms open to the NW, are common on former lake floors upwind of the silt-mantled uplands, attesting to the strength and direction of paleowinds. The abrupt termination of the dunes at the footslopes of the uplands, associated with silt deposition on upland soil surfaces in downwind locations, are both consistent with the model of Mason et al. [Mason, J.A., Nater, E.A., Zanner, C.W., Bell, J.C., 1999. A new model of topographic effects on the distribution of loess. Geomorphology 28, 223-236]. Sediments on former lake floors contain abundant strata of fine/medium sand and silt, and thus are likely sources for the silt and dune sand. The cap, dune and lake sediments are similar along many different geochemical axes, whereas the substrate sediment, i.e., the drift below the cap, is unique. Cap sediments, normally containing roughly 30% silt, are enriched in quartz and depleted in Ti and Zr, relative to dune sediment. The dune sediment, a more residual eolian deposit, is enriched in Ti and Zr, relative to the cap, probably due to its greater abundance of heavy minerals. Therefore, we conclude that the silty cap is loess that was deflated from abandoned lake floors after nearby glacial lakes drained, probably contemporaneously with dune migration across the former lake floors. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schaetzl, R. J.; Loope, W. L.

2008-01-01

175

Heavy metal contamination from historic mining in upland soil and estuarine sediments of Egypt Bay, Maine, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediments of Egypt Bay in Hancock County, Maine, are elevated above background levels. The source of the contamination is Cu mining that occurred in the uplands adjacent to Egypt Stream between 1877 and 1885. Egypt Stream is a tributary to Egypt Bay. Egypt Bay is part of the Taunton Bay estuary system.

L. J. Osher; L. Leclerc; G. B. Wiersma; C. T. Hess; V. E. Guiseppe

2006-01-01

176

Soil data from fire and permafrost-thaw chronosequences in upland Picea mariana stands near Hess Creek and Tok, interior Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils of the Northern Circumpolar Permafrost region harbor 1,672 petagrams (Pg) (1 Pg = 1,000,000,000 kilograms) of organic carbon (OC), nearly 50 percent of the global belowground OC pool (Tarnocai and others, 2009). Of that soil OC, nearly 88 percent is presently stored in perennially frozen ground. Recent climate warming at northern latitudes has resulted in warming and thawing of permafrost in many regions (Osterkamp, 2007), which might mobilize OC stocks from associated soil reservoirs via decomposition, leaching, or erosion. Warming also has increased the magnitude and severity of wildfires in the boreal region (Turetsky and others, 2011), which might exacerbate rates of permafrost degradation relative to warming alone. Given the size and vulnerability of the soil OC pool in permafrost soils, permafrost thaw will likely function as a strong positive feedback to the climate system (Koven and others, 2011; Schaefer and others, 2011). In this report, we report soil OC inventories from two upland fire chronosequences located near Hess Creek and Tok in Interior Alaska. We sampled organic and mineral soils in the top 2 meters (m) across a range of stand ages to evaluate the effects of wildfire and permafrost thaw on soil C dynamics. These data were used to parameterize a simple process-based fire-permafrost-carbon model, which is described in detail by O’Donnell and others (2011a, b). Model simulations examine long-term changes in soil OC storage in response to fire, permafrost thaw, and climate change. These data also have been used in other papers, including Harden and others (2012), which examines C recovery post-fire, and Johnson and others (2011), which synthesizes data within the Alaska Soil Carbon Database. Findings from these studies highlight the importance of climate and disturbance (wildfire, permafrost thaw) on soil C storage, and loss of soil C from high-latitude ecosystems.

O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Xu, Xiaomei

2013-01-01

177

Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 2: Laboratory phytotoxicity studies  

SciTech Connect

Vegetation communities on metal- and arsenic-contaminated uplands surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana have been eliminated or highly modified. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using site soils from the impacted areas to determine whether the soils limit the ability of plants to establish and grow. The germination and growth of alfalfa, lettuce, and wheat in impacted area soils was compared to germination and growth of the three species in reference soils. The degree of phytotoxicity was quantified using a species-endpoint toxicity score calculated on the magnitude of difference between germination and growth of plants in impacted and reference soils. The impacted soils exhibited substantial toxicity to plants: 5% of the sites were severely phytotoxic, 55% were highly phytotoxic, 10% were moderately phytotoxic, 20% were mildly phytotoxic, and 10% were nontoxic. Root growth was consistently the most affected endpoint (18 of 20 impacted soils) and reduction in root length and mass was observed. Correlation and partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the causes of phytotoxicity. Concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn and, to a lesser extent, Pb and Cd were found to be positively correlated with phytotoxicity.

Kapustka, L.A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lipton, J.; Galbraith, H.; Cacela, D.; LeJeune, K. [Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

1995-11-01

178

The pool of pedogenic carbon in the soils of different types and durations of use as croplands in the forest-steppe of the Central Russian Upland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on studying five agrochronoseries, including recent forest (dark) gray soils and soils plowed for 100, 150, and 200-240 and more years in the forest-steppe zone of the Central Russian Upland, the dynamics of the pedogenic carbon pool, including the Corg and Ccarb, are considered. In the 2-m-thick layer of the agrogenic soils studied, the pedogenic carbon pool was shown to increase by 15-30% (up to 50%) mainly due to the changes in the Ccarb content. The insignificant (by ˜10%) growth of the Corg content was found in the soils that were plowed for more than 200-250 years. As the hydrothermal regime changed when passing from the forest to croplands, the Ccarb reserves increased due to the ascending of carbonates from the parent rock through the capillary pores, probably, in colloid solution-suspensions. This process proceeded without exchange with the soil CO2, since the 14C age and the content of the newly formed carbonates became higher. These carbonates may be called pedogenic-lithogenic agrocarbonates, since they appear in soils as a result of the (agro-) pedogenesis. In this case, their additional source is the lithogenic carbonates, which bring in the "old" carbon. The process of carbonates ascending could be referred to the rapid soil-forming ones with their implementation time being close to ?50 years.

Khokhlova, O. S.; Chendev, Yu. G.; Myakshina, T. N.; Shishkov, V. A.

2013-05-01

179

Reduction of iron (III) and humic substances plays a major role in anaerobic respiration in an Arctic peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic peat soils contain vast reserves of organic C and are largely anaerobic. However, anaerobic respiration, particularly the role of Fe(III) and humic substances as electron acceptors, is not well understood in such ecosystems. We investigated these processes in a drained thaw lake basin on the Arctic coastal plain near Barrow, Alaska. We measured concentrations of soluble Fe and other potential electron acceptors, described the microbial community, and performed experiments in the laboratory and field to measure net rates of Fe(III) reduction and the relationship of this process to C cycling. In most areas within the basin, aerobic conditions existed only in the upper few centimeters of soil, though oxygen penetrated deeper in raised areas, such as rims of ice wedge polygons. Concentrations of nitrate and sulfate in soil pore water were low or negligible. Soil pore water contained surprisingly high concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(III), in the range of hundreds of ?M, suggesting the presence of organic chelators. The solid phase contained substantial amounts of iron minerals, with a progressively reduced oxidation state throughout the growing season. The most abundant 16S rRNA sequence in our gene survey was closely related to the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Rhodoferax ferrireducens, and other sequences closely related to Fe-transforming bacteria were found. Field and laboratory incubations with soluble Fe(III) and the quinonic compound, AQDS (a common humic analog), stimulated respiration and verified that Fe(III) reduction occurs in these soils. We conclude that reduction of Fe(III) and humic substances are major metabolic pathways in this ecosystem.

Lipson, David A.; Jha, Mony; Raab, Theodore K.; Oechel, Walter C.

2010-12-01

180

Is it clean or contaminated soil? Using petrogenic versus biogenic GC-FID chromatogram patterns to mathematically resolve false petroleum hydrocarbon detections in clean organic soils: a crude oil-spiked peat microcosm experiment.  

PubMed

The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) in soil provides chemistry analysis standards and guidelines for the management of contaminated sites. However, these methods can coextract natural biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) from organic soils, causing false exceedences of toxicity guidelines. The present 300-d microcosm experiment used CWS PHC tier 1 soil extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis to develop a new tier 2 mathematical approach to resolving this problem. Carbon fractions F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34) as well as subfractions F3a (C16-C22) and F3b (C22-C34) were studied in peat and sand spiked once with Federated crude oil. These carbon ranges were also studied in 14 light to heavy crude oils. The F3 range in the clean peat was dominated by F3b, whereas the crude oils had approximately equal F3a and F3b distributions. The F2 was nondetectable in the clean peat but was a significant component in crude oil. The crude oil–spiked peat had elevated F2 and F3a distributions. The BOC-adjusted PHC F3 calculation estimated the true PHC concentrations in the spiked peat. The F2:F3b ratio of less than 0.10 indicated PHC absence in the clean peat, and the ratio of greater than or equal to 0.10 indicated PHC presence in the spiked peat and sand. Validation studies are required to confirm whether this new tier 2 approach is applicable to real-case scenarios. Potential adoption of this approach could minimize unnecessary ecological disruptions of thousands of peatlands throughout Canada while also saving millions of dollars in management costs. PMID:23703885

Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

2013-10-01

181

Peat hydraulic conductivity in different landuses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on hydraulic conductivity and water retention properties of peatlands is needed, e.g., for modelling hydrology and soil carbon balance of peat soils. Ability to model the behaviour of peat soils, especially those drained for agricultural use, is important as cultivated peatlands act as a major source of CO2 and N2O emissions in Nordic countries. Peat soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention properties vary greatly, and their relationship to soil depth and degree of decomposition is not straightforward. The aim of this study was to produce new information about peat physical properties in different land uses and the relationship between peat soil hydraulic conductivity and variables such as soil porosity and degree of humification. Peat hydraulic conductivity was measured in situ with infiltrometer (direct push piezometer) in six study sites (two pristine bogs, two sites drained for forestry, a cultivated peat land site and a peat extraction site). Measurements were made in several depths according to soil profile. To examine relationship of soil properties and the hydraulic conductivity, undisturbed peat cores of known volume and also disturbed peat samples were collected from the study sites for determination of von Post humification factor, ash content, porosity and bulk density. Surface layer of the agricultural site had high ash content and bulk density and low porosity compared to the soil beneath it and the soil in other study sites. This was due to added sand and compaction by agricultural practice. Bog, in contrast, had very low bulk density and high porosity. Results show a great variation in hydraulic conductivity within the study sites even when the observations were in the same soil layer. Hydraulic conductivity was lowest in the peat extraction site and the agricultural site, and had higher correlation with study site (= landuse) and the measured layer than with soil porosity.

Mustamo, Pirkko; Hyvärinen, Maarit; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

2013-04-01

182

The peats of Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified the potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O. (RECOPE, San Jose (Costa Rica)); Cohen, A. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1991-04-01

183

Modelling the effect of aggregates on N2O emission from denitrification in an agricultural peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are highly variable in time, with high peak emissions lasting a few days to several weeks and low background emissions. This temporal variability is poorly understood which hampers the simulation of daily N2O emissions. In structured soils, like clay and peat, aggregates hamper the diffusion of oxygen, which leads to anaerobic microsites in the soil, favourable for denitrification. Diffusion of N2O out of the aggregates is also hampered, which leads to delayed emissions and increased reduction of N2O to N2. In this model simulation study we investigate the effect of aggregates in soils on the N2O emissions. We present a parameterization to simulate the effects of aggregates on N2O production by denitrification and on N2O reduction. The parameterization is based on the mobile-immobile model concept. It was implemented in a field-scale hydrological-biogeochemical model combination. We compared the simulated fluxes with observed fluxes from a fertilized and drained peat soil under grass. The results of this study show that aggregates strongly affect the simulated N2O emissions: peak emissions are lower, whereas the background emissions are slightly higher. Including the effect of aggregates caused a 40% decrease in the simulated annual emissions relative to the simulations without accounting for the effects of aggregates. The new parameterization significantly improved the model performance regarding simulation of observed daily N2O fluxes; r2 and RMSE improved from 0.11 and 198 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1 to 0.41 and 40 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1, respectively. Our analyses of the model results show that aggregates have a larger impact on the reduction than on the production of N2O. Reduction of N2O is more sensitive to changes in the drivers than production of N2O and is in that sense the key to understanding N2O emissions from denitrification. The effects of changing environmental conditions on reduction of N2O relative to N2O production strongly depend on the NO3 content of the soil. More anaerobic conditions have hardly any effect on the ratio of production to reduction if NO3 is abundant, but will decrease this ratio if NO3 is limiting. In the first case the emissions will increase, whereas in the second case the emissions will decrease. This study suggests that the current knowledge of the hydrological, biogeochemical and physical processes may be sufficient to understand the observed N2O fluxes from a fertilized clayey peatland. Further research is needed to test how aggregates affect the N2O fluxes from other soils or soils with different fertilization regimes.

Stolk, P. C.; Hendriks, R. F. A.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Moors, E. J.; Kabat, P.

2011-09-01

184

Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch ( Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed–lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue concentration and a total of 45 watershed

Mark C. Gabriel; Randy Kolka; Trent Wickman; Ed Nater; Laurel Woodruff

2009-01-01

185

Impact of electromagnetic microwaves on the germination of spores of Streptomyces xanthochromogenes in a peat soil and in a liquid nutrient medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of microwaves on the germination of spores of Streptomyces xanthochromogenes in a liquid nutrient medium and in a peat soil was studied. The treatment of inoculums with microwave radiation affected the development of the microorganisms from the stage of spore germination to the stage of the formation of microcolonies of actinomycetes upon the spore cultivation in the liquid medium. Typical hypnum-herbaceous peat was used to study the rate of germination of the actinomycetal spores in soil. The study of the dynamics of the Streptomyces xanthochromogenes population in the control soil (without treatment with microwaves) showed that the most active development of the culture took place in the soil moistened to 60% of the maximum water capacity. When the soil was moistened to the minimum adsorption capacity, the streptomyces did not complete their full cycle of development. The stimulation of the spore germination and mycelium growth with microwaves in the soil medium required a longer period in comparison with that for the liquid medium. The stimulation of the spore germination was observed in the liquid nutrient medium in the case of 30-s treatment and in the soil in the case of 60-s treatment.

Komarova, A. S.; Likhacheva, A. A.; Lapygina, E. V.; Maksimova, I. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.

2010-01-01

186

Measurement of Entrapped Biogenic Gas Bubbles in Northern Peat Soils: Application of Resistivity and X-ray Computed Tomography.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are the largest natural source per annum of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. CH4 is lost from peatlands via diffusion or active transport through vascular plants, and as bubbles moving to the peatland surface - ebullition. The build up and ebullition of biogenic gas bubbles within northern peatlands is spatially variable and depends on the rate of CH4 production, the transport of dissolved CH4 to bubbles through pore water, and the physical properties of the peat. Recent measurements suggest a threshold bubble volume must be reached to trigger episodic or cyclic ebullition, which is assumed to be dependent on peat type. However, this threshold theory lacks a secure physical basis and therefore cannot be applied to simulate methane ebullition from northern peatlands with any confidence. We develop an approach to examine the structural attributes of the peat that cause and promote the trapping and release of bubbles by combining resistivity and X-ray computed tomography (CT). The spatial and temporal variation in the biogenic gas content of peat cores are identified from resistivity measurements. Areas of high and low entrapped gas content are subsequently correlated with the pore structure of the peat samples, characterised using CT. The CT images of the peat structure are vectorised to allow them to be analysed for metrics which relate to the ability of the peat to trap bubbles: e.g. stem length and width, number of branches, angle of branches. Difficulties applying these approaches within northern peatlands are examined. The low pore water conductivity of poorly decomposed near surface peat can hamper resistivity measurements at the laboratory scale, and electrolytic reactions induce the development of artificial gas bubbles. The similarity in linear attenuations between poorly decomposed Sphagnum and pore water also makes the peat structure indistinguishable from the pore water within standard CT scans. The peat samples must, therefore, first be doped with a solution of lead(II) nitrate which is adsorbed by the peat fibres, making them visible.

Kettridge, N.; Binley, A.; Baird, A.

2008-05-01

187

Trihalomethane Reactivity of Water and Sodium Hydroxide–Extractable Organic Carbon Fractions from Peat Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain organic carbon moieties in drinking source waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta can react with chlorine during dis- infection to form potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic trihalometh- anes. The properties of reactive organic carbon in Delta waters, partic- ularly those of soil origin, have been poorly understood. This study attempts to characterize trihalomethane reactivity of soil organic car- bon from

Alex T. Chow; Fengmao Guo; Suduan Gao; Richard S. Breuer

2006-01-01

188

Effect of Logging Operation on Soil Carbon Storage of a Tropical Peat Swamp Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Since heavy machinery are used in the logging oper ation activity for extracting the logs on sensitive forest site with p eat soil, environment destruction should be the oth er concern during its processes especially on its impo rtant function as soil carbon storage. The objectiv e of this study was to determine whether logging oper ation affect

Anton Eko Satrio; Seca Gandaseca

2009-01-01

189

Substrate-Induced Respiration for Phosphorus-Enriched and Oligotrophic Peat Soils in an Everglades Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient enrichment may alter patterns of heterotrophic microbial activity (HMA) in wetland soils and infl uence organic matter decomposition dynamics. The response of the heterotrophic microbial community to C substrates (alcohols, amides, amino acids, aromatics, plant residues, and polysac- charides) was measured as CO2 and CH4 production in detritus and soil (0-10 cm) collected from P-enriched and oligotrophic areas of

Alan L. Wright; K. R. Reddy

2007-01-01

190

Transformations of mineral nitrogen applied to peat soil during sequential oxic\\/anoxic cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shifts in oxic and anoxic conditions in soil are most frequently caused by water table fluctuations, heavy rain, snowmelt or flooding, with potentially significant impacts on microbial processes and the ability of soils to convert mineral nitrogen to nitrogen gases efficiently. The impact of oxic\\/anoxic cycles on nitrogen transformation rates was therefore explored in the upper layer (0–30 cm) of partially

Levin Pal; Blaž Stres; Tjaša Danev?i?; Simona Leskovec; Ines Mandic-Mulec

2010-01-01

191

Thermal properties of peat, marshy and mineral soils in relation to soil moisture status in Polesie and Biebrza wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of thermal properties of soil helps in estimating heat fluxes as an important component of the heat balance. The research was conducted to evaluate spatial distribution of the soil thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) in relation to soil wetness and bulk density in wetland soils of Polesie and Biebrza regions (Poland). Soil moisture content and bulk density together with soil temperature and texture data, were used for determination of thermal properties. The thermal conductivity was measured, by KD2 Pro Decagon, and calculated by the physical-statistical model of Usowicz, and the heat capacity - was calculated with empirical formulae, and the thermal diffusivity was determined by the ratio of thermal conductivity to the heat capacity. The thermal conductivity of wetland and marsh soils increases with increasing moisture content and density of the soil to higher extent in soils richer in minerals - mostly quartz. Maximum thermal conductivity of the wetland soils at different density did not exceed the value of the thermal conductivity of water. However, for mineral soil at the natural density (1.31 Mg m-3) and with the quartz content of 96%, the thermal conductivity is about four times greater than the thermal conductivity of water. This is due to that the thermal conductivity of quartz is sixteen times greater than that of water. Dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on moisture content is non-linear and the shape of the non-linearity largely depends on the density of the soil. Particular components of soil bring their contribution to the conductivity respectively to their fractions and compounds being dominant in the ground contribute mostly to the effective slope of the thermal conductivity versus the water content at a given soil density. The heat capacity of the soil substrate is linearly dependent on the water content. Soils containing more organic matter within low specific densities, usually are characterized by less or minimal available heat capacity values in dry conditions, while they can also be characterized by highest or maximal heat capacity values, in highly wet conditions approaching the saturation with water. The increase in soil density caused a parallel shift of the characteristics of the heat capacity in the direction of higher values. This was associated with an increase in solids content per unit volume of the substrate and the reduction of the water content and the specific heat capacity of the individual components of the soil. Thermal diffusivity of soils exhibits characteristic extremes. In organic soils characteristic minimal or maximal extremes may occur, while mineral soils achieve only maximal diffusivity values on regular basis. Extremes of the thermal diffusivity are mainly due to the changes in the intensity of the thermal conductivity of the substrate due to change in soil moisture content and density. The heat capacity of the soil increases with increasing moisture content at the constant rate. The value of soil thermal diffusivity depends highly on quartz content. Thermal diffusivity of the soil with the same moisture content was greater for the higher densities, and minimum or maximum thermal diffusivity tends to move toward the lower moisture content for higher densities. The observed extremes are so distinctive that they determine the value of soil moisture and density, at which the temperature wave travels the slowest and the fastest in the soil. The question of determining and sensing the water capacity is also affected by the texture and porosity. Simple volumetric measures of porosity are used, but with distinguishing the volume of pores filled by air and other part filled with water. Practically, porosity is treated simply and is included to assessments by effects on the thermal properties. We prove that thermal properties are very good variables for a sensitive indicator of the water content, and accounting the impact from porosity. Thermal properties gather effects from the texture and porosity cumulatively. Therefo

Usowicz, Boguslaw; ?ukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy B.; Lipiec, Jerzy; Stankiewicz, Krystyna

2013-04-01

192

Adsorption of carbon monoxide by samples of soils and peat-sand mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) by loose samples of natural soils and artificial organomineral mixtures depending on the water content was studied in laboratory experiments. The highest adsorption of CO was found for the samples of 100% organic soil modifier and its 80% mixture with sand (200 µg of CO/kg per hour and more). The lowest CO adsorption (10-15 µg of CO/kg per hour) was observed for an Arenosol. The addition of 5 wt % of the modifier to the desert sand increased the adsorption of CO to 50-55 µg of CO/kg per hour, as was typical for the chernozem and soddy-podzolic soil. The adsorption of CO as depending on the water content in the samples was a unimodal function, and the adsorption levels corresponded to the optimum soil water content (about 0.4-0.6 of the maximum water capacity). On the basis of the results, the Arid Grow soil modifier was recommended as a highly efficient agent for the regulation of the gas function of soils in urban areas subjected to increased CO emissions from vehicles and industrial enterprises.

Smagin, A. V.; Sadovnikova, N. B.; Mazanova, V. S.; Dolzhich, A. R.

2009-11-01

193

Mycobiota of peat-gleyic soils during the process of recultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiments on the recultivation of oil-polluted soils and their self-rehabilitation were laid in 1995 at sites contaminated with oil in the area of Usinsk region, Komi Republic, Russia. There were taken different plots for the experiment with various amounts of contaminant. The investigations continued some years after the contamination. At this point, the concentration of residual oil in these areas significantly decreased. Microbiological activity increased 2-3 times in the most contaminated soil. We should note that the micromycets were marked only in the layer 0-5sm in contrast to background soil. There were 10 species of micromycets and most of them characterized as dark colored species, the dominants were Aspergillus fumigatus. Penicillium funiculosum, P. paxilli, P. lanosum, P. tardum, usual for contaminated anthropogenic soils. The same highly oil-polluted soil, where recultivation was held, is characterized with the wider specter of different physiological groups of microorganisms. Micobiota is quite reach, it represents 20 species from 8 types. In the composition of micromycets 40% are the representatives of Penicillium, sterile mycelium presents as dark colored forms so as light colored ones. But the micobiota is still reach in micromycets typical for disturbed anthropogenic soils. The most microbiologically active plot was a territory with low-contaminated self-recovered soil. The micobiota is represented of great amount of microorganisms and consists of 21 species, mostly formed with dark colored forms of sterile mycelium. During the process of recultivation the structure of micromyctes changed: regrouping of species and increase of biodiversity. We assume that a process of self-purification started. However we should notice that activation of biological processes doesn't occur deeper than 0-5sm. At the same time the roots of high plants are seen till the depth 7-10sm, they also participate in the cleaning of oil polluted soil. There was used a Zhakkar coefficient of similarity to show the difference of mycobiota structure of rehabilitated ecosystems. The greatest similarity was observed between the communities of soil micromycetes from recultivated area and the area with low pollution (42.8%), the smallest - mycobiota of a non-polluted and heavily contaminated soil (5.4%). Mikobiota of virgin soil is characterized with the richest biodiversity of micromycetes species; rates of similarity coefficient between the mycobiota of virgin soils and oil-polluted here have the lowest value. In summary, we want to mark that micromycet complexes are changing in soils under the influence of oil pollution: first, a reduction in the diversity of fungal complexes in the soil, compared with the background, and secondly, there is an increase of dominant and often encountered species and reducing the number of rare species. There is also the appearance of fungi, which are typical for the more southern regions. Influenced by oil pollution the investigated soils become a sphere of accumulation of potentially hazardous to human species of micromycetes: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, etc.

Ibatullina, I.; Khabibullina, F.

2009-04-01

194

Chemically enhanced mixed region vapor stripping of TCE-contaminated saturated peat and silty clay soils  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to conduct further testing of MRVS, chemically enhanced with calcium oxide conditioning, on field- contaminated soils collected from beneath the NASA Michoud Rinsewater Impoundment. In this study, residual soil VOC levels as a function of vapor stripping time were measured to quantify VOC removal rates. Physical and chemical soil parameters expected to affect MRVS efficiency were measures. The effects of varying the calcium oxide loadings as well as varying the vapor stripping flow rates on VOC removal were also evaluated. The results of this study will be used to determine whether acceptable removals can be achieved within reasonable treatment times, remediation costs being directly proportional to the latter. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental results of this study, as well as to address issues that were raised after completion of the previous Michoud treatability work.

