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1

Reliability of EMG normalisation methods for upper-limb muscles.  

PubMed

The study investigated different electromyographic (EMG) normalisation methods for upper-limb muscles. This assessment aimed at comparing the EMG amplitude and the reliability of EMG values obtained with each method. Eighteen male tennis players completed isometric maximal voluntary contractions and dynamic strength exercises (push-ups and chin-ups) on three separate test sessions over at least 7 days. Surface EMG activity of nine upper body muscles was recorded. For each muscle, an analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare maximal EMG amplitudes between test conditions. The intra-class correlation coefficient, the coefficient of variation and the standard error of measurement were calculated to determine the EMG reliability of each condition. On the basis of a compromise between maximal EMG amplitude and high reliability, the chin-ups appeared to be the optimal normalisation method for M. latissimus dorsi, M. posterior deltoid, M. biceps brachii, M. flexor carpi radialis and M. extensor carpi radialis. The push-ups seemed relevant to normalise M. anterior deltoid and M. triceps brachii activity, while isometric maximal voluntary contraction remained the most appropriate method for M. pectoralis major and M. middle deltoid. Thus, original methods are proposed to normalise EMG signal of upper-limb muscles. PMID:23697512

Rota, Samuel; Rogowski, Isabelle; Champely, Stéphane; Hautier, Christophe

2013-01-01

2

Paraspinal muscle responses during sudden upper limb loading.  

PubMed

The paraspinal muscle responses for unexpected and expected upper limb loading were investigated by surface EMG of 20 healthy volunteers. The simultaneous trunk and hand accelerations with paraspinal, biceps brachii and soleus muscles EMG were measured in four subjects. A short-latency response of approximately 50 ms was observed in paraspinal muscles. The latency was approximately 3 ms shorter (P = 0.017) during "expected" trials on average and the latency shortened during the first three expected trials (P = 0.02). Anticipation also decreased the magnitude of the response (P < 0.05). Trunk movement initiated approximately 35 ms and approximately 50 ms after the impact of the load at T6 and T12 levels, respectively. In conclusion, visual expectation shortens the latency and decreases the magnitude of the paraspinal muscle response to sudden upper limb loading. Also, the trial repetition has an effect on reflex latency if visual information is available. These results indicate that anticipation modulates the reflex control of paraspinal muscles, which may be significant in understanding spinal function. PMID:12436269

Leinonen, Ville; Kankaanpää, Markku; Hänninen, Osmo; Airaksinen, Olavi; Taimela, Simo

2002-11-01

3

Can testing of six individual muscles represent a screening approach to upper limb neuropathic conditions?  

PubMed Central

Background It has previously been demonstrated that an extensive upper limb neurological examination of individual muscle function, sensation in homonymous innervated territories, and nerve trunk allodynia is reliable and that the outcome reflects symptoms. Since this approach may appear complicated and time consuming, this study deals with the value of an examination limited to manual testing of only six muscles. Methods Two examiners blinded to symptom status performed manual muscle testing of six muscles in 82 upper limbs with or without pain, weakness, and/or numbness/tingling. The six muscles represent three antagonist pairs (pectoralis major/posterior deltoid, biceps/triceps, and radial flexor of wrist/short radial extensor of wrist). The inter-rater reliability of detecting muscular weaknesses and the relation of weakness to the mentioned symptoms were analysed by kappa-statistics. Results The two examiners recognized weaknesses in 48 and 55 limbs, respectively, with moderate agreement (median kappa?=?0.58). Out of these, 35 and 32 limbs, respectively, were symptomatic. There was good correlation between findings and symptoms for one examiner (kappa?=?0.61) and fair correlation for the other one (kappa?=?0.33). Both reached high sensitivity (0.92, 0.84) but less satisfactory specificity (0.70, 0.50). Weaknesses agreed upon by the two examiners correlated moderately with symptoms (kappa?=?0.57). Conclusions Weakness in one or more muscles was present in almost all symptomatic limbs but in many non-symptomatic limbs as well. Manual testing of six muscles may represent a useful screening approach to upper limb neuropathic conditions, but a confirmative diagnosis requires further assessment. PMID:24767511

2014-01-01

4

Botulinum toxin in upper limb spasticity: study of reciprocal inhibition between forearm muscles.  

PubMed

To establish whether botulinum A toxin (BTX-A) acts on modifying reciprocal inhibition between forearm muscles in spasticity, 20 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity lasting for more than 1 year were studied. Clinical examination, physiotherapeutic evaluation, standardized video-tape assessment and electrophysiological testing (flexor carpi radialis muscle M and H responses with study of reciprocal inhibition) were performed at baseline and 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4 months after BTX-A treatment. BTX-A induced a significant decrease of tone and an improvement of motility and functional status, with a significant decrease of the M wave and the H reflex. The reduction in both inhibitory phases of reciprocal inhibition did not change after BTX-A treatment differently from that reported in upper limb dystonia. These findings indicate that the efficacy of BTX-A in upper limb spasticity is mainly due to peripheral effects. PMID:9331911

Girlanda, P; Quartarone, A; Sinicropi, S; Nicolosi, C; Roberto, M L; Picciolo, G; Macaione, V; Battaglia, F; Ruggeri, M; Messina, C

1997-09-29

5

Muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb based on sEMG and subjective assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.

Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun

2012-07-01

6

Partial weight support differentially affects corticomotor excitability across muscles of the upper limb.  

PubMed

Partial weight support may hold promise as a therapeutic adjuvant during rehabilitation after stroke by providing a permissive environment for reducing the expression of abnormal muscle synergies that cause upper limb impairment. We explored the neurophysiological effects of upper limb weight support in 13 healthy young adults by measuring motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex and electromyography from anterior deltoid (AD), biceps brachii (BB), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), and first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Five levels of weight support, varying from none to full, were provided to the arm using a commercial device (Saebo Mobile Arm Support). For each level of support, stimulus-response (SR) curves were derived from MEPs across a range of TMS intensities. Weight support affected background EMG activity in each of the four muscles examined (P < 0.0001 for each muscle). Tonic background activity was primarily reduced in the AD. Weight support had a differential effect on the size of MEPs across muscles. After curve fitting, the SR plateau for ECR increased at the lowest support level (P = 0.004). For FDI, the SR plateau increased at the highest support level (P = 0.0003). These results indicate that weight support of the proximal upper limb modulates corticomotor excitability across the forearm and hand. The findings support a model of integrated control of the upper limb and may inform the use of weight support in clinical settings. PMID:25501435

Runnalls, Keith D; Anson, Greg; Wolf, Steven L; Byblow, Winston D

2014-12-01

7

Decoding upper limb residual muscle activity in severe chronic stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective Stroke is a leading cause of long-term motor disability. Stroke patients with severe hand weakness do not profit from rehabilitative treatments. Recently, brain-controlled robotics and sequential functional electrical stimulation allowed some improvement. However, for such therapies to succeed, it is required to decode patients' intentions for different arm movements. Here, we evaluated whether residual muscle activity could be used to predict movements from paralyzed joints in severely impaired chronic stroke patients. Methods Muscle activity was recorded with surface-electromyography (EMG) in 41 patients, with severe hand weakness (Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA] hand subscores of 2.93 ± 2.7), in order to decode their intention to perform six different motions of the affected arm, required for voluntary muscle activity and to control neuroprostheses. Decoding of paretic and nonparetic muscle activity was performed using a feed-forward neural network classifier. The contribution of each muscle to the intended movement was determined. Results Decoding of up to six arm movements was accurate (>65%) in more than 97% of nonparetic and 46% of paretic muscles. Interpretation These results demonstrate that some level of neuronal innervation to the paretic muscle remains preserved and can be used to implement neurorehabilitative treatments in 46% of patients with severe paralysis and extensive cortical and/or subcortical lesions. Such decoding may allow these patients for the first time after stroke to control different motions of arm prostheses through muscle-triggered rehabilitative treatments. PMID:25642429

Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; García-Cossio, Eliana; Walter, Armin; Cho, Woosang; Broetz, Doris; Bogdan, Martin; Cohen, Leonardo G; Birbaumer, Niels

2015-01-01

8

Altered trunk muscle recruitment in people with low back pain with upper limb movement at different speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare trunk muscle coordination in people with and without low back pain with varying speeds of limb movement.Study Design: Abdominal and back extensor muscle activity in association with upper limb movement was compared among three speeds of movement and between people with and without low back pain.Participants: Fourteen subjects with a history of recurrent low back pain and

Paul W. Hodges; Carolyn A. Richardson

1999-01-01

9

Journal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 24422449 Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles in healthy adults  

E-print Network

; Langenderfer et al., 2004). The physiologic cross-sectional areas of muscles in cadavers do not reflectJournal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 2442­2449 Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles Abstract Muscle strength and volume vary greatly among individuals. Maximum isometric joint moment

Murray, Wendy

10

Aerobic exercise modulates intracortical inhibition and facilitation in a nonexercised upper limb muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Despite growing interest in the relationship between exercise and short-term neural plasticity, the effects of exercise on motor cortical (M1) excitability are not well studied. Acute, lower-limb aerobic exercise may potentially modulate M1 excitability in working muscles, but the effects on muscles not involved in the exercise are unknown. Here we examined the excitability changes in an upper limb muscle representation following a single session of lower body aerobic exercise. Investigating the response to exercise in a non-exercised muscle may help to determine the clinical usefulness of lower-body exercise interventions for upper limb neurorehabilitation. Methods In this study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess input–output curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the extensor carpi radialis muscle in twelve healthy individuals following a single session of moderate stationary biking. Additionally, we examined whether the presence of a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene would affect the response of these measures to exercise. Results We observed significant increases in ICF and decreases in SICI following exercise. No changes in LICI were detected, and no differences were observed in input–output curves following exercise, or between BDNF groups. Conclusions The current results demonstrate that the modulation of intracortical excitability following aerobic exercise is not limited to those muscles involved in the exercise, and that while exercise does not directly modulate the excitability of motor neurons, it may facilitate the induction of experience-dependent plasticity via a decrease in intracortical inhibition and increase in intracortical facilitation. These findings indicate that exercise may create favourable conditions for adaptive plasticity in M1 and may be an effective adjunct to traditional training or rehabilitation methods. PMID:25031838

2014-01-01

11

Co-activation of upper limb muscles during reaching in post-stroke subjects: an analysis of the contralesional and ipsilesional limbs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the change in antagonist co-activation ratio of upper-limb muscle pairs, during the reaching movement, of both ipsilesional and contralesional limbs of post-stroke subjects. Nine healthy and nine post-stroke subjects were instructed to reach and grasp a target, placed in the sagittal and scapular planes of movement. Surface EMG was recorded from postural control and movement related muscles. Reaching movement was divided in two sub-phases, according to proximal postural control versus movement control demands, during which antagonist co-activation ratios were calculated for the muscle pairs LD/PM, PD/AD, TRIlat/BB and TRIlat/BR. Post-stroke's ipsilesional limb presented lower co-activation in muscles with an important role in postural control (LD/PM), comparing to the healthy subjects during the first sub-phase, when the movement was performed in the sagittal plane (p<0.05). Conversely, the post-stroke's contralesional limb showed in general an increased co-activation ratio in muscles related to movement control, comparing to the healthy subjects. Our findings demonstrate that, in post-stroke subjects, the reaching movement performed with the ipsilesional upper limb seems to show co-activation impairments in muscle pairs associated to postural control, whereas the contralesional upper limb seems to have signs of impairment of muscle pairs related to movement. PMID:24882699

Silva, Cláudia C; Silva, Augusta; Sousa, Andreia; Pinheiro, Ana Rita; Bourlinova, Catarina; Silva, Ana; Salazar, António; Borges, Carla; Crasto, Carlos; Correia, Miguel Velhote; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Santos, Rubim

2014-10-01

12

Volitional walking via upper limb muscle-controlled stimulation of the lumbar locomotor center in man.  

PubMed

Gait disturbance in individuals with spinal cord lesion is attributed to the interruption of descending pathways to the spinal locomotor center, whereas neural circuits below and above the lesion maintain their functional capability. An artificial neural connection (ANC), which bridges supraspinal centers and locomotor networks in the lumbar spinal cord beyond the lesion site, may restore the functional impairment. To achieve an ANC that sends descending voluntary commands to the lumbar locomotor center and bypasses the thoracic spinal cord, upper limb muscle activity was converted to magnetic stimuli delivered noninvasively over the lumbar vertebra. Healthy participants were able to initiate and terminate walking-like behavior and to control the step cycle through an ANC controlled by volitional upper limb muscle activity. The walking-like behavior stopped just after the ANC was disconnected from the participants even when the participant continued to swing arms. Furthermore, additional simultaneous peripheral electrical stimulation to the foot via the ANC enhanced this walking-like behavior. Kinematics of the induced behaviors were identical to those observed in voluntary walking. These results demonstrate that the ANC induces volitionally controlled, walking-like behavior of the legs. This paradigm may be able to compensate for the dysfunction of descending pathways by sending commands to the preserved locomotor center at the lumbar spinal cord and may enable individuals with paraplegia to regain volitionally controlled walking. PMID:25122909

Sasada, Syusaku; Kato, Kenji; Kadowaki, Suguru; Groiss, Stefan J; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Nishimura, Yukio

2014-08-13

13

Upper-limb muscle responses to epidural, subdural and intraspinal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach. Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results. Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2-5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance. We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function.

Sharpe, Abigail N.; Jackson, Andrew

2014-02-01

14

Replacing a Swiss ball for an exercise bench causes variable changes in trunk muscle activity during upper limb strength exercises  

PubMed Central

Background The addition of Swiss balls to conventional exercise programs has recently been adopted. Swiss balls are an unstable surface which may result in an increased need for force output from trunk muscles to provide adequate spinal stability or balance. The aim of the study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to upper body strength exercises results in consistent increases in trunk muscle activation levels. Methods The myoelectric activity of four trunk muscles was quantified during the performance of upper body resistance exercises while seated on both a stable (exercise bench) and labile (swiss ball) surface. Participants performed the supine chest press, shoulder press, lateral raise, biceps curl and overhead triceps extension. A repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test was used to determine the influence of seated surface type on muscle activity for each muscle. Results & Discussion There was no statistically significant (p < .05) difference in muscle activity between surface conditions. However, there was large degree of variability across subjects suggesting that some individuals respond differently to surface stability. These findings suggest that the incorporation of swiss balls instead of an exercise bench into upper body strength training regimes may not be justified based only on the belief that an increase spinal stabilizing musculature activity is inherent. Biomechanically justified ground based exercises have been researched and should form the basis for spinal stability training as preventative and therapeutic exercise training regimes. Conclusion Selected trunk muscle activity during certain upper limb strength training exercises is not consistently influenced by the replacement of an exercise bench with a swiss ball. PMID:15935097

Lehman, Gregory J; Gordon, Trish; Langley, Jo; Pemrose, Patricia; Tregaskis, Sara

2005-01-01

15

Study on the description method of upper limb's muscle force levels during simulated in-orbit operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dexterous upper limb serves as the most important tool for astronauts to implement in-orbit experiments and operations. This study developed a simulated weightlessness experiment and invented new measuring equipment to quantitatively evaluate the muscle ability of the upper limb. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of right-handed pushing at the three positions were measured for eleven subjects. In order to enhance the comprehensiveness and accuracy of muscle force assessment, the study focused on signal processing techniques. We applied a combination method, which consists of time-, frequency-, and bi-frequency-domain analyses. Time- and frequency-domain analyses estimated the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) of sEMG signals, respectively. Higher order spectra (HOS) of bi-frequency domain evaluated the maximum bispectrum amplitude ( B max), Gaussianity level (Sg) and linearity level (S l ) of sEMG signals. Results showed that B max, S l , and RMS values all increased as force increased. MDF and Sg values both declined as force increased. The research demonstrated that the combination method is superior to the conventional time- and frequency-domain analyses. The method not only described sEMG signal amplitude and power spectrum, but also deeper characterized phase coupling information and non-Gaussianity and non-linearity levels of sEMG, compared to two conventional analyses. The finding from the study can aid ergonomist to estimate astronaut muscle performance, so as to optimize in-orbit operation efficacy and minimize musculoskeletal injuries.

Zhao, Yan; Li, DongXu; Liu, ZhiZhen; Liu, Liang

2013-03-01

16

Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle strength and volume vary greatly among individuals. Maximum isometric joint moment, a standard measurement of strength, has typically been assessed in young, healthy subjects, whereas muscle volumes have generally been measured in cadavers. This has made it difficult to characterize the relationship between isometric strength and muscle size in humans. We measured maximum isometric moments about the shoulder, elbow,

Katherine R. S. Holzbaur; Scott L. Delp; Garry E. Gold; Wendy M. Murray

2007-01-01

17

Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle strength and volume vary greatly among individuals. Maximum isometric joint moment, a standard measurement of strength, has typically been assessed in young, healthy subjects, whereas muscle volumes have generally been measured in cadavers. This has made it difficult to characterize the relationship between isometric strength and muscle size in humans. We measured maximum isometric moments about the shoulder, elbow,

Katherine R. S. Holzbaur; Scott L. Delp; Garry E. Gold; Wendy M. Murray

18

Respiratory and Limb Muscle Dysfunction in COPD.  

PubMed

Abstract In the next decade, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) will be a major leading cause of death worldwide. Impaired muscle function and mass are common systemic manifestations in COPD patients and negatively influence survival. Respiratory and limb muscles are usually affected in these patients, thus contributing to poor exercise tolerance and reduced quality of life (QoL). Muscles from the lower limbs are more severely affected than those of the upper limbs and the respiratory muscles. Several epidemiological features of COPD muscle dysfunction are being reviewed. Moreover, the most relevant etiologic factors and biological mechanisms contributing to impaired muscle function and mass loss in respiratory and limb muscles of COPD patients are also being discussed. Currently available therapeutic strategies such as different modalities of exercise training, neuromuscular electrical and magnetic stimulation, respiratory muscle training, pharmacological interventions, nutritional support, and lung volume reduction surgery are also being reviewed, all applied to COPD patients. We claim that body composition and quadriceps muscle strength should be routinely explored in COPD patients in clinical settings, even at early stages of their disease. Despite the progress achieved over the last decade in the description of this relevant systemic manifestation in COPD, much remains to be investigated. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in muscle dysfunction, muscle mass loss and poor anabolism will help design novel therapeutic targets. Exercise and muscle training, alone or in combination with nutritional support, is undoubtedly the best treatment option to improve muscle mass and function and QoL in COPD patients. PMID:25438125

Barreiro, Esther; Gea, Joaquim

2014-12-01

19

Soft-tissue anatomy of the primates: phylogenetic analyses based on the muscles of the head, neck, pectoral region and upper limb, with notes on the evolution of these muscles  

PubMed Central

Apart from molecular data, nearly all the evidence used to study primate relationships comes from hard tissues. Here, we provide details of the first parsimony and Bayesian cladistic analyses of the order Primates based exclusively on muscle data. The most parsimonious tree obtained from the cladistic analysis of 166 characters taken from the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature is fully congruent with the most recent evolutionary molecular tree of Primates. That is, this tree recovers not only the relationships among the major groups of primates, i.e. Strepsirrhini {Tarsiiformes [Platyrrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hominoidea)]}, but it also recovers the relationships within each of these inclusive groups. Of the 301 character state changes occurring in this tree, ca. 30% are non-homoplasic evolutionary transitions; within the 220 changes that are unambiguously optimized in the tree, ca. 15% are reversions. The trees obtained by using characters derived from the muscles of the head and neck are more similar to the most recent evolutionary molecular tree than are the trees obtained by using characters derived from the pectoral and upper limb muscles. It was recently argued that since the Pan/Homo split, chimpanzees accumulated more phenotypic adaptations than humans, but our results indicate that modern humans accumulated more muscle character state changes than chimpanzees, and that both these taxa accumulated more changes than gorillas. This overview of the evolution of the primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature suggests that the only muscle groups for which modern humans have more muscles than most other extant primates are the muscles of the face, larynx and forearm. PMID:21689100

Diogo, R; Wood, B

2011-01-01

20

Influence of complementing a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with video games on the engagement of the participants: a study focusing on muscle activities.  

PubMed

Efficacious stroke rehabilitation depends not only on patients' medical treatment but also on their motivation and engagement during rehabilitation exercises. Although traditional rehabilitation exercises are often mundane, technology-assisted upper-limb robotic training can provide engaging and task-oriented training in a natural environment. The factors that influence engagement, however, are not fully understood. This paper therefore studies the relationship between engagement and muscle activities as well as the influencing factors of engagement. To this end, an experiment was conducted using a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with healthy individuals in three training exercises: (a) a traditional exercise, which is typically used for training the grasping function, (b) a tracking exercise, currently used in robot-assisted stroke patient rehabilitation for fine motor movement, and (c) a video game exercise, which is a proliferating approach of robot-assisted rehabilitation enabling high-level active engagement of stroke patients. These exercises differ not only in the characteristics of the motion that they use but also in their method of triggering engagement. To measure the level of engagement, we used facial expressions, motion analysis of the arm movements, and electromyography. The results show that (a) the video game exercise could engage the participants for a longer period than the other two exercises, (b) the engagement level decreased when the participants became too familiar with the exercises, and (c) analysis of normalized root mean square in electromyographic data indicated that muscle activities were more intense when the participants are engaged. This study shows that several sub-factors on engagement, such as versatility of feedback, cognitive tasks, and competitiveness, may influence engagement more than the others. To maintain a high level of engagement, the rehabilitation system needs to be adaptive, providing different exercises to engage the participants. PMID:25221845

Li, Chong; Rusák, Zoltán; Horváth, Imre; Ji, Linhong

2014-12-01

21

EMG Activity in the Abdominal Muscles and the Kinematics of the Lumbar Spine during Unilateral Upper-limb Resistance Exercises under Stable and Unstable Conditions.  

PubMed

[Purpose] We investigated the effects of unstable conditions on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominis (RA) and the transverse abdominis-internal oblique (TrA-IO) muscles, and lumbar kinematics during unilateral upper-limb resistance exercises using elastic tubing bands. [Subjects] Twelve healthy males were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed isometric left shoulder abduction using an elastic tubing band in a sitting position on a chair, and on a Swiss ball. During this exercise, EMG activities of the RA and TrA-IO were recorded using a wireless EMG system, and a three-dimensional motion analysis system monitored lumbar kinematics. Differences in EMG activities of the RA and TrA-IO, the ratio of TrA-IO to RA activity, and lumbar kinematics were compared between the stable and unstable conditions using the paired t-test. [Results] Under the unstable condition, the EMG activities of both muscles were significantly greater than that under the stable condition; however the ratio of TrA-IO to RA activity did not significantly differ between the conditions. The lumbar angle significantly differed only in the coronal plane. [Conclusions] These findings indicate that trunk posture should be considered when performing exercises under unstable conditions. PMID:25013286

Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Man-Sig

2014-06-01

22

EMG Activity in the Abdominal Muscles and the Kinematics of the Lumbar Spine during Unilateral Upper-limb Resistance Exercises under Stable and Unstable Conditions  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] We investigated the effects of unstable conditions on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominis (RA) and the transverse abdominis–internal oblique (TrA-IO) muscles, and lumbar kinematics during unilateral upper-limb resistance exercises using elastic tubing bands. [Subjects] Twelve healthy males were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed isometric left shoulder abduction using an elastic tubing band in a sitting position on a chair, and on a Swiss ball. During this exercise, EMG activities of the RA and TrA-IO were recorded using a wireless EMG system, and a three-dimensional motion analysis system monitored lumbar kinematics. Differences in EMG activities of the RA and TrA-IO, the ratio of TrA-IO to RA activity, and lumbar kinematics were compared between the stable and unstable conditions using the paired t-test. [Results] Under the unstable condition, the EMG activities of both muscles were significantly greater than that under the stable condition; however the ratio of TrA-IO to RA activity did not significantly differ between the conditions. The lumbar angle significantly differed only in the coronal plane. [Conclusions] These findings indicate that trunk posture should be considered when performing exercises under unstable conditions. PMID:25013286

Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Man-Sig

2014-01-01

23

An investigation of fatigue phenomenon in the upper limb muscle due to short duration pulses in an FES system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a method of artificially stimulating muscles or nerves in order to result in contraction or relaxation of muscles. Many studies have shown that FES system has helped patients to live a better lives especially those who are suffering from physical mobility. Unfortunately, one of the main limitations of an FES system besides of its high cost is largely due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue will affect the training duration which could delay patients' recovery rate. In this paper, we analyzed the occurrence of this fatigue phenomenon in terms of stimulator parameters such as amplitude, frequency, pulse width and pulse shape. The objective of this investigation is to identify other key features of the FES system parameters in order to prolong the training duration among patients. The experiment has been done on a healthy person for the duration of one minute and later the muscles response will be observed. Resultant muscle response is recorded as force using force resistive sensor. The experimental results show muscles will get fatigue at a different rate as the frequency increases. The experiment also shows that the duty cycle is reciprocal to the resultant force.

Naeem, Jannatul; Wong Azman, Amelia; Khan, Sheroz; Mohd Mustafah, Yasir

2013-12-01

24

Update on embryology of the upper limb.  

PubMed

Current concepts in the steps of upper limb development and the way the limb is patterned along its 3 spatial axes are reviewed. Finally, the embryogenesis of various congenital hand anomalies is delineated with an emphasis on the pathogenetic basis for each anomaly. PMID:23684522

Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Kozin, Scott H

2013-09-01

25

The Profile of Patients and Current Practice of Treatment of Upper Limb Muscle Spasticity with Botulinum Toxin Type A: An International Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To document the current practice in relation with the treatment of patients with upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin type A to inform future research in this area. We designed an international, cross-sectional, noninterventional survey of current practice. Nine hundred and seventy-four patients from 122 investigational centres in 31…

Bakheit, Abdel Magid

2010-01-01

26

Upper limb position control in fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Background Motor problems are reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM). However, the mechanisms leading to alterations in motor performance are not well understood. In this study, upper limb position control during sustained isometric contractions was investigated in patients with FM and in healthy controls (HCs). Methods Fifteen female FM patients and 13 HCs were asked to keep a constant upper limb position during sustained elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, respectively. Subjects received real-time visual feedback on limb position and both tasks were performed unloaded and while supporting loads (1, 2, and 3 kg). Accelerations of the dominant upper limb were recorded, with variance (SD of mean position) and power spectrum analysis used to characterize limb position control. Normalized power of the acceleration signal was extracted for three frequency bands: 1–3 Hz, 4–7 Hz, and 8–12 Hz. Results Variance increased with load in both tasks (P < 0.001) but did not differ significantly between patients and HCs (P > 0.17). Power spectrum analysis showed that the FM patients had a higher proportion of normalized power in the 1–3 Hz band, and a lower proportion of normalized power in the 8–12 Hz band compared to HCs (P < 0.05). The results were consistent for all load conditions and for both elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. Conclusion FM patients exhibit an altered neuromuscular strategy for upper limb position control compared to HCs. The predominance of low-frequency limb oscillations among FM patients may indicate a sensory deficit. PMID:23006674

2012-01-01

27

Critical ischaemia of the upper limb.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-seven patients who presented to the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, with critical upper limb ischaemia between 1980 and 1989 were studied. Only 13 patients had emboli, while 23 presented with arteritis, seven involving large vessels and 16 with small vessel disease. Other causes included nine patients with trauma, six with atherosclerosis (of whom five were women), and four with vascular complications of thoracic outlet obstruction. Single examples of ischaemia due to radiation fibrosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation were also seen. Critical ischaemia of the upper limb remains an uncommon yet challenging problem. The review demonstrates that total limb arteriography should be performed in all patients, except the minority who present with direct arterial trauma or classical emboli. PMID:1433088

Quraishy, M S; Cawthorn, S J; Giddings, A E

1992-01-01

28

Upper limb loadings of gait with crutches.  