West, O.R.; Cameron, P.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J. Jr.

1996-01-01

195

Long-term effects of ash and N fertilization on stand growth, tree nutrient status and soil chemistry in a Scots pine stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term effects of varying quantities and types of ash, given together with nitrogen, on stand growth, tree nutrient status and soil chemical properties were studied in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand on upland soil. The treatments were: unfertilized control (C), nitrogen (N), wood ash and nitrogen (WA+N), bark ash and nitrogen (BA+N) and peat ash and nitrogen (PA+N).

Anna Saarsalmi; Mikko Kukkola; Mikko Moilanen; Merja Arola

2006-01-01

196

Groundwater residence time distributions in peatlands: Implications for peat decomposition and accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat soils consist of poorly decomposed plant detritus, preserved by low decay rates, and deep peat deposits are globally significant stores in the carbon cycle. High water tables and low soil temperatures are commonly held to be the primary reasons for low peat decay rates. However, recent studies suggest a thermodynamic limit to peat decay, whereby the slow turnover of

P. J. Morris; J. M. Waddington

2011-01-01

197

Are production and emission of N2O decoupled in peat soils? A simulation study of daily N2O emissions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from arable land are characterized by low background emissions and a few, short-lived peak emissions that represent a major part of the annual emission. Although the available models estimate cumulative N2O emissions fairly well, attempts to simulate the dynamics of daily emissions have failed so far. Errors in the simulated emissions have been attributed to errors in the simulated dynamics of the main drivers: soil moisture content, mineral nitrogen (N) content, soil organic matter content, oxygen content. Therefore we tested if accurate simulation of the dynamics of the main drivers in the soil profile, and especially soil moisture, does imply accurate simulation of the dynamics of N2O emissions at daily timescale as well. To this end, we used the detailed hydrological-biogeochemical model combination SWAP-ANIMO. The hydrological model SWAP has on many occasions shown to accurately predict soil moisture profiles. The biogeochemical model ANIMO has originally been developed for simulation of nutrient leaching, and has been extensively calibrated and validated. It has recently been extended with modules to simulate subsidence of peat land and greenhouse gas emissions. In our analyses we used daily observations of N2O emission and soil moisture from three managed grassland sites on peat in The Netherlands, and complementary observations of soil moisture, soil mineral N content and N2O concentration. All sites were drained artificially by ditches or tube drainage. Observed soil characteristics and results from former simulation studies on the peat area were used to calibrate the model and to define initial and boundary conditions. Soil moisture and mineral N were simulated quite well. Also, N2O concentrations were simulated in the right order of magnitude. However, poor results were obtained for daily N2O emissions, with a maximum model efficiency of 0.05. Production could be attributed to three sources: nitrification, denitrification in the top soil and denitrification in the subsoil. In the topsoil all N2O produced was emitted directly, whereas in the subsoil the produced N2O was emitted gradually in the days after production. The main problem appeared to be overestimation of the emission from N2O produced by denitrification in the top soil. Emission of N2O from production by denitrification in the subsoil and from production by nitrification was simulated much better. Hardly any reduction was simulated in the top soil and all N2O produced was emitted almost immediately. Also, many observed emission peaks are not only overestimated, but also simulated one day too early. Given the satisfactory results for soil mineral N content, and for denitrification and nitrification in the subsoil it is unlikely that the parameterization of the model is far off. We investigate the possibility that emission from the top soil is too fast and immediate emission of all N2O produced in the top soil prevents further reduction of N2O to N2. We hypothesize that such temporary storage could be caused by disequilibrium between N2O in the water and in the gas phase. N2O production mainly takes place in water-filled micropores, whereas gas diffusion mainly takes place in the larger air-filled pores. Discontinuity in the pores space, a property of organic soils, can hamper degassing of the N2O from soil water to soil air, keeping the produced N2O stored in the soil water. In the subsoil this is less of an issue because denitrification proceeds at higher soil moisture contents and immediate diffusion is much smaller.

Stolk, P. C.; Hendriks, R. F. A.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Moors, E. J.; Kabat, P.

2010-05-01

198

Hydrologic response of upland catchments to wildfires  

Microsoft Academic Search

To which extent do wildfires affect runoff production, soil erosion and sediment transport in upland catchments? This transient effect is investigated here by combining data of long term precipitation, sediment yield and wildfire records with a fine resolution spatially distributed modeling approach to flow generation and surface erosion. The model accounts for changes in the structure and properties of soil

Maria Cristina Rulli; Renzo Rosso

2007-01-01

199

Metagenomic insights into anaerobic metabolism along an Arctic peat soil profile.  

PubMed

A metagenomic analysis was performed on a soil profile from a wet tundra site in northern Alaska. The goal was to link existing biogeochemical knowledge of the system with the organisms and genes responsible for the relevant metabolic pathways. We specifically investigated how the importance of iron (Fe) oxides and humic substances (HS) as terminal electron acceptors in this ecosystem is expressed genetically, and how respiratory and fermentative processes varied with soil depth into the active layer and into the upper permafrost. Overall, the metagenomes reflected a microbial community enriched in a diverse range of anaerobic pathways, with a preponderance of known Fe reducing species at all depths in the profile. The abundance of sequences associated with anaerobic metabolic processes generally increased with depth, while aerobic cytochrome c oxidases decreased. Methanogenesis genes and methanogen genomes followed the pattern of CH4 fluxes: they increased steeply with depth into the active layer, but declined somewhat over the transition zone between the lower active layer and the upper permafrost. The latter was relatively enriched in fermentative and anaerobic respiratory pathways. A survey of decaheme cytochromes (MtrA, MtrC and their homologs) revealed that this is a promising approach to identifying potential reducers of Fe(III) or HS, and indicated a possible role for Acidobacteria as Fe reducers in these soils. Methanogens appear to coexist in the same layers, though in lower abundance, with Fe reducing bacteria and other potential competitors, including acetogens. These observations provide a rich set of hypotheses for further targeted study. PMID:23741360

Lipson, David A; Haggerty, John Matthew; Srinivas, Archana; Raab, Theodore K; Sathe, Shashank; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A

2013-05-31

200

Litter decomposition and nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in peatlands and uplands over 12 years in central Canada.  

PubMed

The large accumulation of organic matter in peatlands has been partially attributed to litter decomposition rates, which are slowed by a high water table. To test this, we examined whether there were significant differences in the decomposition and N and P dynamics of ten foliar litters and wood blocks at three pairs of upland forest and peatland sites in the transitional grassland, high boreal and low subarctic regions of central Canada, using litterbags collected over a 12-year period. At two of the three pairs, the decomposition rate, as determined by proportion of the original mass remaining after 12 years and by the exponential decay coefficient (k), was faster overall at the upland than at the peatland. In the third pair, there was no significant difference, despite the water table being close to the peat surface; warmer soil temperatures in the peatland than the upland may be the cause. In general, there were small losses or gains of N in the litters after 12 years, compared to the original litter, though there were some differences among litter types and sites, net gains in N likely reflecting the higher exogenous N availability. P was lost from most litters at the two northern pairs of sites, but at the transitional grassland pair, there were large net gains in P and greater variation among litters. The N:P ratio in the original litters ranged from 5 to 26 and after 12 years the ratio narrowed, with the site average of the ten litters ranging from 13 to 22, varying with the soil ratio. Decomposition rates and N and P dynamics after 12 years are different between upland and peatland sites: although the water table is a primary control on these differences, other factors such as temperature and soil nutrient status are also important. PMID:18560899

Moore, Tim R; Trofymow, J A; Siltanen, M; Kozak, L M

2008-06-17

201

Engineering properties of improved fibrous peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on the soil type, different types of binder have been used to stabilize soft soils nowadays. An essential criterion in the selection of suitable binder is its capability of achieving the desirable soil stabilizing function. For peat soil, it was evident that the engineering properties of the soil can be improved with Portland cement and ground granulated blast furnace

Faisal Haji Ali; Wong Leong Sing; Roslan Hashim

2010-01-01

202

What are the mechanisms controlling carbon flux from peat soils across slopes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are a globally important terrestrial carbon stock but carbon budget models need further improvement. The use of empirical observations to increase the accuracy of process based models has helped to constrain the error involved in accounting for peatland carbon balances, yet our understanding of peatland function needs to improve still further. Hydrology and topography are important controls on the carbon balance of peatlands. The hydrology of hillslopes has been studied, with runoff mechanisms and flow pathways dependent upon the topographic position. Topslope plateau areas have been observed to promote a large degree of surface runoff, acting as a shedding area delivering water downslope. Midslopes may experience fewer saturation runoff events due to the greater hydraulic gradient, with lower water tables likely to cause subsurface throughflow that is delivered downslope at the accumulation area at the bottom of the slope. This can help to maintain higher water tables at the foot of the slope and attenuate saturation runoff events (Holden and Burt 2003). The different hydrological mechanisms studied across the hillslope have not until recently been studied in the context of carbon cycling as well. The author has presented results elsewhere on the role that hillslope position has on carbon flux, finding that with water table drawdown observed on the midslopes, there is a concurrent increase in the rates of ecosystem respiration dependent upon the changing depth of the water table. There is also a decrease in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon concentration downslope. This poster presents preliminary results looking to constrain the explanations for the changing levels of respiration and dissolved organic carbon content across the slope. One metre deep soil cores were taken from an intact and an eroded hillslope in the Peak District, UK, across four hillslope positions: topslope, upper midslope, lower midslope and bottomslope. The cores were analysed for bulk density, energy content using bomb calorimetry and CHNO to assess if the composition and structure of the soil substrate could explain observed changes across the slope in dissolved organic carbon content.

Boothroyd, I.; Worrall, F.; Allott, T.

2012-04-01

203

Timber Tree-Based Contour Hedgerow System On Sloping Acid Upland Soils: The Use of 15 N In Quantifying Tree-Crop Interaction In Agroforestry System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population pressures in the upland increase, agroforestry is inevitably the most appropriate technology to enhance the productive and protective functions of farming systems to benefit both the people living inside and outside the watersheds in a suitable manner. Contour hedgerow is one of the agroforestry systems suitable for sloping uplands where farmers grow tree crops as hedgerows and

Crispina M. Rosales; Agustin R. Mercado; Charmaine Pailagao; Alfonso O. Garfia; Faye G. Rivera

204

Evidence for an eolian origin for the silt-enriched soil mantles on the glaciated uplands of eastern Upper Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide textural, geochemical, and mineralogical data on a thin, silty deposit that unconformably mantles glaciated uplands in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Previous research on this deposit, which we hypothesize to be loess, is nonexistent. The uplands were islands or narrow peninsulas within one or more glacial lakes. We compare the distribution, likely source and nature of the

Randall J. Schaetzl; Walter L. Loope

2008-01-01

205

SPATIAL VARIATION OF THE DEPTH OF THE ROOT-RESTRICTING LAYER IN AN UPLAND SOIL OF NORTHERN MISSISSIPPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root-restricting layers present in most Southeastern soils prevent adequate root growth into the soil profile. Reduced root elongation contributes to temporal drought stress which annually limits yield potential in this region. Many farmers combat this layer of soil by annually subsoiling, usually to a depth of 25-40 cm. However, the depth of this root-restricting layer varies greatly from field

S. M. Dabney

206

Soil respiration in a poor upland site of Scots pine stand subjected to elevated temperatures and atmospheric carbon concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil respiration rates under elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were studied in eastern Finland (62° 47'N, 30° 58'E, 144 m.a.s.1.) around naturally regenerated 20 – 30 years old Scots pine trees, enclosed in open top chambers. The production of CO2 varied spatially and temporally, but clearly followed the changes in temperature measured at the soil surface. However, soil respiration

Brita Pajari

1995-01-01

207

Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar application (CA) on soil physical properties and grain yields of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in northern Laos. During the 2007 wet season, three different experiments were conducted under upland conditions at 10 sites, combining variations in CA amounts (0–16tha?1), fertilizer application rates (N and P) and rice

Hidetoshi Asai; Benjamin K. Samson; Haefele M. Stephan; Khamdok Songyikhangsuthor; Koki Homma; Yoshiyuki Kiyono; Yoshio Inoue; Tatsuhiko Shiraiwa; Takeshi Horie

2009-01-01

208

Physicochemical sensitivities of tropical peat to electrokinetic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical peat is unconsolidated superficial deposits with high non-crystalline colloid (humus) content, constituting the subsurface of wetland systems. Laboratory experiments were carried out on a very slightly decomposed fibric and a highly decomposed amorphous, undisturbed tropical peat soils, to determine the physicochemical effects on the peats due to electrokinetic (EK) treatment in terms of mechanisms and resulting effects in the

Afshin Asadi; Bujang B. K. Huat; Mohamed M. Hanafi; Thamer A. Mohamed; Nader Shariatmadari

2010-01-01

209

Will blocking historical drainage ditches increase carbon sequestration in upland blanket mires of Southwest England?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat soils in the United Kingdom are estimated to store a minimum of 3,121Mt C (Lindsay, 2010). Despite being such a large carbon store the annual imbalance between uptake and release is small and susceptible to change in response to land management, atmospheric deposition and climate change. The upland blanket mires of Southwest England have been subject to extensive drainage and are particularly vulnerable to climate change as they lie at the lower edge of the peatland climatic envelope. The Mires-on-the-Moors project, funded by South West Water will restore over 2000 hectares of drained mire by April 2015. Herein, we question whether this restoration, which will block historical drainage ditches will allow the blanket bogs of Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks to recover their ecohydrological functionality. We hypothesise that such mire restoration will increase the resilience of these ecosystems to climate change and will return these upland mires to peat forming/carbon sequestering systems. A method is proposed which aims to understand the processes driving gaseous carbon exchange and peat formation in an upland blanket bog and quantifies the effect restoration has on these processes. We propose to measure the spatial variation in gas fluxes with respect to structural features of the mire; drainage ditches and nanotopes. The role of vegetation; the community composition, phenology and health will be explored as well as environmental variables such as water table depths, temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Importantly, the experiment will partition below ground respiration to assess the environmental controls and effect of restoration on autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration separately. Unusually, it will be possible to collect both pre- and post-restoration data for two experimental sites with existing intensive hydrological monitoring (baseline monitoring of water table depths at 15 minute timesteps has been in place for > 1 year at ca. 160 locations across two experimental catchments on Exmoor). Remote sensing of vegetation structure (using both airborne LiDAR and ground-based laser scanning tools) alongside geospatial modelling will enable the effects of restoration on carbon storage to be modelled from headwater catchment to moorland scales. Lindsay, R. (2010) Peatbogs and Carbon: A Critical Synthesis. University of East London, London.

Le Feuvre, N.; Hartley, I.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Grand-Clement, E.; Smith, D.; Brazier, R.

2012-04-01

210

Use of Computed Tomography Imaging for Qualifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils  

EPA Science Inventory

Computed tomography (CT) imaging has been used to describe and quantify subtidal, benthic animals such as polychaetes, amphipods, and shrimp. Here, for the first time, CT imaging is used to successfully quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from...

211

Manganese and land-use in upland catchments in Scotland.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) in surface waters is a micronutrient, but elevated concentrations are toxic to fish and impair drinking water quality. In Scotland, undesirable Mn concentrations (> 0.05 mg l(-1)) occur predominantly in upland freshwaters because the acidic pH and organic nature of catchment soils favour Mn mobilisation. The relationship between upland land-use in Scotland and Mn concentrations in surface waters is reviewed. Conifer afforestation is associated with enhanced Mn in runoff. Mn is leached from conifer foliage and litter, and mature conifers enhance acid deposition and loss of Mn from acidified catchment soils. After harvesting, increased soil pools of water-soluble Mn and elevated Mn concentrations in runoff have been observed. Liming, fertiliser addition, drainage ditch construction and ploughing to improve upland pastures, and muirburn on grouse moors may also increase Mn concentrations in runoff, but the evidence is less clear-cut. The extent to which land-use influences Mn concentrations in upland catchments in Scotland is modified by catchment hydrology and soil type. Catchment geology, instream processes and standing water stratification are probably lesser influences on Mn concentrations in surface waters of upland catchments in Scotland. The location of land-use in upland catchments, especially in the riparian zone, is critical in determining its effect on Mn in runoff. Climate change is expected to increase Mn concentrations in runoff from upland catchments in Scotland because of predicted changes in soil hydrology. PMID:11227264

Heal, K V

2001-01-29

212

Small scale soil carbon and moisture gradients in a drained peat bog grassland and their influence on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Großes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10°C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled conditions. This together with the prediction of the systems CO2 exchange, gives valuable information on how degraded peatlands can be restored best or at least be cultivated in a way to achieve climate neutral conditions. Thus, our study improves the prediction, how peatland soils will react to changes of soil and climate conditions with respect to their greenhouse gas emissions.

Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Freibauer, A.

2012-04-01

213

Dynamics of biogenic gas bubbles in peat and their effects on peatland biogeochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and emission of peat gas has attracted great interest because substantial amounts of methane (CH4) are emitted to the atmosphere from peat soils. Many studies indicate supersaturation of CH4 in peat water, implying a high potential for gas bubble formation. However, observations of bubbles in peat are often only qualitatively described, and in most cases the presence of entrapped

M. Strack; E. Kellner; J. M. Waddington

2005-01-01

214

The Presence and Dynamics of Entrapped Biogenic Gas Bubbles in Peat I: Biogeochemical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and emission of peat gas has attracted great interest since substantial amounts of methane (CH4) are emitted to the atmosphere from peat soils. Many studies indicate supersaturation of methane in peat water indicating a high potential for gas bubble formation. However, observations of bubbles in peat are often only qualitatively described, and as such knowledge of the dynamics of

M. Strack; E. Kellner; J. S. Price; J. Waddington

2004-01-01

215

An analysis of transient flow in upland watersheds: interactions ...  

Treesearch

Description: The physical structure and hydrological processes of upland watersheds interact in response to ... Transient fluid flow through distinct flow paths such as the soil matrix, macropores, saprolite, and ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

216

The multi-annual nitrogen budget of a peat-covered catchment--changing from sink to source?  

PubMed

Only a few studies have considered the N budget of peat soils and this in turn has limited the ability of studies to consider the impact of changes in climate and atmospheric deposition upon the N budget of a peat soil. This study considered the total N budget of an upland peat-covered catchment over the period 1993 to 2009. The study has shown: i) Over the period of study the total N atmospheric deposition declined from 3.5 to 0.7 tonnes N/km2/yr. ii) The total fluvial export of N at soil source varied from 0.41 to 1.85 tonnes N/km2/yr with the fluvial flux being greater than the atmospheric input in 3 years of the study, implying significant internal processing. iii) Measuring the C:N ratio of organic matter pools in the ecosystem shows that gross primary productivity and litter decomposition represent outputs of N from the soil while DOC production and humification represent inputs of N. iv) Overall, the total N budget of the peat ecosystem varies from ? 1.0 to + 2.5 tonnes N/km2/yr, i.e. in some years the ecosystem is a net source of N. The time series of the total N budget suggests that the ecosystem is responding to the occurrence of severe droughts with a long-term decline in N storage that could be interpreted as a response to long-term high N deposition rates, even if those rates have now diminished. PMID:22789818

Worrall, Fred; Clay, Gareth D; Burt, Tim P; Rose, Rob

2012-07-10

217

Enzyme activity and carbon dioxide evolution from upland and wetland rice soils under three agricultural practices in hilly regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydrogenase activity (a measure of microbial biomass), urease activity and CO2 evolution were measured in soils planted to rice (Oryza sativa L.) under three different agricultural practices prevalent in hill regions. The effects of hill slope, terrace and valley agriculture were investigated for two cropping seasons. The valleys and terraces were kept flooded during each cropping season while the hill

M. B. Tiwari; B. K. Tiwari; R. R. Mishra

1989-01-01

218

Towards a simple generic model for upland rice root length density estimation from root intersections on soil profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root length density (RLD), a key factor for water and nutrient uptake, varies as a function of space and time, and is laborious\\u000a to measure by root washing. In order to estimate RLD from root intersection density (RID), taking root orientation into account,\\u000a RID was determined on three perpendicular soil planes of cubic samples and RLD was measured for the

J. Dusserre; A. Audebert; A. Radanielson; J. L. Chopart

2009-01-01

219

Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-10-01

220

Genetic variation in root morphology and microsatellite DNA loci in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is a major constraint to the productivity of rice in upland ecosystems. The rice root system plays an important role in the regulation of water uptake and extraction from deep soil layers. The aim of this research was to study the variation in root morphology and the genetic diversity in upland rice accessions. Thirty-three upland rice accessions originated from

N. D. Thanh; H. G. Zheng; N. V. Dong; L. N. Trinh; M. L. Ali; H. T. Nguyen

1999-01-01

221

Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed-lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue concentration and a total of 45 watershed and water chemistry parameters were evaluated for two separate years: 2005 and 2006. Results show agreement with other studies where watershed area, lake water pH, nutrient levels (specifically dissolved NO3--N) and dissolved iron are important factors controlling and/or predicting fish THg level. Exceeding all was the strong dependence of yellow perch THg level on soil A-horizon THg and, in particular, soil O-horizon THg concentrations (Spearman ?? = 0.81). Soil B-horizon THg concentration was significantly correlated (Pearson r = 0.75) with lake water THg concentration. Lakes surrounded by a greater percentage of shrub wetlands (peatlands) had higher fish tissue THg levels, thus it is highly possible that these wetlands are main locations for mercury methylation. Stepwise regression was used to develop empirical models for the purpose of predicting the spatial variation in yellow perch THg over the studied region. The 2005 regression model demonstrates it is possible to obtain good prediction (up to 60% variance description) of resident yellow perch THg level using upland soil O-horizon THg as the only independent variable. The 2006 model shows even greater prediction (r2 = 0.73, with an overall 10??ng/g [tissue, wet weight] margin of error), using lake water dissolved iron and watershed area as the only model independent variables. The developed regression models in this study can help with interpreting THg concentrations in low trophic level fish species for untested lakes of the greater Superior National Forest and surrounding Boreal ecosystem. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Gabriel, M. C.; Kolka, R.; Wickman, T.; Nater, E.; Woodruff, L.

2009-01-01

222

Significance of large peat blocks for river channel habitat and stream organic budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper examines the significance of large peat blocks in Trout Beck, an upland gravel-bed river in northern England. An inventory was made of all in-channel peat blocks over a 1.5 km reach of the river in order to characterise the distribution of the blocks, and benthic organic matter and periphyton were sampled from the gravel around an isolated

S. Crowe; J. Warburton

2007-01-01

223

Effects of cropping history and peat amendments on the quality of a silt soil cropped with strawberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term field experiments are invaluable sites for studying changes in soil quality due to management practices. We utilized a field experiment on silt soil with 18 years (1982–1999) of conventional and organic farming systems for studying long-term impacts of farming system on soil properties. During 2000–2002, strawberries were grown on the whole area. Some conventional and organic plots were amended

Mauritz Vestberg; Sanna Kukkonen; Kaisa Saari; Tuomo Tuovinen; Ansa Palojärvi; Timo Pitkänen; Timo Hurme; Milja Vepsäläinen; Maarit Niemi

2009-01-01

224

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with root growth in upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) exposed to soil water-deficit in fields with contrasting soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mapping population of 114 lines from Bala×Azucena was grown under drought stress at two field sites with contrasting soil physical properties. Drought was imposed between 35 and 65 days after sowing (DAS) and root density at 35cm depth was measured 70 DAS. Leaf rolling, leaf drying and relative water content were recorded as indicators of drought avoidance. Root density

J. E. Cairns; A. Audebert; C. E. Mullins; A. H. Price

2009-01-01

225

Biomethanation of peat  

SciTech Connect

To determine the feasibility of producing methane via the anaerobic digestion of peat, researchers studied the effects of digestion mode, inoculum source, fermentation temperature, digester loading, hydraulic retention time, external nutrients, peat particle size, and feed pretreatment. The results suggest that an acidic system, external nutrients, and peat pretreatment are conditions that enhance methane production.

Not Available

1981-01-01

226

Chemical properties of peat used in balneology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physiological activity of peats is observed in human peat-bath therapy and in the promotion of growth in some plants. Balneological peat as an ecologically clean and natural substance is perceived as being more 'human friendly' than synthetic compounds. Poland has a long tradition of using balneological peat for therapeutic purposes. Balneological peat reveals a physical effect by altering temperature and biochemical effects through biologically active substances. It is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases that are quite common in Poland. Peat represents natural product. Physico-chemical properties of peat in particular surface-active, sorption and ion exchanges, defining their biological function, depend mainly on the chemical composition and molecular structure of humic substances representing the major constituent of organic soil (peat). The carbon of organic matter of peats is composed of 10 to 20% carbohydrates, primarily of microbial origin; 20% nitrogen-containing constituents, such as amino acids and amino sugars; 10 to 20% aliphatic fatty acids, alkanes, etc.; with the rest of carbon being aromatic. For balneology peat should be highly decomposed (preferably H8), natural and clean. The content of humic acids should exceed 20% of dry weight, ash content will be less than 15 15% of dry weight, sulphur content less than 0.3% of dry weight and the amount of water more than 85%. It will not contain harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Humic substances (HS) of peat are known to be macromolecular polydisperse biphyllic systems including both hydrophobic domains (saturated hydrocarbon chains, aromatic structural units) and hydrophilic functional groups, i. e having amphiphilic character. Amphiphilic properties of FA are responsible for their solubility, viscosity, conformation, surfactant-like character and a variety of physicochemical properties of considerable biologically practical significance. The chemical composition of peats depends significantly on the genesis of peatlands and the depth of sampling. The chemical properties of peat fulvic acids (FA) have some genetic peculiarities due to the specific conditions of the process of humification of peat-forming plants in mires. The process of humification in mires takes place in the top-forming layer under amphibious moisture conditions. Substances of microbial origin are water-soluble and can participate in the formation of peat FA to a little extent. So a main source of structural units for the peat HA and FA is suggested to be organic constituents of peat forming plants of various botanical composition. The content of aromatic units in peat FA was shown to depend on the content of lignin in peat-forming plants and also of the aromatization of polysaccharides mainly due to the transformation of cellulose. FA characterized lower than humic acids molecular weight (1000-30,000). FA's are composed of a series of highly oxidized aromatic rings with a large number of side chains. Building blocks are benzene carboxylic acids and phenolic acids. These are held together by hydrogen bonding van der Waals' forces and ionic bonding. FA contains larger concentrations of nitrogen. This fraction also contains a great deal of polysaccharide materials, as well as low molecular fatty acids and cytoplasmic constituents of microorganisms. These compounds are linear, flexible colloids at low concentrations, and spherical colloids at high solution concentrations and low pH values. A more adequate knowledge of the chemical structure of humic materials will assist us in better understanding the physiological effects and also the function of these macromolecules on the health that these materials are know to exert. This improved knowledge provides us better information on chemical structure of humic substances from peats, which are responsible for pharmacotherapeutic, pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical effect. This structure of FA creates proper conditions for uptake of nutrient as well as bioavailability of biologically active substances. The solubilization in water by

Szajdak, L.; H?ado?, T.

2009-04-01

227

Effect of steel-making slag as a soil amendment on arsenic uptake by radish ( Raphanus sativa L.) in an upland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steel-making slag (SMS), a by-product of steel manufacturing process with an alkaline pH (11–12) and high amount of iron\\u000a (Fe) and calcium (Ca) oxides, was used to reduce arsenic (As) phytoextractability. The by-product was selected as an alternative\\u000a to commercial Fe oxides, which can decrease plant uptake, but they are expensive if used as amendments of contaminated arable\\u000a soils.

Jessie Gutierrez; Chang Oh Hong; Byung-Hyun Lee; Pil Joo Kim

2010-01-01

228

Inorganic contents of peats  

SciTech Connect

Peat, the precursor of coal, is composed primarily of plant components and secondarily of inorganic matter derived from a variety of sources. The elemental, mineralogic, and petrographic composition of a peat is controlled by a combination of both its botanical and depositional environment. Inorganic contents of peats can vary greatly between geographically separated peat bogs as well as vertially and horizontally within an individual bog. Predicting the form and distribution of inorganic matter in a coal deposit requires understanding the distribution and preservation of inorganic matter in peat-forming environments and diagenetic alterations affecting such material during late-stage peatification and coalification processes. 43 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Raymond, R. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Cohen, A.D.

1988-02-01

229

Dynamic response of Mercer Slough peat  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of a peat from Mercer Slough in Bellevue, Wash., was investigated by a program of field and laboratory testing. The peat was very soft, very weak, and highly compressible. Water contents averaged approximately 600% and in situ shear wave velocities were measured at 12--30 m/s. Cyclic triaxial and resonant column testing indicated that the modulus reduction and damping behavior of Mercer Slouth peat was significantly influenced by strain amplitude and effective confining pressure and was weakly influenced by loading frequency and overconsolidation ratio. Comparison of the behavior of Mercer Slough peat with other highly organic soils suggests a trend of increasing linearity and decreasing damping with increasing effective confining pressure. Site response analyses indicated strong response at low frequencies with spectral shapes that differ significantly from the standard shapes implied by current codes.

Kramer, S.L.

2000-06-01

230

Reduction of trichloroethylene and nitrate by zero-valent iron with peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using zero-valent iron (ZVI) and peat mixture as in situ barriers for contaminated sediments and groundwater was investigated. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and nitrate (NO3 ), redox sensitive contaminants were reduced by ZVI and peat soil mixture under anaerobic condition. Peat was used to support the sorption of TCE, microbial activity for biodegradation of TCE and denitrification while TCE

Jee-Eun Min; Meejeong Kim; John H. Pardue; Jae-Woo Park

2008-01-01

231

Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat is commonly used as a combustible fuel for energy and as an addictive to soil in horticulture. For hundreds of years, peat was widely used as a green energy source for heating in the northern parts of Europe and North America. Nowadays, people tend to lay decomposed peat on lawns or gardens as a top layer because of its

Xiao Jiang; Cynthia A. Coles; Emmanuel S. Asapo

2008-01-01

232

77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7 CFR Part 1427 RIN 0560-AI16 Upland Cotton Base Quality AGENCY: Commodity Credit...Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations...uses base quality to calculate upland cotton loan rates, Adjusted World Price...

2012-04-03

233

Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Final report, Year 2  

SciTech Connect

South Carolina has few indigenous energy resources. Most widely known and utilized are hydropower, wood, and solar. Peat is a material composed of partially decomposed organic matter that, after burial for long periods of time, may eventually become coal. Peat is utilized as an energy resource for the production of electricity and for home heating in Europe and the Soviet Union. There are peat deposits in South Carolina, but peat has never been used as an energy resource within the state. This report presents the results of the two years of a planned four-year study of the quantity and energy potential of peat in South Carolina. In this year's survey two activities were undertaken. The first was to visit highly probable peat deposits to confirm the presence of fuel-grade peat. The second was to survey and characterize in more detail the areas judged to be of highest potential as major resources. The factors carrying the greatest weight in our determination of priority areas were: (1) a description of peat deposits in the scientific literature or from discussions with state and federal soil scientists; (2) mention of organic soils on soil maps or in the literature; and (3) information from farmers and other local citizens.

Holmes, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Tisdale, M.

1982-01-01

234

Some aspects of the German peat industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other things, this report described peat insulation slabs, peat moss litter and granulated peat, peat coking, peat gas generation, peat gathering, peat with fertilizers, peat firelighters, saccharification of peat, and peat as a substrate for yeast growth. Most of the report consisted of descriptions of visits to peat processing companies. In making insulation slabs from peat, most of the

R. H. S. Robertson; A. G. Clement

2008-01-01

235

Peat Bog Waste Stabilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document studies the phenomenon by which waste water from a wood processing plant became stabilized after discharge onto an adjacent peat bog in Northern Minnesota. It was thought that peat might be ultimately used for on site water pollution abatemen...

A. M. DeYoannes R. S. Farnham

1969-01-01

236

Peat biogasification development program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and operation of a peat anaerobic digestion process development unit is considered. Five areas are addressed: pretreatment information; anaerobic digestion; evaluation of waste streams; process model development and economic analysis; and planning for the process development unit. Data were taken for the development of the predictive process model. A number of batch and continuous pretreatment experiments were completed and analyzed. The four samples analyzed through solvent extration were completed, and the results are presented. Work on high pressure liquid chromatography continued, and the development of the gradient elution solvent system was completed with encouraging results. Pretreated peat was batch fermented; the continuously oxidized peat show conversions of close to 30 percent. This is significantly higher than the conversion for the batch oxidized peat. A predictive process model for the three phases of peat biogasification, solubilization, oxidation, and fermentation was developed.

Wise, D. L.

1981-01-01

237

Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.

Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.

2012-04-01

238

Chlorinated hydrocarbons in peat  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations (ng/g), accumulation rates (ug/m/sup 2/=yr) and burdens were determined for DDT (1,1,1-trichlorophenyl2-2'bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and a,b,g-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in peat cores taken across the mid-latitudes of North America. Because peat bogs are ombrotrophic, thereby receiving all contaminant inputs from the atmosphere and because peat cores were dated, atmospheric input functions were constructed for all of the compounds listed above excepting the HCHs. Compound inventories (burdens) in peat cores of PCBs, HCB, HCHs, Toxaphene, DDT, Pb and Zn were compared, indicating a strong influence from areas proximate to industrial sources and the atmospheric transport from source regions. Untransformed parent DDT (p,p' and o,p'-DDT) in surface peat and in precipitation provides evidence for the long range transport of DDT from neighboring countries where use has increased over the past 10-15 years. Present accumulation rates of DDT in peat are about 10-20% of maximum levels associated with peak use in the US around 1960. The DDT input function that was developed can be used to date peat cores. Transformations of DDT and PCBs were also examined in peat cores. First order transformation rates of DDT (p,p' and o,p') to DDD in anaerobic peat core environments ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 yr/sup -1/ with differences related to temperature. Aerobic transformation of PCB congeners in peat cores and microcosms was rapid for 2,3 and several 4 chlorinated congeners (T/sub 1/2 less than or equal to 0.2 to 3 years) and declined with increasing chlorine number.

Rapaport, R.A.

1985-01-01

239

Diurnal and seasonal patterns of ecosystem CO{sub 2} efflux from upland tundra in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, U.S.A.  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide efflux and soil microenvironment were measured in three upland tundra communities in the foothills of the Brooks Range in arctic Alaska to determine the magnitude of CO{sub 2} efflux rates and the relative importance of the belowground factors that influence them. Gas exchange and soil microenvironment measurements were made weekly between 14 June and 31 July 1990. The study communities included lichen-heath, a sparse community vegetated by lichens and dwarf ericaceous shrubs on rocky soils, moist Cassiope dwarf-shrub heath tundra, dominated by Carex and evergreen and deciduous shrubs on relatively deep organic soils, and dry Cassiope dwarf-shrub heath of stone-stripe areas, which was of intermediate character. Rates of CO{sub 2} efflux were similar for the three communities until mid-season when they peaked at rates between 4.9 and 5.9 g m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Following the mid-season peak, the rates in all three communities declined, particularly in the lichen-heath. Seasonal patterns of CO{sub 2} efflux, soil temperature, and soil moisture suggest changing limitations to CO{sub 2} efflux, soil temperature, and soil moisture suggest changing limitations to CO{sub 2} efflux over the course of the season. Rates of carbon dioxide efflux followed changes in soil temperature early in the season when soil moisture was highest. Mid-season efflux appeared to be limited by soil, moss, and lichen hydration until the end of July, when temperature again limited efflux. Differences between the communities were related to microenvironmental differences and probable differences in carbon quality. The presence of peat-forming mosses is suggested to play an important role in differences in efflux and micro-environment among the communities. 32 refs., 3 figs., 4 tab.

Oberbauer, S.F. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Gillespie, C.T. [Vandenburg Air Force Base, CA (United States); Cheng, Weixin [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

240

Predicting soil respiration from peatlands.  

PubMed

This study considers the relative performance of six different models to predict soil respiration from upland peat. Predicting soil respiration is important for global carbon budgets and gap filling measured data from eddy covariance and closed chamber measurements. Further to models previously published new models are presented using two sub-soil zones and season. Models are tested using data from the Bleaklow plateau, southern Pennines, UK. Presented literature models include ANOVA using logged environmental data, the Arrhenius equation, modified versions of the Arrhenius equation to include soil respiration activation energy and water table depth. New models are proposed including the introduction of two soil zones in the peat profile, and season. The first new model proposes a zone of high CO(2) productivity related to increased soil microbial CO(2) production due to the supply of labile carbon from plant root exudates and root respiration. The second zone is a deeper zone where CO(2) production is lower with less labile carbon. A final model allows the zone of high CO(2) production to become dormant during winter months when plants will senesce and will vary depending upon vegetation type within a fixed location. The final model accounted for, on average, 31.9% of variance in net ecosystem respiration within 11 different restoration sites whilst, using the same data set, the best fitting literature equation only accounted for 18.7% of the total variance. Our results demonstrate that soil respiration models can be improved by explicitly accounting for seasonality and the vertically stratified nature of soil processes. These improved models provide an enhanced basis for calculating the peatland carbon budgets which are essential in understanding the role of peatlands in the global C cycle. PMID:23178842

Rowson, J G; Worrall, F; Evans, M G; Dixon, S D

2012-11-22

241

Peat Resources of Haapajaervi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Geological Survey of Finland investigated the quantity and quality of peatlands in Haapajaervi in 1983,1984 and 1986. Altogether 9695 hectares of peatland were studied. The total peatland area suitable for fuel peat production is 1724 hectares. Useful...

M. Korpijaakko M. Koivisto

1988-01-01

242

Minerals Yearbook, 1989: Peat  

SciTech Connect

U.S. peat demand peaked at 1.5 million tons in 1987, following a 4-year period of record growth. Demand improved by an average of 12% per year during the period, eclipsing previous records. Growth in domestic production was also strong, increasing at an average annual rate of 9%. The following topics relating to peat, are discussed in the report: Domestic Data Coverage; Production; Consumption and Uses; Stocks; Prices; Foreign Trade; World Review; Current Research; Outlook; Background.

Cantrell, R.L.

1990-10-01

243

Hydrologic response of upland catchments to wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To which extent do wildfires affect runoff production, soil erosion and sediment transport in upland catchments? This transient effect is investigated here by combining data of long term precipitation, sediment yield and wildfire records with a fine resolution spatially distributed modeling approach to flow generation and surface erosion. The model accounts for changes in the structure and properties of soil and vegetation cover by combining the tube-flux approach to topographic watershed partition with a parsimonious parametrization of hydrologic processes. This model is used to predict hydrologic and sediment fluxes for nine small catchments in Saint Gabriel mountains of southern California under control (pre-fire) and altered (post-fire) conditions. Simulation runs using a 45 years record of hourly precipitation show the passage of fire to significantly modify catchment response to storms with a major effect on erosion and flood flows. The probability of occurrence of major floods in the post-fire season is shown to increase up to an order of magnitude under same precipitation conditions. Also, the expected anomaly of sediment yield can increase dramatically the desertification hazard in upland wildfire prone areas. One should further consider the role of firefloods produced by the combined occurrence of wildfires and storms as a fundamental source of non-stationarity in the assessment of hydrologic hazard.

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Rosso, Renzo

2007-10-01

244

Dynamics of biogenic gas bubbles in peat: Potential effects on water storage and peat deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of biogenic bubbles in peat soils were studied at a field site in southern Québec, Canada. The maximum gas content measured in this study varied spatially with a maximum seasonal increase in volumetric gas content of 0.15. The size of changes in total gas content of a 1 m deep profile was comparable to the seasonal water storage change.

E. Kellner; J. M. Waddington; J. S. Price

2005-01-01

245

Phenolic acids distribution in a peat of the relict community with Serbian spruce in the Tara Mt. forest reserve (Serbia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of tertiary endemorelict Serbian spruce (Picea omorika Pan?i?) in forest-peat in Tara Mt., the only such finding in the world is rather poor. This could be partially ascribed to the presence of phenolics in peat soil. Content of total phenols and phenolic acids was determined in peat samples taken from: (1) knolls of forest-peat bog with dominance of trees

Lola Djurdjevi?; Anka Dini?; Miroslava Mitrovi?; Pavle Pavlovi?; Vele Teševi?

2003-01-01

246

Peat Resource Estimation in Michigan. Technical Status Report No. 7, October 16-December 15, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accomplishments in FY1982 towards quantifying the energy potential of Michigan's organic soils (peat) are discussed. Five soil-geomorphic provinces have been delineated in the Upper Peninsula. Two were intensively sampled in 1981, and two in 1982. Results...

J. G. Mogk

1983-01-01

247

Soil dissolved organic matter export to coastal temperate rainforest streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The north coastal temperate rainforest is a dynamic area of biogeochemical exchange between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Wetlands and poorly drained soils dominate the landscape, where wetlands alone comprise 30% of the watersheds. The region is experiencing warming with potentially profound impacts on soil processes, forest structure, stream productivity, and the large and valuable salmon fishery. There are few data on stream chemistry, biological productivity, or discharge among soils and streams in the region. To predict the impact of climate change, management practices or land use on streams we need better baseline data on soil-stream interactions in temperate rainforest watersheds. We measured weekly export of dissolved organic matter from 3 dominant soil vegetation communities (peat bogs, forested wetlands and mineral soil uplands) during spring through fall of 2006. Three replicate sites for each soil type were gauged with weirs and fluxes of major forms of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus measured. Discharge dominated the seasonal flux dynamics but major differences in export and area-specific export emphasized differences in soil-specific transformations on nutrient export potential. Export per unit soil area varied from 0.01 to 25 kg C/ha/day. Peat bogs exported 2-5 times as much per unit area as the other two soils. Forested wetlands were intermediate between bogs and uplands in export per unit area. Mean daily carbon fluxes from gauged subcatchments ranged from 0.01 to 75 kg C/day. Because they are larger than bogs, forested wetlands exported the greatest amount of DOC at our study locations, with uplands exporting intermediate amounts during spring floods. Uplands and bogs exported far less than forested wetlands during normal flow conditions. Total nitrogen fluxes were dominated by organic forms and seasonal trends closely followed the patterns observed for DOC. Although wetlands of either type export more organic matter per unit area, the extent of wetlands varies widely across the landscape; therefore their importance to stream chemistry varies as well. Wetlands comprise from 2 to 95% of total catchment areas in 63 streams within the 6.9 million ha Tongass National Forest in Southeast Alaska, with a mean of 44%. Because of their high areal specific export, wetlands are important organic matter sources within these catchments. Twenty six to thirty six% of the variation in baseflow DOC concentration in watersheds within the Tongass is explained by the amount of combined wetland area within the watershed illustrating the importance of wetland organic matter sources within these stream types. However, the large fluxes from upland mineral soils during spates indicate that uplands also have the capacity to influence stream chemistry during storms. As soils warm, increased mineralization of soil organic matter may increase organic matter export with important impacts on stream chemistry and habitat quality.

Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Hood, E.; Johnson, A.

2006-12-01

248

Third technical contractors' conference on peat  

SciTech Connect

The conference dealt with the estimation of US peat reserves, methods for the gasification of peat, including biogasification, techniques for dewatering peat, and the harvesting of peat. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

249

Nitrification potential of secondary-succession upland oak forests: 1. Mineralization and nitrification during laboratory incubations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to examine factors regulating N mineralization and nitrification in upland oak (Quercus spp.) forests of the Missouri Ozarks. Soils were collected from three sites representing secondary oak succession. Sampling dates represented different stages in the phenological development of the vegetation during a 1-yr period. Soils were incubated in the laboratory, and changes in soil NOââ and

J. M. Donaldson; G. S. Henderson

2009-01-01

250

Experiments on the temperature sensitivity of peat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large portion of the global soil carbon store is held in Northern peatlands, where low temperatures and anoxic conditions constrain rates of microbial decomposition. Projected increases in air temperature and evapotranspiration may relax these environmental constraints by exposing a greater thickness of peat to oxic conditions, as well as to higher (and possibly more variable) soil temperatures adding to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, across ecosystems, the quality of litter has been shown to contribute more to variability in decomposition rates than temperature. The temperature sensitivity of aerobic decomposition is therefore likely to differ across litter/peat in different states of degradation. Thermodynamic theory predicts that rates of decomposition of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) will be more sensitive to increases in temperature than labile SOM.. To date, the response of these substrate types remains unexplored in peatland systems. We tested the effects of vegetation type and degradation state on the temperature sensitivity of aerobic decomposition by tracking changes in litter/peat incubated in the laboratory for over a year. Litter/peat was collected from hollows in the lagg fen and bog plateau of a raised bog in central Sweden. At each location, two degradation states were sampled: fresh litter from near the moss surface and degraded peat from the upper part of the perennially anoxic layer. The samples were kept moist and incubated at 15 °C in a controlled environment chamber. At six-month intervals, temperature sensitivity of three replicates of each vegetation type-degradation state combination was assessed by measuring CO2 production at temperatures ramped up from 0 °C to 30 °C in daily 5 °C steps. The data were analysed using an Arrhenius-type equation: k = A exp(-Ea/(RT)), where k is respiration rate, A is frequency or pre-exponential factor, Ea is activation energy, R is the universal gas constant and T is temperature in Kelvin. Patterns were similar for temperature-sensitivity parameters A and Ea, with both increasing markedly over the period of incubation. Degraded peat from the fen and bog sites responded similarly to temperature increases but, contrary to thermodynamic theory, was less sensitive than fresh litter to temperature manipulation. The magnitude of the differences between litter/peat types decreased over the incubation period, suggesting that substrate availability underpinned this response. We discuss the effect of substrate quality and abundance on our ability to model temperature response with a simple thermodynamic model such as the Arrhenius equation.. Our results illustrate the need for models that, as a minimum, are parameterised on a per-substrate basis and, perhaps more fundamentally, allow for time-dependent changes in temperature-sensitivity.

Laing, Chris; Allton, Kathryn; Belyea, Lisa

2010-05-01

251

Fourth technical contractors' conference on peat  

SciTech Connect

This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The papers presented dealt with peat dewatering, international peat programs, environmental and socio-economic factors, peat gasification, peat harvesting, and the state peat surveys for 14 states. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

252

Cadmium in upland forests after vitality fertilization with wood ash—a summary of soil microbiological studies into the potential risk of cadmium release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wood ash in forestry has been questioned because of the potential risk associated with its cadmium (Cd) content (1–30 mg kg ?1). In agriculture, wood ash is only allowed for use as a fertilizer when its Cd content is below 3 mg kg ?1. This restriction has not been applied to forest soils and there is a lack of

Jonna Perkiömäki; Hannu Fritze

2005-01-01

253

Assessment of nitrogen contamination of groundwater in paddy and upland fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to assess the nitrogen contamination of groundwater in paddy and upland fields. A reactive chemical transport\\u000a model PHREEQC and a variable saturated groundwater flow and transport model FEMWATER were used to evaluate the vertical transport\\u000a of nitrogen compound in various soil types of paddy and upland. The shallow groundwater quality monitoring data of 2003, 2006,\\u000a 2009 in

Y. H. Kao; C.-W. Liu; C. S. Jang; S. W. Zanh; K. H. Lin

2011-01-01

254

Minerals yearbook, 1988: peat  

SciTech Connect

U.S. peat production within the 48 contiguous States declined 6% in 1988. Producers' sales volume and average price received per ton, decreased 3% and 2%, respectively. Ending stocks at the producer level increased 5%. Apparent domestic consumption was 5% below the record 1.5 million tons established during 1986 and 1987. Peat imports increased 15% and reached a record 0.6 million tons, representing 40% of apparent domestic consumption. Canada shipped over 99% of the total. Sphagnum moss sales tonnage increased 142% during the year principally due to development of new high-quality deposits in Minnesota. A significant decline in humus production and sales was experienced.

Cantrell, R.L.

1988-01-01

255

High sensitivity of peat decomposition to climate change through water-table feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, northern peatlands have functioned as a carbon sink, sequestering large amounts of soil organic carbon, mainly due to low decomposition in cold, largely waterlogged soils. The water table, an essential determinant of soil-organic-carbon dynamics, interacts with soil organic carbon. Because of the high water-holding capacity of peat and its low hydraulic conductivity, accumulation of soil organic carbon raises the water table, which lowers decomposition rates of soil organic carbon in a positive feedback loop. This two-way interaction between hydrology and biogeochemistry has been noted, but is not reproduced in process-based simulations. Here we present simulations with a coupled physical-biogeochemical soil model with peat depths that are continuously updated from the dynamic balance of soil organic carbon. Our model reproduces dynamics of shallow and deep peatlands in northern Manitoba, Canada, on both short and longer timescales. We find that the feedback between the water table and peat depth increases the sensitivity of peat decomposition to temperature, and intensifies the loss of soil organic carbon in a changing climate. In our long-term simulation, an experimental warming of 4?C causes a 40% loss of soil organic carbon from the shallow peat and 86% from the deep peat. We conclude that peatlands will quickly respond to the expected warming in this century by losing labile soil organic carbon during dry periods.

Ise, Takeshi; Dunn, Allison L.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Moorcroft, Paul R.

2008-11-01

256

Uplands and Land Use Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This material includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on uplands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but can be adapted to other localities. The materials consider types of uplands, ecology of uplands

Smith, Dwight G.

257

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2013-01-01

258

7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for...Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

2012-01-01

259

Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of organic fertilizers and charcoal increase nutrient stocks in the rooting zone of crops, reduce nutrient leaching\\u000a and thus improve crop production on acid and highly weathered tropical soils. In a field trial near Manaus (Brazil) 15 different\\u000a amendment combinations based on equal amounts of carbon (C) applied through chicken manure (CM), compost, charcoal, and forest\\u000a litter were tested

Christoph Steiner; Wenceslau G. Teixeira; Johannes Lehmann; Thomas Nehls; Jeferson Luis Vasconcelos de Macêdo; Winfried E. H. Blum; Wolfgang Zech

2007-01-01

260

Nutrient concentrations and fluxes for podzolic and gley soils at Plynlimon, mid-Wales: implications for modelling inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in upland UK environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of felling on stream nitrate, ammonium and soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) concentrations is examined for acidic and acid sensitive Sitka Spruce afforested catchments with podzolic and gley soils in mid-Wales. For the streams draining the felled podzolic areas, the concentrations of nitrate can be up to an order of magnitude higher than pre-fell values and post-fell concentrations can even be lower than the pre-fell values. Felling for the podzolic soils barely leads to any changes in ammonium or SRP concentration. For the gley soils, felling results in an order of magnitude increase in nitrate, ammonium and SRP for a small drainage ditch, but the pulse is much reduced before it reaches the main Nant Tanllwyth channel. Rather, within-catchment and within-stream processes not only imbibe nitrate, ammonium and SRP fluxes generated, but in the case of nitrate, concentrations with- and post-felling are lower than pre-felling concentrations. The flux changes involved are described in terms of (a) input-output relationships and (b) "felling disruption"? and "felling recovery responses"?. The findings are linked to issues of hydrobiological controls and forestry management.