PubMed

Long-term crutch users and patients with arthritis are particularly susceptible to upper limb joint degeneration during aided gait. The function of the walking aid for stability, support, and restraint/propulsion must be optimized with the upper limb loadings caused by the aids. Post-operative total hip replacement (THR) patients, tibial fracture, and paraplegic subjects using sticks and elbow crutches were analyzed in this study. Elbow and shoulder joint centers and aid orientations were monitored simultaneously in three dimensions and combined with aid forces to determine upper limb moment loadings. Three loading effects were observed: tendency for the aids to cause 1) the elbow to flex and shoulder to extend, 2) the elbow and shoulder to extend, and 3) the shoulder to abduct. Moment values of up to 0.10 Nm per body weight (BW) causing the shoulder to extend were measured, i.e., of similar magnitude to the moments at the hip in unaided gait. A modification of the elbow crutch, designed to improve medial-lateral stability, was unsuccessful in use due to wrist instability. This reinforced the requirement that crutch designs integrate the aid's function in gait with the ability of the upper limb joints to balance the applied loads. PMID:3695427

Opila, K A; Nicol, A C; Paul, J P

1987-11-01

29

Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

2011-01-01

30

Facts about Upper and Lower Limb Reduction Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Facts about Upper and Lower Limb Reduction Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Upper and lower limb ... Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

31

Effect of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current knowledge and questions remaining concerning the effects of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle is reviewed. The most dramatic of these effects is muscle atrophy, which has been noted in cases of muscles fixed at or below their resting length. Immobilization is also accompanied by a substantial decrease in motoneuronal discharges, which results in the conversion of slow-twitch muscle to muscle with fast-twitch characteristics. Sarcolemma effects include no change or a decrease in resting membrane potential, the appearance of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors, and no change in acetylcholinesterase activity. Evidence of changes in motoneuron after hyperpolarization characteristics suggests that the muscle inactivity is responsible for neuronal changes, rather than vice versa. The rate of protein loss from atrophying muscles is determined solely by the first-order rate constant for degradation. Various other biochemical and functional changes have been noted, including decreased insulin responsiveness and protein synthesis. The model of limb immobilization may also be useful for related studies of muscle adaptation.

Booth, F. W.

1982-01-01

32

Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:22464092

Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

2012-04-01

33

Prevalence and Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain and Residual Limb Pain in the Long Term after Upper Limb Amputation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…

Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

2010-01-01

34

Muscles of the Upper Extremity  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Upper Extremity Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

35

Upper limb repetitive strain injuries in Manitoba.  

PubMed

A review of workers' compensation board (WCB) claims in Manitoba, Canada identified an estimated 382 upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI) claims or 9.3% of all upper limb WCB claims accepted in 1991. Tendonitis and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were the most frequent diagnoses (27.5% and 19.3%, respectively). Rates of RSI were not significantly different by gender and age. RSI claimants had been experiencing symptoms for an average of 8 months prior to filing a compensation claim. While clerical occupations accounted for 13.6% of all upper limb RSI claims, the rates for RSIs in these occupations were low (0.67/1,000 workers), in contrast to occupations with the highest RSI rates: food, beverage, and related processing occupations (14.68/1,000 workers) and fabricating, assembling, and repairing of metal products (9.32/1,000). The highest risk industries were meat and poultry processing-related (23.48/1,000) and the manufacturing of airplanes (9.06/1,000). RSI claims were significantly more costly (+5,569 vs. +2,480, p < 0.0001) and required more time loss (71.4 vs. 33.6 d, p < 0.0001) than similar musculoskeletal non-RSI claims. Similarly, RSI claimants were less likely to return to the same job (67.3% vs. 81.0%, p < 0.0001) than non-RSI claimants. It was concluded that the cost and severity of RSI claims militate for intensified preventive measures. PMID:8892552

Yassi, A; Sprout, J; Tate, R

1996-10-01

36

Electrical stimulation and iterative learning control for functional recovery in the upper limb post-stroke.  

PubMed

Therapies using functional electrical stimulation (FES) in conjunction with practice of everyday tasks have proven effective in facilitating recovery of upper limb function following stroke. The aim of the current study is to develop a multi-channel electrical stimulation system that precisely controls the assistance provided in goal-orientated tasks through use of advanced model-based 'iterative learning control' (ILC) algorithms to facilitate functional motor recovery of the upper limb post-stroke. FES was applied to three muscle groups in the upper limb (the anterior deltoid, triceps and wrist extensors) to assist hemiparetic, chronic stroke participants to perform a series of functional tasks with real objects, including closing a drawer, turning on a light switch and repositioning an object. Position data from the participants' impaired upper limb was collected using a Microsoft Kinect® and was compared to an ideal reference. ILC used data from previous attempts at the task to moderate the FES signals applied to each muscle group on a trial by trial basis to reduce performance error whilst supporting voluntary effort by the participant. The clinical trial is on-going. Preliminary results show improvements in performance accuracy for each muscle group, as well as improvements in clinical outcome measures pre and post 18 training sessions. Thus, the feasibility of applying precisely controlled FES to three muscle groups in the upper limb to facilitate functional reach and grasp movements post stroke has been demonstrated. PMID:24187178

Meadmore, Katie; Exell, Timothy; Freeman, Christopher; Kutlu, Mustafa; Rogers, Eric; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Hallewell, Emma; Burridge, Jane

2013-06-01

37

The Ipsilesional Upper Limb Can Be Affected following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective. Neurological dysfunction commonly occurs in the upper limb contralateral to the hemisphere of the brain in which stroke occurs; however, the impact of stroke on function of the ipsilesional upper limb is not well understood. This study aims to systematically review the literature relating to the function of the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke and answer the following research question: Is the ipsilesional upper limb affected by stroke? Data Source. A systematic review was carried out in Medline, Embase, and PubMed. Review Methods. All studies investigating the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke were included and analysed for important characteristics. Outcomes were extracted and summarised. Results. This review captured 27 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All studies provided evidence that the ipsilesional upper limb can be affected following stroke. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that clinicians should consider ipsilesional upper limb deficits in rehabilitation and address this reduced functional capacity. Furthermore, the ipsilesional upper limb should not be used as a “control” measure of recovery for the contralateral upper limb. PMID:24379748

Kitsos, Gemma H.; Hubbard, Isobel J.; Kitsos, Alex R.; Parsons, Mark W.

2013-01-01

38

Kinematic model aided inertial motion tracking of human upper limb  

E-print Network

frequently used in navigation and augmented reality modelling [1], [2]. These inertial sensors come upKinematic model aided inertial motion tracking of human upper limb Huiyu Zhou and Huosheng Hu are accommodated in a commercially available inertial sensor MT9. Human upper limb motion can be represented

Hu, Huosheng

39

Fibre operating lengths of human lower limb muscles during walking  

PubMed Central

Muscles actuate movement by generating forces. The forces generated by muscles are highly dependent on their fibre lengths, yet it is difficult to measure the lengths over which muscle fibres operate during movement. We combined experimental measurements of joint angles and muscle activation patterns during walking with a musculoskeletal model that captures the relationships between muscle fibre lengths, joint angles and muscle activations for muscles of the lower limb. We used this musculoskeletal model to produce a simulation of muscle–tendon dynamics during walking and calculated fibre operating lengths (i.e. the length of muscle fibres relative to their optimal fibre length) for 17 lower limb muscles. Our results indicate that when musculotendon compliance is low, the muscle fibre operating length is determined predominantly by the joint angles and muscle moment arms. If musculotendon compliance is high, muscle fibre operating length is more dependent on activation level and force–length–velocity effects. We found that muscles operate on multiple limbs of the force–length curve (i.e. ascending, plateau and descending limbs) during the gait cycle, but are active within a smaller portion of their total operating range. PMID:21502124

Arnold, Edith M.; Delp, Scott L.

2011-01-01

40

Critical analysis of musculoskeletal modelling complexity in multibody biomechanical models of the upper limb.  

PubMed

The inverse dynamics technique applied to musculoskeletal models, and supported by optimisation techniques, is used extensively to estimate muscle and joint reaction forces. However, the solutions of the redundant muscle force sharing problem are sensitive to the detail and modelling assumptions of the models used. This study presents four alternative biomechanical models of the upper limb with different levels of discretisation of muscles by bundles and muscle paths, and their consequences on the estimation of the muscle and joint reaction forces. The muscle force sharing problem is solved for the motions of abduction and anterior flexion, acquired using video imaging, through the minimisation of an objective function describing muscle metabolic energy consumption. While looking for the optimal solution, not only the equations of motion are satisfied but also the stability of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints is preserved. The results show that a lower level of muscle discretisation provides worse estimations regarding the muscle forces. Moreover, the poor discretisation of muscles relevant to the joint in analysis limits the applicability of the biomechanical model. In this study, the biomechanical model of the upper limb describing the infraspinatus by a single bundle could not solve the complete motion of anterior flexion. Despite the small differences in the magnitude of the forces predicted by the biomechanical models with more complex muscular systems, in general, there are no significant variations in the muscular activity of equivalent muscles. PMID:24156405

Quental, Carlos; Folgado, João; Ambrósio, Jorge; Monteiro, Jacinto

2015-05-01

41

Upper limb neuropathy in computer operators? A clinical case study of 21 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The character of upper limb disorder in computer operators remains obscure and their treatment and prevention have had limited success. Symptoms tend to be mostly perceived as relating to pathology in muscles, tendons or insertions. However, the conception of a neuropathic disorder would be supported by objective findings reflecting the common complaints of pain, subjective weakness, and numbness\\/tingling. By

Jørgen Riis Jepsen

2004-01-01

42

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measure- ment objectives are stratospheric C10, 03, H20, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has

F. T. Barath; M. C. Chavez; R. E. Cofield; D. A. Flower; M. A. Frerking; M. B. Gram; W. M. Harris; J. R. Holden; R. F. Jarnot; W. G. Kloezeman; G. J. Klose; G. K. Lau; M. S. Loo; B. J. Maddison; R. J. Mattauch; R. P. McKlnney; G. E. Peckham; H. M. Pickett; G. Siebes; F. S. Soltis; R. A. Suttie; J. A. Tarsala; J. W. Waters; W. J. Wilson

1993-01-01

43

Unilateral Anomalous Arterial Pattern of Human Upper Limb  

PubMed Central

A unilateral case of variations in the brachial and antebrachial arterial branching pattern of a human upper limb is reported. A high bifurcation of brachial artery along with superficial course of ulnar artery was observed. Additionally, the profunda brachii and common interosseous artery originated from the radial artery instead of brachial and ulnar arteries respectively. An atypical branching pattern of arteries in an upper limb could pose a challenging problem to vascular surgeons while performing reconstructive procedures. PMID:21748065

Mehta, Vandana; Arora, Jyoti; Suri, R K; Rath, Gayatri

2008-01-01

44

Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.  

PubMed

During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P < 0.001). After a 2-min knee flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P < 0.01). After the contralateral (left) MVC (experiment 3; n = 8), mean voluntary activation of the right leg was similar with or without ischemia (92 ± 6% vs. 93 ± 4%; P = 0.65). After fatiguing exercise, activity in group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents. PMID:25525208

Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

2015-02-15

45

How close to a pendulum is human upper limb movement during walking?  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate how close to pendulum-like behaviour the periodic motion of the human upper limb (or upper extremity) is, during normal walking at a comfortable speed of locomotion. Twenty-five healthy young persons (males and females) participated in the experiment. Biomechanical testing was undertaken (mass and centre of mass of each segment of the total upper extremity). Participants were walking on a treadmill with a standardised velocity of 1.1 ms(-1) (comfortable speed for all of them). A video analysis system with Silicon software was used to measure the different angles of the arm and forearm. The theoretical period of motion and maximal angular velocity were computed for the centre of mass of the total upper limb from the measured phases of the arm swing and associated positional potential energies. Actual measured periods of motion, in comparison, represented a level of similarity to a lightly damped simple pendulum. Using this assumption, the "damping factor" was calculated from the ratio between theoretical and measured values. A vast majority of people exhibited an actual angular velocity exceeding the expected theoretical angular velocity calculated for a virtual pendulum of similar mass and length characteristics. This may be due to muscle forces that are contributing to the motion of the upper limb during walking rather than simple gravity force acting alone. The observed positional potential energy of the dominant limb was greater than that of the non-dominant limb for the vast majority of participants. PMID:15901117

Gutnik, B; Mackie, H; Hudson, G; Standen, C

2005-01-01

46

Ubiquitous human upper-limb motion estimation using wearable sensors.  

PubMed

Human motion capture technologies have been widely used in a wide spectrum of applications, including interactive game and learning, animation, film special effects, health care, navigation, and so on. The existing human motion capture techniques, which use structured multiple high-resolution cameras in a dedicated studio, are complicated and expensive. With the rapid development of microsensors-on-chip, human motion capture using wearable microsensors has become an active research topic. Because of the agility in movement, upper-limb motion estimation has been regarded as the most difficult problem in human motion capture. In this paper, we take the upper limb as our research subject and propose a novel ubiquitous upper-limb motion estimation algorithm, which concentrates on modeling the relationship between upper-arm movement and forearm movement. A link structure with 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to model the human upper-limb skeleton structure. Parameters are defined according to Denavit-Hartenberg convention, forward kinematics equations are derived, and an unscented Kalman filter is deployed to estimate the defined parameters. The experimental results have shown that the proposed upper-limb motion capture and analysis algorithm outperforms other fusion methods and provides accurate results in comparison to the BTS optical motion tracker. PMID:21659035

Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wong, Wai-Choong; Wu, Jian-Kang

2011-07-01

47

An extending Fitts' Law for human upper limb performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human motor behavior is complex and is challenging to understand. Fitts' Law presented a relationship between speed, accuracy, amplitude of movement and target size in upper extremity tasks. In this paper, Fitts' Law was extended from one-dimensional motion to two-dimensional motion in the polar coordinate system for the human upper limb performance. Based on this, a set of indices were

N. F. Yang; D. W. Jin; M. Zhang; C. H. Huang; R. C. Wang

2001-01-01

48

Muscle phenotype remains unaltered after limb autotomy and unloading.  

PubMed

Loss of chelipeds in crustaceans results in severe atrophy of the major muscle responsible for lifting the limb, the anterior levator. We decided to test if this loss of mechanical load altered muscle phenotype as measured by SDS-PAGE analysis of levator total protein and actomyosin fractions. Levator muscles of adult crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, with either functional regenerate limbs or lack of limb buds (papilla stage) were compared with those from normal contralateral limbs and those from pristine animals. We find that there is no difference in protein profiles among the three conditions. However, the total protein profile for the dually excited levator muscle is unique compared to those of fast or slow muscles of the abdomen (L and SEL, respectively), which receive only phasic or tonic excitatory innervation. The levator myosin heavy chain profile is similar to that of slow phenotype muscles such as the SEL and opener. We conclude that load does not influence levator phenotype. This is likely due either to the intact innervation and continued activation of the levator during atrophy or to the maintenance of passive tension on the muscle. J. Exp. Zool. 289:10-22, 2001. PMID:11169489

Griffis, B; Moffett, S B; Cooper, R L

2001-01-01

49

Direct and indirect connections with upper limb motoneurons from the primate reticulospinal tract.  

PubMed

Although the reticulospinal tract is a major descending motor pathway in mammals, its contribution to upper limb control in primates has received relatively little attention. Reticulospinal connections are widely assumed to be responsible for coordinated gross movements primarily of proximal muscles, whereas the corticospinal tract mediates fine movements, particularly of the hand. In this study, we used intracellular recording in anesthetized monkeys to examine the synaptic connections between the reticulospinal tract and antidromically identified cervical ventral horn motoneurons, focusing in particular on motoneurons projecting distally to wrist and digit muscles. We found that motoneurons receive monosynaptic and disynaptic reticulospinal inputs, including monosynaptic excitatory connections to motoneurons that innervate intrinsic hand muscles, a connection not previously known to exist. We show that excitatory reticulomotoneuronal connections are as common and as strong in hand motoneuron groups as in forearm or upper arm motoneurons. These data suggest that the primate reticulospinal system may form a parallel pathway to distal muscles, alongside the corticospinal tract. Reticulospinal neurons are therefore in a position to influence upper limb muscle activity after damage to the corticospinal system as may occur in stroke or spinal cord injury, and may be a target site for therapeutic interventions. PMID:19369568

Riddle, C Nicholas; Edgley, Steve A; Baker, Stuart N

2009-04-15

50

Necrotising soft tissue infection of bilateral upper limb caused by the injection of oral bacteria: a case report.  

PubMed

Necrotising soft tissue infection is a rare and rapid process with devastating consequence. We report one case of necrotising soft tissue infection in a bilateral upper limb with uncommon oral bacteria. Radiological imaging revealed the presence of gas in upper limb soft tissues, and an MRI showed the localised signal changes in the biceps muscle of the right upper arm, and the subcutaneous tissue of the left elbow. The patient was treated with surgical resection of the infected muscle and wide debridement of the subcutaneous tissue. Antibiotics were initiated. The patient recovered immediately without functional deficit. The unique features of this patient were possible to observe in the progression of the necrotising soft tissue infection in the bilateral upper limb with intentional injection of oral bacteria, and the effect of biceps brachii resection in a prime age worker. PMID:24164130

Yoshii, Yuichi; Ishii, Tomoo; Sakai, Shinsuke

2013-01-01

51

Upper limb erythema nodosum: the first presentation of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Inflammatory bowel disease can present with extraintestinal features as the patient's only complaint. The erythema nodosum (EN) initially affected the upper limbs only, reminding us that signs do not always present in a classical fashion. The presence of EN should prompt the clinician to look for any underlying cause.

Faulkes, R E

2014-01-01

52

Prediction of gene network models in limb muscle precursors.  

PubMed

The ventrolateral dermomyotome gives rise to all muscles of the limbs through the delamination and migration of cells into the limb buds. These cells proliferate and form myoblasts, withdraw from the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated. The myogenic lineage colonizes pre-patterned regions to form muscle anlagen as muscle fibers are assembled. The regulatory mechanisms that control the later steps of this myogenic program are not well understood. The homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2 is expressed in the muscle lineage from the migration of precursors to adult muscle. Ablation of Pitx2 results in distortion, rather than loss, of limb muscle anlagen, suggesting that its function becomes critical during the colonization of, and/or fiber assembly in, the anlagen. Gene expression arrays were used to identify changes in gene expression in flow-sorted migratory muscle precursors, labeled by Lbx1(EGFP), which resulted from the loss of Pitx2. Target genes of Pitx2 were clustered using the "David Bioinformatics Functional Annotation Tool" to bin genes according to enrichment of gene ontology keywords. This provided a way to both narrow the target genes and identify potential gene families regulated by Pitx2. Representative target genes in the most enriched bins were analyzed for the presence and evolutionary conservation of Pitx2 consensus binding sequence, TAATCY, on the -20kb, intronic, and coding regions of the genes. Fifteen Pitx2 target genes were selected based on the above analysis and were identified as having functions involving cytoskeleton organization, tissue specification, and transcription factors. Data from these studies suggest that Pitx2 acts to regulate cell motility and expression of muscle specific genes in the muscle precursors during forelimb muscle development. This work provides a framework to develop the gene network leading to skeletal muscle development, growth and regeneration. PMID:22917675

Campbell, Adam L; Eng, Diana; Gross, Michael K; Kioussi, Chrissa

2012-11-01

53

Muscle Flaps and Their Role in Limb Salvage  

PubMed Central

Muscle flaps have proved to be a valuable and versatile tool in the surgical treatment of the severely compromised lower extremity. Utilized as both local pedicle flaps and free tissue transfers, muscles have been successfully employed to cover complex wounds, manage osteomyelitis, salvage infected vascular grafts, treat recalcitrant venous stasis ulcers, preserve amputation levels, and restore motion following compartment syndrome. Free flap pedicles have also been used in a flow-through fashion to create a distal arterial bypass. This article explores the multipurpose role of muscle flaps in limb salvage surgery and their beneficial physiologic characteristics in hostile wound environments. PMID:23805342

Klebuc, Michael; Menn, Zachary

2013-01-01

54

Motor Impairment Evaluation for Upper Limb in Stroke Patients on the Basis of a Microsensor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an urgent need for an effective and efficient upper limb rehabilitation method for poststroke patients. We present a Micro-Sensor-based Upper Limb rehabilitation System for poststroke patients. The wearable motion capture units are attached to upper limb segments embedded in the fabric of garments. The body segment orientation…

Huang, Shuai; Luo, Chun; Ye, Shiwei; Liu, Fei; Xie, Bin; Wang, Caifeng; Yang, Li; Huang, Zhen; Wu, Jiankang

2012-01-01

55

An Experimental Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Upper Limb.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is the knowledge of the upper limb kinematics for various final tasks requiring effort or precision. The aim is to integrate these results in a C.A.D. system for human engineering studies. The description of these movements proceeds from the 3-D trajectories of anatomical landmarks delivered by the VICON system. Such a representation using fixed orthogonal reference system x, y, z, does not lead to a simple analysis of the gesture. So from these data we compute a set of angular parameters which are in closer relation with the real kinematics of the upper limb. We obtain this result by the introduction of pertinent intermediate reference systems, related to each rotation degree of freedom. The result exhibit typical patterns of the temporal evolution of the angular parameters related to the task assigned to the subject. The collected data constitute a computerized catalogue of movements included in ERGODATA system.

Hennion, P.-Y.; Mollard, R.; Lornet, P.

1986-07-01

56

A novel robot neurorehabilitation for upper limb motion.  

PubMed

Our goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, quantify, enhance, and verify neuro-rehabilitation. In this paper a novel robot neuro-rehabilitation for upper limb, with many merits, is developed. Mechanism and control of the robot are introduced in detail. By a clinical trial involving 30 stroke patients with three months at Rehabilitation Center of China, some results are obtained 1) robot-aided therapy does not have adverse effects, 2) patients can accept the procedure, 3) the therapy may reduce muscular tension, and 4) manipulation of the impaired upper limb may influence brain recovery. Some new ideas are also presented to make rehabilitation therapy more effectively. These ideas will be helpful to further quicken the development of the robot neuro-rehabilitation. PMID:17281378

Xiu-Feng, Zhang; Lin-Hong, Ji; Li-Yun, Guo

2005-01-01

57

Long-Duration Muscle Dedifferentiation during Limb Regeneration in Axolotls  

PubMed Central

Although still debated, limb regeneration in salamanders is thought to depend on the dedifferentiation of remnant tissue occurring early after amputation and generating the progenitor cells that initiate regeneration. This dedifferentiation has been demonstrated previously by showing the fragmentation of muscle fibers into mononucleated cells and by revealing the contribution of mature muscle fibers to the regenerates by using lineage-tracing studies. Here, we provide additional evidence of dedifferentiation by showing that Pax7 (paired-box protein-7) transcripts are expressed at the ends of remnant muscle fibers in axolotls by using in situ hybridization and by demonstrating the presence of Pax7+ muscle-fiber nuclei in the early bud and mid-bud stages by means of immunohistochemical staining. During the course of regeneration, the remnant muscles did not progress; instead, muscle progenitors migrated out from the remnants and proliferated and differentiated in the new tissues at an early stage of differentiation. The regenerating muscles and remnant muscles were largely disconnected, and this left a gap between them until extremely late in the late stage of differentiation, at which point the new and old muscles connected together. Notably, Pax7 transcripts were detected in the regions of muscles that faced these gaps; thus, Pax7 expression might indicate dedifferentiation in the remnant-muscle ends and partial differentiation in the regenerating muscles. The roles of this long-duration dedifferentiation in the remnants remain unknown. However, the results presented here could support the hypothesis that long-duration muscle dedifferentiation facilitates the connection and fusion between the new and old muscles that are both in an immature state; this is because immature Pax7+ myoblasts readily fuse during developmental myogenesis. PMID:25671422

Wu, Cheng-Han; Huang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Bo-Sung; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Lee, Hsuan-Shu

2015-01-01

58

Motion quality evaluation of upper limb target-reaching movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fitts' Law was extended in the polar coordinate system, and a set of indices for human motion evaluation is proposed. In this paper, the index of difficulty and the index of performance are introduced as the general indices for the quality measure of plane target-to-target movement. As an example, the target-reaching movement of the upper limb, which is a basic

Nianfeng Yang; Ming Zhang; Changhua Huang; Dewen Jin

2002-01-01

59

Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.  

PubMed

The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab. PMID:18194205

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

2008-02-01

60

Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab  

PubMed Central

The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab. PMID:18194205

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

2008-01-01

61

The volume of vascular compartment in rat hind limb muscles  

PubMed Central

1. A non-recirculatory perfusion system has been developed suitable for the perfusion of the hind limbs of small experimental animals. 2. By means of it a solution of T. 1824-labelled serum albumin has been introduced into the vascular compartment of the hind limbs of female rats under isogravimetric conditions. Excision and analysis of certain muscles has been used to provide information concerning the percentage distribution of the labelled albumin within these muscles. 3. Experiments have been carried out in vivo employing [131I]labelled serum albumin and [51Cr]labelled erythrocytes in order to compare the vascular volumes determined under in vivo conditions and in perfusions, and to estimate the capillary haematocrit in vivo. 4. The physiological validity of the methods used and the results obtained has been discussed. PMID:5972152

Law, R. O.; Phelps, C. F.

1966-01-01

62

Effect of maturation on muscle quality of the lower limb muscles in adolescent boys  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of maturation on the muscle quality of the lower limb muscles around puberty. Methods Subjects were 117 Japanese boys age 12 to 15 years. The maturity status was assessed by using a self-assessment of stage of pubic hair development based on the criteria of Tanner. On the basis of the criteria, subjects were divided into the prepubescent or pubescent group. Muscle thickness of knee extensors and plantar flexors were measured by a B-mode ultrasound. Muscle volume index (MV) was calculated from muscle thickness and limb length. Maximal voluntary isometric joint toques (TQ) of knee extension and ankle plantar flexion were measured using a myometer. Muscle quality was derived from dividing TQ by MV (TQ/MV). Results In both muscles, TQ-MV relationships were also similar between the prepubescent and pubescent groups, and there was no significant difference in TQ/MV between the two groups when chronological age was statistically adjusted. Conclusion The current results indicate that, for adolescent boys, the muscle quality of the lower limb muscles is not significantly influenced by maturation. PMID:25239758

2014-01-01

63

Sonography of entrapment neuropathies in the upper limb (wrist excluded).  

PubMed

The progressive refinement of broadband transducers with frequencies higher than 10 MHz and improved near-field resolution has enhanced the potential of sonography to evaluate a variety of nerve entrapment syndromes occurring in the upper limb, such as suprascapular neuropathy in the area of the spinoglenoid-supraspinous notch, the quadrilateral space syndrome (axillary neuropathy), radial neuropathy in the area of the spiral groove, the supinator syndrome (posterior interosseous neuropathy), the cubital tunnel syndrome (ulnar neuropathy), and the Kiloh-Nevin syndrome (anterior interosseous neuropathy). In these settings, high-resolution sonography can depict changes in the nerve's shape and echotexture and can depict many extrinsic causes of nerve entrapment. PMID:15558622

Martinoli, Carlo; Bianchi, Stefano; Pugliese, Francesca; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Gauglio, Cristina; Valle, Maura; Derchi, Lorenzo E

2004-01-01

64

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite microwave limb sounder instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measurement objectives are stratospheric ClO, O3, H2O, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has a 1.6-m mechanically scanning antenna system and contains heterodyne radiometers in spectral bands centred near 63, 183, and 205 GHz. The radiometers operate at ambient temperature and use Schottky-diode mixers with local oscillators derived from phase-locked Gunn oscillators. Frequency tripling by varactor multipliers generates the 183- and 205-GHz local oscillators, and quasi-optical techniques inject these into the mixers. Six 15-channel filter banks spectrally resolve stratospheric thermal emission lines and produce an output spectrum every 2 s. Thermal stability is sufficient for 'total power' measurements which do not require fast chopping. Radiometric calibration, consisting of measurements of cold space and an internal target, is performed every 65-s limb scan. Instrument in-orbit performance has been excellent, and all objectives are being met.

Barath, F. T.; Chavez, M. C.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Frerking, M. A.; Gram, M. B.; Harris, W. M.; Holden, J. R.; Jarnot, R. F.; Kloezeman, W. G.

1993-01-01

65

Thoracoscopic Dorsal Sympathectomy for Upper Limb Buerger's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Thromboangiitis obliterans is a common peripheral vascular disease in India. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of thoracoscopic dorsal sympathectomy as a treatment for Buerger disease of the upper extremities. Methods: Thirty thoracoscopic dorsal sympathectomies (17 left- and 13 right-sided) were performed in a tertiary medical center in 5 women and 20 men (mean age, 41 years) between July 2010 and February 2013. Results: The mean operative time was 30 minutes, and the mean hospital stay was 52 hours. There were no complications. All patients had improvement in pain and were relapse-free after a mean follow-up period of 11.63 months. Discussion: Thoracoscopic dorsal sympathectomy reduces pain significantly by reducing peripheral resistance and promoting collateral development. The increased magnification of the thoracoscopic approach permits better visualization, ensuring complete excision and therefore good results. Thoracoscopic dorsal sympathectomy for Buerger disease of the upper limb is a safe and effective treatment. PMID:24960492

Kothari, Reena; Thakur, Dileep Singh; Kumar, Vinod; Somashekar, Uday

2014-01-01

66

A survey on robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

The existing shortage of therapists and caregivers assisting physically disabled individuals at home is expected to increase and become serious problem in the near future. The patient population needing physical rehabilitation of the upper extremity is also constantly increasing. Robotic devices have the potential to address this problem as noted by the results of recent research studies. However, the availability of these devices in clinical settings is limited, leaving plenty of room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to document a review of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation including those in developing phase in order to provide a comprehensive reference about existing solutions and facilitate the development of new and improved devices. In particular the following issues are discussed: application field, target group, type of assistance, mechanical design, control strategy and clinical evaluation. This paper also includes a comprehensive, tabulated comparison of technical solutions implemented in various systems. PMID:24401110

2014-01-01

67

A survey on robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The existing shortage of therapists and caregivers assisting physically disabled individuals at home is expected to increase and become serious problem in the near future. The patient population needing physical rehabilitation of the upper extremity is also constantly increasing. Robotic devices have the potential to address this problem as noted by the results of recent research studies. However, the availability of these devices in clinical settings is limited, leaving plenty of room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to document a review of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation including those in developing phase in order to provide a comprehensive reference about existing solutions and facilitate the development of new and improved devices. In particular the following issues are discussed: application field, target group, type of assistance, mechanical design, control strategy and clinical evaluation. This paper also includes a comprehensive, tabulated comparison of technical solutions implemented in various systems. PMID:24401110

Maciejasz, Pawe?; Eschweiler, Jörg; Gerlach-Hahn, Kurt; Jansen-Troy, Arne; Leonhardt, Steffen

2014-01-01

68

Effect of Kayak Ergometer Elastic Tension on Upper Limb EMG Activity and 3D Kinematics  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of shoulder injury in kayakers, limited published research examining associated upper limb kinematics and recruitment patterns exists. Altered muscle recruitment patterns on-ergometer vs. on-water kayaking were recently reported, however, mechanisms underlying changes remain to be elucidated. The current study assessed the effect of ergometer recoil tension on upper limb recruitment and kinematics during the kayak stroke. Male kayakers (n = 10) performed 4 by 1 min on-ergometer exercise bouts at 85%VO2max at varying elastic recoil tension; EMG, stroke force and three-dimensional 3D kinematic data were recorded. While stationary recoil forces significantly increased across investigated tensions (125% increase, p < 0.001), no significant differences were detected in assessed force variables during the stroke cycle. In contrast, increasing tension induced significantly higher Anterior Deltoid (AD) activity in the latter stages (70 to 90%) of the cycle (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed across tension levels for Triceps Brachii or Latissimus Dorsi. Kinematic analysis revealed that overhead arm movements accounted for 39 ± 16% of the cycle. Elbow angle at stroke cycle onset was 144 ± 10°; maximal elbow angle (151 ± 7°) occurred at 78 ± 10% into the cycle. All kinematic markers moved to a more anterior position as tension increased. No significant change in wrist marker elevation was observed, while elbow and shoulder marker elevations significantly increased across tension levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, data suggested that kayakers maintained normal upper limb kinematics via additional AD recruitment despite ergometer induced recoil forces. Key pointsKayak ergometer elastic tension significantly alters Anterior Deltoid recruitment patterns.Kayakers maintain optimal arm kinematics despite changing external forces via altered shoulder muscle recruitment.Overhead arm movements account for a high proportion of the kayak stroke cycle. PMID:24149350

Fleming, Neil; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David

2012-01-01

69

Wireless wearable controller for upper-limb neuroprosthesis.  

PubMed

The objective of this project was to develop a wireless, wearable joint angle transducer to enable proportional control of an upper-limb neuroprosthesis by wrist position. Implanted neuroprostheses use functional electrical stimulation to provide hand grasp to individuals with tetraplegia. Wrist position is advantageous for control because it augments the tenodesis grasp and can be implemented bilaterally. Recently developed, fully implantable multichannel stimulators are battery-powered and use wireless telemetry to control stimulator outputs. An external wrist controller was designed for command signal acquisition for people with cervical-level spinal cord injury to control this implantable stimulator. The wearable controller, which uses gigantic magnetoresistive sensing techniques to measure wrist position, is worn on the forearm. A small dime-sized magnet is fixed to the back of the hand. Results indicate that the device is a feasible control method for an upper-limb neuroprosthesis and could be reduced to a small "wristwatch" size for cosmesis and easy donning. PMID:19533538

Wheeler, Christa A; Peckham, P Hunter

2009-01-01

70

Muscle phenotypic variability in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2 G.  

PubMed

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 G (LGMD2G) is caused by mutations in the telethonin gene. Only few families were described presenting this disease, and they are mainly Brazilians. Here, we identified one additional case carrying the same common c.157C > T mutation in the telethonin gene but with an atypical histopathological muscle pattern. In a female patient with a long duration of symptoms (46 years), muscle biopsy showed, in addition to telethonin deficiency, the presence of nemaline rods, type 1 fiber predominance, nuclear internalization, lobulated fibers, and mitochondrial paracrystalline inclusions. Her first clinical signs were identified at 8 years old, which include tiptoe walking, left lower limb deformity, and frequent falls. Ambulation loss occurred at 41 years old, and now, at 54 years old, she presented pelvic girdle atrophy, winging scapula, foot deformity with incapacity to perform ankle dorsiflexion, and absent tendon reflexes. The presence of nemaline bodies could be a secondary phenomenon, possibly associated with focal Z-line abnormalities of a long-standing disease. However, these new histopathological findings, characteristic of congenital myopathies, expand muscle phenotypic variability of telethoninopathy. PMID:23479141

Paim, Julia F; Cotta, Ana; Vargas, Antonio P; Navarro, Monica M; Valicek, Jaquelin; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha, Antonio L; Plentz, Estevão; Braz, Shelida V; Takata, Reinaldo I; Almeida, Camila F; Vainzof, Mariz

2013-06-01

71

[Electrophysiology of juvenile muscular atrophy of unilateral upper limb (Hirayama's disease)].  

PubMed

To examine the validity of electrodiagnostic tests to help diagnosis and to evaluate disease activity of juvenile atrophy of unilateral upper limb (Hirayama's disease), we reviewed the results of nerve conduction studies, motor unit number estimates, electromyography, and somatosensory evoked potentials in consecutive 38 patients. There was selective involvement of the C8-T1 myotomes, in which motor unit loss was more prominent in the abductor digiti minimi than in the abductor pollicis brevis muscles, and F wave persistency was decreased out of proportion to the motor unit loss. These findings may help diagnosis. With respect to the disease activity and treatment, denervation potentials in the flexor carpi radialis muscle were more frequent in patients with shorter disease duration than those with longer duration. Median F wave persistency was greater in patients treated with neck brace than in patients without the treatment. These parameters can monitor the disease activity and efficacy of treatment. PMID:10424140

Kuwabara, S; Nakajima, M; Hattori, T; Hirayama, K

1999-05-01

72

Comparison in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage among four limb muscles.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following maximal eccentric exercise would be smaller for the knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) compared with the elbow flexors (EF) and extensors (EE). A total of 17 sedentary men performed five sets of six maximal isokinetic (90° s(-1)) eccentric contractions of EF (range of motion, ROM: 90°-0°, 0 = full extension), EE (55°-145°), KF (90°-0°), and KE (30°-120°) using a different limb with a 4-5-week interval in a counterbalanced order. Changes in maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic strength, optimum angle, limb circumference, ROM, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, muscle soreness, and echo-intensity of B-mode ultrasound images before and for 5 days following exercise were compared amongst the four exercises using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. All variables changed significantly following EF, EE, and KF exercises, but KE exercise did not change the optimum angle, limb circumference, and echo-intensity. Compared with KF and KE, EF and EE showed significantly greater changes in all variables, without significant differences between EF and EE. Changes in all variables were significantly greater for KF than KE. For the same subjects, the magnitude of change in the dependent variables following exercise varied among the exercises. These results suggest that the two arm muscles are equally more susceptible to muscle damage than leg muscles, but KF is more susceptible to muscle damage than KE. The difference in the susceptibility to muscle damage seems to be associated with the use of muscles in daily activities. PMID:20852880

Chen, Trevor C; Lin, Kun-Yi; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Lin, Ming-Ju; Nosaka, Kazunori

2011-02-01

73

Protein synthesis rates in atrophied gastrocnemius muscles after limb immobilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noting that protein synthesis declines in the gastrocnemius 6 hr after immobilization, the study sought to detect an increase of protein synthesis when the limb was freed, and to examine the effects of exercise on the rate of increase. Rats were used as subjects, with their hind legs in plaster of Paris in plantar flexion to eliminate strain on the gastrocnemius. Periods of immobilization were varied and samples of blood from the muscle were taken to track protein synthesis rates for different groups in immobilization and exercise regimens (running and weightlifting). Synthesis rates declined 3.6% during time in the cast, then increased 6.3%/day after the casts were removed. Both running and weightlifting were found to increase the fractional rate of protein formation in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared with contralateral muscles that were not exercised and were used as controls, suggesting that the mechanism controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscles is rapidly responsive to changes in muscular contractile activity.

Tucker, K. R.; Seider, M. J.; Booth, F. W.

1981-01-01

74

Microwave limb sounder. [measuring trace gases in the upper atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace gases in the upper atmosphere can be measured by comparing spectral noise content of limb soundings with the spectral noise content of cold space. An offset Cassegrain antenna system and tiltable input mirror alternately look out at the limb and up at cold space at an elevation angle of about 22. The mirror can also be tilted to look at a black body calibration target. Reflection from the mirror is directed into a radiometer whose head functions as a diplexer to combine the input radiation and a local ocillator (klystron) beam. The radiometer head is comprised of a Fabry-Perot resonator consisting of two Fabry-Perot cavities spaced a number of half wavelengths apart. Incoming radiation received on one side is reflected and rotated 90 deg in polarization by the resonator so that it will be reflected by an input grid into a mixer, while the klystron beam received on the other side is also reflected and rotated 90 deg, but not without passing some energy to be reflected by the input grid into the mixer.

Gustincic, J. J. (inventor)

1981-01-01

75

Neurological Examination of the Upper Limb: A Study of Construct Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective: We have previously demonstrated that neurological individual findings and patterns can be reliably assessed in the examination of the upper limb and also that they are related to pain, weakness, and/or numbness/tingling. This study aimed to study further aspects of the construct validity of the neurological examination. Methods: Blinded to patient-characteristics, two examiners assessed the function of 16 muscles, the sensibility in 7 territories, and the nerve-mechanosensitivity at 20 locations in 82 upper limbs. Based on anatomical patterns and pre-designed algorithms, one or both examiners rated neuropathy as “possible” or “definite” in 40 limbs and also determined the location( s). We developed and tested hypotheses on anatomically and regionally related locations of nerve afflictions (a selective vulnerability of neurons, double and multiple crush, and a tendency to regional spread) and examined the stability of the internal structure of the constructs in different situations. The interrelations of findings were analyzed by hypothesis testing and factor analyses, and the homogeneity of location profiles was analyzed by a conditional likelihood test. Results: Out of 30 limbs with related locations of neuropathy, the findings of each examiner correlated positively (gamma > 0.35) in 22/25, respectively. The patterns of the interrelations identified by the two examiners were similar, with no evidence of any heterogeneity of location profiles for either examiner. Conclusions: This study supports the validity of the physical examination. However, feasibility of its application requires the demonstration of further aspects of construct validity and a favorable influence on patient-management and/or prevention. PMID:20148172

Jepsen, Jørgen R; Laursen, Lise H; Kreiner, Svend; Larsen, Anders I

2009-01-01

76

[Injuries to the upper limbs in competitive wrestlers].  

PubMed

Great variety of tackling and defence in wrestling in standing position and on the floor cannot be compared to other kind of sports. High demand to motoric characteristics and tournament specific movability is required. However wrestling in Germany belongs to a fringe sport there is an increase of professionality. This leads to a sufficient and high-demanded supervision. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate sport injuries using a questionnaire and to figure out a correlation between kind and frequency of sport injuries of different body regions. 163 questionnaires out of 200 had been evaluated. In the region of the upper limb injuries had been found in 23%. The injury rate was higher in the athletes wrestling in the 2nd league. Wrestling is a technically and tactically ambitious sport. Injuries should be evaluated very careful to minimize the risk changing tactics and training methods. PMID:18543163

Michael, J W-P; Müller, L; Schikora, N; Eysel, P; König, D P

2008-06-01

77

Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations. PMID:25276479

Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2014-01-01

78

Robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of upper limb robot-assisted treatment in chronic post-stroke patients using clinical outcome measures and kinematic parameters. Thirty-two chronic stroke patients participated in the study. Fugl-Meyer (FM) Assessment scale and Motricity Index (MI) were used for clinical assessment, and a set of kinematic parameters was computed. A significant decrease in motor impairment after the robotassisted treatment (FM p<0.001 and MI p<0.001) was found. Movement mean velocity (p<0.001) and accuracy (p<0.05) increased. Robotic treatment is effective to reduce motor impairment in chronic stroke patients. The exclusive use of clinical scales do not provide an exhaustive evaluation of effectiveness of treatment and our study suggests that kinematic parameters should be computed as well. PMID:24109830

Mazzoleni, S; Crecchi, R; Posteraro, F; Carrozza, M C

2013-01-01

79

Motorised mobility scooters; upper limb fractures in elderly novice users.  

PubMed

We describe three upper limb injuries admitted in one year to our institution resulting from falls from motorised mobility scooters (MMS) where all three users were novices, using their MMS for less than 6 weeks. They sustained injuries in close proximity to their homes, necessitating admission to hospital. None had received any formal training before commencing use of their respective devices. Use of MMS devices increases independence in mobility, enhances quality of life, improves self-esteem, facilitating social participation in everyday life. Use of these devices is not without risks, and no clear safety guidelines or competency testing exists for users. We believe these injuries in novice users highlights this deficiency, and should alert prescribers of these devices to advocate some form of driver training for new users. PMID:25285144

Murphy, Colin G; Murphy, Ian G; O'Rourke, Kieran S; O'Shea, Kieran

2014-05-01

80

Muscle Activation Patterns When Passively Stretching Spastic Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n?=?35/19; 10.8±3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n?=? 32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I–IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position zones during low velocity stretches was found to be the most sensitive in categorizing muscles into activation patterns (p<0.01). Future studies should investigate whether muscles with different patterns react differently to treatment. PMID:24651860

Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

2014-01-01

81

An upper limb robot model of children limb for cerebral palsy neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Robot therapy has emerged in the last few decades as a tool to help patients with neurological injuries relearn motor tasks and improve their quality of life. The main goal of this study was to develop a simple model of the human arm for children affected with cerebral palsy (CP). The Simulink based model presented here shows a comparison for children with and without disabilities (ages 6-15) with normal and reduced range of motion in the upper limb. The model incorporates kinematic and dynamic considerations required for activities of daily living. The simulation was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and will eventually be integrated with a robotic counterpart to develop a physical robot that will provide assistance in activities of daily life (ADLs) to children with CP while also aiming to improve motor recovery. PMID:23366294

Pathak, Yagna; Johnson, Michelle

2012-01-01

82

EEG controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the upper limb for stroke patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system and the experiments to allow post-acute (<3 months) stroke patients to use electroencephalogram (EEG) to trigger neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-assisted extension of the wrist/fingers, which are essential pre-requisites for useful hand function. EEG was recorded while subjects performed motor imagery of their paretic limb, and then analyzed to determine the optimal frequency range within the mu-rhythm, with the greatest attenuation. Aided by visual feedback, subjects then trained to regulate their mu-rhythm EEG to operate the BCI to trigger NMES of the wrist/finger. 6 post-acute stroke patients successfully completed the training, with 4 able to learn to control and use the BCI to initiate NMES. This result is consistent with the reported BCI literacy rate of healthy subjects. Thereafter, without the loss of generality, the controller of the NMES is developed and is based on a model of the upper limb muscle (biceps/triceps) groups to determine the intensity of NMES required to flex or extend the forearm by a specific angle. The muscle model is based on a phenomenological approach, with parameters that are easily measured and conveniently implemented.

Tan, Hock Guan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Kong, Keng He; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Wei Tech

2011-03-01

83

A Novel Linear PID Controller for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu and Jacob Rosen  

E-print Network

A Novel Linear PID Controller for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu and Jacob Rosen Abstract-- An upper limb exoskeleton is a wearable robotic system that is physically linked to the arm of the human. The stability of such a system is critical given the proximity of its human operator. A new PID controller

Rosen, Jacob

84

Reliability of the Performance of Upper Limb assessment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The Performance of Upper Limb was specifically designed to assess upper limb function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to assess (1) a cohort of typically developing children from the age of 3years onwards in order to identify the age when the activities assessed in the individual items are consistently achieved, and (2) a cohort of 322 Duchenne children and young adults to establish the range of findings at different ages. We collected normative data for the scale validation on 277 typically developing subjects from 3 to 25years old. A full score was consistently achieved by the age of 5years. In the Duchenne cohort there was early involvement of the proximal muscles and a proximal to distal progressive involvement. The scale was capable of measuring small distal movements, related to activities of daily living, even in the oldest and weakest patients. Our data suggest that the assessment can be reliably used in both ambulant and non ambulant Duchenne patients in a multicentric setting and could therefore be considered as an outcome measure for future trials. PMID:24440357

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Bianco, Flaviana; Sivo, Serena; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gianluca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Michela; Palermo, Concetta; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Iotti, Elena; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Morandi, Lucia; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Sormani, MariaPia; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-03-01

85

Posture-movement responses to stance perturbations and upper limb fatigue during a repetitive pointing task.  

PubMed

Localized muscle fatigue and postural perturbation have separately been shown to alter whole-body movement but little is known about how humans respond when subjected to both factors combined. Here we sought to quantify the kinematics of postural control and repetitive upper limb movement during standing surface perturbations and in the presence of fatigue. Subjects stood on a motion-based platform and repetitively reached between two shoulder-height targets until noticeably fatigued (rating of perceived exertion=8/10). Every minute, subjects experienced a posterior and an anterior platform translation while reaching to the distal target. Outcomes were compared prior to and with fatigue (first vs. final minute data). When fatigued, regardless of the perturbation condition, subjects decreased their shoulder abduction and increased contralateral trunk flexion, a strategy that may relieve the load on the fatiguing upper limb musculature. During perturbations, kinematic adaptations emerged across the trunk and arm to preserve task performance. In contrast to our expectation, the kinematic response to the perturbations did not alter in the presence of fatigue. Kinematic adaptations in response to the perturbation predominantly occurred in the direction of the reach whereas fatigue adaptations occurred orthogonal to the reach. These findings suggest that during repetitive reaching, fatigue and postural perturbation compensations organize so as to minimize interaction with each other and preserve the global task characteristics of endpoint motion. PMID:24054899

Fuller, Jason R; Fung, Joyce; Côté, Julie N

2013-08-01

86

Upper Limb Function and Cortical Organization in Youth with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Aim: To explore the relationship between motor cortical and descending motor pathway reorganization, lesion type, and upper limb function in youth with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twenty participants with unilateral CP (mean age 15?±?3?years; 11 males) completed a range of upper limb functional measures. Structural MRI, diffusion-weighted, and functional MRI were conducted to determine type and extent of brain lesion, descending white matter integrity, and whole-brain activity during affected hand use. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) (n?=?12) was used to examine functional integrity of the corticospinal pathway as well as primary motor cortex intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition from motor-evoked potentials and silent periods. Results: Fractional anisotropy measures within the posterior limb of the internal capsule were a predictor of upper limb function (R2?=?0.41, F?=?11.3, p?=?0.004). Participants with periventricular lesions tended to have better upper limb function [F(2, 17)?=?42.48, p?upper limb function. Deficits in intracortical and interhemispheric inhibitory mechanisms were found in participants with worse upper limb function (Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function: Mann Whitney p?=?0.02). Conclusion: Neuroimaging and TMS can provide useful information related to hand function of individuals with unilateral CP and may have potential to assist as a predictive tool and/or guide rehabilitation. PMID:25071705

Mackey, Anna; Stinear, Cathy; Stott, Susan; Byblow, Winston D.

2014-01-01

87

Muscle Co-Contraction Modulates Damping and Joint Stability in a Three-Link Biomechanical Limb  

PubMed Central

Computational models of neuromotor control require forward models of limb movement that can replicate the natural relationships between muscle activation and joint dynamics without the burdens of excessive anatomical detail. We present a model of a three-link biomechanical limb that emphasizes the dynamics of limb movement within a simplified two-dimensional framework. Muscle co-contraction effects were incorporated into the model by flanking each joint with a pair of antagonist muscles that may be activated independently. Muscle co-contraction is known to alter the damping and stiffness of limb joints without altering net joint torque. Idealized muscle actuators were implemented using the Voigt muscle model which incorporates the parallel elasticity of muscle and tendon but omits series elasticity. The natural force-length-velocity relationships of contractile muscle tissue were incorporated into the actuators using ideal mathematical forms. Numerical stability analysis confirmed that co-contraction of these simplified actuators increased damping in the biomechanical limb consistent with observations of human motor control. Dynamic changes in joint stiffness were excluded by the omission of series elasticity. The analysis also revealed the unexpected finding that distinct stable (bistable) equilibrium positions can co-exist under identical levels of muscle co-contraction. We map the conditions under which bistability arises and prove analytically that monostability (equifinality) is guaranteed when the antagonist muscles are identical. Lastly we verify these analytic findings in the full biomechanical limb model. PMID:22275897

Heitmann, Stewart; Ferns, Norm; Breakspear, Michael

2012-01-01

88

Benchmarking of dynamic simulation predictions in two software platforms using an upper limb musculoskeletal model.  

PubMed

Several opensource or commercially available software platforms are widely used to develop dynamic simulations of movement. While computational approaches are conceptually similar across platforms, technical differences in implementation may influence output. We present a new upper limb dynamic model as a tool to evaluate potential differences in predictive behavior between platforms. We evaluated to what extent differences in technical implementations in popular simulation software environments result in differences in kinematic predictions for single and multijoint movements using EMG- and optimization-based approaches for deriving control signals. We illustrate the benchmarking comparison using SIMM-Dynamics Pipeline-SD/Fast and OpenSim platforms. The most substantial divergence results from differences in muscle model and actuator paths. This model is a valuable resource and is available for download by other researchers. The model, data, and simulation results presented here can be used by future researchers to benchmark other software platforms and software upgrades for these two platforms. PMID:24995410

Saul, Katherine R; Hu, Xiao; Goehler, Craig M; Vidt, Meghan E; Daly, Melissa; Velisar, Anca; Murray, Wendy M

2015-10-01

89

Robotic unilateral and bilateral upper-limb movement training for stroke survivors afflicted by chronic hemiparesis.  

PubMed

Stroke is the leading cause of long-term neurological disability and the principle reason for seeking rehabilitative services in the US. Learning based rehabilitation training enables independent mobility in the majority of patients post stroke, however, restoration of fine manipulation, motor function and task specific functions of the hemiplegic arm and hand is noted in fewer than 15% of the stroke patients. Brain plasticity is the innate mechanism enabling the recovery of motor skills through neurological reorganization of the brain as a response to limbs' manipulation. The objective of this research was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy for the upper limbs with a dual arm exoskeleton system (EXO-UL7) using three different modalities: bilateral mirror image with symmetric movements of both arms, unilateral movement of the affected arm and standard care. Five hemiparetic subjects were randomly assigned to each therapy modality. An upper limb exoskeleton was used to provide bilateral and unilateral treatments. Standard care was provided by a licensed physical therapist. Subjects were evaluated before and after the interventions using 13 different clinical measures. Following these treatments all of the subjects demonstrated significant improved of their fine motor control and gross control across all the treatment modalities. Subjects exhibited significant improvements in range of motion of the shoulder, and improved muscle strength for bilateral training and standard care, but not for unilateral training. In conclusion, a synergetic approach in which robotic treatments (unilateral and bilateral depending on the level of the motor control) are supplemented by the standard of care may maximize the outcome of the motor control recover following stroke. PMID:24187321

Simkins, Matt; Kim, Hyuchul; Abrams, Gary; Byl, Nancy; Rosen, Jacob

2013-06-01

90

Upper Limb Portable Motion Analysis System Based on Inertial Technology for Neurorehabilitation Purposes  

PubMed Central

Here an inertial sensor-based monitoring system for measuring and analyzing upper limb movements is presented. The final goal is the integration of this motion-tracking device within a portable rehabilitation system for brain injury patients. A set of four inertial sensors mounted on a special garment worn by the patient provides the quaternions representing the patient upper limb’s orientation in space. A kinematic model is built to estimate 3D upper limb motion for accurate therapeutic evaluation. The human upper limb is represented as a kinematic chain of rigid bodies with three joints and six degrees of freedom. Validation of the system has been performed by co-registration of movements with a commercial optoelectronic tracking system. Successful results are shown that exhibit a high correlation among signals provided by both devices and obtained at the Institut Guttmann Neurorehabilitation Hospital. PMID:22163496

Pérez, Rodrigo; Costa, Úrsula; Torrent, Marc; Solana, Javier; Opisso, Eloy; Cáceres, César; Tormos, Josep M.; Medina, Josep; Gómez, Enrique J.