Neal, C.

261

Minerals Yearbook, 1988: Peat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. peat production within the 48 contiguous States declined 6% in 1988. Producers' sales volume and average price received per ton, decreased 3% and 2%, respectively. Ending stocks at the producer level increased 5%. Apparent domestic consumption was 5%...

R. L. Cantrell

1988-01-01

262

Peat Surveys in Pudasjaervi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Geological Survey of Finland made an iventory of the peat resources in the municipality of Pudasjaervi in 1896. 24 bogs covering a total area of 9750 hectares were surveyed. The field work was carried out using survey line grids with study sites at th...

P. Haenninen

1988-01-01

263

Micro-Scale Distribution and Speciation of Arsenic in Peat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic soils and peaty sediments frequently show arsenic (As) enrichments that suggest a direct association of As with natural organic matter (NOM). We have recently studied the speciation of As in a naturally As-enriched minerotrophic peatland (Gola di Lago) located in Southern Switzerland using bulk X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) [1]. These analyses revealed that in deep peat layers, characterized by stable reducing redox conditions, the entire As was coordinated in its trivalent oxidation state to sulfhydryl groups of NOM. In shallow peat layers, however, the suite of As species comprised organically bound As, As sulfides, and As sorbed to Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides. Here we employed micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) spectrometry combined with ?-XAS to explore the micrometer-scale distribution, speciation, and elemental correlations of As in the Gola di Lago peat. Undisturbed peat material (260-550 mg As/kg) was retrieved from depths

Langner-Hofmann, Peggy; Mikutta, Christian; Kretzschmar, Ruben

2013-04-01

264

Water source utilization and foliar nutrient status differs between upland and flooded plant communities in wetland tree islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree islands in the Everglades wetlands are centers of biodiversity and targets of restoration, yet little is known about\\u000a the pattern of water source utilization by the constituent woody plant communities: upland hammocks and flooded swamp forests.\\u000a Two potential water sources exist: (1) entrapped rainwater in the vadose zone of the organic soil (referred to as upland soil\\u000a water), that

Amartya K. SahaLeonel da Silveira; Leonel da Silveira O’Reilly Sternberg; Michael S. Ross; Fernando Miralles-Wilhelm

2010-01-01

265

Local knowledge and land degradation: A participatory case study in the uplands of Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study using participatory techniques to assess soil erosion in Ban Lak Sip, an upland village of northern Laos. Since 2000, soil erosion and related indicators have been measured in a 67-hectare watershed making up 15 percent of the village land. Measurements have included the survey of rill dynamics and the monitoring of sediment

G. Lestrelin; A. Pelletreau; C. Valentin

266

The peats of Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identified as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.

Thayer, G.R.

1991-01-01

267

The Limits to Peat Bog Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not less than 2% of the Earth's land surface is peat-covered, so it is important to try to understand the dynamics of peat accumulation. Peat-forming systems (mires) accumulate peat because conditions within them impede the decay of the plant material produced by their surface vegetation. This paper concerns the rate of peat production and some unexpected consequences of the processes

R. S. Clymo

1984-01-01

268

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Bare Peat Surfaces on Permafrost Peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pronounced warming predicted for the arctic areas may enhance the release of soil carbon and nitrogen as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. While carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in high-latitude ecosystems have been widely investigated, fewer studies have been published on nitrous oxide (N2O) dynamics in the North. Although most pristine ecosystems in the Arctic do not emit N2O due to strict nitrogen limitation, recent findings show that there are specific surfaces capable of high N2O production and release (Repo et al., 2009). In this study we used a static chamber technique to study N2O emissions from bare peat surfaces on two subarctic permafrost peatland types, peat plateau and palsa mire. The peat plateau site is located in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Komi Republic, Russia (67°03' N, 62°57' E). Field data from this Russian site from snow-free season 2007 showed high emissions from peat circles (bare peat surfaces affected by cryoturbation; 1.9 to 31 mg N2O m-2 d-1) and negligible N2O release from all the vegetated surfaces (Repo et al. 2009). Peat circles were emitting N2O at rates comparable to those measured typically from agricultural and tropical soils. These observations were confirmed by field campaign in 2008. Partly vegetated palsas on the top of the peat plateau, included in the study in 2008, showed also significant N2O emissions, intermediate to those from peat circles and fully vegetated sites. No particularly high peak emissions were observed during cold season from either of the studied surfaces, in contrast to what has been reported from many boreal soils. To get evidence on the spatial coverage of high N2O emissions from subarctic peatlands, N2O emissions were measured from three palsa mires in Finnish Lapland (69°34'-69°50' N, 26°10'-27°10' E) during a short campaign in peak season 2009. The region has less permafrost extent and milder climatic conditions than the Russian site. Bare peat surfaces on palsas, created by wind abrasion, were significant N2O sources, with emissions similar to those from bare peat plateau surfaces at the Russian site. Based on geomorphology, physico-chemical properties of peat and climatic conditions at the study sites, the key factors leading to high N2O emissions from subarctic peatlands are presence of surfaces lifted up by frost (palsas, peat plateaus), absence of vegetation, low C:N ratio of peat and sufficient, but not too high moisture. We discuss the consequences of climate warming on the N2O emissions from peat circles and palsas, the overall area of these N2O hot-spots and their importance for the total atmospheric impact of subarctic peatlands. Repo M.E., Susiluoto S., Lind S.E., Jokinen S., Elsakov V., Biasi C., Virtanen T.&. Martikainen P.J. 2009. Large N2O emissions from cryoturbated peat soil in tundra. Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo434.

Repo, M. E.; Pitkämäki, A.; Biasi, C.; Seppälä, M.; Martikainen, P. J.

2009-12-01

269

Physical and thermochemical properties of uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated peat  

SciTech Connect

Peat, plant matter that is partially fossilized, is formed in poorly oxygenated wetlands where the rate at which the plant matter accumulates is greater than the rate at which it decomposes. Peat is a common solid fuel ranking among coal, coke, wood, and sugarcane bagasse. It has also been used to recover oil during the remediation processes of contaminated water and soil. Because of its high moisture content, peat has a high potential as biofuel material for gasification. However, proper understanding of the physical and thermochemical properties of peat is necessary for the design of thermochemical conversion systems. This study provides information on moisture content, bulk density, particle size, heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, ash composition, and ash fusibility characteristics of uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated peat. The moisture content of uncontaminated peat was 7.10%, whereas that of diesel-contaminated peat ranged from 8.65% to 10.80%. The bulk density for the uncontaminated peat was 151 kg/m{sup 3}, which increased to 391--534 kg/m{sup 3} due to diesel contamination. Most of the particles (60%) were in the form of dust. The results also showed an ash content of 3.23% and the lower heating value of 17.65 MJ/kg (dry weight basis) for the uncontaminated peat. The ash content decreased substantially, whereas the lower heating value increased due to diesel contamination. The ash fusion temperature of the peat was found to be over 1100 C.

Ghaly, R.A.; Pyke, J.B.; Ghaly, A.E.; Ugursal, V.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1999-06-01

270

Characterization of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria with respiratory ammonification and denitrification activity--description of Paenibacillus uliginis sp. nov., an inhabitant of fen peat soil and Paenibacillus purispatii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft assembly clean room.  

PubMed

In the course of studying the influence of N-fertilization on N(2) and N(2)O flux rates in relation to soil bacterial community composition of a long-term fertilization experiment in fen peat grassland, a strain group was isolated that was related to a strain isolated from a spacecraft assembly clean room during diversity studies of microorganisms, which withstood cleaning and bioburden reduction strategies. Both the fen soil isolates and the clean room strain revealed versatile physiological capacities in N-transformation processes by performing heterotrophic nitrification, respiratory ammonification and denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the investigated isolates belonged to the genus Paenibacillus. Sequence similarities lower than 97% in comparison to established species indicated a separate species position. Except for the peptidoglycan type (A4alpha L-Lys-D-Asp), chemotaxonomic features of the isolates matched the genus description, but differences in several physiological characteristics separated them from related species and supported their novel species status. Despite a high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the clean room isolate ES_MS17(T) and the representative fen soil isolate N3/975(T), DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed genetic differences at the species level. These differences were substantiated by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, ribotyping and several distinct physiological characteristics. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the fen soil isolates and the clean room isolate ES_MS17(T) represented two novel species for which the names Paenibacillus uliginis sp. nov. (type strain N3/975(T)=DSM 21861(T)=LMG 24790(T)) and Paenibacillus purispatii sp. nov. (type strain ES_MS17(T)=DSM 22991(T)=CIP 110057(T)) are proposed. PMID:20813476

Behrendt, Undine; Schumann, Peter; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Pukall, Rüdiger; Augustin, Jürgen; Spröer, Cathrin; Schwendner, Petra; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Ulrich, Andreas

2010-09-01

271

Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest.  

PubMed

We measured soil climate and the turbulent fluxes of CO2, H2O, heat, and momentum on short towers (2 m) in a 160-yr-old boreal black spruce forest in Manitoba, Canada. Two distinct land cover types were studied: a Sphagnum-dominated wetland, and a feathermoss (Pleurozium and Hylocomium)-dominated upland, both lying within the footprint of a 30-m tower, which has measured whole-forest carbon exchange since 1994. Peak summertime uptake of CO2, was higher in the wetland than for the forest as a whole due to the influence of deciduous shrubs. Soil respiration rates in the wetland were approximately three times larger than in upland soils, and 30% greater than the mean of the whole forest, reflecting decomposition of soil organic matter. Soil respiration rates in the wetland were regulated by soil temperature, which was in turn influenced by water table depth through effects on soil heat capacity and conductivity. Warmer soil temperatures and deeper water tables favored increased heterotrophic respiration. Wetland drainage was limited by frost during the first half of the growing season, leading to high, perched water tables, cool soil temperatures, and much lower respiration rates than observed later in the growing season. Whole-forest evapotranspiration increased as water tables dropped, suggesting that photosynthesis in this forest was rarely subject to water stress. Our data indicate positive feedback between soil temperature, seasonal thawing, heterotrophic respiration, and evapotranspiration. As a result, climate warming could cause covariant changes in soil temperature and water table depths that may stimulate photosynthesis and strongly promote efflux of CO2 from peat soils in boreal wetlands. PMID:19323205

Dunn, Allison L; Wofsy, Steven C; v H Bright, Alfram

2009-03-01

272

Status of peat biogasification development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of a four-phase development program to confirm that biogasification is a technical and economical process for the conversion of peat into pipeline quality methane is presented. The biogasification of peat is based on a two-stage process. In the first processing stage (assumed to follow hydro-mining) an oxidative pretreatment of peat breaks down the lignocellulosic structure to water soluble,

M. G. Buivid; D. L. Wise; M. J. Kopstein; A. M. Rader

1980-01-01

273

Calibration of Time Domain Reflectometry Using Undisturbed Peat Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, freeze-thaw experiments on 60 cm diameter by 90 cm deep peat/permafrost cores from our central Mackenzie River basin long-term field site are being conducted to better elucidate coupled heat and moisture transport processes occurring in the active layer. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) along with 15 cm and 30 cm probes is being used to monitor the depth-specific volumetric soil moisture (VSM) in these cores. Organic soils are characterized by high porosities and soil density increases many folds at successive depths. Therefore, we calibrated the TDR for different depths and for peat with two different origins (sphagnum moss and lichen). A simple apparatus was developed to ensure a more homogenous soil moisture distribution in the undisturbed samples used for calibration. Methodology and results for the calibration as well as comparisons with mixing models at different densities are presented and the effects of different soil phases on calibration are discussed.

Nagare, R. M.; Schincariol, R. A.; Quinton, W. L.; Hayashi, M.

2009-05-01

274

Improving the physical conditions of the paddy fields with irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation by no-till and no-puddled rice culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Japanese agriculture has been facing serious problems including overproduction of rice. Poorly drained paddy fields in the heavy soil area also have been often converted to upland fields. In these upland fields, however, productivity are lower due to many limitations such as wet injury. Recently, no-till and no-puddled rice culture have developed using rice seedlings grown by

OTA Takeshi; MURAKAMI Shou; FUJII Yoshikazu; KOBAYASHI Hitomi

275

7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101 Agriculture...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland...

2013-01-01

276

7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

2013-01-01

277

7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101 Agriculture...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland...

2012-01-01

278

7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton...

2012-01-01

279

Slagging behaviour of peat ash  

SciTech Connect

The use of peat for energy production in Finland dates back to early 1970`s. For the present, the peat combustion is responsible for over 5% of the energy production in Finland. Many of the major Finnish power plants still use pulverized fuel, but the utilization of fluidized bed boilers is rapidly increasing. Boilers of this type are best suited for fuel with a low energy value because the increased efficiency is beneficial for the community heat distribution. The Toppila power plant of Oulu Energy Company in the city of Oulu, Finland has two units. The older one, Toppila I, is a 250 MW boiler using pulverized peat as fuel. The new Toppila II boiler is a 310 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The power plant uses 15 000 m{sup 3} of peat per day with full load. The stagging behavior of peat ash varies depending on the bog peat is ogirinating. The plant shutdown because of extensive stagging may cause significant economical losses in the entire chain of energy production. Therefore the stagging behaviour of peat ash needs to be predicted already from peat prior to its combustion.

Heikkinen, R.; Laitinen, R.S.; Patrikainen, T.; Tiainen, T. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)] [and others

1996-12-31

280

Peat respiration at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peatlands of northern latitudes represent an enormous store of organic carbon. The decomposition of peat and the release of carbon dioxide is expected to increase with temperature as a result of climate change. CO2 emission and O2 uptake were measured during laboratory incubations of homogenised peat samples from 15 sites in Scotland. These were made either at fixed temperatures

S. J. Chapman; M. Thurlow

1998-01-01

281

Estimation of global warming potential from upland cropping systems in central Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven upland cropping systems in Central Hokkaido, Japan, were investigated during the growing season in 2003 to evaluate the magnitude of N2O emission, CH4 uptake and soil carbon sequestration, and their net effect on the global warming potential (GWP). N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured from field soils planted with crops and CO2 fluxes were measured from bare soils in

Zhijian Mu; Sonoko D. Kimura; Ryusuke Hatano

2006-01-01

282

Control of Submarine Groundwater Flow and Chemistry by Onshore and Offshore Buried Peat Along a Developed Long Island Shoreline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along the north shore of Long Island’s Great South Bay estuary was investigated to characterize and quantify nutrient delivery to the bay from groundwater. Recent field activities included onshore and offshore piezometer and well sampling, sediment coring, stationary resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ porewater conductivity. Groundwater and surface water were sampled for analysis of nutrients, water quality parameters (conductivity, temperature, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen), and age tracers. Results from detailed study at Patchogue Bay sites showed shallow plumes of low-salinity groundwater (salinity <3.5) located within 0.5 m of the estuary floor that decreased in thickness along one transect from approximately 4.5 m near shore to <1 m at 90 m offshore. Sediment cores collected near shore recovered buried submarine peat layers up to 49 cm thick that isolated low-salinity (salinity = 2-4) porewater below from brackish porewater above. In situ measurements of porewater conductivity and temperature in the upper 0.7 m of the sediment at one site verified the presence and extent of the peat layer there, as well as the isolation of terrestrially-derived groundwater beneath the layer extending offshore about 100 meters. Stationary electrical resistivity measurements also revealed the presence of high-resistivity (low-salinity) groundwater beneath the peat layer and more conductive porewater above the peat layer. Peat was found adjacent to existing or filled tidal creeks but was absent in cores collected offshore of the ends of peninsulas between tidal creeks. Much of the natural shoreline of the bay was developed in the 1950s and 1960s after construction of bulkheads and filling of tidal marshes with dredged or dumped fill material. Recharge of groundwater through buried peats and organic-rich soils in developed filled areas results in adjacent submarine groundwater plumes that are anoxic and ammonium-rich (average = 255 micromoles of ammonium per liter in offshore samples; max = 593 [n = 41]). Tritium data collected previously in this area indicate that groundwater recharged within the last few decades discharges relatively close to shore, but that the age of groundwater increases with depth and distance offshore. Recent samples from offshore profile wells contained detectable concentrations of MTBE and volatile organic compounds in the deeper low-salinity intervals, consistent with recharge of this groundwater further inland than younger and shallower submarine groundwater that did not contain detectable concentrations of these compounds. Land use patterns in the upland area of the watershed support this trend. Better understanding of the distributions of age and chemical composition along developed shorelines such as this could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for estuarine nutrient over-enrichment.

Bratton, J. F.; Kroeger, K. D.; Crusius, J.; Schubert, C.; Paulsen, R.; Green, A. C.; Wanlass, J.; Baldwin, S.; Abbene, I. J.; Young, C.

2010-12-01

283

Peat resource estimation in Michigan. Second year report  

SciTech Connect

Work was continued to evaluate Michigan's estimated 4.5 million acres of organic soils, potentially yielding energy comparable to 270 million short tons of bituminous coal. The goal of the project remained one of determining the ''amount and location of fuel-grade peat in Michigan that may be harvested and utilized in an environmentally acceptable manner.'' Michigan is divided into 16 soil-geomorphic provinces for the peat estimation study, and second year field efforts in Provinces III and IV resulted in 207 sections transected and 540 samples collected for analysis. Well-equipped teams used McCauley peat augers with extensions to extract samples in accordance with the sampling plan designed at Michigan Technological University to achieve the objectives of the project. This sampling plan utilizes a multistage sampling approach based on clustering and multiple stratification. The plan was developed to estimate organic soil characteristics by section, township, county, province, and finally the state as a whole when all the 16 soil-geomorphic provinces are covered. The procedure in brief involves running two transects across organic soil deposit areas and taking five systematic depth measurements on each transect. Samples are then extracted as prescribed by the sampling routine. Large samples are taken for proximate, ultimate, and Btu analyses. During the second year of the project, surveys in Provinces III and IV sought to determine acreages of potential fuel-grade peat. At the end of the second year, project plans anticipated completion of the peat resource estimation for the state of Michigan by the end of fiscal year 1983. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1981-10-01

284

Climate sensitivity and macronutrient regulation of peat decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic soils act as vital global carbon stores maintained in northern latitudes by climate and nutrient limited rates of organic matter decomposition. Peatland decomposition rates are sensitive to climate change, however predicting the magnitude of the microbial respiratory response is complex due to unknown interactions between climate and substrate quality. The nutrient status of peatlands varies widely from mineral rich fens to nutrient poor ombrotrophic bogs, which have the potential to respond differently to climate driven changes in temperature and carbon (C) inputs. In this work we examine the links between peatland macronutrient C, phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry, microbial community structure and the microbial response to direct and indirect effects of climate change. Using total soil C:N and C:P ratios to define nutrient gradients in organic soils from Svalbard and Finland we investigated the interaction between the microbial response to temperature and nutrient limitation of decomposition. In organic rich soils from Svalbard we found there was a significant relationship between increasing temperature sensitivity of respiration and decreasing total soil P concentrations. Further investigation of the potential direct link between P limitation of decomposition and increased temperature sensitivity along a minerotrophic-ombroptrophic gradient in Finland was performed using multi-factorial P limitation assays. These showed that despite varying degrees of P limitation across four peatland soils there was no relationship between P limitation and increased temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Throughout this study we found consistently high temperature sensitivity of decomposition in organic rich soils with Q10 values ranging between 2 to 4.5, indicating potentially higher vulnerability of these C stores to warming than is currently predicted using a globally invariant Q10. Following on from this we examined the interaction between peatland nutrient status and the potential for labile C substrates to stimulate (prime) decomposition of the peat organic matter. Using 13C labelled glucose and hemicellulose compounds we observed significant differences in the amount and rate of microbial substrate use between peats with differing nutrient status. Nutrient addition experiments were used with labelled C substrates to investigate the role of N and P limitation in enhancing or restricting priming effects. This is one of the first studies to use 13C substrates to examine potential priming effects in peat soil and it provides an insight into the importance of priming mechanisms in peat decomposition. This work explicitly links soil microbial responses to temperature and nutrient manipulations with microbial community structure allowing us to observe how microbial communities mediate soil C losses in peat soils. Disentangling the complex interactions between soil microbial community, C and nutrient limitation of decomposition is essential for predicting the vulnerability of different peatland ecosystems to climate driven changes.

Marshall, Rachel; Ostle, Nick; McNamara, Niall; Baggs, Elizabeth

2013-04-01

285

Phosphorus mobilization in rewetted fens: the effect of altered peat properties and implications for their restoration.  

PubMed

Rewetting of drained fens is necessary to stop further soil degradation and to reestablish important ecological functions. However, substantial changes of peat characteristics in the upper soil layers, due to drainage and land use, could counteract their recovery as nutrient-poor systems for an unknown period. We assessed the importance of altered peat properties, such as the degree of peat decomposition and the amount of redox-sensitive phosphorus (P) compounds, for P mobilization in different degraded fens. An experimental design involving 63 intact peat cores from fens with varying drainage and land-use histories was developed to quantify the mobilization of P, as well as that of iron (Fe), ammonium, carbon dioxide, and methane, all indicators of organic-matter decomposition and/or P-releasing processes. We found that net P release rates in peat cores with highly decomposed peat (range: 0.1-52.3 mg P x m(-2) x d(-1)) were significantly correlated to the amount of P bound to redox-sensitive compounds and the molar Fe:P as well as Al:P ratios of peat. We conclude that the following general rules apply for P mobilization in rewetted fens: (1) elevated levels of P release rates and P concentrations in pore water up to three orders of magnitude larger than under natural reference conditions can only be expected for rewetted fens whose surface soil layers consist of highly decomposed peat; (2) peat characteristics, such as the amount of P bound to redox-sensitive Fe(III) compounds (positive correlation) and molar ratios of Fe:P or Al:P (negative correlations), explain the high range of P release rates; and (3) a critical P export to adjacent lakes or rivers can only be expected if molar Fe:P ratios of highly decomposed peat are less than 10. PMID:20666253

Zak, Dominik; Wagner, Carola; Payer, Brian; Augustin, Jürgen; Gelbrecht, Jörg

2010-07-01

286

Second technical contractors' conference on peat  

SciTech Connect

This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The program includes peat resource surveys of eleven states, peat gasification process and equipment studies, dewatering studies, and environmental and socioeconomic factors in the development of peat technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for selected papers. (CKK)

Not Available

1980-01-01

287

Modelling Factors That Control Peat Accumulation Over Different Timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net carbon accumulation or loss from peat soils reflect the balance between plant productivity at the surface and decomposition throughout the peat profile. This balance is affected by environmental parameters (water table depth, oxygen availability, pH, and soil temperature) that moderate biological processes such as productivity, root dynamics, and decomposition. Given the same environmental conditions, individual peatland litters differ in their susceptibility to decay, reflecting differences in organic matter composition and nutrient content. The relative importance of these internal and external controls on peat accumulation is presently only poorly understood. In this study, simulation modelling was used to examine factors that control peat accumulation over timescales from years to millennia. The model used recognizes three organic matter fractions that differ in their susceptibility to decay. Litter quality-related parameters (nutrient availability and previous decay history) have different effects on turnover rates for the different organic matter fractions, whereas external controls (temperature, pH, and oxygen availability) affect all fractions equally. Sensitivity analysis of the model shows that the relative ability of different input parameters to affect peat accumulation depends on the timescale of reference. Peat nitrogen content affected organic matter accumulation mainly within the first decade. Total NPP and several litter-quality dependent parameters were important throughout, but their effect peaked between 500 and 1000 years. A third group of parameters (including oxic:anoxic decay ratios and pH) had no or steadily increasing effects on accumulated mass over the first 1000 years. Subsequently, their effect remained constant or continued to increase. Patterns of organic matter accumulation in nine peatland types were modelled over 8,000 years, with peatland types differing in both environmental boundary conditions and the chemical quality of dominant litters. Over 8,000 years, rich fens accumulated less organic matter than other peatland types with similar water table depths. At high and medium water tables, bogs / poor fens accumulated most peat, whereas transitional fens showed highest long-term peat accumulation at low water tables. In several instances, the relative peat accumulation potential of different community types changed over time. While the specific results of this study reflect the structure of the decay model chosen, they stress the importance of defining a timescale of reference when examining organic matter accumulation. They further point towards litter-quality related parameters as important controls over organic matter dynamics in peatlands.

Bauer, I.

2002-12-01

288

Molecular diversity in the bacterial community and the fluorescent pseudomonads group in natural and chlorobenzoate-stressed peat-forest soil.  