2010-01-01

91

Muscle architecture and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)  

PubMed Central

The functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) was investigated in order to assess musculoskeletal specialization related to locomotor performance. The pelvic limbs of ten ostriches were dissected and detailed measurements of all muscle tendon units of the pelvic limb were made, including muscle mass, muscle length, fascicle length, pennation angle, tendon mass and tendon length. From these measurements other muscle properties such as muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), tendon cross-sectional area, maximum isometric muscle force and tendon stress were derived, using standard relationships and published muscle data. Larger muscles tended to be located more proximally and had longer fascicle lengths and lower pennation angles. This led to an expected proximal to distal reduction in total muscle mass. An exception to this trend was the gastrocnemius muscle, which was found to have the largest volume and PCSA and also had the highest capacity for both force and power production. Generally high-power muscles were located more proximally in the limb, while some small distal muscles (tibialis cranialis and flexor perforatus digiti III), with short fibres, were found to have very high force generation capacities. The greatest proportion of pelvic muscle volume was for the hip extensors, while the highest capacity for force generation was observed in the extensors of the ankle, many of which were also in series with long tendons and thus were functionally suited to elastic energy storage. PMID:17118064

Smith, N C; Wilson, A M; Jespers, K J; Payne, R C

2006-01-01

92

Temporal alignment of electrocorticographic recordings for upper limb movement  

PubMed Central

The detection of movement-related components of the brain activity is useful in the design of brain-machine interfaces. A common approach is to classify the brain activity into a number of templates or states. To find these templates, the neural responses are averaged over each movement task. For averaging to be effective, one must assume that the neural components occur at identical times over repeated trials. However, complex arm movements such as reaching and grasping are prone to cross-trial variability due to the way movements are performed. Typically initiation time, duration of movement and movement speed are variable even as a subject tries to reproduce the same task identically across trials. Therefore, movement-related neural activity will tend to occur at different times across the trials. Due to this mismatch, the averaging of neural activity will not bring into salience movement-related components. To address this problem, we present a method of alignment that accounts for the variabilities in the way the movements are conducted. In this study, arm speed was used to align neural activity. Four subjects had electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrodes implanted over their primary motor cortex and were asked to perform reaching and retrieving tasks using the upper limb contralateral to the site of electrode implantation. The arm speeds were aligned using a non-linear transformation of the temporal axes resulting in average spectrograms with superior visualization of movement-related neural activity when compared to averaging without alignment. PMID:25628522

Talakoub, Omid; Popovic, Milos R.; Navaro, Jessie; Hamani, Clement; Fonoff, Erich T.; Wong, Willy

2015-01-01

93

Upper limb malformations in chromosome 22q11 deletions  

SciTech Connect

We read with interest the report of Cormier-Daire et al. in a recent issue of the journal, describing upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. We observed a family with this group of rare clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. The proposita was examined in our clinic when she was 4 years old. She was mildly mentally retarded. Clinical evaluation showed normal growth, long thin nose with squared tip, nasal speech, and abundant scalp hair and no cardiac anomalies. The girl was accompanied by her mother. Facial similarities were noted between the two. The mother reported to be treated with oral calcium due to hypoparathyroidism, diagnosed several years ago. Clinical evaluation showed wide flat face, short stature, mild mental retardation, slight hypertelorism, peculiar nose similar to her daughter`s, and nasal speech. No cardiac anomalies were found. Recently, a brother was born. Clinical examination documented large ventriculo-septal defect, retrognathia, narrow palpebral fissures, and long thin nose with squared tip. 1 ref.

Shalev, S.A.; Dar, H.; Barel, H.; Borochowitz, Z. [Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa (Israel)

1996-03-29

94

A report of 18 blackthorn injuries of the upper limb.  

PubMed

This study aims to analyse various manifestations and to evaluate the clinical outcome in the patients who had exploratory procedures following blackthorn (Prunus spinosus) injury. We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 18 patients admitted between April 1997 and March 2001 to a District General Hospital of the UK. In all the cases, the site of injury was the upper limb. The mean age at presentation was 39.1 years. There was a male predominance (83.33%) and a marginal right side preponderance. The majority of the patients (83.33%) presented between March and August, which correlates with hedge-cutting time. The mean delay in presentation was 3 days (range: 1-14 days). The final postoperative outcome was satisfactory in all cases. We conclude that conservative treatment alone failed to resolve the symptoms. We recommend that all patients presenting with a history of blackthorn injury should undergo an immediate and thorough exploration to avoid undue complications. PMID:15302250

Sharma, Himanshu; Meredith, A D

2004-09-01

95

Development of risk filter and risk assessment worksheets for HSE guidance—‘Upper Limb Disorders in the Workplace’ 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper limb disorders (ULDs) in the workplace represent a significant cause of ill health in Great Britain. As part of the Health and Safety Commission's strategy for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), the well known guidance document on ULDs—“Work-related Upper Limb Disorders: a Guide to Prevention” (HSG60), (HMSO, London.), has been extensively revised. This revision (Upper limb disorders in

Rod J Graves; David Riley; Clare Lawton; Len Morris

2004-01-01

96

A study of the anthropometric correlations between upper limb measurements for personal identification in Sudanese population.  

PubMed

The presence of multiple isolated commingled fleshed limbs or limb parts generates a significant challenge for forensic investigators in wars, mass disasters, and criminal assaults in the process of identification. Although upper limb measurements have been used to establish individual identity in terms of sex and stature with high success, there is a scarcity of data concerning the correlations within upper limb parts. Hence, this study aims to assess the relationships within upper limb parts and develop regression formulae to reconstruct the parts from one another. The study participants were 376 Sudanese adults (187 males and 189 females). The results of this study indicated significant sexual dimorphism for all variables. The results indicated a significant correlation within the upper limb parts. Linear and multiple regression equations were developed to reconstruct the upper limb parts in the presence of a single or multiple dimension(s) from the identical limb. Multiple regression equations generated better reconstructions than simple equations. These results are significant in forensics and orthopedic reconstructive surgery. PMID:25277498

Ahmed, A A

2014-12-01

97

Cancer cachexia decreases specific force and accelerates fatigue in limb muscle  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle absolute force. •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle specific force. •C-26 cancer cachexia decreases fatigue resistance in the soleus muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs time to peak twitch tension in limb muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs one half twitch relaxation time in limb muscle. -- Abstract: Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. However, more recently, we provided evidence that during severe cancer cachexia muscle weakness in the diaphragm muscle cannot be entirely accounted for by the muscle atrophy. This indicates that muscle weakness is not just a consequence of muscle atrophy but that there is also significant contractile dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine whether contractile dysfunction is also present in limb muscles during severe Colon-26 (C26) carcinoma cachexia by studying the glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the oxidative soleus muscle, which has an activity pattern that more closely resembles the diaphragm. Severe C-26 cancer cachexia caused significant muscle fiber atrophy and a reduction in maximum absolute force in both the EDL and soleus muscles. However, normalization to muscle cross sectional area further demonstrated a 13% decrease in maximum isometric specific force in the EDL and an even greater decrease (17%) in maximum isometric specific force in the soleus. Time to peak tension and half relaxation time were also significantly slowed in both the EDL and the solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. Since, in addition to postural control, the oxidative soleus is also important for normal locomotion, we further performed a fatigue trial in the soleus and found that the decrease in relative force was greater and more rapid in solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. These data demonstrate that severe cancer cachexia causes profound muscle weakness that is not entirely explained by the muscle atrophy. In addition, cancer cachexia decreases the fatigue resistance of the soleus muscle, a postural muscle typically resistant to fatigue. Thus, specifically targeting contractile dysfunction represents an additional means to counter muscle weakness in cancer cachexia, in addition to targeting the prevention of muscle atrophy.

Roberts, B.M. [1225 Center Drive, HPNP Building Room 1142, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)] [1225 Center Drive, HPNP Building Room 1142, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Frye, G.S.; Ahn, B.; Ferreira, L.F. [1864 Stadium Road, Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)] [1864 Stadium Road, Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Judge, A.R., E-mail: arjudge@phhp.ufl.edu [1225 Center Drive, HPNP Building Room 1142, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

2013-06-07

98

Bilateral upper limb digital gangrene in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Upper limb gangrene is uncommon compared to lower limb gangrene. But digital gangrene is seen occasionally in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Of the various causes described, atherosclerosis, diabetic vascular disease, following AV fistula surgery were few of the causes. Herein, we report a case of development of early digital gangrene following AV fistula in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:24956933

Bathini, Gangadhar; Yadla, Manjusha; Burri, Srikanth; Bottu, Malleshwar; Kamalapuram, Bhanuprasad; Chada, Ramesh; Deshpande, Pradeep

2014-09-01

99

The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion  

PubMed Central

Muscles have two major roles in locomotion: to generate force and to absorb/generate power (do work). Economical force generation is achieved by short-fibred pennate muscle while the maximum power output of a muscle is architecture independent. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there is an anatomical and structural separation between the force-generating anti-gravity muscles and the propulsive (limb/trunk moving) muscles of the equine forelimb. Muscle mass and fascicle length measurements were made on the thoracic limb extrinsic muscles of six fresh horse cadavers. Physiological cross-sectional area and maximum isometric force were then estimated. Maximum power was estimated from muscle volume and published contraction velocity data. The majority of extrinsic forelimb muscles were large with long fascicles arranged in parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Muscles arranged in this way are optimised for doing work. The architecture of serratus ventralis thoracis (SVT) was unique. It had short (48 ± 17 mm) fascicles, arranged at about 45° to the long axis of the muscle, which would suggest a force-generating, anti-gravity role. The muscle belly of SVT was sandwiched between two broad, thick sheets of aponeurosis. Hence, SVT could make a significant contribution to the overall elastic properties of the thoracic limb. PMID:15730484

Payne, RC; Veenman, P; Wilson, AM

2005-01-01

100

The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion.  

PubMed

Muscles have two major roles in locomotion: to generate force and to absorb/generate power (do work). Economical force generation is achieved by short-fibred pennate muscle while the maximum power output of a muscle is architecture independent. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there is an anatomical and structural separation between the force-generating anti-gravity muscles and the propulsive (limb/trunk moving) muscles of the equine forelimb. Muscle mass and fascicle length measurements were made on the thoracic limb extrinsic muscles of six fresh horse cadavers. Physiological cross-sectional area and maximum isometric force were then estimated. Maximum power was estimated from muscle volume and published contraction velocity data. The majority of extrinsic forelimb muscles were large with long fascicles arranged in parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Muscles arranged in this way are optimised for doing work. The architecture of serratus ventralis thoracis (SVT) was unique. It had short (48 +/- 17 mm) fascicles, arranged at about 45 degrees to the long axis of the muscle, which would suggest a force-generating, anti-gravity role. The muscle belly of SVT was sandwiched between two broad, thick sheets of aponeurosis. Hence, SVT could make a significant contribution to the overall elastic properties of the thoracic limb. PMID:15610395

Payne, R C; Veenman, P; Wilson, A M

2004-12-01

101

The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion  

PubMed Central

Muscles have two major roles in locomotion: to generate force and to absorb/generate power (do work). Economical force generation is achieved by short-fibred pennate muscle while the maximum power output of a muscle is architecture independent. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there is an anatomical and structural separation between the force-generating anti-gravity muscles and the propulsive (limb/trunk moving) muscles of the equine forelimb. Muscle mass and fascicle length measurements were made on the thoracic limb extrinsic muscles of six fresh horse cadavers. Physiological cross-sectional area and maximum isometric force were then estimated. Maximum power was estimated from muscle volume and published contraction velocity data. The majority of extrinsic forelimb muscles were large with long fascicles arranged in parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Muscles arranged in this way are optimised for doing work. The architecture of serratus ventralis thoracis (SVT) was unique. It had short (48 ± 17 mm) fascicles, arranged at about 45° to the long axis of the muscle, which would suggest a force-generating, anti-gravity role. The muscle belly of SVT was sandwiched between two broad, thick sheets of aponeurosis. Hence, SVT could make a significant contribution to the overall elastic properties of the thoracic limb. PMID:15610395

Payne, R C; Veenman, P; Wilson, A M

2004-01-01

102

The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion.  

PubMed

Muscles have two major roles in locomotion: to generate force and to absorb/generate power (do work). Economical force generation is achieved by short-fibred pennate muscle while the maximum power output of a muscle is architecture independent. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there is an anatomical and structural separation between the force-generating anti-gravity muscles and the propulsive (limb/trunk moving) muscles of the equine forelimb. Muscle mass and fascicle length measurements were made on the thoracic limb extrinsic muscles of six fresh horse cadavers. Physiological cross-sectional area and maximum isometric force were then estimated. Maximum power was estimated from muscle volume and published contraction velocity data. The majority of extrinsic forelimb muscles were large with long fascicles arranged in parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Muscles arranged in this way are optimised for doing work. The architecture of serratus ventralis thoracis (SVT) was unique. It had short (48 +/- 17 mm) fascicles, arranged at about 45 degrees to the long axis of the muscle, which would suggest a force-generating, anti-gravity role. The muscle belly of SVT was sandwiched between two broad, thick sheets of aponeurosis. Hence, SVT could make a significant contribution to the overall elastic properties of the thoracic limb. PMID:15730484

Payne, R C; Veenman, P; Wilson, A M

2005-02-01

103

Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS) protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10) in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) and surface electromyography (sEMG) of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and vastus lateralis (VL) were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD). ANOVA (2x2) (group x condition) was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001). A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control) for peak force for control group (p = 0.045). Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched) or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching) for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL). In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation. Key points The jump performance can be affected negatively by an intense extensive static-stretching protocol. An intense acute extensive SS protocol can affect positively the shoulder ROM. The intense acute extensive SS protocol does not change the level of muscle activation for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis. PMID:25435789

Marchetti, Paulo H.; Silva, Fernando H. D. de Oliveira; Soares, Enrico G.; Serpa, Érica P.; Nardi, Priscyla S. M.; Vilela, Guanis de B.; Behm, David G.

2014-01-01

104

Upper limb static-stretching protocol decreases maximal concentric jump performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS) protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10) in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) and surface electromyography (sEMG) of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and vastus lateralis (VL) were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD). ANOVA (2x2) (group x condition) was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001). A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control) for peak force for control group (p = 0.045). Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched) or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching) for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL). In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation. Key pointsThe jump performance can be affected negatively by an intense extensive static-stretching protocol.An intense acute extensive SS protocol can affect positively the shoulder ROM.The intense acute extensive SS protocol does not change the level of muscle activation for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis. PMID:25435789

Marchetti, Paulo H; Silva, Fernando H D de Oliveira; Soares, Enrico G; Serpa, Erica P; Nardi, Priscyla S M; Vilela, Guanis de B; Behm, David G

2014-12-01

105

Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Method Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively) and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower). RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively). In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF) was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population. PMID:24675908

Machado-Vidotti, Heloisa G.; Mendes, Renata G.; Simões, Rodrigo P.; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

2014-01-01

106

An upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton using proportional myoelectric control.  

PubMed

We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:24727501

Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang

2014-01-01

107

Effects of disuse by limb immobilization on different muscle fiber types  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of disuse by limb immobilization on different muscle fiber types are reviewed. It is demonstrated that many changes occurring in atrophying skeletal muscles of young rats can be explained by the duration of the half-lives of muscle proteins. Differences are found to exist in responses of fast- and slow-twitch muscles due to disuse atrophy, and the appearance of plasticity in skeletal muscle begins to occur very soon after changes in the level of contractile activity. Rates of protein degradation increase in slow-twitch muscles at rapidly growing rates after approximately one day of limb immobilization; however, no change in the rates of protein degradation is noted in fast-twitch muscles of young rats.

Booth, F. W.; Seider, M. J.; Hugman, G. R.

1980-01-01

108

Prevalence and determinants of pain in the ipsilateral upper limb of stroke patients (.).  

PubMed

Summary.-This study investigated the prevalence of pain in the ipsilateral upper-limb in stroke patients. 229 stroke patients (133 men, 96 women; M age = 59.0 yr., SD = 12.4) were assessed with the Pain Behaviors Scales and their motor weakness was measured with the Motricity Index. Results indicated that over 27% of patients experienced pain in at least one joint of the ipsilateral upper limb. Shoulder pain was the most common. Further analysis indicated that the occurrence of pain in the ipsilateral upper limb was higher among women, among patients who used a cane, and among patients with a greater weakness of the affected lower limb. PMID:25387036

Kwon, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Won; Lee, Na Kyung; Kang, Kyung Woo; Son, Sung Min

2014-12-01

109

Autonomous and nonautonomous roles of Hedgehog signaling in regulating limb muscle formation  

PubMed Central

Muscle progenitor cells migrate from the lateral somites into the developing vertebrate limb, where they undergo patterning and differentiation in response to local signals. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted molecule made in the posterior limb bud that affects patterning and development of multiple tissues, including skeletal muscles. However, the cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions of Shh during limb muscle formation have remained unclear. We found that Shh affects the pattern of limb musculature non-cell-autonomously, acting through adjacent nonmuscle mesenchyme. However, Shh plays a cell-autonomous role in maintaining cell survival in the dermomyotome and initiating early activation of the myogenic program in the ventral limb. At later stages, Shh promotes slow muscle differentiation cell-autonomously. In addition, Shh signaling is required cell-autonomously to regulate directional muscle cell migration in the distal limb. We identify neuroepithelial cell transforming gene 1 (Net1) as a downstream target and effector of Shh signaling in that context. PMID:22987639

Hu, Jimmy Kuang-Hsien; McGlinn, Edwina; Harfe, Brian D.; Kardon, Gabrielle; Tabin, Clifford J.

2012-01-01

110

The activity pattern of limb muscles in freely moving normal and deafferented newts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar silver electrodes were implanted into eight forelimb muscles of normal and deafferented newts. In freely moving animals muscle potentials were recorded with the aid of a Hellige EEG apparatus combined with a set of transistorized preamplifiers of high input impedance. The steps, as the animals lifted up and put down the limb, were electrically signalled. The myograms revealed a

Gy. Székely; G. Czéh; Gy. Vöeös

1969-01-01

111

Gait and upper limb variability in Parkinson's disease patients with and without freezing of gait.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) (freezers) demonstrate high gait variability. The objective of this study was to determine whether freezers display a higher variability of upper limb movements and elucidate if these changes correlate with gait. We were the first group to compare directly objectively measured gait and upper limb movement variability of freezers between freezing episodes. Patients with objectively verified FOG (n = 11) and PD patients without FOG (non-freezers) (n = 11) in a non-randomized medication condition (OFF/ON) were analyzed. Uncued antiphasic finger tapping and forearm diadochokinetic movements were analyzed via three-dimensional ultrasound kinematic measurements. Gait variability of straight gait was assessed using ground reaction forces. Freezers had shorter stride length (p = 0.004) and higher stride length variability (p = 0.005) in the medication OFF condition. Movement variability was not different during finger tapping or diadochokinesia between the groups. There was a trend towards more freezing of the upper limb during finger tapping for the freezers (p = 0.07). Variability in stride length generation and stride timing was not associated with variability of upper limb movement in freezers. Our findings demonstrate that: (1) freezers have a higher spatial gait variability between freezing episodes; (2) freezing-like episodes of the upper limb occur in PD patients, and tend to be more pronounced among freezers than non-freezers for finger tapping; (3) spatial and temporal upper extremity variability is equally affected in freezers and non-freezers in an uncued task. Upper limb freezing is not correlated to lower limb freezing, implicating a different pathophysiology. PMID:24305993

Barbe, Michael T; Amarell, Martin; Snijders, Anke H; Florin, Esther; Quatuor, Eva-Lotte; Schönau, Eckhard; Fink, Gereon R; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Timmermann, Lars

2014-02-01

112

PID Admittance Control for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu, Jacob Rosen, Xiaoou Li  

E-print Network

method of PID gains. I. INTRODUCTION Exoskeletons could be regarded as wearable robots, which are wornPID Admittance Control for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu, Jacob Rosen, Xiaoou Li Abstract PID control. Three force sensors in the upper-level send desired trajectories to the lower

Rosen, Jacob

113

Thermographic Patterns of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Baseline Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency. PMID:25648145

Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Kenneth P.; De Raffaele, Clifford; Mizzi, Stephen; Cristina, Stefania

2015-01-01

114

Thermographic patterns of the upper and lower limbs: baseline data.  

PubMed

Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency. PMID:25648145

Gatt, Alfred; Formosa, Cynthia; Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Kenneth P; De Raffaele, Clifford; Mizzi, Anabelle; Azzopardi, Carl; Mizzi, Stephen; Falzon, Owen; Cristina, Stefania; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

2015-01-01

115

Activation of upper airway muscles during breathing and swallowing  

PubMed Central

The upper airway is a complex muscular tube that is used by the respiratory and digestive systems. The upper airway is invested with several small and anatomically peculiar muscles. The muscle fiber orientations and their nervous innervation are both extremely complex, and how the activity of the muscles is initiated and adjusted during complex behaviors is poorly understood. The bulk of the evidence suggests that the entire assembly of tongue and laryngeal muscles operate together but differently during breathing and swallowing, like a ballet rather than a solo performance. Here we review the functional anatomy of the tongue and laryngeal muscles, and their neural innervation. We also consider how muscular activity is altered as respiratory drive changes, and briefly address upper airway muscle control during swallowing. PMID:24092695

Ludlow, Christy L.

2013-01-01

116

Upper limb posture estimation in robotic and virtual reality-based rehabilitation.  

PubMed

New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation. PMID:25110698

Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F; Cuesta-Gómez, A; Unzueta, Luis; Epelde, Gorka; Ruiz, Oscar E; De Mauro, Alessandro; Florez, Julian

2014-01-01

117

The sensitivity of a lower limb model to axial rotation offsets and muscle bounds at the knee  

PubMed Central

Soft tissue artifacts during motion capture can lead to errors in kinematics and incorrect estimation of joint angles and segment motion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shank segment axial rotation and knee rotator muscle bounds on predicted muscle and joint forces in a musculoskeletal model of the lower limb. A maximal height jump for ten subjects was analysed using the original motion data and then modified for different levels of internal and external rotation, and with the upper force bound doubled for five muscles. Both externally rotating the shank and doubling the muscle bounds increased the ability of the model to find a solution in regions of high loading. Muscle force levels in popliteus and tensor fascia latae showed statistically significant differences, but less so in plantaris, sartorius or gracilis. The shear and patellofemoral joint forces were found to be significantly affected by axial rotation during specific phases of the motion and were dependent on the amount of rotation. Fewer differences were observed when doubling the muscle bounds, except for the patellofemoral force and plantaris and sartorius muscle force, which were significantly increased in many of the jump phases. These results give an insight into the behaviour of the model and give an indication of the importance of accurate kinematics and subject-specific geometry. PMID:23025166

Cleather, Daniel J; Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony MJ

2012-01-01

118

[Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the upper airway muscles].  

PubMed

Pharyngeal muscles are prone to distorsion during inspiratory negative pressure. Some pharyngeal muscles, called pharyngeal dilatators, exhibit tonic and/or phasic inspiratory activity. At the velar level, tensor palatini, glossopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus and musculus uvula drive the airflow towards nasal or buccal breathing. Genioglossus and geniohyoid muscles exert a forward propulsion to the tongue. The contraction of the dilatators muscles precedes the diaphram contraction. These muscles show a poor endurance. In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, they contract during unfavorable metabolic (hypoxia and hypercapnia) as well as mechanical (excentrical contraction) conditions. Histological changes occur in upper airway dilator muscles: muscle volume and proportion of type Ila fibers are increased. These changes, considered as compensatory mechanisms, are variable within the different studied pharyngeal muscles. The initial pharyngeal obstructive site, and its further extension, could be determined by the different strength and endurance properties of these muscles. PMID:11924045

Fleury, B; Hausser-Hauw, C; Chabolle, F

2001-11-01

119

Rhesus monkey is a new model of secondary lymphedema in the upper limb  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study is to establish the rhesus monkey model of lymphedema in the upper limbs, and assess the suitability of this model. Methods: An animal model of lymphedema was established by the combined irradiation and surgical techniques in the upper limbs of these rhesus monkeys. Physical examination, high-resolution MR lymphangiography, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine the severity of the edema in the upper limbs of the animal model. Results: Our results from physical examination indicated that the rhesus monkey model present with typical appearance and features of lymphedema. MR lymphangiography further demonstrated pathologically modified lymphatic vessels in our rhesus monkey model. BIA revealed increased water content in the upper limb in these rhesus monkeys, which was in line with the pathology of lymphedema. Immunohistochemical staining showed the curvature of the lymphatic vessels in the rhesus monkey model, typical pathological changes in lymphedema. Conclusion: Rhesus monkey lymphedema model provides a more consistent background to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disease. This new model would help to increase our understanding of acquired upper limb lymphedema, and promote the development of new treatments for this intractable disorder. PMID:25337207

Wu, Guojun; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Wenhong; Yuan, Xianshun; Yang, Zhe; Yang, Qing; Ding, Feng; Meng, Zhigang; Liang, Weili; Geng, Chong; Gao, Ling; Tian, Xingsong

2014-01-01

120

Clinical evaluation of upper limb function: Patient’s impairment, disability and health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Musculoskeletal disorders substantially impacts physical activity, mental state, and quality of life (QOL). Generally, comprehensive assessment of upper limb function requires measures of impairment or disability as well as health-related quality of life. A growing number of outcome instrument have been introduced to evaluate upper limb function and disability, and these measures can be categorized as patient- or clinician-based, and as condition specific or general health-related QOL evaluations. The upper limb outcome instruments reviewed in this article assess different aspect of upper limb conditions, and the measures are affected by differences in cultural, psychological, and gender aspect of illness perception and behavior. Therefore, physician should select/interpret the outcome instruments addressing their primary purpose of research. Information about regional instruments for upper limb condition and health-related QOL in upper limb disorder may help us in decision-making for treatment priority or in interpretation of the treatment outcomes. PMID:24278892

Roh, Young Hak

2013-01-01

121

An upper limb mathematical model of an oil palm harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. In this paper, a 2-D closed-kinematic biomechanical model that represents a harvesting movement is developed. The model of six segments consisted of upper right arm, right forearm, harvesting equipment, left forearm, upper left arm, and upper part of trunk. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in matrix form.

Tumit, N. P.; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh, Y. M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail, I. A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.

2014-09-01

122

Advances in upper limb stroke rehabilitation: a technology push  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strokes affect thousands of people worldwide leaving sufferers with severe disabilities affecting their daily activities.\\u000a In recent years, new rehabilitation techniques have emerged such as constraint-induced therapy, biofeedback therapy and robot-aided\\u000a therapy. In particular, robotic techniques allow precise recording of movements and application of forces to the affected\\u000a limb, making it a valuable tool for motor rehabilitation. In addition, robot-aided

Rui C. V. LoureiroWilliam; William S. Harwin; Kiyoshi Nagai; Michelle Johnson

123

Passive resting state and history of antagonist muscle activity shape active extensions in an insect limb  

PubMed Central

Limb movements can be driven by muscle contractions, external forces, or intrinsic passive forces. For lightweight limbs like those of insects or small vertebrates, passive forces can be large enough to overcome the effects of gravity and may even generate limb movements in the absence of active muscle contractions. Understanding the sources and actions of such forces is therefore important in understanding motor control. We describe passive properties of the femur-tibia joint of the locust hind leg. The resting angle is determined primarily by passive properties of the relatively large extensor tibiae muscle and is influenced by the history of activation of the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron. The resting angle is therefore better described as a history-dependent resting state. We selectively stimulated different flexor tibiae motor neurons to generate a range of isometric contractions of the flexor tibiae muscle and then stimulated the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron to elicit active tibial extensions. Residual forces in the flexor muscle have only a small effect on subsequent active extensions, but the effect is larger for distal than for proximal flexor motor neurons and varies with the strength of flexor activation. We conclude that passive properties of a lightweight limb make substantial and complex contributions to the resting state of the limb that must be taken into account in the patterning of neuronal control signals driving its active movements. Low variability in the effects of the passive forces may permit the nervous system to accurately predict their contributions to behavior. PMID:22357791

Ache, Jan M.

2012-01-01

124

The contribution of upper limb and total body movement to adolescents’ energy expenditure whilst playing Nintendo Wii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research documents the contribution of upper limb and total body movement to energy expenditure (EE) during active\\u000a video gaming. To address this, EE, heart rate (HR), and, upper limb and total body movement were assessed in 11- to 17-year-old\\u000a adolescents whilst playing three active (Nintendo Wii) and one sedentary (XBOX 360) video games. Non-dominant upper limb activity,\\u000a EE and

Lee E. F. Graves; Nicola D. Ridgers; Gareth Stratton

2008-01-01

125

Effects of 8-week in-season plyometric training on upper and lower limb performance of elite adolescent handball players.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that replacement of a part of the normal in-season regimen of top-level adolescent handball players by an 8-week biweekly course of lower and upper limb plyometric training would enhance characteristics important to competition, including peak power output (Wpeak), jump performance, muscle volume, and ball throwing velocity. Study participants (23 men, age: 17.4 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 79.9 ± 11.5 kg, height: 1.79 ± 6.19 m, body fat: 13.8 ± 2.1%) were randomly assigned between controls (C; n = 11) and an experimental group (E, n = 12). Measures preintervention and postintervention included force-velocity ergometer tests for upper (Wupper peak) and lower limbs (Wlower peak), force platform determinations of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) characteristics (jump height, maximal force, initial velocity, and average power), video filming of sprint velocities (first step [V1S], first 5 m [V5m], and 25-30 m [Vmax]), and anthropometric estimates of leg muscle volume. E showed gains relative to C in Wupper peak and Wlower peak (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001), SJ (height p < 0.01; force p ? 0.05), CMJ (height p < 0.01; force p < 0.01 and relative power p ? 0.05), and sprint velocities (p < 0.001 for V1S, V5m, and Vmax). E also showed increases in leg and thigh muscle volumes (p < 0.001), but arm muscle volumes did not differ from control. We conclude that introduction of biweekly plyometric training into the standard regimen improved components important to handball performance, particularly explosive actions, such as sprinting, jumping, and ball throwing velocity. PMID:24149768

Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy J

2014-05-01

126

Prevention of upper limb symptoms and signs of nerve afflictions in computer operators: The effect of intervention by stretching  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous study of computer operators we have demonstrated the relation of upper limb pain to individual and patterns of neurological findings (reduced function of muscles, sensory deviations from normal and mechanical allodynia of nerve trunks). The identified patterns were in accordance with neural afflictions at three specific locations (brachial plexus at chord level, posterior interosseous and median nerve on elbow level). We have introduced an intervention program aiming to mobilize nerves at these locations and tested its efficacy. Methods 125 and 59, respectively, computer operators in two divisions of an engineering consultancy company were invited to answer a questionnaire on upper limb symptoms and to undergo a blinded neurological examination. Participants in one division were subsequently instructed to participate in an upper limb stretching course at least three times during workdays in a six month period. Subjects from the other division served as controls. At the end of the intervention both groups were invited to a second identical evaluation by questionnaire and physical examination. Symptoms and findings were studied in the right upper limb. Perceived changes of pain were recorded and individual and patterns of physical findings assessed for both groups at baseline and at follow-up. In subjects with no or minimal preceding pain we additionally studied the relation of incident pain to the summarized findings for parameters contained in the definition of nerve affliction at the three locations. Results Summarized pain was significantly reduced in the intervention group but unchanged in controls. After the intervention, fewer neurological abnormalities in accordance with nerve affliction were recorded for the whole material but no conclusion could be drawn regarding the relation to the intervention of this reduction. Incident pain correlated to findings in accordance with the three locations of nerve affliction. Conclusion A six month course of stretching seems to reduce upper limb symptoms in computer operators but we could not demonstrate an influence on neurological physical findings in this sample. The relation of incident symptoms to identified neurological patterns provides additional support to the construct validity of the employed neurological examination. PMID:18179682

Jepsen, Jorgen R; Thomsen, Gert

2008-01-01

127

[Excitability of cervical lower motoneuron in juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper limb].  

PubMed

We investigated excitability of cervical lower motoneurons in 18 patients with juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper limb (Hirayama's disease), by F wave analysis and electrophysiological estimation of the number of motor units in the abductor pollicis brevis muscles of the affected side. In all the 18 patients, F wave persistencies and numbers of motor units were decreased, whereas amplitudes of single motor unit potentials were increased, compared to those of age-matched normal controls. Patients in a progressive phase showed markedly decreased F wave persistencies, overwhelming the degree of decreases in numbers of motor units. In half of them, F waves were significantly increased in number during neck flexion. On the other hand, patients treated with neck brace and patients having stabilized symptoms with longer duration showed F wave persistence reduction corresponded to the degree of the motor unit loss, and no changes in F wave persistencies in a posture of neck flexion. These results suggest that the disorder is characterized by decreased excitabilities of survived cervical anterior horn cells, as well as denervation and reinnervation, presumably resulting from local compression or circulatory failure by anterior shift of the posterior dural wall during neck flexion. PMID:7729090

Kuwabara, S; Nakajima, M; Tokumaru, Y; Hirayama, K

1994-11-01

128

Functional Brain Correlates of Upper Limb Spasticity and Its Mitigation following Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Survivors.  

PubMed

Background. Arm spasticity is a challenge in the care of chronic stroke survivors with motor deficits. In order to advance spasticity treatments, a better understanding of the mechanism of spasticity-related neuroplasticity is needed. Objective. To investigate brain function correlates of spasticity in chronic stroke and to identify specific regional functional brain changes related to rehabilitation-induced mitigation of spasticity. Methods. 23 stroke survivors (>6 months) were treated with an arm motor learning and spasticity therapy (5?d/wk for 12 weeks). Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth scale, sensory tests, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for wrist and hand movement. Results. First, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with poorer motor function (P = 0.001) and greater sensory deficits (P = 0.003). Second, rehabilitation produced improvement in upper limb spasticity and motor function (P < 0.0001). Third, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with higher fMRI activation in the ipsilesional thalamus (rho = 0.49, P = 0.03). Fourth, following rehabilitation, greater mitigation of spasticity correlated with enhanced fMRI activation in the contralesional primary motor (r = -0.755, P = 0.003), premotor (r = -0.565, P = 0.04), primary sensory (r = -0.614, P = 0.03), and associative sensory (r = -0.597, P = 0.03) regions while controlling for changes in motor function. Conclusions. Contralesional motor regions may contribute to restoring control of muscle tone in chronic stroke. PMID:25101190

Pundik, Svetlana; Falchook, Adam D; McCabe, Jessica; Litinas, Krisanne; Daly, Janis J

2014-01-01

129

Assessment of neuromuscular activation of the upper limbs in children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy during a dynamical task.  

PubMed

This study compared the intensity, co-activity and frequency content of the electromyography (EMG) signals recorded bilaterally from six muscles of the upper limbs in children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy (SHCP) and typically developing (TD) children during a bilateral movement. It was found that children with SHCP executed the bimanual circular movement with higher intensities of mean neuromuscular activity in both arms compared to TD children. Furthermore, the movement was performed with longer phases of concentric and eccentric activity in children with SHCP, indicating more co-activation, especially in the more impaired arm. The EMG signals yielded a higher mean power frequency in all the muscles of the more impaired arm and the wrist and elbow flexors of the less impaired arm, which was interpreted as a relatively higher contribution of type II muscle fibres compared to TD children. These observations suggest that in children with SHCP bimanual coordination requires higher neuromuscular activation in the muscles of both arms. Furthermore, SHCP also seems to involve structural changes to the muscle properties, which differ between arms. PMID:19666231

Feltham, Max G; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

2010-06-01

130

Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the thoracic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris)  

PubMed Central

We provide quantitative muscle–tendon architecture and geometry data for the racing greyhound thoracic limb. Muscle mass, belly length, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms were measured, as were tendon masses and lengths. Maximum isometric force and maximum power were estimated for muscles, and maximum stress and strain were estimated for tendons. Results are compared with other fast quadrupedal runners, and to previously published data in mixed-breed dogs. The implications of the functional adaptations of the greyhound thoracic limb for sprinting performance are discussed. The thoracic limb was found to benefit from a similar proportion of locomotor muscle mass to the pelvic limb, suggesting that it may be used to some extent in propulsion, or alternatively that stabilisation is very important in this animal. Extrinsic muscles, especially latissimus dorsi and pectoralis profundus, were predicted to be powerful and important for generating net positive work during accelerations. Proximal biarticular muscles show specialisation toward preventing collapse of the shoulder and elbow joints to enable strut-like limb function, or some form of dynamic control. Distal muscles did not appear specialised for elastic energy storage, a functional difference to pelvic limb muscles, and the equivalents in horse thoracic limbs. The greyhound thoracic limb appears to possess substantial differences from both that of more ‘sub-maximal specialist’ quadrupeds, and from the greyhound pelvic limb. PMID:19034998

Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Daynes, J; Peckham, K; Payne, R C

2008-01-01

131

A Brain Motor Control Assessment (BMCA) Protocol for Upper Limb Function  

PubMed Central

The Brain Motor Control Assessment (BMCA) protocol is a surface electromyography (sEMG)-based measure of motor output from central nervous system during a variety of reflex and voluntary motor tasks performed under strictly controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BMCA protocol for upper limb with the addition of shoulder voluntary tasks. The voluntary response index (VRI) was calculated from quantitative analysis of sEMG data during defined voluntary movement in neurologically intact people for comparison with that of patients after neurological injuries. The BMCA protocol included one bilateral and 4 unilateral voluntary tasks at different joints of both arms. The VRI, measured from 19 neurologically intact participants, comprises the total muscle activity recorded for the voluntary motor task (magnitude). The calculated similarity index (SI) for each phase of each task show the similarity of “the distribution of activity across the recorded muscles” for that task in this group off participants. Results: The VRI magnitude values from right and left sides for different tasks showed no significant difference (ANOVA: FSide: 0.09, P?=?0.77). Therefore these values were pooled before calculating SI. SI values were higher for tasks against gravity: elbow flexion (0.99±0.03), wrist flexion with palm up (0.98±0.03) and wrist extension with palm down (0.97±0.07). On the other hand, the SI values were the lowest for bilateral shoulder abduction (0.84±0.08) and shoulder adduction (0.84±0.08). Conclusion: To validate this index for clinical use, serial studies on patients with neurological impairments should be performed. Tasks involving movement against gravity may be more suitable in future BMCAs. PMID:24223953

Zoghi, Maryam; Galea, Mary; Morgan, David

2013-01-01

132

The application of precisely controlled functional electrical stimulation to the shoulder, elbow and wrist for upper limb stroke rehabilitation: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES) during repetitive practice of everyday tasks can facilitate recovery of upper limb function following stroke. Reduction in impairment is strongly associated with how closely FES assists performance, with advanced iterative learning control (ILC) technology providing precise upper-limb assistance. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of extending ILC technology to control FES of three muscle groups in the upper limb to facilitate functional motor recovery post-stroke. Methods Five stroke participants with established hemiplegia undertook eighteen intervention sessions, each of one hour duration. During each session FES was applied to the anterior deltoid, triceps, and wrist/finger extensors to assist performance of functional tasks with real-objects, including closing a drawer and pressing a light switch. Advanced model-based ILC controllers used kinematic data from previous attempts at each task to update the FES applied to each muscle on the subsequent trial. This produced stimulation profiles that facilitated accurate completion of each task while encouraging voluntary effort by the participant. Kinematic data were collected using a Microsoft Kinect, and mechanical arm support was provided by a SaeboMAS. Participants completed Fugl-Meyer and Action Research Arm Test clinical assessments pre- and post-intervention, as well as FES-unassisted tasks during each intervention session. Results Fugl-Meyer and Action Research Arm Test scores both significantly improved from pre- to post-intervention by 4.4 points. Improvements were also found in FES-unassisted performance, and the amount of arm support required to successfully perform the tasks was reduced. Conclusions This feasibility study indicates that technology comprising low-cost hardware fused with advanced FES controllers accurately assists upper limb movement and may reduce upper limb impairments following stroke. PMID:24981060

2014-01-01

133

Basic Research on the Upper Limb Patient Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of rehabilitation, physical therapist plays an important role to resume the social life from disease and physical handicap. However, they can obtain their skills only from their practical experiences. The trainee of the physical therapist can earn the experience only from the clinical practical training, and the opportunity is limited. Therefore, we have been developing the upper

Tomohiro Fujisawa; Motoki Takagi; Yoshiyuki Takahashi; K. Inoue; T. Terada; Y. Kawakami; T. Komeda

2007-01-01

134

Entrapment Neuropathies in the Upper and Lower Limbs: Anatomy and MRI Features  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve entrapment occurs at specific anatomic locations. Familiarity with the anatomy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of nerve entrapment syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of entrapment neuropathies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the normal anatomy of peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs and to review the MRI features of common disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, both compressive/entrapment and noncompressive, involving the suprascapular nerve, the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median verve in the upper limb and the sciatic nerve, the common peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the interdigital nerves in the lower limb. PMID:23125929

Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A.; Jamadar, David A.; Gandikota, Girish; Brandon, Catherine; Morag, Yoav; Fessell, David P.; Kim, Sung-Moon

2012-01-01

135

Bioelectrical activity of limb muscles during cold shivering of stimulation of the vestibular apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of caloric and electric stimulation of the vestibular receptors on the EMG activity of limb muslces in anesthetized cats during cold induced shivering involved flexor muscles alone. Both types of stimulation suppressed bioelectrical activity more effectively in the ipsilateral muscles. The suppression of shivering activity seems to be due to the increased inhibitory effect of descending labyrinth pathways on the function of flexor motoneurons.

Kuzmina, G. I.

1980-01-01

136

Lower Limb Muscles SEMG Activity during High-Heeled Latin Dancing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a aim of this study is to provide information about surface electromyography (SEMG) activity pattern in lower limb muscles during\\u000a Latin dancing with different heel height shoes. SEMG signals from tibialis anterior, medial and lateral sides of gastrocnemius,\\u000a soleus and biceps femoris of ten professional female dancers were recorded. All the muscles average EMG (aEMG) values except\\u000a biceps femoris were significantly

Y. D. Gu; J. S. Li; G. Q. Ruan; Y. C. Wang; M. J. Lake; X. J. Ren

137

Timing Training in Three Children with Diplegic Cerebral Palsy: Short- and Long-Term Effects on Upper-Limb Movement Organization and Functioning  

PubMed Central

Despite the great need of interventions to maintain and improve motor functions in children with diplegic cerebral palsy (DCP), scientific evaluations of existing training methods are rare. This study aimed to explore individual effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on motor timing, spatio-temporal movement organization, and subjective experiences of changes in upper-limb functions in three children with DCP. All children participated in an individualized 4-week/12 session SMT training regime. Measurements before training (Pre), after training (Post1), and at 6?months post completed training (Post2) were made by the applied SMT training equipment, optoelectronic registrations of goal-directed upper-limb movements, and a questionnaire assessing subjective experiences of changes in upper-limb functions and usability. In general, the training regime was shown to have little effect on motor timing. However, some positive changes in spatio-temporal movement organization were found. Two children also reported substantial long-lasting positive changes in subjective experiences of hand/arm functionality in terms of increased movement control and reduced muscle tone. For these children, parallel kinematic findings also indicated smoother and faster movement trajectories that remained at Post2. Although highly individualized, the shown improvements in upper-limb kinematics and subjective experiences of improved functionality of the hands/arms for two of the cases warrant further explorations of SMT outcomes in children with DCP. PMID:24744747

Johansson, Anna-Maria; Domellöf, Erik; Rönnqvist, Louise

2014-01-01

138

Self-Reported Vision, Upper\\/Lower Limb Disability, and Fall Risk in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine independent and interactive roles of self-reported vision status and upper and lower limb disability as predictors of falls in people 65 and older. Data from the 2002 and 2004 panels of the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Results indicated a reduced or eliminated role of vision status

Bernard A. Steinman

2008-01-01

139

Comparing unilateral and bilateral upper limb training: The ULTRA-stroke program design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: About 80% of all stroke survivors have an upper limb paresis immediately after stroke, only about a third of whom (30 to 40%) regain some dexterity within six months following conventional treatment programs. Of late, however, two recently developed interventions - constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing (BATRAC) - have shown promising results

Jaap Harlaar; Andreas Daffertshofer; Nienke I Zijp; Kirsten Nienhuys; Peter Koppe; Gert Kwakkel; Peter J Beek

2009-01-01

140

The 6 Minute Walk Test and Performance of Upper Limb in Ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Boys  

PubMed Central

The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D’Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D’Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-01-01

141

The 6 minute walk test and performance of upper limb in ambulant duchenne muscular dystrophy boys.  

PubMed

The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-01-01

142

Development of an upper limb patient simulator for physical therapy exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical therapist plays an important role to help people to regain the social life from disease and physical handicap. However, they can obtain their skills only from their practical experiences. The physical therapist trainee can enrich is experience only from the clinical practical training and this opportunity is limited. Therefore, we have been developing the upper limb patient simulator, which

Yoshiyuki Takhashi; Takashi Komeda; Hiroyuki Koyama; S-Ichiro Yamamoto; Takayuki Arimatsu; Yukio Kawakami; Kaoru Inoue; Yuko Ito

2011-01-01

143

Association between Severe Upper Limb Spasticity and Brain Lesion Location in Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Association between the site of brain injury and poststroke spasticity is poorly understood. The present study investigated whether lesion analysis could document brain regions associated with the development of severe upper limb poststroke spasticity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 39 chronic stroke patients. Spasticity was assessed at the affected upper limb with the modified Ashworth scale (shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers). Brain lesions were traced from magnetic resonance imaging performed within the first 7 days after stroke and region of interest images were generated. The association between severe upper limb spasticity (modified Ashworth scale ?2) and lesion location was determined with the voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping method implemented in MRIcro software. Colored maps representing the z statistics were generated and overlaid onto the automated anatomical labeling and the Johns Hopkins University white matter templates provided with MRIcron. Thalamic nuclei were identified with the Talairach Daemon software. Injuries to the insula, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and white matter tracts (internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) were significantly associated with severe upper limb poststroke spasticity. Further advances in our understanding of the neural correlates of spasticity may lead to early targeted rehabilitation when key regions are damaged. PMID:24963473

Picelli, Alessandro; Tamburin, Stefano; Gajofatto, Francesca; Zanette, Giampietro; Praitano, Marialuigia; Saltuari, Leopold; Corradini, Claudio; Smania, Nicola

2014-01-01

144

Robot-Mediated Upper Limb Physiotherapy: Review and Recommendations for Future Clinical Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robot-mediated physiotherapy provides a new possibility for improving the outcome of rehabilitation of patients who are recovering from stroke. This study is a review of robot-supported upper limb physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, OVID, and EBSCO for clinical trials with robots…

Peter, Orsolya; Fazekas, Gabor; Zsiga, Katalin; Denes, Zoltan

2011-01-01

145

Estimation of sex from the upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults.  

PubMed

Sex estimation is the first biological attribute needed for personal identification from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts in medical-legal autopsies. Populations have different sizes and proportions that affect the anthropometric assessment of sex. Relatively few published works assess the accuracy of sex estimation from soft tissue measurements of upper limb parts, except for the hand and its components, but these studies involve a limited range of global populations. The current study aimed to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper limb measurements and the accuracy of using these measurements for sex estimation in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, and hand breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured by international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who composed the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The ulnar length, wrist breadth and hand breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Forearm dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than hand dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78.5% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 77.5% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:24237816

Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

2013-11-01

146

International Journal of Information Technology Vol. 13 No. 1 2007 Upper limb motion estimation from inertial  

E-print Network

International Journal of Information Technology Vol. 13 No. 1 2007 Upper limb motion estimation In this paper we introduce a real-time human arm motion detector that has been developed to aid the home-based based optimization in smoothing the erroneous measurements due to rapid or unstable movements

Hu, Huosheng

147

A novel motion tracking system for evaluation of functional rehabilitation of the upper limbs  

PubMed Central

Upper limb function impairment is one of the most common sequelae of central nervous system injury, especially in stroke patients and when spinal cord injury produces tetraplegia. Conventional assessment methods cannot provide objective evaluation of patient performance and the tiveness of therapies. The most common assessment tools are based on rating scales, which are inefficient when measuring small changes and can yield subjective bias. In this study, we designed an inertial sensor-based monitoring system composed of five sensors to measure and analyze the complex movements of the upper limbs, which are common in activities of daily living. We developed a kinematic model with nine degrees of freedom to analyze upper limb and head movements in three dimensions. This system was then validated using a commercial optoelectronic system. These findings suggest that an inertial sensor-based motion tracking system can be used in patients who have upper limb impairment through data integration with a virtual reality-based neuroretation system. PMID:25206474

Gil-Agudo, Ángel; de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Dimbwadyo-Terrer, Iris; Peñasco-Martín, Benito; Bernal-Sahún, Alberto; López-Monteagudo, Patricia; del Ama-Espinosa, Antonio; Pons, José Luis

2013-01-01

148

Neural PID Control of Robot Manipulators with Application to an Upper Limb Exoskeleton  

E-print Network

1 Neural PID Control of Robot Manipulators with Application to an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu to uncertainties in robot control, PID control needs a big integral gain, or a neural compensator is added of the robot control. In this paper, we extend the popular neural PD control into neural PID control

Rosen, Jacob

149

Prevalence of upper limb musculo skeletal disorders among brass metal workers in West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Brass metal work is one of the oldest cottage industries in West Bengal, India. Workers performing rigorous hand intensive jobs are likely to suffer from MSD affecting the upper limbs. The present investigation was intended to establish the prevalence of upper limb MSD among the brass metal workers and to identify the causative factors behind its development. In this study, 50 male brass metal workers (Experimental Group) and 50 male office workers (Comparison Group) were selected. For the symptom survey, a questionnaire on discomfort symptoms was performed. Repetitiveness of work and Hand Grip Strength of both the groups were measured. It was revealed that upper limb MSD was a major problem among brass metal workers, primarily involving the hand, wrist, fingers and shoulder. Among the workers reporting subjective discomfort, most of them felt pain, followed by tingling and numbness in their hands. Many complained of swelling, warmth and tenderness in their wrists. Their activities were highly repetitive and the handgrip strength of these workers was significantly less than that of the comparison group. Based on these findings, it appears that high repetitiveness, prolonged work activity (10.5 h of work per day with 8.4 h spent on hammering) and decreased handgrip strength may be causative factors in the occurrence of upper limb MSD among brass metal workers in West Bengal, India. PMID:17485885

Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Ghosh, Tirthankar; DAS, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam; DAS, Bani Brata

2007-04-01

150

Occupational musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper limbs of forestry workers exposed to hand-arm vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiologic and clinical study of neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders was carried out on 65 vibration-exposed forestry operators using chain–saws and 31 comparable control subjects (maintenance workers) performing manual activity and not exposed to vibration. Upper limb function was evaluated by measuring finger and wrist circumference size, maximal hand grip strength and range of motion manoeuvres in both

MASSIMO BOVENZI; ANTONELLA ZADINI; ANDREA FRANZINELLI; FLAVIO BORGOGNI

1991-01-01

151

The influence of footwear on the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during walking.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a standard flexible shoe and a stability running shoe on lower limb muscle activity during walking. Twenty-eight young asymptomatic adults with flat-arched feet were recruited. While walking, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from tibialis posterior and peroneus longus via intramuscular electrodes; and from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius via surface electrodes. Three experimental conditions were assessed: (i) barefoot, (ii) a standard flexible shoe, (iii) a stability running shoe. Results showed significant differences for the peak amplitude and the time of peak amplitude for tibialis anterior, peroneus longus and medial gastrocnemius when comparing the three experimental conditions (p < 0.05). Significant differences were detected primarily between the barefoot and shoe conditions and with relatively small effect sizes for peroneus longus, tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius. Few significant differences were found between the two shoe styles. We discuss how these changes are most likely associated with the shoe upper bracing the foot, the shape of the shoe outer-sole and weight of the shoes. Further research is needed to investigate differences between these shoe styles when participants walk for longer distances (i.e. over 1000 m) and following fatigue. PMID:22835487

Scott, Lisa A; Murley, George S; Wickham, James B

2012-12-01

152

Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13?years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50?kg/m2) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30?min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

2015-01-01

153

Influence of muscle preactivation of the lower limb on impact dynamics in case of frontal collision.  

E-print Network

1 Influence of muscle preactivation of the lower limb on impact dynamics in case of frontal of Aerodynamics and Biomechanics of Motion (LABM), USR 2164 CNRS-Université de la Méditerranée, CP 918, 163 av. de: Laboratory of Aerodynamics and Biomechanics of Motion (LABM), USR 2164 CNRS-Université de la Méditerranée, CP

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13?years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50?kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30?min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

2015-01-01

155

Contribution of oxidative stress to pathology in diaphragm and limb muscles with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease that makes walking and breathing difficult. DMD is caused by an X-linked (Xp21) mutation in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is a scaffolding protein located in the sarcolemmal cytoskeleton, important in maintaining structural integrity and regulating muscle cell (muscle fiber) growth and repair. Dystrophin deficiency in mouse models (e.g., mdx mouse) destabilizes the interface between muscle fibers and the extracellular matrix, resulting in profound damage, inflammation, and weakness in diaphragm and limb muscles. While the link between dystrophin deficiency with inflammation and pathology is multi-factorial, elevated oxidative stress has been proposed as a central mediator. Unfortunately, the use of non-specific antioxidant scavengers in mouse and human studies has led to inconsistent results, obscuring our understanding of the importance of redox signaling in pathology of muscular dystrophy. However, recent studies with more mechanistic approaches in mdx mice suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase and nuclear factor-kappaB are important in amplifying dystrophin-deficient muscle pathology. Therefore, more targeted antioxidant therapeutics may ameliorate damage and weakness in human population, thus promoting better muscle function and quality of life. This review will focus upon the pathobiology of dystrophin deficiency in diaphragm and limb muscle primarily in mouse models, with a rationale for development of targeted therapeutic antioxidants in DMD patients. PMID:23104273

Kim, Jong-Hee; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Thompson, LaDora V; Lawler, John M

2013-02-01

156

Major ozonated autohemotherapy promotes the recovery of upper limb motor function in patients with acute cerebral infarction?  