PubMed

Bacterial community shifts in a soil microcosm spiked with 3-chlorobenzoate or 2,5-dichlorobenzoate were monitored. The V6-V8 variable regions of soil bacterial 16S rRNA and rDNA were amplified and separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) profiling. Culturing in the presence of 2.5 mM chlorinated benzoates suppressed 10 to 100 fold the total aerobic bacterial community but had no effect on the diversity within the group of fluorescent pseudomonads. In contrast, the uncultured bacterial community showed a decrease in the number of bands in the TGGE profiles of the chlorobenzoate-spiked treatments. Accordingly, the Shannon's diversity and equitability indices of these treatments reflected a decreasing trend in time. The approach allowed a direct assessment of community shifts upon contamination of soil. PMID:12608579

Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C; Sessitsch, Angela; Akkermans, Antoon D L

2003-01-01

289

The peats of Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

The authors compare the competitive position of peat for energy with coal, oil, and cogenerative systems in gasifiers and solid-fuel boilers. They also explore the possibility for peat use in industry. To identify the major factors, they analyze costs using a Los Alamos levelized cost code, and they study parametric costs, comparing peat production in constant dollars with interest rates and return on investment. They consider costs of processing plant construction, sizes and kinds of boilers, retrofitting, peat drying, and mining methods. They examine mining requirements for Moin, Changuinola, and El Cairo and review wet mining and dewatering methods. Peat can, indeed, be competitive with other energy sources, but this depends on the ratio of fuel costs to boiler costs. This ratio is nearly constant in comparison with cogeneration in a steam-only production system. For grate boilers using Costa Rican high-ash peat, and for small nonautomatic boilers now used in Costa Rica, the authors recommend combustion tests. An appendix contains a preliminary mining plan and cost estimate for the El Cairo peat deposit. 8 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs.

Thayer, G.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ramirez, O. (RECOPE, San Jose (Costa Rica))

1991-04-01

290

What controls the oxidative ratio of UK peats? A multi-site study of elemental CHNO concentrations in peat cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.82 and 1.27 with a median value of 1.08 which is within the range of world soils. There were significant differences in OR of the peat between sites with the data falling into two broad groupings - Group 1: Forsinard, Auchencorth, Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor; Group 2: Moor House, Thorne Moor, Westhay Moor, Whixhall Moss. Whilst there were significant changes (p < 0.05) in elemental ratios with increasing peat depth (increasing C:N ratio and decreasing O:C ratio) there was no significant difference overall in OR with depth. This paper will explore some of the possible controlling factors on these ratios. Local vegetation was also sampled along with agricultural soils from the local area of the peat cores to compare the relative differences in different mediums. Significant differences (p < 0.01) between vegetation, agricultural soils and surface peat layers were found where vegetation had OR values of 1.03 ± 0.04 and agricultural soils had OR values of 1.15 ± 0.04. Further discussion of these results from these comparisons is also presented in this study.

Clay, Gareth; Worrall, Fred; Masiello, Carrie

2013-04-01

291

7 CFR 319.69-5 - Types of soil authorized for packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Materials Rules and Regulations § 319.69-5 Types of soil authorized for packing. The following types of soil or earth are authorized as safe for packing: (a) Peat, (b) peat moss, and (c) Osmunda...

2013-01-01

292

Mineralization of 13C glucose in three fine textured soils from the western boreal forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial composition is known, on similar soil types, to vary based on differing organic matter inputs, or stand composition. Dominating western upland boreal forests are fine textured soils with a canopy cover of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss or a mixture of the two. These soils then reflect different belowground biogeochemical processing of organic matter. Anthropogenic soils, formed from a combination of peat litter and fine textured mineral soil, are now also a part of the landscape in the western boreal. This study set out to determine if a simple labelled compound (13C glucose) was processed differently between soils from the two dominant stand types (aspen and spruce) and a soil from an anthropogenic (constructed) site. Results indicate that while all three soils rapidly incorporated, and respired, the labelled carbon each maintained a distinct microbial community structure (as evidenced by phospholipid fatty acid analysis) throughout the 300 hour experiment. Therefore soils with different microbial communities from varied organic matter inputs decompose organic carbon by different processes, even in the case of simple labile compounds.

Norris, C. E.; Quideau, S. A.; Macey, D. E.

2012-04-01

293

Runoff water quality from a sierran upland forest, transition ecotone, and riparian wet meadow  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High concentrations of inorganic N, P, and S have been reported in overland and litter interflow within forested uplands of the Tahoe basin and surrounding watersheds. In this study we compared runoff nutrient concentration and load as well as soil nutrient fluxes at three watershed locations; an up...

294

Technogenic Surface Formations in the Areas of Placer Gold Mining (the Bureya Upland, Far East)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technogenic surface formations in the areas of placer gold mining in the Far East of Russia (the Bureya Upland, Khabarovsk region) are described. Several types of these formations are distinguished. Their morphological features and physicochemical characteristics are compared with those in the background natural soils.

S. A. Shlyakhov; S. V. Osipov

2004-01-01

295

Elevated methane concentrations in trees of an upland forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is intense debate about whether terrestrial vegetation contributes substantially to global methane emissions. Although trees may act as a conduit for methane release from soils to atmosphere, the debate centers on whether vegetation directly produces methane by an uncharacterized, abiotic mechanism. A second mechanism of direct methane production in plants occurs when methanogens - microorganisms in the domain Archaea - colonize the wood of living trees. In the debate this biotic mechanism has largely been ignored, yet conditions that promote anaerobic activity in living wood, and hence potentially methane production, are prevalent across forests. We find average, growing season, trunk-gas methane concentrations >15,000 ?L·L-1 in common, temperate-forest species. In upland habitat (where soils are not a significant methane source), concentrations are 2.3-times greater than in lowland areas, and wood cores produce methane in anaerobic, lab-assays. Emission rate estimates from our upland site are 52 ± 9.5 ng CH4 m-2 s-1; rates that are of a similar magnitude to the soil methane sink in temperate forest, and equivalent in global warming potential to ˜18% of the carbon likely sequestered by this forest. Microbial infection of one of the largest, biogenic sinks for carbon dioxide, living trees, might result in substantial, biogenic production of methane.

Covey, Kristofer R.; Wood, Stephen A.; Warren, Robert J., II; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark A.

2012-08-01

296

Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers structure and technical characteristics of organic soils that affect the vegetation of peatlands.

Orru, M.; Orru, H.

2009-04-01

297

Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-04-01

298

The influence of soil P, pH and texture on the uptake of P from soil and fertilizer by upland rice in the shifting cultivation of S.W. Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

At six sites in 1987, and two sites in 1988 in the Tai region of south-west Cote d'Ivoire, long-term field trials were started to study the supply of nutrients from the soil and the response of food crops to fertilizers. The results for P during the first season after removal of the primary or secondary forest vegetation in experiments with

Reuler van H; B. H. Janssen

1996-01-01

299

Peat as an energy alternative  

SciTech Connect

The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

Punwani, D.V.

1980-07-01

300

Effect of plastic-film mulching on leaching of nitrate nitrogen in an upland field converted from paddy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysimeter experiment was conducted to examine the effects of plastic film mulching on the leaching rate of nitrate nitrogen (NO 3-N) from chemical fertilizer that was applied to an upland field that had been converted from paddy rice production. Leaching was monitored in two lysimeters filled with sandy loam soil, which contained low soil organic matter content, under different

Tomokazu Haraguchi; Atsushi Marui; Kozue Yuge; Yoshisuke Nakano; Ken Mori

2004-01-01

301

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE CALCITE PRECIPITATION BASED ON THE UREASE PRODUCTION BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM PEAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, authors proposed the newly calcite precipitation method for peat. This method can be isolated the urease production bacterium. The main outcomes of this research were: (1) Proposed method can be isolated the urease production bacterium from peat. (2) Urease production bacterium from peat can be accelerate the calcite precipitation at the high pH and high chlorine conditions. (3) Calcite precipitation speed was slower than the B. pasteurii . (4) Proposed method can accelerate the soil strength (Over 400kN/m2 -1D compression test) after 2 week cultivation.

Hata, Toshiro; Sato, Atsuko; Kawasaki, Satoru; Abe, Hirofumi

302

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2013-01-01

303

7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions...

2012-01-01

304

Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenesis by Moderately Acid-Tolerant Methanogens of a Methane-Emitting Acidic Peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission of methane (1.3 mmol of CH4 m 2 day1), precursors of methanogenesis, and the methano- genic microorganisms of acidic bog peat (pH 4.4) from a moderately reduced forest site were investigated by in situ measurements, microcosm incubations, and cultivation methods, respectively. Bog peat produced CH4 (0.4 to 1.7 mol g (dry wt) of soil1 day1) under anoxic conditions.

Marcus A. Horn; Carola Matthies; Kirsten Kusel; Andreas Schramm; Harold L. Drake

2003-01-01

305

Desiccation and product accumulation constrain heterotrophic anaerobic respiration in peats of an ombrotrophic temperate bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight into the effects of drying and rewetting events on anaerobic respiration in ombrotrophic peat soils, we investigated bacterial sulfate (SO4) reduction and methane (CH4) production in anaerobic incubations of intact peat microcores from 30 to 40cm depth of Mer Bleue bog, Ontario\\/Canada. Concentrations of dissolved SO4, carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4, acetate, and hydrogen (H2) were recorded and

Tobias Goldhammer; Christian Blodau

2008-01-01

306

The role of fungi in the Sphagnum peat wastewater treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of suitable soils and the increased building in rural areas has led to the need for alternative onsite wastewater treatment systems. One alternative system utilizes Sphagnum peat to provide a high quality effluent (<10 mg\\/l BOD5, <6 mg\\/l nitrate N, and <1 fecal coliform bacteria\\/100 ml). Treatment efficiencies were greatest when the temperature of the peat was 0-10°C.

Brooks

1988-01-01

307

Variations in free-phase gases in peat landforms determined by ground-penetrating radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of biogenic gas produced by methanogenic archaea is difficult to assess within saturated peat soils and is often poorly quantified. This study uses ground-penetrating radar to noninvasively estimate the vertical distribution of biogenic free-phase gas (FPG) in two distinct peat landform types in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland, Minnesota: a near-crest bog and a midslope lawn (i.e.,

Andrew D. Parsekian; Lee Slater; Xavier Comas; Paul H. Glaser

2010-01-01

308

A delta13C record of late Quaternary climate change from tropical peats in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

STABLE-ISOTOPE ratios of carbon in soils or lake sediments1-3 and of oxygen and hydrogen in peats4,5 have been found to reflect past moisture variations and hence to provide valuable palaeoclimate records. Previous applications of the technique to peat have been restricted to temperate regions, largely because tropical climate variations are less pronounced, making them harder to resolve. Here we present

R. Sukumar; R. Ramesh; R. K. Pant; G. Rajagopalan

1993-01-01

309

A conceptual model of volume-change controls on the hydrology of cutover peats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling hydrological processes in certain peats requires a detailed understanding of short-term changes in soil volume and it's influence on the system's hydraulic properties. A study of cutover sites abandoned for 7-years (H92) and 2-years (H97), and an undisturbed section of the Lac Saint-Jean (LSJ) cutover bog was conducted to characterize peat volume changes and its associated hydrological behaviour. Shrinkage

G. W. Kennedya

310

Measurements of CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring nighttime respiration on porous peat soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We built an automatic chamber system to measure greehouse gas (GHG) exchange in forested peatland ecosystems. We aimed to build a system robust enough which would work throughout the year and could measure through a changing snowpackin addition to producing annual GHG fluxes by integrating the measurements without the need of using models. The system worked rather well throughout the year, but it was not service free. Gap filling of data was still necessary. We observed problems in carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimation during calm summer nights, when a CO2 concentration gradient from soil/moss system to atmosphere builds up. Chambers greatly overestimated the nighttime respiration. This was due to the disturbance caused by the chamber to the soil-moss CO2 gradient and consequent initial pulse of CO2 to the chamber headspace. We tested different flux calculation and measurement methods to solve this problem. The estimated flux was strongly dependent on (1) the type of the fit (linear and polynomial), (2) the starting point of the fit after closing the chamber, (3) the length of the fit, (4) the speed of the fan mixing the air inside the chamber, and (5) atmospheric turbulence (friction velocity, u*). The best fitting method (the most robust, least random variation) was linear fitting with the period of 120-240 s after chamber closure. Furthermore, the fan should be adjusted to spin at minimum speed to avoid the pulse-effect, but it should be kept on to ensure mixing. If nighttime problems cannot be solved, emissions can be estimated using daytime data from opaque chambers.

Koskinen, M.; Minkkinen, K.; Ojanen, P.; Kämäräinen, M.; Laurila, T.; Lohila, A.

2013-08-01

311

A conceptual model of volume-change controls on the hydrology of cutover peats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling hydrological processes in certain peats requires a detailed understanding of short-term changes in soil volume and it's influence on the system's hydraulic properties. A study of cutover sites abandoned for 7-years (H92) and 2-years (H97), and an undisturbed section of the Lac Saint-Jean (LSJ) cutover bog was conducted to characterize peat volume changes and its associated hydrological behaviour. Shrinkage and compression accounted for 96 97% of seasonal volume change. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS) varied linearly with peat compression; a 1 cm decrease in peat thickness causing a 5.2 cm d-1 decrease in KS at H92, and a 1.4 cm d-1 decrease in KS at H97. A 2 6% seasonal decrease in saturated volumetric moisture content (?S) at the cutover sites was partly due to soil compression, although the development of CH4 bubbles possibly affected moisture content. In the unsaturated zone moisture retentivity (? ?) was seasonally transient due to the shifting soil structure. The greater volumetric response to a change in water storage of the more porous and less decomposed peat at H97 indicates a long-term decreasing trend in peat compressibility due to irreversible losses in pore volume. Deterioration of high water storage and low water retention properties at H92 suggests that cutover sites abandoned for longer periods will become increasingly hostile to Sphagnum recolonization despite the blockage of drainage ditches.

Kennedy, G. W.; Price, J. S.

2005-02-01

312

Use of Peat in Wood Adhesives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the first part of this research the composition, properties, the present utilization of peat as well as the possibilities for peat's utilization in wood adhesives were investigated on the basis of literature. The possibilities for the utilization of pe...

H. Kilpelaeinen M. Lappi C. Wilen R. Thun

1989-01-01

313

Microorganisms and Organic Matter of Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The microflora and nitrogen status of certain humus-peat soils; Aerobic forms of Clostridium polymyxa isolated from peat-bog and sod-podzolic soils; Soil as a source of carbon dioxide for plants on irrigated and nonirrigated Ciscaucasian chernoz...

M. M. Kononova

1970-01-01

314

The microbilogy of cut-away peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A description is given of several surveys of fungal habitats in bare cut-away peat. These surveys are related to one another and to the general surveys of the peat microflora reported in an earlier paper of this series. The response of the peat myco-flora to cultivation of cut-away peat is reported and the colonisation of fresh organic material added to

M. Dooley; C. H. Dickinson

1970-01-01

315

Impacts of Prescribed Burning in Upland Meadows on Understory Evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency and extent of prescribed burning is increasing in Southwestern forest and meadow ecosystems. This management action has the potential to impact groundwater recharge. We are studying the impacts of prescribed burning on evapotranspiration of the herbaceous understory in an upland wet meadow at Hart Prairie, Arizona. Three treatments (non-burned control, burned during the early-summer pre-monsoon season, burned during the late-summer monsoon season) were randomly applied to replicated circular plots (2 m radius) in each of two herbaceous communities (grass dominated, fern dominated) in 2001. Treatment effects on herbaceous evapotranspiration were assessed by soil-water budgets based on repeated soil-moisture measurements with time-domain reflectometry. In 2001, the pre-monsoon burn increased soil-water content in the grass-dominated community, and to a lesser degree in the fern-dominated community, compared with the control. In 2002, one summer after treatment, both pre- and post-monsoon burns decreased soil-water content compared with the control, with a larger decrease occurring in the fern-dominated community. These trends in soil-water content continued in 2003, two summers after burning. Reduction of evapotranspiration caused by the pre-monsoon burn increased soil water available for groundwater recharge for several weeks following treatment. However, the beneficial effect of burning on groundwater recharge was short-lived as herbaceous evapotranspiration was higher in burned compared with non-burned plots one and two years after treatment.

Mullen, R. M.; Springer, A. E.; Kolb, T. E.

2003-12-01

316

Peat Species and the Degree of Humification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When producing energy from peat, the quality of the peat is important for the cost. The purpose of this report has been to show which properties of the peat are most important and to which extent they influence the costs. In the report it is shown how the...

B. Palmberg

1981-01-01

317

46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping ...Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow...

2011-10-01

318

46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping ...Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow...

2012-10-01

319

Metal removal from wastewater using peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat has been investigated by several researchers as a sorbent for the capture of dissolved metals from wastestreams. Besides being plentiful and inexpensive, peat possesses several characteristics that make it an effective media for the removal of dissolved metal pollutants. The mechanism of metal ion binding to peat remains a controversial area with ion-exchange, complexation, and surface adsorption being the

P. A Brown; S. A Gill; S. J Allen

2000-01-01

320

Peats and ferrites for heavy metal removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat is a relatively inexpensive material which processes a native cation exchange capacity. Efforts to utilize peat have been hampered by its low permeability to water and its tendency to severely leach in water at pH>6. These disadvantages have been significantly minimized by treating the peat with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid treatment also increases the cation exchange capacity of

Navratil

1986-01-01

321

Experimental evidence for mobility/immobility of metals in peat.  

PubMed

The biogeochemical cycles of most toxic metals have been significantly altered by anthropogenic activities. Anaerobic, rain-fed organic soils are believed to record historical changes in atmospheric pollution. Suspected postdepositional mobility of trace elements, however, hinders the usefulness of peat bogs as pollution archives. To lower this uncertainty, we quantified the mobility of six trace metals in peat during an 18-month field manipulation. A replicated, reciprocal peat transplant experiment was conducted between a heavily polluted and a relatively unpolluted peatland, located 200 km apart in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Both peatlands were Sphagnum-derived, lawn-dominated, and had water table close to the surface. A strikingly different behavior was observed for two groups of elements. Elements of group I, Fe and Mn, adjusted their abundances and vertical patterns to the host site, showing an extremely high degree of mobility. In contrast, elements of group II, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ti, preserved their original vertical patterns at the host site, showing a high degree of immobility. Our experimental results suggest that not just lead, but also copper and zinc concentration profiles in peat are a reliable archive of temporal pollution changes within a wide pH range (2.5-5.8). PMID:21761934

Novak, Martin; Zemanova, Leona; Voldrichova, Petra; Stepanova, Marketa; Adamova, Marie; Pacherova, Petra; Komarek, Arnost; Krachler, Michael; Prechova, Eva

2011-08-02

322

Three-Dimensional pore Structure Analysis for Peat materials Using Microfocus X-ray Comuputed Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-pore geometry including size distribution, total and air-filled porosity, pore tortuosity and connectivity, and anisotropy of pore network strongly affects water and air flow in soils. This study investigated three- dimensional (3-D) images of pore structure for peat materials by a microfocus X-ray CT system and evaluated the soil-pore geometric characteristics using a multi-dimensional scanning line method. Undisturbed peat soil blocks were sampled from the soil surface down to 140-cm depth at Bibai wetland, Hokkaido, Japan. Soil cores (100 cm3) were taken from the blocks in the laboratory, and were used for the experiments. Microfocus X-ray scanning was conducted for the soils cores of peat materials treated under different conditions: intact, drainage at different matric potentials (pF), consolidation under different uni-axial loads. The treated samples were freeze-dried prior to the microfocus X-ray scanning. The scanned 3-D X-ray CT images were converted to black and white images (binarized), and were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of peat materials. The visualized CT images captured well macropore networks of a pore diameter larger than around 30 ?m, and showed clearly anisotropic characteristics of the macropore networks. The 3-D structural anisotropy of pore networks was evaluated using a multi- dimensional scanning line method that employs straightforward image analysis, and its results were visualized using a stereonet projection. Soil-water and gas transport parameters such as water conductivity, air conductivity, and soil-gas diffusion coefficient for the treated peat materials were also measured. The pore geometric characteristics based on measured soil-water and gas transport parameters will be combined with the results of CT image analysis.

Iizuka, K.; Kawamoto, K.; Takemura, T.; Oda, M.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

2008-12-01

323

Peat and its modification products as sorbents for remeval of metals, metalloids and nonmetallic elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For remediation of soils and purification of waters biosorbents might be considered as an prospective group of materials and amongst them peat have a special role due to low cost, biodegradability, high number of functional groups, well developed surface area and combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic structural elements. We have demonstrated the possibilities to use peat and its thermal treatment products for oil sorption. Peat as an oil sorbent has poor buoyancy characteristics, relatively low oil sorption capacity and low hydrophobicity. However, thermal treatment (low-temperature pyrolysis and synthesis of peat-based active coal) helps to significantly improve its sorptive characteristics. The processes and structural changes taking place during low-temperature pyrolysis have been studied by means of IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Peat can be used also as an efficient sorbent for sorption of metallic elements as it has been demonstrated on example of Tl+, Cu2+, Cr3+, however sorption capacity in respect to nonmetallic (anionic species) elements is low. To develop such application possibilities peat, peat modified with iron compounds, iron humates were prepared and tested for sorption of arsenic and phosphorous compounds in comparison with weakly basic anionites. The highest sorption capacity was observed when peat sorbents modified with iron compounds were used. Sorption of different arsenic speciation forms onto iron-modified peat sorbents was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. It was established that sorption capacity increases with a rise in temperature, and the calculation of sorption process thermodynamic parameters indicates the spontaneity of sorption process and its endothermic nature.

Klavins, Maris; Ansone, Linda; Robalds, Artis; Dudare, Diana

2013-04-01

324

Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO

Mark E. Fuller; Charles E. Schaefer; Robert J. Steffan

2009-01-01

325

Controls on in situ oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in peats of a temperate fen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in hydrological conditions are expected and may alter carbon cycling in peatlands. Peat aeration with water table change has not commonly been investigated, and the water table is often assumed to constitute the oxic-anoxic boundary in peat. We analyzed temperature, moisture, oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in profiles of a temperate fen during two seasons. A drying-rewetting cycle and flooding were induced and compared to controls. The response of moisture and water table position varied greatly and was related to gradients of peat compaction and ash content. Background drought raised air-filled porosity (AFP) to a maximum of 15%-38% in shallow peat and experimental drought up to 50%. Decline in water table and soil moisture broadly led to O2 penetration and CO2 degassing, and rewetting and flooding led to anoxic conditions and CO2 accumulation in peat pore water. In dense peat with ?20% ash content the unsaturated zone remained partly low in oxygen, however, and up to 5% AFP and 20 cm above water table O2 concentrations frequently remained below 50 ?mol L-1. Moderately intense and short drying did not induce substantial oxygen penetration in the compacted soil profiles. The likelihood of the presence of oxygen in the peat was predicted by logistic regression using water table and ash content or bulk density as predictors (p < 0.0005). The model is potentially useful for predicting the position of the redoxcline in peat deposits and may assist in improving statistical models of trace gas emission from peatlands.

Estop-AragonéS, Cristian; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian

2012-06-01

326

Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest.  

PubMed Central

The visual uniformity of tropical peat swamp forest masks the considerable variation in forest structure that has evolved in response to differences and changes in peat characteristics over many millennia. Details are presented of forest structure and tree composition of the principal peat swamp forest types in the upper catchment of Sungai Sebangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in relation to thickness and hydrology of the peat. Consideration is given to data on peat geochemistry and age of peat that provide evidence of the ombrotrophic nature of this vast peatland and its mode of formation. The future sustainability of this ecosystem is predicted from information available on climate change and human impact in this region.

Page, S E; Rieley, J O; Shotyk, W; Weiss, D

1999-01-01

327

Short-term effects of an exceptionally hot and dry summer on decomposition of surface peat in a restored temperate bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restoration of drained peat bogs in Northwest (NW) Europe is an important task of soil protection, but needs to cope with warmer and drier summers. Our examination took place in the Pietzmoor bog (Schneverdingen, NW Germany) that had been drained for fuel peat extraction until the 1970s and rewetted since then. We determined carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux in situ

S. Glatzel; S. Lemke; G. Gerold

2006-01-01

328

Method for monitoring the decomposition process in soil of organic wastewaters with high strength and low C\\/N ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squeezed fluid of pig manure and bonito processing wastewater, and their effluents from methane fermentation were studied in pot experiments in a model case of land application of organic wastewaters with high strength and low C\\/N ratio. Kanagawa alluvial soil (upland soil) and Kagoshima volcanic ash soil (upland soil) were used. The stabilization period of these four wastewaters in Kanagawa

Mitsuyo Hirai; Kuei-Cheng Ker; Tatsuo Endo; Koichi Fujie; Makoto Shoda; Hiroshi Kubota

1990-01-01

329

WOODY DEBRIS ALONG AN UPLAND CHRONOSEQUENCE IN BOREAL MANITOBA AND ITS IMPACT ON LONG-TERM CARBON STORAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the role of fire-killed woody debris as a source of soil carbon in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) stands in Manitoba, Canada. We measured the amount of standing dead and woody debris along an upland chronosequence, including woody debris partially and completely co...