PubMed Central

Major ozonated autohemotherapy is classically used in treating ischemic disorder of the lower limbs. In the present study, we performed major ozonated autohemotherapy treatment in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and assessed outcomes according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health Stroke Score, Modified Rankin Scale, and transcranial magnetic stimulation motor-evoked potential. Compared with the control group, the clinical total effective rate and the cortical potential rise rate of the upper limbs were significantly higher, the central motor conduction time of upper limb was significantly shorter, and the upper limb motor-evoked potential amplitude was significantly increased, in the ozone group. In the ozone group, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score was positively correlated with the central motor conduction time and the motor-evoked potential amplitude of the upper limb. Central motor conduction time and motor-evoked potential amplitude of the upper limb may be effective indicators of motor-evoked potentials to assess upper limb motor function in cerebral infarct patients. Furthermore, major ozonated autohemotherapy may promote motor function recovery of the upper limb in patients with acute cerebral infarction. PMID:25206688

Wu, Xiaona; Li, Zhensheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Peng, Haiyan; Huang, Yongjun; Luo, Gaoquan; Peng, Kairun

2013-01-01

157

A novel upper limb rehabilitation system with self-driven virtual arm illusion.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel upper extremity rehabilitation system with virtual arm illusion. It aims for fast recovery from lost functions of the upper limb as a result of stroke to provide a novel rehabilitation system for paralyzed patients. The system is integrated with a number of technologies that include Augmented Reality (AR) technology to develop game like exercise, computer vision technology to create the illusion scene, 3D modeling and model simulation, and signal processing to detect user intention via EMG signal. The effectiveness of the developed system has evaluated via usability study and questionnaires which is represented by graphical and analytical methods. The evaluation provides with positive results and this indicates the developed system has potential as an effective rehabilitation system for upper limb impairment. PMID:25570773

Yee Mon Aung; Al-Jumaily, Adel; Anam, Khairul

2014-08-01

158

Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

1989-01-01

159

Characteristics of human knee muscle coordination during isometric contractions in a standing posture: The effect of limb task  

PubMed Central

Different functional roles for the hands have been demonstrated, however leg control is not as well understood. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate bilateral knee neuromuscular control to determine if the limb receiving greater attention would have more well-tuned control compared to an unattended limb. Surface electrodes were placed on seven muscles of each limb, before standing on two force platforms. Visual feedback was given of the forces and moments of the “focus limb,” but not the “unattended limb.” Static isometric forces were matched with their focus limb, requiring their unattended limb to push in the opposite direction, using a combination of forward-backward-medial-lateral shear forces while muscle activity was collected bilaterally. There was a significant main effect for limb task (p = 0.02), with the medial hamstrings being more specific (p = 0.001) while performing the unattended limb and the lateral hamstring being more well-tuned (p = 0.007) while performing the focus limb task. The focus limb's medial and lateral gastrocnemius were principally active in the forwards direction, but only the unattended limb's lateral gastrocnemius was active in the backwards direction. Findings suggest unique neuromuscular control strategies are used for the legs depending on limb task. PMID:23790392

MacLeod, Toran D.; Manal, Kurt; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Buchanan, Thomas S.

2015-01-01

160

Factors predicting sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries. DATA SOURCES: The online PubMed database was searched for English articles describing outcomes after the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries in humans with a publication date between 1 January 1990 and 16 February 2011. STUDY SELECTION: The following types of article were selected: (1) clinical trials describing the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries published in English; and (2) studies that reported sufficient patient information, including age, mechanism of injury, nerve injured, injury location, defect length, repair time, repair method, and repair materials. SPSS 13.0 software was used to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and to investigate the patient and intervention factors associated with outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensory function was assessed using the Mackinnon-Dellon scale and motor function was assessed using the manual muscle test. Satisfactory motor recovery was defined as grade M4 or M5, and satisfactory sensory recovery was defined as grade S3+ or S4. RESULTS: Seventy-one articles were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that repair time, repair materials, and nerve injured were independent predictors of outcome after the repair of nerve injuries (P < 0.05), and that the nerve injured was the main factor affecting the rate of good to excellent recovery. CONCLUSION: Predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up. PMID:25206870

He, Bo; Zhu, Zhaowei; Zhu, Qingtang; Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Canbin; Li, Pengliang; Zhu, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai

2014-01-01

161

Distinct underlying mechanisms of limb and respiratory muscle fiber weaknesses in nemaline myopathy.  

PubMed

Nemaline myopathy is the most common congenital myopathy and is caused by mutations in various genes such as ACTA1 (encoding skeletal ?-actin). It is associated with limb and respiratory muscle weakness. Despite increasing clinical and scientific interest, the molecular and cellular events leading to such weakness remain unknown, which prevents the development of specific therapeutic interventions. To unravel the potential mechanisms involved, we dissected lower limb and diaphragm muscles from a knock-in mouse model of severe nemaline myopathy expressing the ACTA1 His40Tyr actin mutation found in human patients. We then studied a broad range of structural and functional characteristics assessing single-myofiber contraction, protein expression, and electron microscopy. One of the major findings in the diaphragm was the presence of numerous noncontractile areas (including disrupted sarcomeric structures and nemaline bodies). This greatly reduced the number of functional sarcomeres, decreased the force generation capacity at the muscle fiber level, and likely would contribute to respiratory weakness. In limb muscle, by contrast, there were fewer noncontractile areas and they did not seem to have a major role in the pathogenesis of weakness. These divergent muscle-specific results provide new important insights into the pathophysiology of severe nemaline myopathy and crucial information for future development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:23656990

Lindqvist, Johan; Cheng, Arthur J; Renaud, Guillaume; Hardeman, Edna C; Ochala, Julien

2013-06-01

162

Effects of immobilization on rat hind limb muscles under non-weight-bearing conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of stretched and unstretched immobilization of a hind limb on the concentration and the metabolism of proteins in the hind-limb muscles of rats was investigated. The animals were divided into three groups: (1) weight-bearing controls, (2) tail-cast-suspended, and (3) suspended, with one hind limb immobilized with the ankle in dorsiflexion (30-40 deg angle) and the other freely moving. It was found that unloading the hind limbs for 6 days by tail cast suspension caused soleus to atrophy and reduced growth of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles; unloading resulted in a higher degradation rate and lower synthesis rate in both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic stretch of the unloaded soleus not only prevented its atrophy but led to significant hypertrophy, relative to weight-bearing controls, with increases in both the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions. Immobilizing one ankle in dorsiflexion prevented the inhibition of growth in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles due to unloading.

Jaspers, Stephen R.; Fagan, Julie M.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul H.; Tischler, Marc E.

1988-01-01

163

Cerebellar-related long latency motor response in upper limb musculature by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to identify the cerebellum-related electromyographic (EMG) response that appeared in the upper limbs musculature. Thirty times averaged transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a double-cone coil placed over the cerebellar hemisphere elicited long latency EMG responses at the bilateral extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. The peak latency of this EMG response was 70.7±12.7 ms in the ipsilateral ECR and 62.9±10.2 ms in the contralateral ECR of the TMS side. These latencies were much longer than the latency of the muscle evoked potential when we stimulated pyramidal tracts at the foramen magnum level. Cerebellar hemisphere loading by the finger target pursuit test made this EMG response faster during TMS on the ipsilateral side of the cerebellum and slower during TMS on the contralateral side of the cerebellum. Furthermore, the deeper the level of drowsiness, the slower the peak latency of this EMG response became. These results suggest that this EMG potential is a specific response of the cerebellum and brainstem reticular formation, and may be conducted from the cerebellar structure to the ECR muscle through the polysynaptic transmission of the reticulospinal tract. PMID:24113113

Hosokawa, Sachiyo; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Sugata, Hisato; Araki, Toshihiko; Okamura, Yumiko; Hasegawa, Yuka; Shinshi, Misako; Yorifuji, Shiro

2014-04-16

164

Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

2012-01-01

165

Habitual throwing and swimming correspond with upper limb diaphyseal strength and shape in modern human athletes.  

PubMed

Variation in upper limb long bone cross-sectional properties may reflect a phenotypically plastic response to habitual loading patterns. Structural differences between limb bones have often been used to infer past behavior from hominin remains; however, few studies have examined direct relationships between behavioral differences and bone structure in humans. To help address this, cross-sectional images (50% length) of the humeri and ulnae of university varsity-level swimmers, cricketers, and controls were captured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. High levels of humeral robusticity were found in the dominant arms of cricketers, and bilaterally among swimmers, whereas the most gracile humeri were found in both arms of controls, and the nondominant arms of cricketers. In addition, the dominant humeri of cricketers were more circular than controls. The highest levels of ulnar robusticity were also found in the dominant arm of cricketers, and bilaterally amongst swimmers. Bilateral asymmetry in humeral rigidity among cricketers was greater than swimmers and controls, while asymmetry for ulnar rigidity was greater in cricketers than controls. The results suggest that more mechanically loaded upper limb elements--unilaterally or bilaterally--are strengthened relative to less mechanically loaded elements, and that differences in mechanical loading may have a more significant effect on proximal compared to distal limb segments. The more circular humerus in the dominant arm in cricketers may be an adaptation to torsional strain associated with throwing activities. The reported correspondence between habitual activity patterns and upper limb diaphyseal properties may inform future behavioral interpretations involving hominin skeletal remains. PMID:19358297

Shaw, Colin N; Stock, Jay T

2009-09-01

166

Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

2008-03-01

167

Functional and aesthetic outcome of a complex upper-limb reconstruction after criminal caustic injection.  

PubMed

Extensive upper-limb injuries are usually secondary to accidental partial or complete avulsions or massive burns. Caustic injections are an exceptional etiology, with terrible lesions that present therapeutic challenges and major aftereffects. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient presenting with a large and deep anterior necrosis of the upper-limb anterior tissues, after a criminal intravenous injection of caustic soda on the inner side of his left elbow. Reconstruction methods consisted of a homolateral latissimus dorsi pediculated flap, a humeroulnar vascular bypass, a medial nerve autograft, and a secondary palliative Brand 1 procedure. Final functional and aesthetic results, obtained after long-term physiotherapy, were unexpectedly good. In conclusion, reconstructive surgery of such major lesions cannot be considered without a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, patients have to be well informed about the necessity of multiple surgical interventions, the risk of major handicap, and the unpredictable nature of the final outcome. PMID:19061155

Lazar, Calin Constantin; Revol, M; Servant, J-M

2009-05-01

168

Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion.  

PubMed

Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements. PMID:20447251

Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

2010-04-01

169

Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion  

PubMed Central

Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements. PMID:20447251

Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

2010-01-01

170

Cancer cachexia decreases specific force and accelerates fatigue in limb muscle.  

PubMed

Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. However, more recently, we provided evidence that during severe cancer cachexia muscle weakness in the diaphragm muscle cannot be entirely accounted for by the muscle atrophy. This indicates that muscle weakness is not just a consequence of muscle atrophy but that there is also significant contractile dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine whether contractile dysfunction is also present in limb muscles during severe Colon-26 (C26) carcinoma cachexia by studying the glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the oxidative soleus muscle, which has an activity pattern that more closely resembles the diaphragm. Severe C-26 cancer cachexia caused significant muscle fiber atrophy and a reduction in maximum absolute force in both the EDL and soleus muscles. However, normalization to muscle cross sectional area further demonstrated a 13% decrease in maximum isometric specific force in the EDL and an even greater decrease (17%) in maximum isometric specific force in the soleus. Time to peak tension and half relaxation time were also significantly slowed in both the EDL and the solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. Since, in addition to postural control, the oxidative soleus is also important for normal locomotion, we further performed a fatigue trial in the soleus and found that the decrease in relative force was greater and more rapid in solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. These data demonstrate that severe cancer cachexia causes profound muscle weakness that is not entirely explained by the muscle atrophy. In addition, cancer cachexia decreases the fatigue resistance of the soleus muscle, a postural muscle typically resistant to fatigue. Thus, specifically targeting contractile dysfunction represents an additional means to counter muscle weakness in cancer cachexia, in addition to targeting the prevention of muscle atrophy. PMID:23673294

Roberts, B M; Frye, G S; Ahn, B; Ferreira, L F; Judge, A R

2013-06-01

171

Cancer cachexia decreases specific force and accelerates fatigue in limb muscle  

PubMed Central

Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. However, more recently, we provided evidence that during severe cancer cachexia muscle weakness in the diaphragm muscle cannot be entirely accounted for by the muscle atrophy. This indicates that muscle weakness is not just a consequence of muscle atrophy but that there is also significant contractile dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine whether contractile dysfunction is also present in limb muscles during severe Colon-26 (C26) carcinoma cachexia by studying the glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the oxidative soleus muscle, which has an activity pattern that more closely resembles the diaphragm. Severe C-26 cancer cachexia caused significant muscle fiber atrophy and a reduction in maximum absolute force in both the EDL and soleus muscles. However, normalization to muscle cross sectional area further demonstrated a 13% decrease in maximum isometric specific force in the EDL and an even greater decrease (17%) in maximum isometric specific force in the soleus. Time to peak tension and half relaxation time were also significantly slowed in both the EDL and the solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. Since, in addition to postural control, the oxidative soleus is also important for normal locomotion, we further performed a fatigue trial in the soleus and found that the decrease in relative force was greater and more rapid in solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. These data demonstrate that severe cancer cachexia causes profound muscle weakness that is not entirely explained by the muscle atrophy. In addition, cancer cachexia decreases the fatigue resistance of the soleus muscle, a postural muscle typically resistant to fatigue. Thus, specifically targeting contractile dysfunction represents an additional means to counter muscle weakness in cancer cachexia, in addition to targeting the prevention of muscle atrophy. PMID:23673294

Roberts, BM; Frye, GS; Ahn, B; Ferreira, LF; Judge, AR

2013-01-01

172

Intrauterine Upper Limb Ischemia: An Unusual Presentation of Fetal Thrombophilia—A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Upper limb ischemia presenting in neonatal period is extremely rare. Moreover, presenting newborn with evidence of intrauterine upper limb vascular occlusion is even rarer. It needs prompt intervention to restore perfusion and avoid morbidity. We present a newborn with right upper limb brachial artery thrombosis causing ischemia that was noted at birth and appeared later to be homozygous for factor V Leiden and glycoprotein IIIa with no other identifiable risk factors. In this report, we present the case, its successful medical management, proper counseling, and review of the literature. We recommend investigating the neonates and their parents for thrombophilia mutations when they present with unusual vascular occlusion site as newborns. PMID:24223318

Abdelrazeq, Samer; Alkhateeb, Abdullatif; Saleh, Hani; Alhasan, Haitham; Khammash, Hatem

2013-01-01

173

A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).  

PubMed

Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID:20492428

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

2010-07-01

174

A Case of Upper Limb Compartment Syndrome following Snake Envenomation: Measure Twice, Cut Once.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 16-year old male patient who sustained a poisonous bite from a Mapepire balsain snake on the dorsum of his left hand. The subject presented within one hour of envenomation and subsequently developed clinical features of acute compartment syndrome in the involved upper limb. Early diagnosis and emergency fasciotomy effectively treated his condition. Aggressive physiotherapy coupled with this ensured best functional outcome. PMID:25429488

Thomas, D K; Budhoo, E J; Mencia, M M; Ali, T F

2014-05-19

175

Reliability and Validity of the Upper Limb Physician's Rating Scale in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Upper Limb Physician's Rating Scale (ULPRS) is a tool that assesses movement quality of the upper limbs. It is used as an outcome measure after botulinum toxin type A injection in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the ULPRS in children with spastic CP. Materials and Methods Thirty children with spastic CP (M:F=17:13) aged 5 to 13 years old were recruited. The ULPRS was scored based on recorded videotapes by four physicians on two separate occasions. The Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function (MUUL) was scored by an occupational therapist. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), 95% confidence intervals and weighted kappa statistics were calculated for the scores of ULPRS to obtain interrater and intrarater reliability. The relationship between ULPRS and MUUL was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Results The ICCs for the total ULPRS scores were 0.94 between raters and 0.99 to 1.00 within raters. The weighted kappa statistics for subitem scores for the ULPRS ranged from 0.67 to 1.00 within raters and from 0.46 to 0.86 between raters. The relationship between ULPRS and MUUL was strong (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.751; p<0.05). Conclusion The results demonstrated the high reliability of the total ULPRS score within and between raters. A significant concurrent validity between ULPRS and MUUL also supports the clinical utility of the ULPRS as an outcome measure of spastic upper limb in children with CP. PMID:25510774

Park, Eun Sook; Joo, Ji-Woon; Kim, Seon Ah; Rha, Dong-Wook

2015-01-01

176

The development of an adaptive upper-limb stroke rehabilitation robotic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Stroke is the primary cause of adult disability. To support this large population in recovery, robotic technologies are being\\u000a developed to assist in the delivery of rehabilitation. This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic\\u000a device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task. The system uses a decision theoretic model (a partially\\u000a observable Markov decision process,

Patricia Kan; Rajibul Huq; Jesse Hoey; Robby Goetschalckx; Alex Mihailidis

2011-01-01

177

Dynamics of goat distal hind limb muscle–tendon function in response to locomotor grade  

PubMed Central

Summary The functional roles of the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and superficial digital flexor (SDF) muscle–tendon units (MTUs) in domestic goats (N=6) were studied as a function of locomotor grade, testing the hypothesis that changes in distal limb muscle work would reflect changes in mechanical work requirements while goats walked or trotted on the level, 15 deg. decline and 15 deg. incline. As steep terrain-adapted animals, changes in muscle work output are expected to be particularly important for goats. In vivo muscle–tendon forces, fascicle length changes and muscle activation were recorded via tendon force buckles, sonomicrometry and electromyography to evaluate the work performance and elastic energy recovery of the three distal MTUs. These recordings confirmed that fascicle strain and force within goat distal hind limb muscles are adjusted in response to changes in mechanical work demand associated with locomotor grade. In general, muscle work was modulated most consistently by changes in fascicle strain, with increased net shortening (P<0.001) observed as goats switched from decline to level to incline locomotion. Peak muscle stresses increased as goats increased speed from a walk to a trot within each grade condition (P<0.05), and also increased significantly with grade (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Due to the increase in net fascicle shortening and muscle force, net muscle work per cycle also increased significantly (P<0.05 to P<0.005) as goats switched from decline to level to incline conditions (LG work: 20 mJ to 56 mJ to 209 mJ; MG work: –7 mJ to 34 mJ to 179 mJ; SDF work: –42 mJ to 14 mJ to 71 mJ, at a 2.5 ms–1 trot). Although muscle work was modulated in response to changes in grade, the amount of work produced by these three distal pennate muscles was small (being <3%) in comparison with the change in mechanical energy required of the limb as a whole. Elastic energy recovery in the SDF and gastrocnemius (GA) tendons was substantial across all three grades, with the SDF tendon recovering 2.4 times more energy, on average, than the GA tendon. In parallel with the increase in muscle–tendon force, tendon energy recovery also increased as goats increased speed and changed gait, reaching the highest levels when goats trotted on an incline at 2.5 ms–1 (GA: 173 mJ; SDF: 316 mJ). In general, tendon elastic energy exceeded net muscle work across all grade and gait conditions. These results demonstrate, for the first time in a quadruped, similar findings to those observed in ankle extensor muscles in humans, wallabies, turkeys and guinea fowl, suggesting that distal muscle–tendon architecture more generally favors a design for economic force production and tendon elastic energy recovery, with the majority of limb work during incline or decline running performed by larger proximal muscles. PMID:19525436

McGuigan, M. Polly; Yoo, Edwin; Lee, David V.; Biewener, Andrew A.

2009-01-01

178

Comparative study of upper limb load assessment and occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders at repetitive task workstations.  

PubMed

This study explored the relationship between subjectively assessed complaints of pain in the arm, forearm and hand, and musculoskeletal load caused by repetitive tasks. Workers (n=942) were divided into 22 subgroups, according to the type of their workstations. They answered questions on perceived musculoskeletal pain of upper limbs. Basic and aggregate indices from a questionnaire on the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain were compared with an upper limb load indicator (repetitive task index, RTI) calculated with the recently developed Upper Limb Risk Assessment (ULRA). There was relatively strong correlation of RTI and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm, and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm and forearm or prevalence of pain in the arm. Frequency and intensity of pain in the arm were weakly correlated. An aggregate indicator of evaluation of MSDs, which was calculated on the basis of the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain, was to a higher degree associated with the musculoskeletal load of a task than basic evaluative parameters. Thus, such an aggregate indicator can be an alternative in comparing subjectively assessed MSDs with task-related musculoskeletal load and in establishing limit levels for that load. PMID:24975106

Roman-Liu, Danuta; Bugajska, Joanna; Tokarski, Tomasz

2014-12-01

179

Epidural electrocorticography of phantom hand movement following long-term upper-limb amputation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Prostheses for upper-limb amputees are currently controlled by either myoelectric or peripheral neural signals. Performance and dexterity of these devices is still limited, particularly when it comes to controlling hand function. Movement-related brain activity might serve as a complementary bio-signal for motor control of hand prosthesis. Methods: We introduced a methodology to implant a cortical interface without direct exposure of the brain surface in an upper-limb amputee. This bi-directional interface enabled us to explore the cortical physiology following long-term transhumeral amputation. In addition, we investigated neurofeedback of electrocorticographic brain activity related to the patient’s motor imagery to open his missing hand, i.e., phantom hand movement, for real-time control of a virtual hand prosthesis. Results: Both event-related brain activity and cortical stimulation revealed mutually overlapping cortical representations of the phantom hand. Phantom hand movements could be robustly classified and the patient required only three training sessions to gain reliable control of the virtual hand prosthesis in an online closed-loop paradigm that discriminated between hand opening and rest. Conclusion: Epidural implants may constitute a powerful and safe alternative communication pathway between the brain and external devices for upper-limb amputees, thereby facilitating the integrated use of different signal sources for more intuitive and specific control of multi-functional devices in clinical use. PMID:24834047

Gharabaghi, Alireza; Naros, Georgios; Walter, Armin; Roth, Alexander; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Mehring, Carsten; Birbaumer, Niels

2014-01-01

180

Comparative Study of Upper Limb Load Assessment and Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Disorders at Repetitive Task Workstations  

PubMed Central

This study explored the relationship between subjectively assessed complaints of pain in the arm, forearm and hand, and musculoskeletal load caused by repetitive tasks. Workers (n=942) were divided into 22 subgroups, according to the type of their workstations. They answered questions on perceived musculoskeletal pain of upper limbs. Basic and aggregate indices from a questionnaire on the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain were compared with an upper limb load indicator (repetitive task index, RTI) calculated with the recently developed Upper Limb Risk Assessment (ULRA). There was relatively strong correlation of RTI and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm, and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm and forearm or prevalence of pain in the arm. Frequency and intensity of pain in the arm were weakly correlated. An aggregate indicator of evaluation of MSDs, which was calculated on the basis of the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain, was to a higher degree associated with the musculoskeletal load of a task than basic evaluative parameters. Thus, such an aggregate indicator can be an alternative in comparing subjectively assessed MSDs with task-related musculoskeletal load and in establishing limit levels for that load. PMID:24975106

ROMAN-LIU, Danuta; BUGAJSKA, Joanna; TOKARSKI, Tomasz

2014-01-01

181

Reorganizing therapy: changing the clinical approach to upper limb recovery post-stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability, and as a consequence, most therapists will provide health care to patients with stroke during their professional careers. An increasing number of studies are investigating the association between upper limb recovery and changes in brain activation patterns following stroke. In this review, we explore the translational implications of this research for health professionals working in stroke recovery. We argue that in light of the most recent evidence, therapists should consider how best to take full advantage of the brain's natural ability to reorganize, when prescribing and applying interventions to those with a stroke-affected upper limb. The authors propose that stroke is a brain-based problem that needs a brain-based solution. This review addresses two topics, anticipating recovery and maximizing recovery. It proposes five practice-ready recommendations that are based on the evidence reviewed. The over-riding aim of this review and discussion is to challenge therapists to reconsider the health care they prescribe and apply to people with a stroke-affected upper limb. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25327458

Hubbard, Isobel J; Carey, Leeanne M; Budd, Timothy W; Parsons, Mark W

2015-03-01

182

Impact of early applied upper limb stimulation: The EXPLICIT-stroke programme design  

PubMed Central

Background Main claims of the literature are that functional recovery of the paretic upper limb is mainly defined within the first month post stroke and that rehabilitation services should preferably be applied intensively and in a task-oriented way within this particular time window. EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke (acronym EXPLICIT-stroke) aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of post stroke upper limb recovery. Two randomized single blinded trials form the core of the programme, investigating the effects of early modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (modified CIMT) and EMG-triggered Neuro-Muscular Stimulation (EMG-NMS) in patients with respectively a favourable or poor probability for recovery of dexterity. Methods/design 180 participants suffering from an acute, first-ever ischemic stroke will be recruited. Functional prognosis at the end of the first week post stroke is used to stratify patient into a poor prognosis group for upper limb recovery (N = 120, A2 project) and a group with a favourable prognosis (N = 60, A1 project). Both groups will be randomized to an experimental arm receiving respectively modified CIMT (favourable prognosis) or EMG-NMS (poor prognosis) for 3 weeks or to a control arm receiving usual care. Primary outcome variable will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), assessed at 1,2,3,4,5, 8, 12 and 26 weeks post stroke. To study the impact of modified CIMT or EMG-NMS on stroke recovery mechanisms i.e. neuroplasticity, compensatory movements and upper limb neuromechanics, 60 patients randomly selected from projects A1 and A2 will undergo TMS, kinematical and haptic robotic measurements within a repeated measurement design. Additionally, 30 patients from the A1 project will undergo fMRI at baseline, 5 and 26 weeks post stroke. Conclusion EXPLICIT stroke is a 5 year translational research programme which main aim is to investigate the effects of early applied intensive intervention for regaining dexterity and to explore the underlying mechanisms that are involved in regaining upper limb function after stroke. EXPLICIT-stroke will provide an answer to the key question whether therapy induced improvements are due to either a reduction of basic motor impairment by neural repair i.e. restitution of function and/or the use of behavioural compensation strategies i.e. substitution of function. EXPLICIT is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR, ., TC 1424) PMID:19091088

Kwakkel, Gert; Meskers, Carel GM; van Wegen, Erwin E; Lankhorst, Guus J; Geurts, Alexander CH; van Kuijk, Annet A; Lindeman, Eline; Visser-Meily, Anne; de Vlugt, Erwin; Arendzen, J Hans

2008-01-01

183

Muscle MRI findings in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy with calpain 3 deficiency (LGMD2A) and early contractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is a common variant secondary to mutations in the calpain 3 gene. A proportion of patients has early and severe contractures, which can cause diagnostic difficulties with other conditions. We report clinical and muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A patients (four sporadic and three familial) who had prominent and

Eugenio Mercuri; Kate Bushby; Enzo Ricci; Daniel Birchall; Marika Pane; Maria Kinali; Joanna Allsop; Vincenzo Nigro; Amets Sáenz; Annachiara Nascimbeni; Luigi Fulizio; Corrado Angelini; Francesco Muntoni

2005-01-01

184

Design of a wrist and gripping mechanism for an upper limb prosthesis specifically for the game of golf  

E-print Network

An upper limb prosthesis used for the game of golf was designed. More specifically, the wrist and gripping mechanism was designed. The motivating factor behind his project was to improve a player's ability to make a smooth, ...