330

Cropping intensity and rainfall effects on upland rice yields in northern Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Laos, upland rice is grown as a subsistence crop under rainfed conditions with no fertilizer inputs. It has traditionally\\u000a been grown under slash-and-burn systems with long fallows, which restore soil fertility and reduce insect and weed pressure.\\u000a However, increasing population density and government policies aimed at reducing the area under slash-and-burn have reduced\\u000a fallows to as little as

K. Saito; B. Linquist; B. Keobualapha; K. Phanthaboon; T. Shiraiwa; T. Horie

2006-01-01

331

Bacterial Community Dynamics across a Floristic Gradient in a Temperate Upland Grassland Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Alterations in soil bacterial communities across a transect between a semi natural upland grassland and an agriculturally\\u000a improved enclosure were assessed using culture-based methods and a nucleic-acid-based method, terminal restriction fragment\\u000a length polymorphism (TRFLP). While plant diversity decreased across the transect towards the improved area, numbers of 16S\\u000a rDNA terminal restriction fragments increased, indicating an increase in numbers of bacterial

E. Brodie; S. Edwards; N. Clipson

2002-01-01

332

Response of interspecific and sativa upland rices to Mali phosphate rock and soluble phosphate fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, two-thirds of upland rice is grown on acidic phosphorus (P)-deficient soils. Phosphorus is one of the most limiting-nutrients affecting crop productivity. A three-year field experiment was conducted on a Ferralsol in Côte d'Ivoire to study the response of four interspecific rice cultivars and a sativa (control cultivar) to Tilemsi phosphate rock (PR) and soluble triple superphosphate (TSP)

Brahima Kone; Oikeh Sylvester; Sitapha Diatta; Eklou Somado; Kotchi Valere; Kanwar Lal Sahrawat

2011-01-01

333

Organic Soils of the North: a Mismatch for our Current Climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil C reflects long-term net ecosystem production (NEP); therefore, spatial patterns of soil C storage lend insight into broad, lasting variations in NEP. Boreal forests are unique in that many soils retain enough organic matter to develop a chronology of C accumulation, which is related to both fire cycles and permafrost cycles: Accumulation of organic matter in the presence of permafrost or shallow water tables has allowed carbon to become buried into wet, cold environments that were inaccessible to subsequent fire and decomposition. Aggradation of permafrost has allowed repeated fire and regrowth cycles to become buried in accreting peats, particularly peat plateaus. Most uplands, by contrast lost their carbon by efficient decomposition and fire events. Based on large carbon stocks of northern soils, we hypothesized that recent occurrences of wildfires should reflect a similar spatial pattern in which poorly drained soils sustain proportionately less burned area than well drained soils. Surprisingly, we found that in Alaska and western Canada over the past 50 years, burning did not occur preferentially in drier, upland areas. Moreover, in Alaska, wetter areas sustained a disproportionately greater burn area than drier areas relative to the statewide distribution of wetter to drier landscapes. This suggests to us that the long-term patterns of NEP are out of phase with recent decades. Recent measurements of climate and carbon accumulation rates also allude to modern systems being out of phase with long-term averages. For instance, at the northern old black spruce site in Manitoba (NOBS), organic matter has accumulated over the past 6500 years and yet NEP data from the past 10 years indicates that the net accumulation is zero. Furthermore, our NEP reconstructions based on current temperature and decomposition responses over repeated fire and regrowth cycles suggest that either colder temperatures and/or more stable forms of carbon may be responsible for the large C stocks that reside beneath the wetter black spruce/sphagnum systems, which comprise about 50% of the NOBS footprint. Last, in many sites at NOBS, moss and tree indications of recent permafrost have not been supported by the presence of frost in late summer, which appears most sensitive to summer rain than to summer temperature. These systems are sensitive to complex interactions among local temperature, precipitation, and vegetation shifts yet we raise the question as to whether there is converging evidence that boreal forests are undergoing a marked shift in disturbance patterns, reduced NEP, and permafrost degradation that is unprecedented for the millennial timescale in which these northern soils have formed.

Harden, J. W.; Carrasco, J. J.; Turetsky, M. R.; Veldhuis, H.; Wofsy, S. C.; Zhuang, Q.

2004-05-01

334

Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.  

PubMed

Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development. PMID:22664536

Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

2012-06-03

335

Peat resource estimation in Michigan. Technical status report No. 7, October 16December 15, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accomplishments in FY1982 towards quantifying the energy potential of Michigan's organic soils (peat) are discussed. Five soil-geomorphic provinces have been delineated in the Upper Peninsula. Two were intensively sampled in 1981, and two in 1982. Results from 1982 investigations show that Province 2, initially believed to contain deposits totaling 570,000 acres, actually contains significantly fewer acres of organic soils, many

Mogk

1983-01-01

336

Microbial Communities in Long-Term Heavy Metal Contaminated Ombrotrophic Peats  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of heavy metals are known to be toxic to many soil organisms. The effects of long-term exposure to lower\\u000a levels of metals on the soil microbial community are, however, less well understood. The southern Pennines of the U.K. are\\u000a characterised by expanses of ombrotrophic peat soils that have experienced deposition of high levels of heavy metals since\\u000a the

Patricia E. Linton; Laura Shotbolt; Andrew D. Thomas

2007-01-01

337

27 CFR 9.228 - Indiana Uplands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Uplands viticultural area is described as follows: (1) The beginning point is on the Tell City map at the confluence of the Anderson River and the Ohio River near Troy in Perry County. From the beginning point, proceed north-northwesterly in a...

2013-04-01

338

Catchment-scale deposition and redistribution of Chernobyl radiocaesium in upland Britain  

SciTech Connect

Fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in April 1986 resulted in a significant increase in the inventory of radiocaesium in many areas of upland Britain. Caesium-137 derived from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s has been widely used as a sediment tracer to monitor soil erosion. The presence of Chernobyl fallout provides an opportunity to examine the short-term, post-input behavior of radiocaesium in upland soils and assess its potential for investigating sediment transfer in upland systems. Sampling undertaken in the catchment of Lake Vyrnwy, North Wales considered the vertical distribution of radiocaesium in different soil types, the catchment-wide variation in Chernobyl fallout deposition, and the radiocaesium content of sediment from a variety of slope and fluvial environments. Whilst uncertainty surrounding the estimation of baseline inventories limits the detailed interpretation of short-term sediment dynamics, it is apparent that the sediment-associated redistribution of Chernobyl radioactivity may result in its accumulation in certain parts of the catchment over longer timescales. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Higgitt, D.L.; Rowan, J.S. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom)); Walling, D.E. (Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

339

Microelements in Lowland Peat of the Northeastern Part of the Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest areas of bogs are concentrated in the northeastern part of Altai Republic. This place due to a great amount of precipitation and a powerful accumulation of snow with a little drain in comparison with other areas has plenty of bogs. A quarter of all bogs of the Altai Mountains is concentrated here. The bogs develop mainly in the valleys of the rivers. The bogs have a modern origin and the process of bog formation goes at the present time by overgrowing of oxbow and valley lakes, and also by bogging of dry lands - woods and meadows. The area of bogs in relation to the general territory of highlands makes up 1%. Nevertheless, these territories are regarded as complex ecosystems which have economic and scientific value. Let's consider the content of heavy metals in different horizons of the peat under study. The samples of peat of the deposit being examined are characterized by a low total content of zinc: 6,21-44,12 mg/kg. The average amount of zinc in the soils of the Altai Mountains is much larger and makes up 70,3 mg/kg. Quite a significant amount of copper is washed away from peat thickness, its total amount is at the level of 1,58-10,73 mg/kg. The reason for it, probably, lies in the fact that there is a significant amount of fulvic acids in the composition of humic acids which enable the migration of copper beyond the limits of the peat ground in the conditions of the sour environment. A completely different situation is observed in the soils of the Altai mountain area. The biogeochemistry of copper in the soils of the Altai Mountains is thoroughly investigated by M.A.Malgin, A.V.Puzanov, O.A.Yelchininova. Its average amount in the soils of the Altai Mountains makes up 40,6 mg/kg which is twice as much as the abundance ratio in comparison with the world soils. The authors explain this fact as follows: copper is an inactive element in the soils since its ions are easily precipitated by sulfide-, carbonate-, and hydroxide ions, and also are taken up by humic acids of soils. Therefore, notwithstanding the washing type of a water mode, the leaching of copper from the soils of the Altai Mountains is not observed. The amount of cadmium in the investigated lowland peat makes up from 0,12 up to 0,57 mg/kg which is almost two times less than the roughly allowable concentration. Also the monotonous increase of the concentration factor of cadmium upwards on the structure is observed. The peat of the surveyed deposit as far as the amount of cadmium is concerned is actually at the level of the background soils of the Altai mountain area. The amount of lead in the peat under study is not subject to significant fluctuation - from 1,34 up to 10,0 mg/kg which is lower than the average amount characteristic of the soils of the Altai Mountains. The roughly allowable concentration of lead for sour soils makes up 65 mg/kg, therefore the peat under study is non-polluting or lead-free. There is an even distribution of lead in the structure of the axial section. In the distribution of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead in peat thickness there is a contrast between the top layers and the bottom ones. The top layers are characterized by higher concentration of elements. The lowland peat of the northeastern part of Altai Republic in comparison with the West-Siberian peat is characterized by the increased values of zinc and has the same amount of copper and lead.

Shurova, M. V.; Larina, G. V.; Kozlova, S. A.; Shagaeva, L. L.

2010-05-01

340

``Missing'' cloud condensation nuclei in peat smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterized particulate emissions from vegetation fires by burning Indonesian and German peat and other biomass fuels in a controlled laboratory setting. By measuring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) both as a function of particle diameter (dp) and supersaturation (S), we discovered particles in peat smoke that were not activated to cloud droplets at high S (1.6%). These hydrophobic particles were present predominantly in the size range of dp > 200 nm, where typical wood burning particles are activated at S < 0.3%. Ambient measurements during the 1997 Indonesian peat fires suggested that peat smoke particles are highly soluble and therefore efficient CCN. Our CCN measurements performed on fresh smoke from peat samples of the same area suggest that these Indonesian smoke particles probably acquired soluble material through chemical processing in the atmosphere. Freshly emitted peat smoke particles are at least partially not very efficient CCN.

Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Helas, G.; Iinuma, Y.; Zeromskiene, K.; Gwaze, P.; Hennig, T.; Massling, A.; Schmid, O.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Andreae, M. O.

2005-06-01

341

Content of lipids in finnish peat mires  

SciTech Connect

Peat is a potential raw material for chemical products. Peat extracts, bitumens, obtained from peat with neutral organic solvents, and, in particular, their wax fractions have been of interest with regard to their substituting for other natural waxes. Yields and characteristics of peat extracts have been studied by numerous researchers and acid and saponification values, molecular weights and elements analyses have been determined since the 1930s. New analytical methods have recently been introduced and made it possible to determine the amount and detailed composition of the lipid components of peat extracts by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to determine the yield and lipid composition of extracts from peat samples collected from different mires in Finland.

Fagernaes, L.; Ekman, R.

1985-01-01

342

Freshwater peat on the continental shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater peats from the continental shelf off northeastern United States contain the same general pollen sequence as peats from ponds that are above sea level and that are of comparable radiocarbon ages. These peats indicate that during glacial times of low sea level terrestrial vegetation covered the region that is now the continental shelf in an unbroken extension from the adjacent land areas to the north and west.

Emery, K. O.; Wigley, R. L.; Bartlett, A. S.; Rubin, M.; Barghoorn, E. S.

1967-01-01

343

Impacts of peatland restoration on dissolved carbon loss from eroded upland peatlands in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upland blanket peatlands in the UK are severely degraded by extensive gully erosion. Large areas have experienced complete vegetation loss. In the last decade landscape scale approaches to the restoration of eroded and bare peat have been developed in the Peak District National Park in northern England. Bare peat is re-vegetated with a nurse crop of grasses established by the aerial application of lime, seed, and fertiliser. The approach has successfully re-vegetated large areas of eroded bog a nd has been shown to dramatically reduce particulate carbon losses in runoff. The impacts of the treatment on water quality and dissolved carbon loss have not previously been fully assessed. This paper reports results from a small catchment study assessing the impacts of restoration practice in the Peak District. Data from five small catchments are presented one re-vegetated, one intact and three eroded/bare catchments. Bi-weekly water samples have been taken from the catchments between January 2011 and February 2012 and during July 2012 two of the bare sites were treated with lime, seed, and fertiliser. The data show that there are significant spikes in nutrient flux post treatment and marked effects on dissolved carbon which include initial spikes in in DOC concentration but longer term reductions in DOC concentration. Monitoring is ongoing at these sites but the evidence to date points to at least a short term benefit in DOC flux reduction from this form of peatland restoration.

Evans, M.; Stimson, A.; Allott, T. E. H. A.; Holland, N.

2012-04-01

344

Peat bog restoration by floating raft formation: the effects of groundwater and peat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. A prerequisite for the restoration of desiccated bog remnants is rewetting the peat surface. Frequently in Europe, extensive areas are flooded in order to maximize water retention, and growth of peat mosses is often observed in the shallow zones. In deeper waters, regeneration appears to depend on whether residual peat will become buoyant and form floating rafts. 2.

Alfons J. P. Smolders; Hilde B. M. Tomassen; Leon P. M. Lamers; Bart P. Lomans; Jan G. M. Roelofs

2002-01-01

345

Upland disturbance affects headwater stream nutrients and suspended sediments during baseflow and stormflow  

SciTech Connect

Because catchment characteristics determine sediment and nutrient inputs to streams, upland disturbance can affect stream chemistry. Catchments at the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) experience a range of upland disturbance intensities due to spatial variability in the intensity of military training. We used this disturbance gradient to investigate the effects of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on stream chemistry. During baseflow, mean total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration and mean inorganic suspended sediment (ISS) concentration increased with catchment disturbance intensity (TSS: R 2 = 0.7, p = 0.005, range = 4.0-10.1 mg L-1; ISS: R 2 = 0.71, p = 0.004, range = 2.04-7.3 mg L-1); dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (R 2 = 0.79, p = 0.001, range = 1.5-4.1 mg L-1) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration (R 2 = 0.75, p = 0.008, range = 1.9-6.2 {micro}g L-1) decreased with increasing disturbance intensity; and ammonia (NH4 +), nitrate (NO3 -), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were unrelated to disturbance intensity. The increase in TSS and ISS during storms was positively correlated with disturbance (R 2 = 0.78 and 0.78, p = 0.01 and 0.01, respectively); mean maximum change in SRP during storms increased with disturbance (r = 0.7, p = 0.04); and mean maximum change in NO3 - during storms was marginally correlated with disturbance (r = 0.58, p = 0.06). Soil characteristics were significant predictors of baseflow DOC, SRP, and Ca2+, but were not correlated with suspended sediment fractions, any nitrogen species, or pH. Despite the largely intact riparian zones of these headwater streams, upland soil and vegetation disturbances had clear effects on stream chemistry during baseflow and stormflow conditions.

Houser, Jeffrey N [ORNL

2006-01-01

346

Peat Formation Processes During the Past 7000 Years in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1,400 km2 tidal marsh that formed during the Holocene in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Delta was largely drained for agriculture during the past 150 years. The remaining peat constitutes an archive of marsh formation processes and environmental conditions through the millennia. The goals of the REPEAT (Rates and Evolution of Peat Accretion through Time) project are to determine past rates and processes of peat accretion to benefit future wetland restoration efforts. Peat cores were collected across the Delta during 2005 from drained, farmed islands and from remnant, marsh islands in the Delta. Radiocarbon analyses of plant macrofossils were used to construct age models for vertical peat profiles. Peat began forming approximately 6,600 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). Over the last 150 years, approximately 2/3 of the original peat thickness on the farmed islands has been lost because of land-surface subsidence. On the marsh islands, estimated rates of vertical accretion range from 0.06 to 0.53 cm yr-1. Mean rates of vertical accretion at the marshes suggest that three out of the four marsh sites are capable of keeping pace with current rates of sea-level rise. Bulk density, % OM (organic matter), % contribution of OM vs. inorganic matter (IM) to soil volume, and vertical accretion rates show considerable variability through the millennia. Some variability is associated with a period of high precipitation and freshwater discharge between approximately 4,000 to 2,000 yr BP. The hydrogeomorphic setting of marshes appears to largely control the amount of IM incorporated into peat through time. Sediment supply will likely determine whether remnant and restored tidal marshes can keep pace with future sea-level rise in the Delta.

Drexler, J. Z.; de Fontaine, C. S.; Brown, T. A.

2008-12-01

347

Effects of upland disturbance and instream restoration on hydrodynamics and ammonium uptake in headwater streams  

SciTech Connect

Delivery of water, sediments, nutrients, and organic matter to stream ecosystems is strongly influenced by the catchment of the stream and can be altered greatly by upland soil and vegetation disturbance. At the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia), spatial variability in intensity of military training results in a wide range of intensities of upland disturbance in stream catchments. A set of 8 streams in catchments spanning this upland disturbance gradient was selected for investigation of the impact of disturbance intensity on hydrodynamics and nutrient uptake. The size of transient storage zones and rates of NH4+ uptake in all study streams were among the lowest reported in the literature. Upland disturbance did not appear to influence stream hydrodynamics strongly, but it caused significant decreases in instream nutrient uptake. In October 2003, coarse woody debris (CWD) was added to of the study streams (spanning the disturbance gradient) in an attempt to increase hydrodynamic and structural complexity with the goals of enhancing biotic habitat and increasing nutrient uptake rates. CWD additions had positive short-term (within 1 mo) effects on hydrodynamic complexity (water velocity decreased and transient storage zone cross-sectional area, relative size of the transient storage zone, fraction of the median travel time attributable to transient storage over a standardized length of 200 m, and the hydraulic retention factor increased) and nutrient uptake (NH4+ uptake rates increased). Our results suggest that water quality in streams with intense upland disturbances can be improved by enhancing instream biotic nutrient uptake capacity through measures such as restoring stream CWD.

Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Houser, Jeffrey N [ORNL

2007-01-01

348

Substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening: user surveys and case studies.  

PubMed

Four user surveys were performed at recycle centres (RCs) in the Municipalities of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark, to get general information on compost use and to examine the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening. The average driving distance between the users' households and the RCs was found to be 4.3 km and the average amount of compost picked up was estimated at 800 kg per compost user per year. The application layer of the compost varied (between 1 and 50 cm) depending on the type of use. The estimated substitution (given as a fraction of the compost users that substitute peat, fertiliser and manure with compost) was 22% for peat, 12% for fertiliser and 7% for manure (41% in total) from the survey in Aarhus (n=74). The estimate from the survey in Copenhagen (n=1832) was 19% for peat, 24% for fertiliser and 15% for manure (58% in total). This is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, that the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure with compost has been assessed for application in hobby gardening. Six case studies were performed as home visits in addition to the Aarhus surveys. From the user surveys and the case studies it was obvious that the total substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure was not 100%, as is often assumed when assigning environmental credits to compost. It was more likely around 50% and thus there is great potential for improvement. It was indicated that compost was used for a lot of purposes in hobby gardening. Apart from substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure, compost was used to improve soil quality and as a filling material (as a substitute for soil). Benefits from these types of application are, however, difficult to assess and thereby quantify. PMID:20724134

Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

2010-08-17

349

Ecohydrological Controls on Peat Consumption During Wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat oxidation by smouldering combustion during wildfire represents a carbon flux, though episodic, able to release over 3 kg C ^{m-2} to the atmosphere, along with numerous trace-gas by-products of combustion. In peatlands, smouldering is dominated by a vertical heat transfer and combustion mechanism. We conducted laboratory and modelling studies to examine the interaction of peatland microtopography and hydrology on depth of burn during wildfire. Many peat profiles show a distinct thermodynamic resistance to combustion. Except in cases of extreme drought, Sphagnum fuscum hummocks have sufficiently high water retention such that more energy is required to drive off the water in the upper moss layers than is derived by the combustion of the dry peat. Although our model runs suggest if hummocks of S. fuscum are dry enough to burn the uppermost moss layers (2-3 cm), there is a higher probability of deep ( 30 cm) burning in the hummock due to a 'chain reaction' of combustion through the physically similar peat layers underneath. Enhanced summer water table draw-down and fire intensity serves to increase depth of burn only slightly into deeper humic peat layers in the presence of a water table and hydrostatic equilibrium. However, laboratory water retention analyses show that this humified peat retains less water per unit mass, despite being of greater average bulk density to less humified peat. Thus, smouldering combustion of humic peat has the potential to be more severe compared to less humified peat given the same distance from the water table. In shallow peatlands where the water table can fall beyond the basal mineral layer, evaporative demand is entirely satisfied by loss of water stored in the unsaturated zone. Similarly, in peatlands drained for forestry, transpiration can draw water out of the rooting zone in excess of rates of capillary rise, resulting in non-equilibrium conditions and enhanced risk of deep combustion. In both cases, upper peat horizons can become out of equilibrium with deeper peat and dry preferentially. In instances where peat moisture reaches equilibrium with the atmosphere, deep burning is much easier to achieve in peatlands. This has implications in shallow peatlands, where the water table routinely falls below the basal peat horizons during dry summers. The vulnerability of shallow peatlands is furthered by an increase in the abundance humified peat closer to the surface compared to deeper peatlands. This enhanced risk of deep combustion in shallow peatlands could help explain the relative scarcity of shallow peatlands less than 50 cm found in peat depth databases in the boreal plain.

Thompson, D. K.; Wotton, M.; Turetsky, M. R.; Flannigan, M.; Benscoter, B.; Waddington, J. M.

2011-12-01

350

Influence of erosion rates on particle size and carbon export from upland landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion in soil-mantled landscapes affects soil thickness, which modulates the production of soil. Soil thickness and erosion rate, combined with soil mixing processes, control the time particles spend in the soil. This time strongly influences both the physical and chemical characteristics of soil particles. There is increasing recognition that long term transport and sequestration of carbon in soils and sediments is strongly related to both the size and mineralogy of the particles therein. Here we examine how clay formation in soils is strongly influenced by erosion rates and the impact of clay formation on carbon sequestration. We show that the flux of mineral-associated carbon from upland landscapes has two competing influences: increased erosion rate increase the total flux of material from the system, but decreased erosion results in more clays, which can stabilize more carbon as it is transported from the system. Our simulations suggest that the former influence is likely to dominate. We also show that mixing can strongly affect particle residence time in soils: although the mean residence times of particles within unmixed and fully mixed soils are the same, the distributions of residence times are different: material leaving unmixed soils will have higher clay contents and will thus be more exporting mineral-associated carbon more effectively than material leaving well mixed soil.

Mudd, S. M.; Yoo, K.

2012-04-01

351

Nutritional characteristics of the leaves of native plants growing in adverse soils of humid tropical lowlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid sulfate, peat, sandy podzolic, and saline soils are widely distributed inthe lowlands of Thailand and Malaysia. The nutrient concentrations in theleaves of plants grown in these type of soils were studied with the aim ofdeveloping a nutritional strategy for adapting to such problem soils. In sagoand oil palms that were well-adapted to peat soil, the N, P, and Kconcentrations

Mitsuru Osaki; Toshihiro Watanabe; Tetsuya Ishizawa; Chairatna Nilnond; Tanit Nuyim; Takuro Shinano; Masaru Urayama; Sehat Jaya Tuah

2003-01-01

352

Plant Species Anaerobiosis and DOC Dynamics in a Peat-Forming Wetland, New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the shallow peat soil of a freshwater wetland (located in central New York State) and correlated the patterns with anaerobiosis in roots of the dominant plant species. Sampling was stratified in zones dominated by: lakebank sedge (Carex lacustris), common cattail (Typha latifolia), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) or

J. B. Yavitt; C. J. Williams

2004-01-01

353

Annual CO2 exchange of a peat field growing spring barley or perennial forage grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements conducted with the eddy covariance method over agricultural peat soil in the 2-year period between October 2000 and October 2002. In 2001, spring barley and undersown grass were sown on the site. After the barley harvest, the perennial forage grass was left to grow, so that in 2002 the field was

Annalea Lohila; Mika Aurela; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Tuomas Laurila

2004-01-01

354

Hydrological studies on blanket peat: the significance of the acrotelm-catotelm model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Runoff production in blanket peat catchments of the northern Pennine hills, UK was measured through monitoring and experimentation at the plot, hillslope and catchment scale. Water flow from soil pipes was measured in one of the study catchments and overland flow, throughflow and water table were measured in runoff plots; rainfall simu- lation and tension-infiltrometry provided information on

J. Holden; T. P. Burt

2003-01-01

355

Modelling geomorphic response to environmental change in an upland catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the UK's upland catchments river terraces and alluvial features indicate a history of periodic aggradation and degradation linked to Holocene changes in land use (primarily deforestation) and climate change (altering flood frequency and magnitude). Although both factors are important, calculating their individual effects is complicated by the likelihood of their concurrent alteration.To investigate the relative impacts of land use and climate change, a cellular model is applied to the upland catchments of Cam Gill Beck, above Starbotton, North Yorkshire. This is divided into 1 million 2 m by 2 m grid cells, to which a range of process laws are applied. These include approximate expressions for mass movement rates, soil creep, the influence of vegetation and hillslope hydrology, as well as fluvial erosion and deposition in ten grain-size fractions. This provides a good representation of valley floor geometry while retaining a fully dynamic interaction with the surrounding valley sides. Previous applications of this model have shown the detailed formation of bars and berms as well as examples of braiding, avulsion and channel range.Running on a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 computer, an ensemble of simulations were completed, bracketing a wide range of environmental scenarios involving changes in flood frequency, magnitude and vegetation cover. Over time-scales ranging from 10 to 100 years, these showed that decreasing tree cover and increasing rainfall magnitude individually produced similar 25% to 100% increases in sediment discharge, whereas in combination they generated a 1300% rise. Furthermore, channels formed by the model in response to increased rainfall magnitudes are located where relic channels are found in Cam Gill Beck, implying that these are the products of previous periods of high rainfall magnitudes.

Coulthard, T. J.; Kirkby, M. J.; Macklin, M. G.