Yoder, Michael D

2009-01-01

185

Fusimotor reflexes in triceps surae muscle elicited by stretch of muscles in the contralateral hind limb of the cat.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were performed on twenty-one cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The aim of this study was to investigate the reflex effects on triceps surae and plantaris fusimotor neurones elicited by tonic stretch of the contralateral posterior biceps and semitendinosus (p.b.s.t.) and the contralateral triceps surae and plantaris muscles, to compare these effects with the effects evoked by flexion or extension of the intact contralateral hind limb (Appelberg, Hulliger, Johansson & Sojka, 1984) and to clarify the interactions between the reflexes from contralateral and ipsilateral muscles. Activity in fusimotor neurones was studied indirectly by recording from primary muscle spindle afferents of the triceps surae and plantaris muscle. The mean rate of firing and the modulation of the afferent response to sinusoidal extension of the triceps surae and plantaris muscles was determined. Control measurements were made with the ipsilateral p.b.s.t., the contralateral p.b.s.t. and the contralateral triceps and plantaris muscles relaxed. Tests were made with tonic stretch of one of these muscles alone or with two of them simultaneously. With stretch of the contralateral p.b.s.t. ten out of eighty-four primary afferents (11.9%) showed predominantly dynamic reflexes (six out of forty-one in spinalized preparations: 14.6%), twenty-two (26.2%) showed mixed or predominantly static effects (one spinalized: 2.4%) and fifty-two units (61.9%) showed no effect (thirty-four spinalized: 83.0%). The reflex effects could be reproduced by electrical stimulation of the cut contralateral p.b.s.t. nerve either at group II or at group III strength. With stretch of the contralateral triceps and plantaris muscles seventy out of seventy-six (92.1%) primary muscle spindle afferents showed no effect and six (7.9%) mixed or predominantly static reflex effects. In general, the reflex effects were not accompanied by detectable electromyographic (e.m.g.) activity in the ipsilateral triceps and plantaris (recorded with surface or needle electrodes), indicating that the reflexes mainly involved gamma-motoneurones. The difference in efficacy between contralateral flexor (p.b.s.t.) and extensor (triceps and plantaris) muscles seems to be in accordance with the response pattern found with extension or flexion of the intact contralateral hind limb (Appelberg et al. 1984).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3746678

Appelberg, B; Johansson, H; Sojka, P

1986-01-01

186

A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

2013-04-01

187

Sirenomelia: four further cases with discussion of associated upper limb defects.  

PubMed

Sirenomelia, also known as the 'mermaid malformation/syndrome', is a rare, serious congenital anomaly characterized by variable degrees of fusion of the lower limbs and associated severe malformations of the lower vertebral and genitourinary systems. In this report, we describe a series of African patients with sirenomelia. We present the clinical and radiological features of four black South African patients and illustrate some of the rarer associated abnormalities, which include asymmetrical upper limb defects, not confined to the radial ray. The clinical phenotypic overlap between caudal dysgenesis, VACTERL association and sirenomelia in our patients is highlighted, lending support to the theory that these entities may be different manifestations of a single pathogenic process. PMID:22660421

Moosa, Shahida; Lambie, Lindsay Ann; Krause, Amanda

2012-07-01

188

Development of a 3-D Rehabilitation System for Upper Limbs Using ER Actuators in a Nedo Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New training methods and exercises for upper limbs rehabilitation are made possible by application of robotics and virtual reality technology. The technologies can also make quantitative evaluations and enhance the qualitative effect of training. We have joined a project managed by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization as a semi-governmental organization under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan) 5-year Project, "Rehabilitation System for the Upper Limbs and Lower Limbs", and developed a 3-DOF exercise machine for upper limbs (EMUL) using ER actuators. In this paper, we also present the development of software for motion exercise trainings and some results of clinical evaluation. Moreover, it is discussed how ER actuators ensure the mechanical safety.

Furusho, Junji; Koyanagi, Ken'ichi; Nakanishi, Kazuhiko; Ryu, Ushio; Takenaka, Shigekazu; Inoue, Akio; Domen, Kazuhisa; Miyakoshi, Koichi

189

Gesture therapy: an upper limb virtual reality-based motor rehabilitation platform.  

PubMed

Virtual reality platforms capable of assisting rehabilitation must provide support for rehabilitation principles: promote repetition, task oriented training, appropriate feedback, and a motivating environment. As such, development of these platforms is a complex process which has not yet reached maturity. This paper presents our efforts to contribute to this field, presenting Gesture Therapy, a virtual reality-based platform for rehabilitation of the upper limb. We describe the system architecture and main features of the platform and provide preliminary evidence of the feasibility of the platform in its current status. PMID:24760913

Sucar, Luis Enrique; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Velazquez, Roger Luis; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Leder, Ronald; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

2014-05-01

190

Horner's syndrome and weakness of upper limb after epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section  

PubMed Central

Horner's syndrome is not rare during labour epidural analgesia or in pregnant patients receiving epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section as thought previously. It occurs due to blockade of sympathetic fibres supplying the eye and face area. Most of the times it is a benign and self-limiting condition; however, it may become a serious systemic manifestation. We present a case where patient had weakness of upper-limb and Horner's syndrome of same side with visual disturbances. These symptoms were transient and resolved spontaneously without any treatment. PMID:25197119

Jadon, Ashok

2014-01-01

191

The recombinant limb as a model for the study of limb patterning, and its application to muscle development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recombinant limb is a model system that has proved fruitful for analyzing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and understanding\\u000a the functional properties of the components of the limb bud. Here we present an overview of some of the insights obtained\\u000a through the use of this technique. Among these are the understanding that fore or hind limb identity is inherent to the limb

Marian Fernandez-Teran; M. Elisa Piedra; Maria A. Ros; John F. Fallon

1999-01-01

192

EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS OF UPPER LIMBS EXTREMITY AMONG PRESS WORKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Exposure assessment of individual press workers to risk factors associated with work-related upper extremity muscoluskeletal disorders (UEMSDs). Design: This was a workplace field based, descriptive and analytical study. Place and duration: The study was conducted in presswork shops of an automobile manufacturing industry in Tehran, Iran during 2004-2005. Patients and Methods: Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and Rapid Upper Limb

Mohammad Pourmahabadian; Kamal Azam

193

Prosthesis use in persons with lower- and upper-limb amputation  

PubMed Central

This study identified clinical (e.g., etiology) and demographic factors related to prosthesis use in persons with upper- and lower-limb amputation (ULA and LLA, respectively) and the effect of phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP) on prosthesis use. A total of 752 respondents with LLA and 107 respondents with ULA completed surveys. Factors related to greater use (hours per day) for persons with LLA included younger age, full- or part-time employment, marriage, a distal amputation, an amputation of traumatic etiology, and an absence of PLP. Less use was associated with reports that prosthesis use worsened RLP, and greater prosthesis use was associated with reports that prosthesis use did not affect PLP. Having a proximal amputation and reporting lower average PLP were related to greater use in hours per day for persons with an ULA, while having a distal amputation and being married were associated with greater use in days per month. Finally, participants with LLA were significantly more likely to wear a prosthesis than those with ULA. These results underscore the importance of examining factors related to prosthesis use and the differential effect that these variables may have when the etiology and location of amputation are considered. PMID:19165686

Raichle, Katherine A.; Hanley, Marisol A.; Molton, Ivan; Kadel, Nancy J.; Campbell, Kellye; Phelps, Emily; Ehde, Dawn; Smith, Douglas G.

2009-01-01

194

The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i) without brace, ii) with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter) was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately stimulated by the brace application and therefore are not able to alter the balance control strategy of the CNS, or that they play a less important role in the control of single limb balance. Further research is needed in this area with more dynamic and functional measurements, before the safe use of ankle bracing can be widely recommended. PMID:17850663

Papadopoulos, Emmanuel S; Nikolopoulos, Christos; Badekas, Athanasios; Vagenas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

2007-01-01

195

Limb position sense, proprioceptive drift and muscle thixotropy at the human elbow joint.  

PubMed

These experiments on the human forearm are based on the hypothesis that drift in the perceived position of a limb over time can be explained by receptor adaptation. Limb position sense was measured in 39 blindfolded subjects using a forearm-matching task. A property of muscle, its thixotropy, a contraction history-dependent passive stiffness, was exploited to place muscle receptors of elbow muscles in a defined state. After the arm had been held flexed and elbow flexors contracted, we observed time-dependent changes in the perceived position of the reference arm by an average of 2.8° in the direction of elbow flexion over 30 s (Experiment 1). The direction of the drift reversed after the arm had been extended and elbow extensors contracted, with a mean shift of 3.5° over 30 s in the direction of elbow extension (Experiment 2). The time-dependent changes could be abolished by conditioning elbow flexors and extensors in the reference arm at the test angle, although this led to large position errors during matching (±10°), depending on how the indicator arm had been conditioned (Experiments 3 and 4). When slack was introduced in the elbow muscles of both arms, by shortening muscles after the conditioning contraction, matching errors became small and there was no drift in position sense (Experiments 5 and 6). These experiments argue for a receptor-based mechanism for proprioceptive drift and suggest that to align the two forearms, the brain monitors the difference between the afferent signals from the two arms. PMID:24665096

Tsay, A; Savage, G; Allen, T J; Proske, U

2014-06-15

196

Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players  

PubMed Central

Background Studies involving chronic creatine supplementation in elite soccer players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players (n?=?14 males) during pre-season training. Findings This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Brazilian professional elite soccer players participated in this study. During the pre-season (7 weeks), all the subjects underwent a standardized physical and specific soccer training. Prior to and after either creatine monohydrate or placebo supplementation, the lower-limb muscle power was measured by countermovement jump performance. The Jumping performance was compared between groups at baseline (p?=?0.99). After the intervention, jumping performance was lower in the placebo group (percent change?=?- 0.7%; ES?=?- 0.3) than in the creatine group (percent change?=?+ 2.4%; ES?=?+ 0.1), but it did not reach statistical significance (p?=?0.23 for time x group interaction). Fisher’s exact test revealed that the proportion of subjects that experienced a reduction in jumping performance was significantly greater in the placebo group than in the creatine group (5 and 1, respectively; p?=?0.05) after the training. The magnitude-based inferences demonstrated that placebo resulted in a possible negative effect (50%) in jumping performance, whereas creatine supplementation led to a very likely trivial effect (96%) in jumping performance in the creatine group. Conclusions Creatine monohydrate supplementation prevented the decrement in lower-limb muscle power in elite soccer players during a pre-season progressive training. PMID:24991195

2014-01-01

197

Atlas of the muscle motor points for the lower limb: implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the uniformity of the muscle motor point location for lower limb muscles in healthy subjects. Fifty-three subjects of both genders (age range: 18-50 years) were recruited. The muscle motor points were identified for the following ten muscles of the lower limb (dominant side): vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus of the hamstring muscles, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, lateral and medial gastrocnemius. The muscle motor point was identified by scanning the skin surface with a stimulation pen electrode and corresponded to the location of the skin area above the muscle in which an electrical pulse evoked a muscle twitch with the least injected current. For each investigated muscle, 0.15 ms square pulses were delivered through the pen electrode at low current amplitude (<10 mA) and frequency (2 Hz). 16 motor points were identified in the 10 investigated muscles of almost all subjects: 3 motor points for the vastus lateralis, 2 motor points for rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior, 1 motor point for the remaining muscles. An important inter-individual variability was observed for the position of the following 4 out of 16 motor points: vastus lateralis (proximal), biceps femoris (short head), semimembranosus, and medial gastrocnemius. Possible implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning different from those commonly applied for thigh and leg muscles are discussed. PMID:21796408

Botter, Alberto; Oprandi, Gianmosè; Lanfranco, Fabio; Allasia, Stefano; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

2011-10-01

198

Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the pelvic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris)  

PubMed Central

We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle–tendon architecture and geometry of the pelvic limb of an elite sprint athlete, the racing greyhound. Specifically, muscle masses, muscle lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and muscle moment arms were measured. Maximum isometric force and power of muscles, the maximum muscle torque at joints and tendon stress and strain were estimated. We compare data with that published for a generalized breed of canid, and other cursorial mammals such as the horse and hare. The pelvic limb of the racing greyhound had a relatively large volume of hip extensor muscle, which is likely to be required for power production. Per unit body mass, some pelvic limb muscles were relatively larger than those in less specialized canines, and many hip extensor muscles had longer fascicle lengths. It was estimated that substantial extensor moments could be created about the tarsus and hip of the greyhound allowing high power output and potential for rapid acceleration. The racing greyhound hence possesses substantial specializations for enhanced sprint performance. PMID:18657259

Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Rhodes, L; Andrews, J; Payne, R C

2008-01-01

199

Design of a rotational hydroelastic actuator for a powered exoskeleton for upper limb rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to validate the suitability of a novel rotational hydroelastic actuator (rHEA) for use in our new rehabilitation exoskeleton for the upper limbs, the Limpact. The rHEA consists of a rotational hydraulic actuator and a custom-designed symmetric torsion spring in a series-elastic configuration. For rehabilitation therapy and impairment quantification, both compliant impedance control and stiff admittance control modes are possible. In the validation experiments, the torque bandwidth of the rHEA was limited to 18 Hz for a desired 20 N m reference signal (multisine, constant spectrum) due the transport delays in the long flexible tubes between the valve and cylinder. These transport delays also required changes to existing theoretical models to better fit the models on the measured frequency response functions. The (theoretical) measurable torque resolution was better than 0.01 N m and the (validated) delivered torque resolution below 1 N m. After the validation experiments, further iterative improvements resulted in a spring design capable of a maximum output torque of 50 N m with an intrinsic stiffness of 150 N . m/rad and a slightly higher bandwidth. With the design locked, the maximum measurable isometric torque is 100 N m. In conclusion, the rHEA is suitable for upper limb rehabilitation therapy as it matches the desired performance. PMID:19362903

Stienenw, Arno H A; Hekman, Edsko E G; ter Braak, Huub; Aalsma, Arthur M M; van der Helm, Frans C T; van der Kooij, Herman

2010-03-01

200

Effect of recovery from muscle strength imbalance in lower limb using four point weight bearing reduction system.  

PubMed

This study was performed to assess the improvement of muscle strength imbalance in the lower limbs using a four point weight bearing reduction system with a two-belt treadmill. Participants, each having differences in muscle function of the left and right legs of over 20%, were divided into two groups of ten. The participants were involved in experiments progressing 40 minutes per day, 3 days per week, during a period of 4 weeks. The maximal peak torque and average power were measured for testing joint torque in the hip, knee and ankle. The results showed the improvement of muscle imbalance as assessed by the maximal muscle strength was the most effective in the hip joint, while the improvement of muscular reaction was the most effective in the knee joint. We suggest that the method of weight bearing reduction could be sufficient to reduce muscle imbalance in the lower limbs. PMID:25226948

Yu, Chang Ho; Kang, Seung Rok; Jeong, Ho Choon; Kim, Kyung; Kwon, Tae Kyu

2014-01-01

201

Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

2013-02-01

202

Upper limb robot-assisted therapy in cerebral palsy: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background. Several pilot studies have evoked interest in robot-assisted therapy (RAT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Objective. To assess the effectiveness of RAT in children with CP through a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Patients and Methods. Sixteen children with CP were randomized into 2 groups. Eight children performed 5 conventional therapy sessions per week over 8 weeks (control group). Eight children completed 3 conventional therapy sessions and 2 robot-assisted sessions per week over 8 weeks (robotic group). For both groups, each therapy session lasted 45 minutes. Throughout each RAT session, the patient attempted to reach several targets consecutively with the REAPlan. The REAPlan is a distal effector robot that allows for displacements of the upper limb in the horizontal plane. A blinded assessment was performed before and after the intervention with respect to the International Classification of Functioning framework: body structure and function (upper limb kinematics, Box and Block test, Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, strength, and spasticity), activities (Abilhand-Kids, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory), and participation (Life Habits). Results. During each RAT session, patients performed 744 movements on average with the REAPlan. Among the variables assessed, the smoothness of movement (P < .01) and manual dexterity assessed by the Box and Block test (P = .04) improved significantly more in the robotic group than in the control group. Conclusions. This single-blind randomized controlled trial provides the first evidence that RAT is effective in children with CP. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects of this therapy. PMID:25015650

Gilliaux, Maxime; Renders, Anne; Dispa, Delphine; Holvoet, Dominique; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M; Stoquart, Gaëtan

2015-02-01

203

Is lower limb muscle synchrony during landing affected by gender? Implications for variations in ACL injury rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether lower limb muscle synchrony during abrupt landings was affected by gender, thereby predisposing females to a higher incidence of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than males. Seven males and 11 females landed in single-limb stance on a force platform after receiving a chest-height netball pass and decelerating abruptly. Ground reaction force and electromyographic data for

Elizabeth J Cowling; Julie R Steele

2001-01-01

204

Effects of upper limb robot-assisted therapy on motor recovery of subacute stroke patients: a kinematic approach.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of upper limb robot-assisted treatment in a group of 25 subacute post-stroke patients using clinical outcome measures and kinematic parameters. Fugl-Meyer (FM) Assessment scale and Motricity Index (MI) were used for clinical assessment, and a set of kinematic parameters was computed. A significant decrease in motor impairment after the robot-assisted treatment (FM p<0.05 and MI p<0.05) was found. Significant improvements of upper limb motor performance was found after 2 weeks (p<0.001); subsequently, no further significant improvements were observed. Our results confirm that robotic treatment is effective to reduce upper limb motor impairment in subacute stroke patients. Kinematic parameters can provide important information on mechanisms underlying motor recovery and the frequent assessment of their values can contribute to identify an appropriate number of robotic therapy sessions as to reach soon substantial improvements. PMID:24187318

Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Sale, Patrizio; Franceschini, Marco; Posteraro, Federico; Tiboni, Micol

2013-06-01

205

Diabetic muscle infarction: a rare cause of acute limb pain in dialysis patients.  

PubMed

Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare microangiopathic complication occurring in patients with advanced diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease stage Vd are prone to develop this complication. The presenting symptom is a localized painful swelling of the affected limb. Symptoms usually resolve spontaneously during the following weeks, but frequent relapse can occur and in some cases swelling may lead to compartment syndrome. Biochemical blood analyses show an elevated C-reactive protein, but creatine kinase is often normal. Diagnosis can be made on clinical presentation and imaging, with magnetic resonance imaging as the gold standard. Histology is often not contributive. Treatment consists of rest, analgesics, rigorous glycemic control and low-dose aspirin. Severe cases of compartment syndrome require fasciotomy. In the current paper, we present two diabetic patients with cystic fibrosis, who are treated with automated peritoneal dialysis and suffered from episodic lower limb infarction. We subsequently review 48 episodes of diabetic muscle infarction previously reported in the literature in patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:24563799

De Vlieger, G; Bammens, B; Claus, F; Vos, R; Claes, K

2013-01-01

206

Test-retest reliability and responsiveness of a French Canadian Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI-FC).  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) is a self-report questionnaire assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions resulting from an upper limb musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). A French Canadian version of the ULFI (ULFI-FC) has recently demonstrated good internal consistency, and convergent validity, as well as clinical applicability in a rehabilitation context where clinicians have important time constraints. This study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the ULFI-FC. Methods: In order to study the ULFI-FC's responsiveness, 60 participants completed the ULFI-FC and a French Canadian version of the DASH (DASH-FC) twice at an interval of two to six weeks, based on the evolution of their upper limb MSD. Half of the sample also completed the ULFI-FC three days after the second assessment for the test-retest reliability analysis. Results: The ULFI-FC demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC?=?0.92-0.97) and good internal responsiveness (Cohen's d?=?0.49-0.62; standardized responsive means?=?0.60-0.88). External responsiveness was further supported by moderate correlations of change scores with the DASH-FC (r?=?0.42-0.64). Conclusions: Study findings support the use of the ULFI-FC in rehabilitation as an outcome measure to monitor activity limitations and participation restrictions among French-speaking patients presenting with upper limb MSD. Implications for Rehabilitation The ULFI-FC is a reliable and valid tool with good responsiveness to change for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions in adults presenting with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. This tool can thus be useful in clinical and research settings. By exploring meaningful activities that are affected by patients' upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, the tool's Patient Specific Index is particularly relevant for clinicians adhering to a patient-centered approach. PMID:25104216

Hamasaki, Tokiko; Demers, Louise; Filiatrault, Johanne

2014-08-01

207

Effect of recovery mode following hind-limb suspension on soleus muscle composition in the rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different recovery modes from hind-limb suspension-induced hypodynamia on whole body and muscle (soleus) growth as well as soleus composition and size changes of different fiber types within this same muscle. Following 28 days of tail-suspension, rats were returned to their cages and sedentarily recovered (HS), or were exercised by running on a treadmill 5 days/wk, at progressively increasing workloads (HR) for one month. Sedentary and running control groups of animals (CS, CR) were also evaluated for comparative purposes. The exercise program, which was identical for CR and HR groups, had no effect on body wt., soleus wt., soleus muscle composition or fiber size in CR rats. Atrophied soleus muscle and reduced soleus wt./body wt. ratio (both 60% of control) had returned to control values by day 7 of recovery in both suspended groups despite the fact that whole body wt. gain was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) in HR as compared to HS rats. Atrophied soleus Type I fiber mean cross-sectional area in both HR and HS groups demonstrated similar and significant (p less than 0.01) increases during recovery. Increases in Type IIa and IIc fiber area during this same period were significant only in the HR group. While the percentage area of muscle composed of Type I fibers increased in both hypodynamic groups during recovery, the reduction in area percentage of muscle made up of Type IIa fibers was again only significant in the HR group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

McNulty, A. L.; Otto, A. J.; Kasper, C. E.; Thomas, D. P.

1992-01-01

208

Reduced plantar cutaneous sensation modifies gait dynamics, lower-limb kinematics and muscle activity during walking.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common long-term complication in diabetes and is involved in changes in diabetic gait and posture. The regression of nerve function leads to various deficits in the sensory and motor systems, impairing afferent and efferent pathways in the lower extremities. This study aimed to examine how reduced plantar-afferent feedback impacts the gait pattern. Cutaneous sensation in the soles of both feet was experimentally reduced by means of intradermal injections of an anaesthetic solution, without affecting foot proprioception or muscles. Ten subjects performed level walking at a controlled velocity before and after plantar anaesthesia. Muscle activity of five leg-muscles, co-contraction ratios for the knee and ankle joint, ground reaction forces (GRF), spatiotemporal characteristics, joint angles and moments of the hip, knee and ankle were analysed. The intervention significantly lowered plantar sensation, reducing it to the level of sensory neuropathy. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics remained unchanged. The ankle joint was more dorsiflexed which coincided with increased tibialis anterior and decreased gastrocnemius medialis muscle activity during foot flat to mid-stance. In addition, the knee joint was more flexed accompanied by increased biceps femoris activity and higher internal knee-extension moment. With regard to gait dynamics, a delay of the first peak of the vertical GRF was observed. Increased soleus and tibialis anterior muscle activity were found during the end of stance. Short-term loss of plantar sensation affects lower-limb kinematics and gait dynamics, particularly during the first half of stance, and contributes to modified muscle-activation patterns during locomotion. PMID:22391682

Höhne, Angela; Ali, Sufyan; Stark, Christian; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

2012-11-01

209

Effects of chronic electrical stimulation on long-term denervated muscles of the rabbit hind limb.  

PubMed

We investigated the extent to which activity induced by chronic electrical stimulation could restore the mass and contractile function of rabbit tibialis anterior (TA) muscles that had undergone atrophy as a result of prolonged denervation. Denervation was carried out by selectively interrupting the motor nerve branches to the ankle dorsiflexors in one hind limb. Stimulators were implanted, with electrodes on the superficial and deep surfaces of the denervated TA muscle. Ten weeks later, the mass and mid-belly cross-sectional area (CSA) of TA muscles subjected to denervation alone had fallen to approximately 40% of normal. At this stage, stimulators in the other rabbits were activated for 1 h/day to deliver 20-ms rectangular bipolar constant-current pulses of 4 mA amplitude at 20 Hz with a duty cycle of 1s ON/2s OFF, a total of 24,000 impulses/day. The animals were examined after a further 2, 6 or 10 weeks. Stimulation restored the wet weight of the denervated muscles to values not significantly different to those of normal, innervated controls. It increased CSA from 39% to 66% of normal, and there was a commensurate increase in maximum isometric tetanic force from 27% to 50% of normal. Light and electron microscopic examination revealed a marked improvement in the size, packing, and internal organization of the stimulated-denervated muscle fibres, suggestive of an ongoing process of restoration. Excitability, contractile speed, power, and fatigue resistance had not, however, been restored to normal levels after 10 weeks of stimulation. Similar results were found for muscles that had been denervated for 39 weeks and then stimulated for 12 weeks. The study demonstrates worthwhile benefits of long-term electrical stimulation in the treatment of established denervation atrophy. PMID:17906933

Ashley, Zoe; Salmons, Stanley; Boncompagni, Simona; Protasi, Feliciano; Russold, Michael; Lanmuller, Hermann; Mayr, Winfried; Sutherland, Hazel; Jarvis, Jonathan C

2007-01-01

210

A Wrist and Finger Force Sensor Module for Use During Movements of the Upper Limb in Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Previous studies using robotic devices that focus on the wrist/fingers following stroke provide an incomplete picture of movement dysfunction because they do not consider the abnormal joint torque coupling that occurs during progressive shoulder abduction loading in the paretic upper limb. This letter introduces a device designed to measure isometric flexion/extension forces generated by the fingers, wrist, and thumb during robot-mediated 3-D dynamic movements of the upper limb. Validation data collected from eight participants with chronic hemiparetic stroke are presented in this paper. PMID:19567336

Miller, Laura C.; Ruiz-Torres, Ricardo; Stienen, Arno H. A.

2010-01-01

211

Perceived discomfort functions based on joint moment for various joint motion directions of the upper limb.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to formulate the relationship between the perceived discomfort and the joint moment ratio for twelve joint motion directions of the upper limb by considering the between-subject variability, and to investigate the effect of joint motion direction. Three approximation models (i.e., linear, exponential, and logistic function models) were compared in terms of the accuracy of predicting the perceived discomfort, and the logistic function was selected because its average error was lowest. The concept of L-R fuzzy number was used to consider the individual variability of perceived discomfort, and a simplified distribution of perceived discomfort was represented. Cluster analysis showed that the twelve discomfort functions formed two clusters: one for elbow flexion and a second for the remaining joint motions. The data show that elbow flexion is more sensitive than other joint motions to increases in the joint moment ratio. PMID:23684117

Chihara, Takanori; Izumi, Taiki; Seo, Akihiko

2014-03-01

212

Early influence of auditory stimuli on upper-limb movements in young human infants: an overview  

PubMed Central

Given that the auditory system is rather well developed at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, it is likely that couplings between acoustics and motor activity can be integrated as early as at the beginning of postnatal life. The aim of the present mini-review was to summarize and discuss studies on early auditory-motor integration, focusing particularly on upper-limb movements (one of the most crucial means to interact with the environment) in association with auditory stimuli, to develop further understanding of their significance with regard to early infant development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between various infant behaviors (e.g., sucking, visual fixation, head turning) and auditory stimuli, and established that human infants can be observed displaying couplings between action and environmental sensory stimulation already from just after birth, clearly indicating a propensity for intentional behavior. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated the associations between upper-limb movements and different auditory stimuli in newborns and young infants, infants born at risk for developmental disorders/delays in particular. Findings from studies of early auditory-motor interaction support that the developing integration of sensory and motor systems is a fundamental part of the process guiding the development of goal-directed action in infancy, of great importance for continued motor, perceptual, and cognitive development. At-risk infants (e.g., those born preterm) may display increasing central auditory processing disorders, negatively affecting early sensory-motor integration, and resulting in long-term consequences on gesturing, language development, and social communication. Consequently, there is a need for more studies on such implications. PMID:25278927

Ferronato, Priscilla A. M.; Domellöf, Erik; Rönnqvist, Louise

2014-01-01

213

Early influence of auditory stimuli on upper-limb movements in young human infants: an overview.  