2000-07-01

356

Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotro- phic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values

SVETLANA N. DEDYSH; NICOLAI S. PANIKOV; JAMES M. TIEDJE

1998-01-01

357

Bioaerosols in Peat Moss Processing Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat moss is organic matter colonized by large numbers of microorganisms. Storage prior to its processing may result in massive microbial growth. These biological contaminants can become airborne during processing. Our goals were (a) to evaluate concentrations of bioaerosols (inhalable dust, molds, bacteria) in peat moss processing plants that used dust removing systems, and (b) to evaluate the presence of

Anne Mériaux; Pascal Pageau; Yvon Cormier; Nicole Goyer; Caroline Duchaine

2006-01-01

358

ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS OF FARMING ON PEAT LAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aceh is one of the provinces in Indonesia undergoing a rapid development that entails the conversion of forest lands, including the marginally suitable peat lands, to agriculture. The peat land of Aceh has an area of about 0.27 million ha and stores as much as 561 million ton (Mt) of C or about 2000 t C ha-1 underground. Carbon stocks

Fahmuddin Agus

2008-01-01

359

Peats and Ferrites for Heavy Metal Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Peat is a relatively inexpensive material which processes a native cation exchange capacity. Efforts to utilize peat have been hampered by its low permeability to water and its tendency to severely leach in water at pH>6. These disadvantages have been sig...

J. D. Navratil

1986-01-01

360

Increasing selenium in field-grown onions by planting in peat moss pots containing coal fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium is an essential element for animals and humans and is deficient in soils in the Northeastern United States. Coal fly ash added to soils has been shown to serve as a source of selenium for absorption by plants. It was of interest to study the uptake of selenium by plants if coal fly ash was added to peat moss

Walter H. Gutenmann; Donald J. Lisk

1996-01-01

361

Mobility of trace metals in pore waters of two Central European peat bogs.  

PubMed

Vertical peat profiles can only be used as archives of past changes in pollution levels if atmogenic elements are immobile after their burial. For mobile elements, similar pore-water concentrations can be expected at different peat depths. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Cd were determined in surface bog water and bog pore water 40 cm below surface in two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic. Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ) is an upland bog located in an industrial area, Cervene blato (CB) is a lowland bog located in a rural area. Metal concentrations were monitored seasonally over 3 years (2002--2005) at both sites. Higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd and lower concentrations of Mn, Fe and Co were found at the less polluted CB compared to VJJ. No clear-cut seasonality was observed in metal concentrations in bog waters, despite seasonal differences in industrial emission rates of pollutants (more coal burning in winter than in summer). This contrasts with an earlier observation of distinct seasonality in sulfate concentration and isotope composition in these stagnating bog waters. Peat substrate 40 cm below current bog surface represented pre-industrial low-pollution environment, yet pore waters at such depths contained the same metal concentrations as surface waters. The only exception was Pb, whose concentration in water solutes increased with increasing depth. Lack of vertical stratification in pore-water contents of Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co indicated vertical mobility of these metals. PMID:18302968

Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra

2008-03-04

362

The Effect of Land-Surface Subsidence Processes on the Remaining Peat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (henceforth, the Delta) was once a 1,400 km2 tidal wetland that was drained and reclaimed for agricultural production beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Drainage of the organic, peat soils has resulted in land-surface subsidence in the region to as much as 8 m below sea level. Although the factors causing land-surface subsidence are well known (principally oxidation of organic matter), little is known about the physical and chemical condition of the remaining peat. As part of a project called Rates and Evolution of Peat Accretion through Time in the Delta, the physical and chemical condition of the remaining peat layer was studied on four farmed islands and four relatively undisturbed marsh islands. Peat cores were collected from all sites using a modified Livingstone corer. Core samples were analyzed for bulk density, percent organic matter and carbon, and for radiocarbon. On the marsh islands, the thickness of the relatively undisturbed peat layer ranged from 4.2 to 8.2 m, and on the farmed islands, it ranged from 1.2 to 1.5 m. On the farmed islands, the unoxidized and intact peat layer lies underneath a 0.4- to 0.9-m-thick layer of compacted and oxidized peat. Radiocarbon ages obtained from Scirpus seeds within the basal peat of the farmed islands indicate that peat formation began 6,035-6,785 cal yr BP. Although peat is still forming on marsh islands today, the youngest intact peat at the farmed island sites formed 4,415-4,985 cal yr BP. The mean bulk density of marsh island peat (0.17 g/cm3) is less than the intact and unoxidized peat layer on the farmed islands (0.21 g/cm3; Student's t-test, p < 0.0001), and much less than the compacted and oxidized zone at the surface of the farmed islands (0.65 g/cm3; Student's t-test, p < 0.0001). In the peat samples, there is an inverse relationship between bulk density and organic matter. The higher bulk densities and lower carbon content of the upper compacted and oxidized peat layer on farmed islands are a result of surface drainage for agricultural practices. Although the remaining intact peat below this zone does not appear to be oxidized, it has been altered through physical compaction.

de Fontaine, C. S.; Drexler, J. Z.

2007-12-01

363

Hydration products in peat-containing concrete  

SciTech Connect

This investigation was conducted to study the influence of transitional peat on the phase composition of the newly formed structures in peat concrete produced from a solution based on portland cement with calcium chloride and a gypsum-alumina binder added. The phase compositions of the new structures were determined by derivatographic and x-ray phase analysis, using IR spectroscopy and electron (in combination with microdiffraction) and scanning microscopy in individual cases. When peat-containing concrete is based on portland cement, the fundamental neoformations characteristic of this type of binder are accompanied by large amounts of peat organic-acid calcium salts and highly hydrated chelate complexes containing iron and aluminum hydroxides, which retard crystal growth. When a gypsum-alumina binder is employed, the peat components chelate with the aluminum hydroxide and have no perceptible influence on cement hydration products.

Klyusov, A.A.

1988-08-01

364

Peats and ferrites for heavy metal removal  

SciTech Connect

Peat is a relatively inexpensive material which processes a native cation exchange capacity. Efforts to utilize peat have been hampered by its low permeability to water and its tendency to severely leach in water at pH>6. These disadvantages have been significantly minimized by treating the peat with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid treatment also increases the cation exchange capacity of the peat. Results of both column batch studies of the modified peat for use as an actinide adsorbent will be presented. Ferrites are mixed valence iron compounds having metal sorptive and magnetic properties. A naturally occurring ferrite material is magnetite. We have studied activation techniques to give magnetite a high capacity for removing heavy metals and actinides from aqueous process waste solutions. The solution can then be magnetically filtered to removal magnetite sorbed metals from solution. results of the experiments will be described. 18 refs.

Navratil, J.D.

1986-01-01

365

Characterization of peat-electrical properties by means of geoelectrical measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands have an important function for the storage of global carbon. These functions are reduced significantly due to intensive agricultural drainage which leads to decomposition of the organic material and hence to the loss of carbon. In order to reduce these losses, assessments of the peatlands in their current function as a carbon sink, and adequate management are required. In this context, information about both the peat thickness and their condition (degree of decomposition) are crucial. Methods which can estimate the latter in the field other than time-consuming conventional coring techniques are still missing in practice. Our approach is to gather this information in fen soils by means of non-intrusive geoelectrical techniques through the measurement of electrical conductivity of bulk soil (ECb), which is correlated with parameters such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (OC) and the electrical conductivity of the soil solution (ECe), which, furthermore, are functions of the peat condition. In order to assess the field-applicability of this technique, we examined as a first step the electrical properties of peat in different stages of decomposition by measuring ECb of undisturbed samples derived from various study sites in the laboratory. All parameters (ECe, CEC, OC, bulk density, pH-value and volumetric water content), which may potentially influence the ECb of peat were analyzed simultaneously. Multiple regression analysis revealed a strong response of ECb on ECe followed by CEC and water content if all samples from different locations were incorporated. ECe explained about 60%, CEC 30% and volumetric water content 10% of variability in ECb. Whereas CEC was primarily a function of the degree of decomposition of the peat, ECe levels varied from site to site and no correlation with the latter could be identified. Therefore, we assume that the estimation of peat properties, describing its condition, through electrical measurements is appropriate when considering a site specific calibration function.

Walter, Judith; Lück, Erika; Zeitz, Jutta

2013-04-01

366

Hydraulic Conductivity of Riparian Mangrove Forest Peat Adjacent to the Harney River, Everglades National Park: A Comparative Field Study of Field Saturated and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Methods.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shark-Harney river estuary is located in the southwest region of Everglades National Park and is the principle outflow for the freshwater everglades slough. Periodic tidal inundation, rainfall and overland freshwater flow are the forcing functions on surface soil infiltration and drainage in the adjacent estuary mangrove forest peat. Empirical soil hydraulic conductivity (K) for the mangrove peat soil is needed for hydrologic modeling efforts such as "The Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades" (TIME). South Florida has a bi-seasonal weather pattern of a dry and mild winters and a wet tropical summers. During the drier winter months (November-May), the mangrove peat has a 30-60 cm, unsaturated vadose zone and in the wet summer months (June-October), the peat is totally saturated. This study's purpose is to determine reliable values of soil hydraulic conductivity for mangrove peat under both the unsaturated Kfs and saturated Ksat soil conditions. Rycroft (1975) reported that field measurements are the preferred method of testing hydraulic conductivity of peat. The principle field method used to determining soil hydraulic conductivity Kfs under unsaturated conditions utilized a cylindrical permeameter (Guelph Permeameter) and the auger-hole method was used to determine soil hydraulic conductivity Ksat under saturated soil conditions. The hydraulic conductivity K samples were taken along a 300-meter transect, perpendicular to the south Harney riverbank through a mixed mangrove riparian forest and ending in a freshwater sawgrass prairie. Initial measurements were recorded in May-June 2001. A second year measurement set will be collected in March-April 2002. Hydraulic conductivity K measurements were observed in shallow peat holes (15 cm) at five equally spaced sample sites (60 m) from the river edge. Soil cores were taken at each sampling site to determine soil profile and bulk density.

Anderson, G. H.; Smith, T. J.

2002-05-01

367

Potential health impacts associated with peat smoke: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western Australia, peat is distributed throughout the Swan Coastal Plain, in the South West and North West regions of the State. Peat is typically associated with wetlands and its distribution has significantly reduced over the past 100 years. The major threats to the current distribution of peat are fire and land use changes. Peat is thought to be at

Andrea Hinwood; Clemencia Rodriguez

2005-01-01

368

Persistent versus transient tree encroachment of temperate peat bogs: effects of climate warming and drought events.  

PubMed

Peatlands store approximately 30% of global soil carbon, most in moss-dominated bogs. Future climatic changes, such as changes in precipitation patterns and warming, are expected to affect peat bog vegetation composition and thereby its long-term carbon sequestration capacity. Theoretical work suggests that an episode of rapid environmental change is more likely to trigger transitions to alternative ecosystem states than a gradual, but equally large, change in conditions. We used a dynamic vegetation model to explore the impacts of drought events and increased temperature on vegetation composition of temperate peat bogs. We analyzed the consequences of six patterns of summer drought events combined with five temperature scenarios to test whether an open peat bog dominated by moss (Sphagnum) could shift to a tree-dominated state. Unexpectedly, neither a gradual decrease in the amount of summer precipitation nor the occurrence of a number of extremely dry summers in a row could shift the moss-dominated peat bog permanently into a tree-dominated peat bog. The increase in tree biomass during drought events was unable to trigger positive feedbacks that keep the ecosystem in a tree-dominated state after a return to previous 'normal' rainfall conditions. In contrast, temperature increases from 1 °C onward already shifted peat bogs into tree-dominated ecosystems. In our simulations, drought events facilitated tree establishment, but temperature determined how much tree biomass could develop. Our results suggest that under current climatic conditions, peat bog vegetation is rather resilient to drought events, but very sensitive to temperature increases, indicating that future warming is likely to trigger persistent vegetation shifts. PMID:23526779

Heijmans, Monique M P D; van der Knaap, Yasmijn A M; Holmgren, Milena; Limpens, Juul

2013-04-18

369

Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 ?mol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 ?mol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin

2009-03-01

370

Investigation of gas exchange processes in peat bog ecosystems by means of innovative Raman gas spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Highly sensitive Raman gas spectroscopy is introduced for simultaneous real time analysis of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and N(2) in order to elucidate the dynamics of greenhouse gases evolving from climate-sensitive ecosystems. The concentrations and fluxes of this suite of biogenic gases were quantified in the head space of a water-saturated, raised peat bog ecotron. The intact peat bog, exhibiting various degradation stages of peat and sphagnum moss, was exposed to various light regimes in order to determine important ecosystem parameters such as the maximum photosynthesis rate of the sphagnum as well as the extent of soil and plant respiration. Miniaturized Raman gas spectroscopy was proven to be an extremely versatile analytical technique that allows for onsite multigas analysis in high temporal resolution. Therefore it is an urgently needed tool for elucidation of complex biochemical processes especially in climate-sensitive ecosystems and consequently for the estimation of climate-relevant gas budgets. PMID:23320649

Frosch, Torsten; Keiner, Robert; Michalzik, Beate; Fischer, Bernhard; Popp, Jürgen

2013-01-15

371

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF ESSENTIALLY SATURATED PEAT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory measured the hydraulic conductivity of peat samples using method ASTM D4511-00. Four samples of peat were packed into 73mm diameter plastic tubes and saturated from the bottom up with water. The columns were packed with Premier ProMoss III TBK peat to a dry density of approximately 0.16 gm/cc (10 lb/ft3). One column was packed using oven dried peat and the other 3 were packed using as delivered peat. The oven dried sample was the most difficult to saturate. All of the peat samples expanded during saturation resulting in a sample length (L) that was longer than when the sample was initially packed. Table 1 contains information related to the column packing. After saturation the hydraulic conductivity test was conducted using the apparatus shown in Figure 1. Three of the samples were tested at 2 different flow conductions, 1 high and 1 low. Table 2 and Figure 2 contain the results of the hydraulic conductivity testing. Each test was run for a minimum of 40 minutes to allow the test conditions to stabilize. The hydraulic conductivity at the end of each test is reported as the hydraulic conductivity for that test. The hydraulic conductivity of the 4 peat samples is 0.0052 {+-} 0.0009 cm/sec. This result compares well with the hydraulic conductivity measured in the pilot scale peat bed after approximately 2 months of operation. The similarity in results between the dry pack sample and moist pack samples shows the moisture content at the time of packing had a minimal effect on the hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, similarity between the results shows the test is reproducible. The hydraulic conductivity results are similar to those reported by other tests of peat samples reported in the literature.

Nichols, R

2008-02-27

372

Minerals yearbook, 1993: Peat. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) annual survey of domestic peat producers in the 48 contiguous United States reflected a 3% increase in production accompanied by the closure of two U.S. peat operations in the States of Maine and Michigan and the first full year of operations at a new Minnesota peat mine. Sales volume fell 6% to just more than 0.6 million tons, although the total value of producer sales increased slightly to $16.8 million, f.o.b. plant. Idled and discontinued operations continued to liquidate stocks.

Bolen, W.P.

1994-11-01

373

The role of fungi in the Sphagnum peat wastewater treatment system  

SciTech Connect

The lack of suitable soils and the increased building in rural areas has led to the need for alternative onsite wastewater treatment systems. One alternative system utilizes Sphagnum peat to provide a high quality effluent (<10 mg/l BOD5, <6 mg/l nitrate N, and <1 fecal coliform bacteria/100 ml). Treatment efficiencies were greatest when the temperature of the peat was 0-10{degree}C. During this period the organic N and ammonia-N concentrations in the septic tank effluent were reduced by 90-95% and 95-99% respectively; the effluent contained 0.4-1.4 mg/liter organic N and 0.2-1.9 mg/liter ammonia-N. Treatment of the septic tank effluent is attributed to physical filtration, adsorption, and microbiological activity. Microbiological treatment of wastewater has traditionally been attributed to bacteria; however, the cool, acidic, aerobic environment in the peat system favored the growth and activity of fungi over that of bacteria. The fungal population recovered from the system by plating techniques ranged from 1.9 {times} 10{sup 6} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 9} colony forming units/gram of dry peat. Additional yeast species and zoosporic fungi were recovered from the peat samples by shake-culturing and baiting techniques. The ratio of fungal to bacterial activity, as measured by relative respiration rates, was 8:1 in the winter months and 6:2.5 in the summer. Excessive growth of fungi was controlled by the enchytraeid-worm population which was, in turn, fed upon by skunks, racoons, and birds. Additional nutrients were removed from the system when surface vegetation was harvested. Peat wastewater treatment systems, when properly designed and constructed, may be used effectively on adverse sites; their documented lifespan is ten years and their projected lifespan equals that of conventional soil adsorption systems.

Brooks, J.L.

1988-01-01

374

Tomato seedling growth in peat and peat?lite blocks amended with hydrophilic polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blocks were formed from peat or peat?lite amended with a granulated hydrophilic polymer (Viterra Agri?gel , potassium propenoate?propenamide copolymer) or a binding agent (Natrosol 250 HHR , hydroxyethyl cellulose). Blocks were subjected to slow?release (Osmocote) or solution fertilization and to cyclical or capillary irrigation. Tomato seedling shoot fresh weight was acceptable in peat?lite blocks irrespective of fertilization or irrigation regime,

Wallace G. Pill; Mark R. Stubbolo

1986-01-01

375

Leaf Litter Quality in Adirondack Upland Streams: Managed vs. Preserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf litter quality has an important nutritional role in headwater streams. Since upland streams are relatively small (1 st order and 2 nd order streams) with a dense forest canopy, primary productivity from stream macrophytes and microphytes is hindered (Fisher and Likens 1973). This creates a dependence on the adjacent riparian zone as a primary productivity input, making upland stream

Victoria L. Bombard; Timothy B. Mihuc; Robert D. Fuller; Thomas S. Woodcock

2008-01-01

376

SPILOGALE GRACILIS IN UPLAND FORESTS OF WESTERN WASHINGTON AND OREGON  

Microsoft Academic Search

During surveys of upland forests in the Tsuga heterophylla Zone in Washington and Oregon, 1986 to 1996, we caught 192 S. gracilis. In the Oregon Coast Range, more (85%) S. gracilis were caught in oldeilar to Coast Range old growth (P = 0.60) with no differences between seral stages (P = 0.74). No S. gracilis were caught in upland forests

ANDREW B. CAREY; JANET E. KERSHNER

1996-01-01

377

Characterization of contamination, source and degradation of petroleum between upland and paddy fields based on geochemical characteristics and phospholipid fatty acids.  

PubMed

To evaluate contamination caused by petroleum, surface soil samples were collected from both upland and paddy fields along the irrigation canals in the Hunpu wastewater irrigation region in northeast China. N-alkanes, terpanes, steranes, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in the surface soil samples were analyzed. The aliphatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest in the samples obtained from the upland field near an operational oil well; it was lowest at I-3P where wastewater irrigation promoted the downward movement of hydrocarbons. The Hunpu region was found contaminated by heavy petroleum from oxic lacustrine fresh water or marine deltaic source rocks. Geochemical parameters also indicated significantly heavier contamination and degradation in the upland fields compared with the paddy fields. Principal component analysis based on PLFA showed various microbial communities between petroleum contaminated upland and paddy fields. Gram-negative bacteria indicated by 15:0, 3OH 12:0, and 16:1(9) were significantly higher in the paddy fields, whereas Gram-positive bacteria indicated by i16:0 and 18:1(9)c were significantly higher in the upland fields (p < 0.05). These PLFAs were related to petroleum contamination. Poly-unsaturated PLFA (18:2omega6, 9; indicative of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi) was also significantly elevated in the upland fields. This paper recommends more sensitive indicators of contamination and degradation of petroleum in soil. The results also provide guidelines on soil pollution control and remediation in the Hunpu region and other similar regions. PMID:23534234

Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng; Dai, Jiulan

2012-01-01

378

Testing the potential of bacterial branched tetraether membrane lipids as temperature proxy in peat and immature coal deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) membrane lipids occur ubiquitously in peat and soil. In soil, the degree of methylation and cyclisation of branched tetraethers (MBT index and CBT ratio, respectively) has shown to relate to both soil pH and annual mean air temperature (MAT). Using this relation, past annual MATs can be reconstructed by analysing brGDGTs in marine sediment records near large river outflows. More recently, the potential of this MBT/CBT proxy is also being explored in lakes. Despite being more abundant in peat than soils, however, the utility of the proxy has not yet been fully explored in peat records. Present day peat records generally extent back to the early Holocene, but if the MBT/CBT proxy were shown to be applicable in peat deposits, there is also potential to apply it to immature coal deposits like lignites, which could provide valuable snapshots of continental climate back to the early Cenozoic. Here results are presented of analyses of different peats in south eastern Canada, showing that the pH of peat along a nutrient gradient is rather well reflected by the CBT. Annual MAT reconstructions based on the MBT/CBT soil calibration, however, tend to overestimate measured MAT. This is also the case for peat analysed from the surface of Etang de la Gruère peat bog in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Along the 6m depth profile of this bog (~13ka), CBT-reconstructed pH is compared with in-situ measured pore water pH showing that the brGDGT composition does not reflect present-day in-situ conditions. Instead, it reflects a stratigraphic boundary between Carex and Sphagnum dominated peat at 4 m depth that is not present in the pore water profile, testifying to a 'fossil' nature of the brGDGTs down the peat bog. Analyses of three immature coals of the Argonne Premium Coal Series reveal that branched GDGTs are present in the most immature coal, the Beulah Zap lignite (Ro = 0.25%), and only just above detection limit in the Wyodak Anderson coal (Ro = 0.32%), both of about the same age (Late Palaeocene). In the more mature Illinois #6 coal (Ro = 0.46%), brGDGTs are completely absent. In the Denver Basin, a comparison is made between outcrop and drilled core samples of Palaeocene lignites. BrGDGTs are preserved in the core samples, although in low quantities compared to peat. Outcrop samples are clearly overprinted by modern soil derived brGDGTs, despite digging a meters deep trench, which shows the need to obtain fresh non-weathered samples by coring. Reconstructed annual MAT for both the Beulah Zap and the Denver Basin lignites are several degrees higher than estimates based on leaf margin and oxygen isotope analyses from the same sites. Both reconstructions do testify, nevertheless, to the warm continental conditions during the early Cenozoic of the central U.S.A.. Although further validation is required, potentially in the form of a specific peat calibration, these results do show potential for application of the MBT/CBT temperature proxy in peat and lignite deposits.

Weijers, J. W. H.; Steinmann, P.; Hopmans, E. C.; Basiliko, N.; Finkelstein, S. A.; Johnson, K. R.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

2012-04-01

379

Seasonality in water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes from an upland boreal catchment underlain by continuous permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The balance between runoff and catchment residence time is critical to the biogeochemical processing of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in boreal ecosystems. Whether C is mineralized in soils or flushed from catchments depends on hydrologic fluxes and has implications for ecosystem productivity and climate change feedbacks. By measuring water fluxes and organic matter concentrations, we hope to elucidate the hydrologic and biogeochemical processes controlling C fate and transport in an upland boreal catchment underlain by permafrost. To understand the seasonal dynamics of water, C, and N fluxes, we monitored soil moisture, water chemistry, stream and subsurface flow, and conducted five conservative tracer additions in an upland catchment in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska. Tracer was added to a 2nd - order stream draining the north-facing hillslope during varying flow regimes in the summers of 2008 and 2009. Synoptic sampling and transient storage modeling results were used to explore the dynamics between hydrologic flux, and organic matter biogeochemistry in the soils and streams of this watershed. Silty hillslope soils were typically unsaturated, indicating that flow occurs predominantly through shallow, organic soils. Seasonal increases in runoff coefficients and major ion concentrations indicate greater contact with mineral soils later in the season, providing evidence that there is some flow through thawing preferential flowpaths (ie. soil pipes and/or thermokarst features) in the silt. Stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate concentrations were proportional to discharge at all but the lowest flows, indicating that precipitation leaches material from organic soils and transports it from the catchment. Stream DOC and nitrate concentrations were lower than expected given in-stream transport and inflows, suggesting that biogeochemical reactions were occurring. These reactions were modeled as first order decay of DOC and nitrate concentrations, and decreased seasonally, despite the fact that DOC became more labile. We believe that this indicates decreased reaction potential in the deeper subsurface flowpaths that develop later in the season, precluding water/organic soil contact. Our results highlight the importance of small surface streams and preferential flowpaths to water, C, and N export in the frozen silt uplands of interior Alaska, and identify a seasonal trend that controls stream C and N loads. Such hydrologic data is critical to our understanding of C fate and transport and provides important insight relevant to predicting boreal ecosystem changes that will likely occur as the arctic becomes warmer and wetter.

Koch, J. C.; Striegl, R. G.; Runkel, R. L.; Ewing, S. A.; McKnight, D. M.

2010-12-01

380

Actinobacterial Nitrate Reducers and Proteobacterial Denitrifiers Are Abundant in N2O-Metabolizing Palsa Peat  

PubMed Central

Palsa peats are characterized by elevated, circular frost heaves (peat soil on top of a permanently frozen ice lens) and are strong to moderate sources or even temporary sinks for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Palsa peats are predicted to react sensitively to global warming. The acidic palsa peat Skalluvaara (approximate pH 4.4) is located in the discontinuous permafrost zone in northwestern Finnish Lapland. In situ N2O fluxes were spatially variable, ranging from 0.01 to ?0.02 ?mol of N2O m?2 h?1. Fertilization with nitrate stimulated in situ N2O emissions and N2O production in anoxic microcosms without apparent delay. N2O was subsequently consumed in microcosms. Maximal reaction velocities (vmax) of nitrate-dependent denitrification approximated 3 and 1 nmol of N2O per h per gram (dry weight [gDW]) in soil from 0 to 20 cm and below 20 cm of depth, respectively. vmax values of nitrite-dependent denitrification were 2- to 5-fold higher than the vmax nitrate-dependent denitrification, and vmax of N2O consumption was 1- to 6-fold higher than that of nitrite-dependent denitrification, highlighting a high N2O consumption potential. Up to 12 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of narG, nirK and nirS, and nosZ were retrieved. Detected OTUs suggested the presence of diverse uncultured soil denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reducers, hitherto undetected species, as well as Actino-, Alpha-, and Betaproteobacteria. Copy numbers of nirS always outnumbered those of nirK by 2 orders of magnitude. Copy numbers of nirS tended to be higher, while copy numbers of narG and nosZ tended to be lower in 0- to 20-cm soil than in soil below 20 cm. The collective data suggest that (i) the source and sink functions of palsa peat soils for N2O are associated with denitrification, (ii) actinobacterial nitrate reducers and nirS-type and nosZ-harboring proteobacterial denitrifiers are important players, and (iii) acidic soils like palsa peats represent reservoirs of diverse acid-tolerant denitrifiers associated with N2O fluxes.

Palmer, Katharina

2012-01-01

381

Marketing and Distribution Opportunities for Minnesota Peat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market potential available to Minnesota is relatively large. Peat producing centers in Minnesota will have to organize their marketing efforts and strategy along lines similar to those followed by the Canadian exporters and the large Michigan producer...

1965-01-01

382

``Missing'' cloud condensation nuclei in peat smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized particulate emissions from vegetation fires by burning\\u000a Indonesian and German peat and other biomass fuels in a controlled\\u000a laboratory setting. By measuring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) both as\\u000a a function of particle diameter (d(p)) and supersaturation ( S), we\\u000a discovered particles in peat smoke that were not activated to cloud\\u000a droplets at high S (1.6\\\\%). These hydrophobic particles

U. Dusek; G. P. Frank; G. Helas; Y. Iinuma; K. Zeromskiene; P. Gwaze; T. Hennig; A. Massling; O. Schmid; H. Herrmann; A. Wiedensohler; M. O. Andreae

2005-01-01

383

Multitrophic effects of nutrient addition in upland grassland.  

PubMed

Although the effects of nutrient enhancement on aquatic systems are well documented, the consequences of nutritional supplements on soil food webs are poorly understood, and results of past research examining bottom-up effects are often conflicting. In addition, many studies have failed to separate the effects of nutrient enrichment and the physical effects of adding organic matter. In this field study, we hypothesised that the addition of nitrogen to soil would result in a trophic cascade, through detritivores (Collembola) to predators (spiders), increasing invertebrate numbers and diversity. Nitrogen and lime were added to plots in an upland grassland in a randomised block design. Populations of Collembola and spiders were sampled by means of pitfall traps and identified to species. Seventeen species of Collembola were identified from the nitrogen plus lime (N+L) and control plots. Species assemblage, diversity, richness, evenness and total number were not affected by nutrient additions. However, there was an increase in the number of Isotomidae juveniles and Parisotoma anglicana trapped in the N+L plots. Of the 44 spider species identified, over 80% were Linyphiidae. An effect on species assemblage from the addition of N+L to the plots was observed on two of the four sampling dates (July 2002 and June 2003). The linyphiid, Oedothorax retusus, was the only species significantly affected by the treatments and was more likely to be trapped in the control plots.The increased number of juvenile Collembola, and change in community composition of spiders, were consequences of the bottom-up effect caused by nutrient inputs. However, despite efforts to eliminate the indirect effects of nutrient inputs, a reduction in soil moisture in the N+L plots cannot be eliminated as a cause of the invertebrate population changes observed. Even so, this experiment was not confounded by the physical effects of habitat structure reported in most previous studies. It provides evidence of moderate bottom-up influences of epigeic soil invertebrate food webs and distinguishes between nutrient addition and plant physical structure effects. It also emphasises the importance of understanding the effects of soil management practices on soil biodiversity, which is under increasing pressure from land development and food production. PMID:18257955

Fountain, M T; Brown, V K; Gange, A C; Symondson, W O C; Murray, P J

2008-02-07

384

Radiocarbon dating for paleoenviromental peat archive: the case study using cellulose from peat core reached to 15ka in northern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat sediment is one of the most important archives to reconstruct a past climate. From previous study, we found that stable carbon isotope ratio (?13C) of peat cellulose is used as indicators of East Asian monsoon variability since the last deglaciaion including abrupt climate change (Shinozaki et al., in submission). The ?13C values recorded variability of rainfall amount related with Northern hemispheric climate change including Asian monsoon. Thus, it is crucial to establish correct age model with decadal to centennial time resolution. However, peat exists in forms of matrixes of organic matter such as intact plant and plant debris with soil mineral. In this study, we present radiocarbon dates of intact plant (Sphagnum), plant cellulose, and bulk organic matter from same horizons of peat core to investigate adequate dating candidates. Results of radiocarbon dates from plant cellulose were compared with those of bulk organic matter and intact plant (sphagnum). In addition, we tried three cellulose extraction methods to decide the most suitable one. To check their purity, results of recovery rate (%), TOC (%), TON (%), ?13C (‰) and NMR measurements were discussed.

Shinozaki, T.; Uchida, M.; Kondo, M.; Minoura, K.; Shibata, Y.

2010-12-01

385

Functioning of microbial complexes in aerated layers of a highmoor peat bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring was carried out using the luminescent-microscopic method of the abundance parameters of different groups of microorganisms in a monolith and in the mixed layers of a highmoor peat bog (oligotrophic residual-eutrophic peat soil) in a year-long model experiment. The increase of the aeration as a result of mixing of the layers enhanced the activity of the soil fungi. This was attested to by the following changes: the increase of the fungal mycelium length by 6 times and of the fungal biomass by 4 times and the double decrease of the fraction of spores in the fungal complex. The response of the fungal complex to mixing was different in the different layers of the peat bog. The maximal effect was observed in the T1 layer and the minimal one in the T2 layer. The emission of CO2 in the mixed samples was 1.5-2 times higher than that from the undisturbed peat samples. In contrast with the fungi, the bacteria and actinomycetes were not affected by the aeration of the highmoor layers.

Golovchenko, A. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Stepanov, A. L.; Polyanskaya, L. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

2010-09-01

386

Elastic properties of sand-peat moss mixtures from ultrasonic measurements  

SciTech Connect

Effective remediation of an environmental site requires extensive knowledge of the geologic setting, as well as the amount and distribution of contaminants. Seismic investigations provide a means to examine the subsurface with minimum disturbance, Laboratory measurements are needed to interpret field data. In this experiment, laboratory tests were performed to characterize manufactured soil samples in terms of their elastic properties. The soil samples consisted of small (mass) percentages (1 to 20 percent) of peat moss mixed with pure quartz sand. Sand was chosen as the major component because its elastic properties are well known except at the lowest pressures. The ultrasonic pulse transmission technique was used to collect elastic wave velocity data. These data were analyzed and mathematically processed to calculate the other elastic properties such as the modulus of elasticity. This experiment demonstrates that seismic data are affected by the amount~of peat moss added to pure sand samples. Elastic wave velocities, velocity gradients, and elastic moduli vary with pressure and peat moss amounts. In particular, ultrasonic response changes dramatically when pore space fills with peat. With some further investigation, the information gathered in this experiment could be applied to seismic field research.

Trombino, C N

1998-09-02

387

ADEQUATE AND TOXIC LEVELS OF COPPER AND MANGANESE IN UPLAND RICE, COMMON BEAN, CORN, SOYBEAN, AND WHEAT GROWN ON AN OXISOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) play an important role in many biochemical functions of plants. Knowing their adequate and toxic levels in soil and crop plants can be helpful in better fertilizer management and improving crop yields. Ten greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine adequate and toxic levels of Cu and Mn in upland rice (Oryza sative L.), common bean

N. K. Fageria

2001-01-01

388

Facilitated legume nodulation, phosphate uptake and nitrogen transfer by arbuscular inoculation in an upland rice and mung bean intercropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercropping of upland rice with short-duration grain legumes has major advantages in increasing crop yields and soil productivity.\\u000a However, the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizas, the common mutualistic symbiosis between most crops and mycorrhizal fungi,\\u000a is not fully understood in intercropping systems. We assayed the contribution of inoculation of the arbuscular mycorrhizal\\u000a fungus (AMF) Glomus caledonium on nutrient acquisition and biomass

Yuefeng Li; Wei Ran; Ruiping Zhang; Shubin Sun; Guohua Xu

2009-01-01

389

Relative influence of upland and lowland headwaters on the isotope hydrology and transit times of larger catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weekly variation of ?18O was measured over two years in precipitation and river water in four relatively large catchments in north east Scotland. The River Dee (1712 km2) is predominantly upland, with impermeable geology and responsive soils. The headwaters of the River North Esk (732 km2) are similar, but the lower third of the catchment is underlain by a major sandstone aquifer and is lowland in nature. The upper 20% of the River Don catchment (1273 km2) is upland, but the remainder is lowland with freely draining soils and significant groundwater reservoirs in superficial drifts. The River Ythan catchment (662 km2) is entirely lowland and similar to the lower Don. The hydrological responsiveness of the catchments was directly related to their upland area, with the Dee and the North Esk generating the highest specific discharges during high flow events. Conversely, the Don and Ythan had more subdued hydrological regimes, but higher specific discharge under baseflows. Despite broadly similar ?18O variation in precipitation inputs, the variability of stream waters was increasingly damped in the order Ythan>Don>North Esk>Dee. Convolution integral models were used to estimate Mean Transit Times (MTTs) for the four catchments from the isotope data. These were reasonably well-constrained at around 2 years for the Dee and 3 years for the North Esk. Estimates for the Don and Ythan were poorly constrained and therefore highly uncertain, but are both likely to exceed 10 years. MTTs in upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands are relatively short (ca. 2 months - 4 years) and have been shown to be strongly correlated with soil hydrology, topographic indices and precipitation intensity. However, these relationships change in lowland areas as catchments become less surface water dominated and greater groundwater storage and deeper mixing processes result in much higher MTTs. Nevertheless, a close correlation between soil cover and MTT remains.

Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Hrachowitz, M.; Speed, M.

2010-12-01

390

A physically-based integrated numerical model for flow, upland erosion, and contaminant transport in surface-subsurface systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a physically-based integrated hydrologic model that can simulate the rainfall-induced 2D surface water\\u000a flow, 3D variably saturated subsurface flow, upland soil erosion and transport, and contaminant transport in the surface-subsurface\\u000a system of a watershed. The model couples surface and subsurface flows based on the assumption of continuity conditions of\\u000a pressure head and exchange flux at the ground,

ZhiGuo He; WeiMing Wu

2009-01-01

391

Interpolations of groundwater table elevation in dissected uplands.  

PubMed

The variable elevation of the groundwater table in the St. Louis area was estimated using multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging, and cokriging as part of a regional program seeking to assess liquefaction potential. Surface water features were used to determine the minimum water table for MLR and supplement the principal variables for ordinary kriging and cokriging. By evaluating the known depth to the water and the minimum water table elevation, the MLR analysis approximates the groundwater elevation for a contiguous hydrologic system. Ordinary kriging and cokriging estimate values in unsampled areas by calculating the spatial relationships between the unsampled and sampled locations. In this study, ordinary kriging did not incorporate topographic variations as an independent variable, while cokriging included topography as a supporting covariable. Cross validation suggests that cokriging provides a more reliable estimate at known data points with less uncertainty than the other methods. Profiles extending through the dissected uplands terrain suggest that: (1) the groundwater table generated by MLR mimics the ground surface and elicits a exaggerated interpolation of groundwater elevation; (2) the groundwater table estimated by ordinary kriging tends to ignore local topography and exhibits oversmoothing of the actual undulations in the water table; and (3) cokriging appears to give the realistic water surface, which rises and falls in proportion to the overlying topography. The authors concluded that cokriging provided the most realistic estimate of the groundwater surface, which is the key variable in assessing soil liquefaction potential in unconsolidated sediments. PMID:22107357

Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, J David

2011-11-22

392

ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Upland flora studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of upland flora conducted near the Navy's transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan Technological University (MTU) monitored tree, herb, and fungal species dominant in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the ELF antenna. Above-ground parameters included the productivity, physiology, and phenology of trees, as well as the morphology and phenology of an herb. Below-ground, the important association between tree roots and fungi were monitored. Investigators also measured ambient weather conditions, soil nutrients, and EM field intensities. The MTU research team used analysis of variance and covariance to examine the data. When site-by-year interactions were significant, correlations and regressions were used to determine whether residuals were related to EM exposure. Results suggest a possible subtle EM effect to the cambial and stemwood growth of some tree species but not to any other parameter. MTU investigators conclude no short-term, adverse effects on forest health from exposure to EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan.

Mroz, Glenn D.; Cattelino, Peter J.; Gale, Margaret R.; Jones, Elizabeth A.; Jurgensen, Martin F.

1994-10-01

393

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOIL INVERTEBRATES IN A PERENNIAL GRASS AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The linkages between aquatic and terrestrial systems are ecologically inseparable, yet little is known about upland agricultural soil invertebrate composition and its contribution to aquatic Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Using Burlese-Tullgren extractors, soil-borne invertebrates were identified fr...

394

Peat or no peat: Why do the Rajang and Mahakam Deltas differ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal and deltaic Holocene peat accumulations around the equatorial island of Borneo, Southeast Asia, have served as models for economic coal-bearing sequences in the stratigraphic record. Although climatic conditions, vegetational communities, and sedimentary regimes are comparable, peat accumulations are not found on both the western and eastern sides of the island. The Rajang River delta and coastal plain, Sarawak, East

Robert A. Gastaldo

2010-01-01

395

Effect of peat quality on microbial greenhouse gas formation in an acidic fen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle and represent both an important stock of soil carbon and a substantial natural source of relevant greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. While it is known that the microbial availability of organic matter affects degradation and mineralization processes in peatlands, the manner in which peat organic matter affects the formation of CO2 and CH4 remains unclear. In this study we developed a fast and simple peat quality index in order to estimate its greenhouse gas potential by linking the thermo-degradability of peat with anaerobic CO2 and CH4 formation rates. Peat samples were obtained at several depths (0-40 cm) at four sampling locations from an acidic fen (pH∼4.7). CO2 and CH4 formation rates were highly spatially variable and depended on depth, sampling location, and the composition of pyrolysable organic matter. Peat samples active in CO2 and CH4 formation had a quality index above 1.35, and the fraction of thermally labile pyrolyzable organic matter (comparable to easily available carbon substrates for microbial activity) obtained by thermogravimetry was above 35%. Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry mainly identified carbohydrates and lignin as pyrolysis products in these samples, indicating that undecomposed organic matter was found in this fraction. In contrast, lipids and unspecific pyrolysis products, which indicate recalcitrant and highly decomposed organic matter, correlated significantly with lower CO2 formation and reduced methanogenesis. Our results suggest that undecomposed organic matter is a prerequisite for CH4 and CO2 development in acidic fens. Furthermore, the new peat quality index should aide the estimation of greenhouse gas formation potential resulting from peatland restoration and permafrost thawing and help yield more robust models of trace gas fluxes from peatlands for climate change research.

Reiche, M.; Gleixner, G.; Küsel, K.

2009-09-01

396

Effect of peat quality on microbial greenhouse gas formation in an acidic fen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle and represent both an important stock of soil carbon and a substantial natural source of relevant greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. While it is known that the quality of organic matter affects microbial degradation and mineralization processes in peatlands, the manner in which the quality of peat organic matter affects the formation of CO2 and CH4 remains unclear. In this study we developed a fast and simple peat quality index in order to estimate its potential greenhouse gas formation by linking the thermo-degradability of peat with potential anaerobic CO2 and CH4 formation rates. Peat samples were obtained at several depths (0-40 cm) at four sampling locations from an acidic fen (pH 4.7). CO2 and CH4 formation rates were highly spatially variable and depended on depth, sampling location, and the composition of pyrolysable organic matter. Peat samples active in CO2 and CH4 formation had a quality index above 1.35, and the fraction of thermally labile pyrolyzable organic matter (comparable to easily available carbon substrates for microbial activity) obtained by thermogravimetry was above 35%. Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry mainly identified carbohydrates and lignin as pyrolysis products in these samples, indicating that undecomposed organic matter was found in this fraction. In contrast, lipids and unspecific pyrolysis products, which indicate recalcitrant and highly decomposed organic matter, correlated significantly with lower CO2 formation and reduced methanogenesis. Our results suggest that undecomposed organic matter is a prerequisite for CH4 and CO2 development in acidic fens. Furthermore, the new peat quality index should aide the estimation of potential greenhouse gas formation resulting from peatland restoration and permafrost thawing and help yield more robust models of trace gas fluxes from peatlands for climate change research.

Reiche, M.; Gleixner, G.; Küsel, K.

2010-01-01

397

Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in drained tropical peat before and after hydrological restoration.  

PubMed

Present tropical peat deposits are the outcome of net carbon removal from the atmosphere and form one of the largest terrestrial organic carbon stores on the Earth. Reclamation of pristine tropical peatland areas in Southeast Asia increased strikingly during the last half of the 20th century. Drainage due to land-use change is one of the main driving factors accelerating carbon loss from the ecosystem. Dams were built in drainage-affected peatland area canals in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in order to evaluate major patterns in gaseous carbon dioxide and methane fluxes and in peat hydrology immediately before and after hydrologic restoration. The sites included peat swamp forest and deforested burned area, both affected by drainage for nearly 10 years. Higher annual minimum soil water table levels prevailed on both sites after restoration; the deforested site water table level prevailed considerably longer near the peat surface, and the forest water table level remained for a longer period in the topmost 30 cm peat profile after restoration. Forest soil gas fluxes were clearly higher in comparison to the deforested area. Cumulative forest floor CO2 emissions (7305-7444 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 166.0-169.2 mol CO2 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) and the deforested site CO2 emissions (2781-2608 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 63.2-59.3 mol CO2 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) did not markedly reflect the notably differing hydrological conditions the year before and after restoration. The forest floor was a weak CH4 sink (-0.208 to -0.368 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); -13.0 to -22.9 mmol CH4 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) and the deforested site a comparable CH4 source (0.197-0.275 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 12.3-17.1 mmol CH4 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) in the study period. In general, higher soil water table levels had a relatively small effect on the annual CH4 emission budgets. In the two site types the gas flux response into hydrological conditions in degraded tropical peat can be attributed to differing CO2 and CH4 dynamics, peat physical characteristics, and vegetation. PMID:19137955

Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Limin, Suwido; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Vasander, Harri

2008-12-01

398

On the retention of uranyl and thorium ions from radioactive solution on peat moss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of the radioactive uranyl and thorium ions on the peat moss from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different experimental conditions. The sorption and desorption of uranyl and thorium ions on three types (unmodified peat moss, peat moss treated with HNO3 and peat moss treated with NaOH) of peat moss were studied by the static method. Peat moss

Doina Humelnicu; Laura Bulgariu; Matei Macoveanu

2010-01-01

399

Hydrology of peat-forming wetlands in Scotland.  

PubMed

Peatlands cover approximately 14% of Scotland, although only part of this area is active (peat-forming) mire. Mires are important for the biodiversity of the specialist plant and animal communities they support. Study of mire ecosystems has revealed intimate relationships between their organic components and water, which mean that it is impossible to understand their ecology without considering hydrology. Whilst ecohydrological studies have concentrated on the internal functioning of mires, the insights gained are relevant to runoff generation in peat-covered river catchments. This paper reviews our knowledge of processes occurring in mires and relates these to wider catchment hydrology, on the basis of published information and recent research in Scotland. The influence of different types of land management is considered, and it emerges that mire is most effective in delaying storm run-off, in preventing soil erosion and in retaining inorganic nutrients when it is undrained; although there can be adverse effects on water quality under certain conditions. In the context of global warming, mire ecosystems are sensitive but at the same time robust to climate change, and thus contain archives of climatic data for the Holocene. Moreover, peatlands store significant quantities of carbon, and influence directly the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Various issues related to conservation and restoration of peatland biodiversity have been addressed constructively in recent decades, although approaches and objectives are not always consistent between sites. These are reviewed, and some outstanding issues and research needs are identified. PMID:12169001

Bragg, O M

2002-07-22

400

Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil is an example of a non-living thing. Soil contains nutrients and living organisms, but the soil itself is not alive. Soil is important in plant growth because soil gives plants a place to anchor their roots and it also provides the plant with essential nutrients.

Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS;)

2006-05-23

401

Modelling UK upland peatland carbon dynamics - past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current global soil organic carbon (SOC) models are insufficient in modelling C dynamics in peatlands. Over the last 10k years (i.e. Holocene) large amounts of SOC built up in northern hemisphere peatlands during a variable climate with major vegetation changes. However, peatland SOC stocks foster a great potential for both either sequestering or releasing large amounts of C to the atmosphere. As such, understanding their carbon dynamics is fundamental for underpinning better model predictions on their potential role in atmospheric C-cycling and climate feedbacks, specifically considering their role in global methane fluxes. A fundamental shortfall in current models is the lack of accurate water table representation, affecting decomposition and methane fluxes to the atmosphere. Moreover, existing major SOC models do not adequately: (i) allow a long-term ‘spin-up' accumulation of SOC based on a variable ‘real' past climate and vegetation during the Holocene, (ii) reflect dynamic changes in SOC affecting hydrology and bulk density, nor (iii) consider hydrological impacts (i.e. water table changes) and its influence on plant communities, litter quality and biological activity and effects on C input and decomposition. In the MILLENNIA peatland model, carbon turnover is linked to dynamic changes in hydrology and litter quality, particularly considering water table dynamics and its effects on decomposition. We present preliminary MILLENNIA peatland model runs for the UK modelling SOC stocks, accumulation rates and turnover rates in blanket peatlands commonly found in UK uplands and compare them to field measurements: (1) We propose an improved litter cohort-based model approach for peatland carbon dynamics, taking account of long-term (Holocene) dynamics in soil physical (e.g. water table), chemical (e.g. litter quality) and biological (plant functional types) factors and their effects on carbon turnover. (2) We use a simple, but well established, regression based approach for estimating net primary productivity (NPP) and decomposition based on actual evapotranspiration (AET) and consider water table effects on plant functional type composition. (3) We consider the conceptual issues that soil C is commonly ‘spun up' to a preset C content equilibrium, using a static climate and vegetation, before running real C simulations including a reconstructed Holocene climate in our model to accumulate soil C over ~10k since the last glaciation. We also discuss implementations of other factors affecting carbon build-up in peatlands, such as runoff and effects of aspect and slope. Moreover, results include linking carbon flux predictions (including methane) to the model's intrinsic hydrology and water table dynamics.

Heinemeyer, Andreas; Croft, Simon; Lomas, Mark R.; Garnett, Mark H.; Ineson, Phil

2010-05-01

402

Upland Habitat Development with Dredged Material: Engineering and Plant Propagation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Upland habitat development using dredged material as a substrate was shown by the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP) to be a feasible alternative to standard dredged material disposal operations. This report synthesizes pertinent literature and rese...

A. W. Ford B. R. Wells L. J. Hunt M. C. Landin

1978-01-01

403

ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Upland Flora Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of upland ...

E. A. Jones G. D. Mroz M. F. Jurgensen M. R. Gale P. J. Cattelino

1994-01-01

404

Land use-induced changes in activity and biomass of microorganisms in raised bog peats at different depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined peat from six raised bogs (0–60 cm depth) in northern Lower Saxony, developed from similar Sphagnum species under similar climatic conditions, but differing widely in the actual vegetation and intensity of land use for activity and biomass of soil microorganisms. Two sites were virtually undisturbed, two sites had been converted to grassland and two to woodland. Biomass and activity

M. Brake; H. Höper; R. G. Joergensen

1999-01-01

405

Studies of the Depth and Duration of Ground Frost of Peat Production Areas in Sweden and Finland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A careful registration of the depth of the ground frost, snow, water level, and soil temperature, was done during the winter 1985/86, at eight different peat production areas in Sweden. At one of the places, Traeskmyran, a larger registration was carried ...

K. Dryler P. Frilander H. Niittylae A. Leinonen

1988-01-01

406

Responses of Isolated Wetland Herpetofauna to Upland Forest Management  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of responses of herpetofauna at isolated wetlands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina to disturbance of adjacent loblolly pine forest. Many species of isolated wetland herpetofauna in the Southeastern Coastal Plain may tolerate some disturbance in adjacent upland stands. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland silviculture and the need for adjacent forested buffers likely depend on the specific landscape context in which the wetlands occur and composition of the resident herpetofaunal community.

Russell, K.R.; Hanlin, H.G.; Wigley, T.B.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.

2002-01-02

407

Is the composition of dissolved organic carbon changing in upland acidic streams?  

PubMed

The quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exported from upland soils to surface waters is a key link in the global carbon cycle and economically important for treating potable waters. The relationship between ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and DOC concentrations can be used to infer changes in the proportion of hydrophobic (aromatic, recalcitrant) carbon and hence biodegradability of DOC. This study describes a significant change in the relationship between UV absorbance and DOC over 22 years at two upland moorland catchments in Scotland, UK. Despite increases in long-term DOC concentrations, analysis suggests that the proportion of hydrophobic material has