PubMed

Given that the auditory system is rather well developed at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, it is likely that couplings between acoustics and motor activity can be integrated as early as at the beginning of postnatal life. The aim of the present mini-review was to summarize and discuss studies on early auditory-motor integration, focusing particularly on upper-limb movements (one of the most crucial means to interact with the environment) in association with auditory stimuli, to develop further understanding of their significance with regard to early infant development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between various infant behaviors (e.g., sucking, visual fixation, head turning) and auditory stimuli, and established that human infants can be observed displaying couplings between action and environmental sensory stimulation already from just after birth, clearly indicating a propensity for intentional behavior. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated the associations between upper-limb movements and different auditory stimuli in newborns and young infants, infants born at risk for developmental disorders/delays in particular. Findings from studies of early auditory-motor interaction support that the developing integration of sensory and motor systems is a fundamental part of the process guiding the development of goal-directed action in infancy, of great importance for continued motor, perceptual, and cognitive development. At-risk infants (e.g., those born preterm) may display increasing central auditory processing disorders, negatively affecting early sensory-motor integration, and resulting in long-term consequences on gesturing, language development, and social communication. Consequently, there is a need for more studies on such implications. PMID:25278927

Ferronato, Priscilla A M; Domellöf, Erik; Rönnqvist, Louise

2014-01-01

214

Occupational therapists' perceptions of requirements for competent upper limb hypertonicity practice.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Hypertonicity practice is challenging due to the high degree of variability in presentation within and among clients. There is limited high-level evidence supporting interventions in practice. This study gathered therapists' views on requirements for competent practice. This information could be used to improve training in this area of practice to benefit clients. Methods: A pragmatic qualitative design was used. Five therapists who had undergone specialised training in hypertonicity practice were interviewed. Qualitative description was used to analyse data. Results: Therapists discussed (1) complexity, (2) time and energy and (3) requirements for competent practice as important aspects of hypertonicity practice. The first two themes illustrate the intensive nature of hypertonicity practice. The third theme encompasses the knowledge, skills, clinical actions and decision-making therapists require for competent practice. Conclusion: Participants perceived that there is a dynamic relationship between knowledge and skills. They also believed that competent hypertonicity practice requires a client-centred approach and individualisation of interventions. Future training needs to focus on the development of therapists' clinical reasoning, which was required to individualise interventions and promote positive client outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation Training in upper limb hypertonicity management in a clinical setting can assist therapists to understand the factors contributing to the complexity of this practice area. Training in a clinical setting is required to allow development of the range of skills needed for competent practice as it provides consistent exposure to clients over time. Practicing in a client-centred manner and making individualised intervention decisions should be emphasized as an overarching framework for developing relevant knowledge and skills in this area of practice. Future research needs to focus on identifying training techniques that will promote therapists' competence in decision making when working in upper limb hypertonicity practice. PMID:25323398

Colclough, Sarah; Copley, Jodie; Turpin, Merrill; Justins, Emma; De Monte, Rachel

2014-10-17

215

An augmented reality system for upper-limb post-stroke motor rehabilitation: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To determine the clinical feasibility of a system based on augmented reality for upper-limb (UL) motor rehabilitation of stroke participants. Method: A physiotherapist instructed the participants to accomplish tasks in augmented reality environment, where they could see themselves and their surroundings, as in a mirror. Two case studies were conducted. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. The first study evaluated the UL motor function using Fugl-Meyer scale. Data were compared using non-parametric sign tests and effect size. The second study used the gain of motion range of shoulder flexion and abduction assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry. Results: At a significance level of 5%, Fugl-Meyer scores suggested a trend for greater UL motor improvement in the augmented reality group than in the other. Moreover, effect size value 0.86 suggested high practical significance for UL motor rehabilitation using the augmented reality system. Conclusion: System provided promising results for UL motor rehabilitation, since enhancements have been observed in the shoulder range of motion and speed. Implications for Rehabilitation Gain of range of motion of flexion and abduction of the shoulder of post-stroke patients can be achieved through an augmented reality system containing exercises to promote the mental practice. NeuroR system provides a mental practice method combined with visual feedback for motor rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients, giving the illusion of injured upper-limb (UL) movements while the affected UL is resting. Its application is feasible and safe. This system can be used to improve UL rehabilitation, an additional treatment past the traditional period of the stroke patient hospitalization and rehabilitation. PMID:25367103

Assis, Gilda Aparecida de; Corrêa, Ana Grasielle Dionísio; Martins, Maria Bernardete Rodrigues; Pedrozo, Wendel Goes; Lopes, Roseli de Deus

2014-11-01

216

Function and position determine relative proportions of different fiber types in limb muscles of the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscles can be classified as flexors or extensors according to their function, and as dorsal or ventral according to their position. The latter classification evokes their embryological origin from muscle masses initially divided during limb development, and muscles sharing a given position do not necessarily perform the same function. Here, we compare the relative proportions of different fiber types among six limb muscles in the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes. Individual fibers were classified as slow oxidative (SO), fast glycolytic (FG) or fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) based on mitochondrial content; muscles were classified according to position and function. Mixed linear models considering one or both effects were compared using likelihood ratio tests. Variation in the proportion of FG and FOG fibers is mainly explained by function (flexor muscles have on average lower proportions of FG and higher proportions of FOG fibers), while variation in SO fibers is better explained by position (they are less abundant in ventral muscles than in those developed from a dorsal muscle mass). Our results clarify the roles of position and function in determining the relative proportions of the various muscle fibers and provide evidence that these factors may differentially affect distinct fiber types. PMID:25456976

Pereira, Anieli G; Abdala, Virginia; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

2015-02-01

217

Coherence between the sympathetic drives to relaxed and contracting muscles of different limbs of human subjects.  

PubMed Central

1. This study was undertaken to quantify the simultaneous sympathetic drives to muscles in the two legs of human subjects, and to elucidate the extent to which a common drive determines sympathetic outflow to different limbs at rest, during apnoea and during voluntary contractions. 2. Sympathetic efferent activity was recorded simultaneously from fascicles of both peroneal nerves, innervating the pretibial flexor muscles. At rest the similarity was quantified for a sample of records by manual measurement of equivalent bursts in the two recordings, and for all records by cross-correlation and power spectral analysis of the two recordings. During contractions, only the latter method was used. 3. At rest the correlation coefficient for the relationship between the burst amplitudes for the two recordings was 0.72 (S.D. 0.1). For the same sequences, the computed coherence between the two recordings was 85.6% (S.D. 6.7%) at the cardiac period. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between these two measures of similarity, and this was stronger when data from sequences recorded during apnoea were included in the analysis. At rest the mean difference in coherence between consecutive sequences with no intervening manoeuvre (apnoea, contraction, change in recording site) was 4.2% (S.D. 4.3%). In only two of forty-nine such instances was the difference in coherence > 10%. 4. Apnoea at end-expiration increased the amplitude and frequency of sympathetic bursts and increased the similarity between the two recordings. The correlation coefficients increased from a mean of 0.72 at rest to 0.89 during apnoea. Coherence increased from a mean of 82.1% at rest to 91.9% during apnoea. 5. On the right side, graded voluntary contractions were performed at 5, 10, 20 or 30% maximal force using the muscle innervated by the fascicle from which the recording was made. The coherence between the recordings made from the right and left legs decreased by > 10% at each contraction level. Pooling the data for all contractions, there was a significant decrease in power at the cardiac frequency in the sympathetic recording from the contracting leg. Contraction of a synergist or antagonist at 10% maximum produced negligible changes in coherence. 6. It is concluded that, at rest, homologous muscles of the lower limbs are subject to a common drive and that, during apnoea, this common drive can dominate the sympathetic outflow to the virtual exclusion of regional drives. During voluntary activity, the importance of this common drive is lessened, presumably because of regionally specific changes involving the contracting muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 8 PMID:1484355

Wallin, B G; Burke, D; Gandevia, S C

1992-01-01

218

Course review: the 4th bob huffstadt upper and lower limb flap dissection course.  

PubMed

The Bob Huffstadt course is a 2-day upper and lower limb flap dissection course held in Groningen, the Netherlands. The course is in English, with an international faculty of senior consultants from the Netherlands, Belgium, and United Kingdom. Faculty to participant ratio is 2:1, with 2 participants at each dissection table. The course is aimed at trainees in plastic surgery of all levels, and a comprehensive DVD is provided before the course, which demonstrates dissection of 35 flaps, ensuring those with little experience to have an understanding before dissection.This course offered a comprehensive overview with plenty of practical application. The course can greatly develop operative and theoretical knowledge, while also demonstrating a commitment for those wishing to pursue a career in plastic surgery. Longer courses are available; however, the 2-day course can already provide an excellent introduction for junior trainees. There are few flap courses in the United Kingdom and senior trainees may have difficulty acquiring a place as they book up well in advance. With reductions in operating time, trainees may welcome further experience and development of techniques in the dissection room.Most of both days were spent in the dissection room, raising flaps and receiving teaching from the faculty. Dissections included Foucher, Moberg, Becker, radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, and fibula flaps. Dissection specimens were fresh-frozen preparation, and 9 upper limb flaps were raised on the first day and 5 lower limb flaps on the second day. The faculty provided live demonstrations of perforator dissection, use of the hand-held Doppler, and tips and tricks. The last 2 hours of each day were spent with 2 lectures, including topics from the history of flaps and developments to challenging cases and reconstructive options.The course fee was 1000 euros, including a 5-course dinner, lunch on both days, and a drinks reception on the final evening. I would recommend this course unreservedly to trainees new to flaps, or those with greater experience. The course was supportive, friendly, and provided an excellent basis to develop reconstructive skills. There is a world-class faculty who can improve the knowledge and techniques of any trainee in attendance. PMID:24135639

Dunne, Jonathan A

2014-12-01

219

Condensation of Plasmid DNA Enhances Mitochondrial Association in Skeletal Muscle Following Hydrodynamic Limb Vein Injection  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial gene therapy and diagnosis have the potential to provide substantial medical benefits. However, the utility of this approach has not yet been realized because the technology available for mitochondrial gene delivery continues to be a bottleneck. We previously reported on mitochondrial gene delivery in skeletal muscle using hydrodynamic limb vein (HLV) injection. HLV injection, a useful method for nuclear transgene expression, involves the rapid injection of a large volume of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA). Moreover, the use of a condensed form of pDNA enhances the nuclear transgene expression by the HLV injection. The purpose of this study was to compare naked pDNA and condensed pDNA for mitochondrial association in skeletal muscle, when used in conjunction with HLV injection. PCR analysis showed that the use of condensed pDNA rather than naked pDNA resulted in a more effective mitochondrial association with pDNA, suggesting that the physicochemical state of pDNA plays a key role. Moreover, no mitochondrial toxicities in skeletal muscle following the HLV injection of condensed pDNA were confirmed, as evidenced by cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings have the potential to contribute to the development for in vivo mitochondrial gene delivery system. PMID:25195732

Yasuzaki, Yukari; Yamada, Yuma; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

2014-01-01

220

Unilateral lower limb muscle fatigue induces bilateral effects on undisturbed stance and muscle EMG activities.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of an unilateral ankle muscle fatigue onto independent postural control parameters including the trajectories of the estimated resultant CoP (CoPres) and his components: the centre of gravity (CG) and CoP-CG trajectories. Nine healthy men realized series of 10 toe-lift immediately followed by 10 knee flexions until exhaustion with one (Ex) leg. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions, postural sway measures of each leg, and muscular activities of the ankle muscles were recorded before and immediately after the fatiguing exercise. As expected, the latter induced a decrease in maximal voluntary peak force associated with a greater variability of the relative contribution of each leg on the CoPres, enhanced all postural parameters of the non-exercised leg. A significant decreased of the tibialis anterior EMG activity for the Ex leg and an increased one for the NoEx leg. Finally, following unilateral fatigue, the body sway destabilisation seemed to occur only along the medio-lateral (ML) axis. The enhanced and greater variability of the variance along ML axis might be explained by the recourse at the loading-unloading strategy choice and suggests a central attempt to compensate for pain sensation. PMID:19879160

Berger, L L; Regueme, S C; Forestier, N

2010-10-01

221

Constraining Upper Limb Synergies of Hemiparetic Patients Using a Robotic Exoskeleton in the Perspective of Neuro-Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to explore how an upper limb exoskeleton can be programmed to impose specific joint coordination patterns during rehabilitation. Based on rationale which emphasizes the importance of the quality of movement coordination in the motor relearning process, a robot controller was developed with the aim of reproducing the individual corrections imposed by a physical therapist

Vincent Crocher; Anis Sahbani; Johanna Robertson; Agnès Roby-Brami; Guillaume Morel

2012-01-01

222

Effect of position feedback during task-oriented upper-limb training after stroke: five-case pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedback is an important element in motor learning during rehabilitation therapy following stroke. The objective of this pilot study was to better understand the effect of position feedback during task-oriented reach training of the upper limb in people with chronic stroke. Five subjects participated in the training for 30 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. During training, subjects

Birgit I. Molier; Gerdienke B. Prange; Thijs Krabben; Arno H. A. Stienen; Kooij van der Herman; Jaap H. Buurke; Michiel J. A. Jannink; Hermie J. Hermens

2011-01-01

223

An upper limb kinematic model for the examination of cricket bowling: A case study of Mutiah Muralitharan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how biomechanics can be used to accurately assess spin-bowling techniques (offspin, legspin and topspin) in cricket, under controlled conditions, when the player is suspected of throwing. A 50 Hz six-camera Vicon Motion Analysis system was used to record the movements of markers strategically placed on the upper limb during each of the above bowling actions. A kinematic model

D. G. Lloyd; J. Alderson; B. C. Elliott

2000-01-01

224

Assessment of upper limb motor function in patients with multiple sclerosis using the Virtual Peg Insertion Test: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Quantifying and tracking upper limb impairment is of key importance to the understanding of disease progress, establishing patient-tailored therapy protocols and for optimal care provision. This paper presents the results of a pilot study on the assessment of upper limb motor function in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with the Virtual Peg Insertion Test (VPIT). The test consists in a goal-directed reaching task using a commercial haptic display combined with an instrumented handle and virtual environment, and allows for the extraction of objective kinematic and dynamic parameters. Ten MS patients and eight age-matched healthy subjects performed five repetitions of the VPIT with their dominant and non-dominant hand. Upper limb movements were found to be significantly slower, less smooth and less straight compared to healthy controls, and the time to complete the VPIT was well correlated with the conventional Nine Hole Peg Test (r=0.658, p<0.01). Tremor in the range of 3-5 Hz could be detected and quantified using a frequency analysis in patients featuring intention tremor. These preliminary results illustrate the feasibility of using the VPIT with MS patients, and underline the potential of this test to evaluate upper limb motor function and discriminate characteristic MS related impairments. PMID:24187309

Lambercy, Olivier; Fluet, Marie-Christine; Lamers, Ilse; Kerkhofs, Lore; Feys, Peter; Gassert, Roger

2013-06-01

225

Determining Specificity of Motor Imagery Training for Upper Limb Improvement in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Training Protocol and Pilot Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor imagery (MI) refers to the mental rehearsal of a movement without actual motor output. MI training has positive effects on upper limb recovery after stroke. However, until now it is unclear whether this effect is specific to the trained task or a more general motor skill improvement. This study was set up to advance our insights into the…

Craje, Celine

2010-01-01

226

side and 2 gill rakers on the upper limb of the sec-ond gill arch on the blind side, it is referred to A.  

E-print Network

side and 2 gill rakers on the upper limb of the sec- ond gill arch on the blind side, it is referred to A. stomias. The other two anomalous specimens also had 2 gill rakers on the upper limbs of the second gill arch of the blind side and were also recorded as A. stomias. Discussion From this study

227

UARS Microwave Limb Sounder upper tropospheric humidity measurement: Method and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methodology and validation of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) measurements by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are described. The MLS instrument was not specifically designed to measure UTH, but its measurement is achieved by modeling the radiance signal from a window channel as the instrument field of view is scanned through the troposphere. UTH is retrieved as a piecewise-linear function in relative humidity with respect to ice (% RHi) with breakpoints at 147, 215, 316, and 464 hPa. MLS version 4.9 is believed to be the most accurate version to date; its estimated global-averaged accuracy (precision) is 23(21), 22(10), 22(8), and 50(19) %RHi at 147, 215, 316, and 464, hPa respectively. The validation of UTH is established by its consistency with (1) climatological fields, (2) coincident comparisons with in situ Vaisala RS80 balloon sondes, frostpoint hygrometers and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft measurements, (3) cirrus observations, and (4) meteorological dynamics and assimilation fields. MLS climatological UTH is morphologically consistent with Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II and Vaisala zonal climatologies. Comparisons with coincident in situ data show a wide range of agreement. Relative to the other in situ instruments, V4.9 MLS humidities agree on average within 11% at 147 hPa, 3-36% dry at 215 hPa, and 14-39% dry at 316 and 464 hPa. The standard deviation of the individual comparisons about the mean between MLS UTH and the other techniques is approximately 25%RHi at all heights. Humidity measurements in cirrus are compared with UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) extinction measurements and an MLS cirrus detection algorithm. CLAES extinction measurements from 316 to 147 hPa which indicate the presence of cirrus correspond well with MLS UTH measurements greater than ˜100 %RHi. Global MLS UTH distributions appear consistent with those expected from upper tropospheric dynamics and with the Goddard Data Assimilation Office humidity fields.

Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Wu, D. L.; Stone, E. M.; Shippony, Z.; Smedley, A. C.; Smallcomb, C. C.; Oltmans, S.; Kley, D.; Smit, H. G. J.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Karki, M. K.

2001-12-01

228

The use of average Pavlov ratio to predict the risk of post operative upper limb palsy after posterior cervical decompression  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study was conducted to study the post operative upper limb palsy after laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy. Objective To identify a reliable and simple preoperative radiological parameter in predicting the risk of post operative upper limb palsy. Background Post operative upper limb palsy is one of the causes of patient dissatisfaction after surgery. There had been no simple, standard preoperative radiological parameters reliably predict the occurrence of this problem. Materials and methods Seventy-four patients received posterior cervical decompression from 1998 to 2008. Medical record and preoperative radiological information were evaluated. Clinical presentations of the palsy were described. The relationship between the occurrence of palsy and different preoperative radiological information is analyzed. Results Eighteen patients (24.3%) presented with post operative upper limb palsy. Majority of patients presented with dysesthesia (17/18) and with deficit of the C5 segment (17/18). Ten patients presented with pure dysesthesia and 8 patients presented with mixed motor-sensory deficit and dysesthesia. Multilevel involvement was exclusively presented in patients with motor weakness. A longer duration of symptom (16.7 Vs 57.2 days) was noticed in patients in the motor deficit group. Average Pavlov ratio less then 0.65 (P = 0.027, Odds Ratio = 3.68) and compression at the C3/4 in preoperative MRI image (P = 0.025, Odds Ratio = 6) were significant risk factors for development of this problem. Conclusion Post operative upper limb palsy is not uncommon and thorough preoperative explanation is important. There is a spectrum of clinical presentation and patients with multi-level involvement and motor deficit are associated with poorer prognosis. Average Pavlov ratio < 0.65 and compression at C3/4 segment on preoperative MRI image are simple and reliable preoperative predictor for the development of this problem. PMID:19583838

Sieh, Koon-Man; Leung, Siu-Man; Lam, Judy Suk Yee; Cheung, Kai Yin; Fung, Kwai Yau

2009-01-01

229

Unilateral and bilateral upper-limb training interventions after stroke have similar effects on bimanual coupling strength.  

PubMed

Background. Bilateral training in poststroke upper-limb rehabilitation is based on the premise that simultaneous movements of the nonparetic upper limb facilitate performance and recovery of paretic upper-limb function through neural coupling effects. Objective. To determine whether the degree of coupling between both hands is higher after bilateral than after unilateral training and control treatment. Methods. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, we investigated rhythmic interlimb coordination after unilateral (mCIMT) and bilateral (mBATRAC) upper-limb training and a dose-matched control treatment (DMCT) in 60 patients suffering from stroke. To this end, we used a series of tasks to discern intended and unintended coupling effects between the hands. In addition, we investigated the control over the paretic hand as reflected by movement harmonicity and amplitude. All tasks were performed before and after a 6-week intervention period and at follow-up 6 weeks later. Results. There were no significant between-group differences in change scores from baseline to postintervention and from postintervention to follow-up with regard to interlimb coupling. However, the mBATRAC group showed greater movement harmonicity and larger amplitudes with the paretic hand after training than the mCIMT and DMCT groups. Conclusions. The degree of coupling between both hands was not significantly higher after bilateral than after unilateral training and control treatment. Although improvements in movement harmonicity and amplitude following mBATRAC may indicate a beneficial influence of the interlimb coupling, those effects were more likely due to the particular type of limb movements employed during this training protocol. PMID:25055838

van Delden, A Lex E Q; Beek, Peter J; Roerdink, Melvyn; Kwakkel, Gert; Peper, C Lieke E

2015-03-01

230

Surface electromyographic activities of upper body muscles during high-intensity cycle ergometry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate upper body muscle activity during a 30 s Wingate test. Eighteen physically active participants performed a Wingate test while muscle activity was recorded from the brachioradialis (BR), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB) and upper trapezius (UT). Measurements were obtained at rest, during a function maximal contraction (FMC) and during the 30 s Wingate test, whilst participants were positioned in a seated position on the cycle ergometer. All muscles were significantly active for the duration of the test. When normalized as a %FMC no differences in activity were found between muscles. Across the 30 s, power output was found to significantly decrease, whereas no changes were found in upper body muscle activity. All muscles investigated were active during the Wingate test and therefore confirmed previous findings that the upper body significantly contributes to power profiles obtained during high intensity cycle ergometry in addition to its role in stabilizing the body. PMID:24650333

McCormick, Marie Clare; Watson, Hugh; Simpson, Alan; Kilgore, Lon; Baker, Julien S

2014-01-01

231

The Effects of Abdominal Hollowing in Lower-limb PNF Pattern Training on the Activation of Contralateral Muscles  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of abdominal hollowing during lower-limb proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on the activation of contralateral muscles. [Subjects] Twenty male college students without symptoms or signs of muscular or nervous disease participated in this experiment after signing a consent form. [Methods] All the subjects were measured with electromyography (EMG) in a muscle activation test before and after abdominal hollowing. In the PNF program, the lower-limb pattern of PNF training, was maintained for 5 seconds, followed by a 2-minute break. This was repeated three times. The resting time between sets was 30 minutes. Surface EMG (Keypoint, Medtronic Inc., USA) was used for the measurements, and the highest value of three measurements was used in the analysis. [Result] The results revealed a significant change in the muscular activation of the opposite-side lower limbs. The muscular activations of the vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and gastrocnemius were increased significantly after the abdominal hollowing. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that abdominal hollowing in PNF pattern training can be effective at promoting muscular activation of the contralateral muscles. To promote muscular activation of the opposite side in lower-limb PNF pattern training, abdominal hollowing should be considered to improve the effect of PNF pattern training. PMID:24259788

Yoo, Byungho; Park, Hankyu; Heo, Kwangjin; Lee, Joongsook; Lee, Jaeseok; Oh, Taeyoung; Han, Dongwook

2013-01-01

232

Robot-mediated upper limb physiotherapy: review and recommendations for future clinical trials.  

PubMed

Robot-mediated physiotherapy provides a new possibility for improving the outcome of rehabilitation of patients who are recovering from stroke. This study is a review of robot-supported upper limb physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, OVID, and EBSCO for clinical trials with robots providing shoulder, elbow, or wrist therapy. Results concerning motor control, spasticity, functional outcome, and the main features of the studies were evaluated. A total of 178 papers were found. On the basis of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 30 studies remained for evaluation. In these trials, a total of 493 patients received robot-aided therapy. The Fugl-Meyer assessment was the most commonly used motor scale, and in 24 of 27 trials, motor function improved significantly. The application of the Modified Ashworth Scale showed that spasticity decreased significantly in nine of 21 trials. Functional scales were only examined in one-third of the studies with significant changes being found in half of them. The intensity and duration of the interventions as well as the elapsed time poststroke were varied. There are several scales, which were used in only a few trials. Unifying the methodology in robotic trials is desirable. Clarification of the acute/subacute/chronic categories, standardizing the application of certain scales for outcome measure in each trial, use of functional scales, and a clearer description of the interventions are recommended. PMID:21543990

Péter, Orsolya; Fazekas, Gábor; Zsiga, Katalin; Dénes, Zoltán

2011-09-01

233

Vital endowments: Sir Charles Bell and the history of some congenital abnormalities of the upper limb.  

PubMed

Born in Edinburgh in 1774 Sir Charles Bell, as a young man, studied anatomy and surgery in his hometown. There followed a distinguished career that culminated in his becoming the first professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the College of Surgeons in London. Renowned as a brilliant neuroanatomist he was invited, on the advice of His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, to contribute one of eight volumes of a work on the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God as manifested in the Creation - known as the Bridgewater Treatises. 'The Hand its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design' was published in 1833 and it is an account of his considering the hand as a machine that has been engineered to exacting standards to interact with the environment in which we live. In it he expressed a deep understanding of the similarity of the structure of the upper limbs of the higher orders of animals. The similarity of the paddle of a turtle and a human hand with acrosymbrachydactyly is unmistakable. This congenital abnormality, given the eponymous title of Apert's syndrome, is one of a number of congenital abnormalities that have parallels in the animal kingdom. Others who have had similar syndromes named after them include Poland, Marfan, Streeter and a number of others. The life and times of these men and their contributions to medicine will be presented in this paper. PMID:22507417

Thurston, Alan

2011-12-01

234

Drinking Behavior Training for Stroke Patients Using Action Observation and Practice of Upper Limb Function  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined the effects of action observation and action practice on stroke patients’ upper limb function. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 33 chronic stroke patients who were randomly assigned to four groups. The action observation group (5 males, 3 females) watched a video of the task, the action practice group (5 males, 4 females) performed the action, the combined action observation-action practice group (5 males, 4 females) watched the video of the task and practiced the action, and the control group (4 males, 3 females) did not perform either action observation or action practice. The video used in the action observational physical training comprised a scene of an adult male picking up a cup, bringing it to his mouth in order to touch his mouth, and then returning the cup to its initial position. [Results] Improvements in drinking behavior functions were observed immediately after the experiment and one week later. After the intervention, the number of drinking motions had increased the most in the combination group. One week after the experiment, there were increases in the action observation, action training, and combination groups. [Conclusion] A combination of action observation and action training is the most effective treatment method, and action training is a desirable second to combined therapy. PMID:24259813

Lee, Daehee; Roh, Hyolyun; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyoung; Han, Seulki

2013-01-01

235

Usability testing of gaming and social media applications for stroke and cerebral palsy upper limb rehabilitation.  

PubMed

As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs. PMID:25570770

Valdes, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Chai-Ting Hung; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

2014-08-01

236

Characteristics of upper limb muscular strength in male wheelchair tennis players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60°/sec. As a result, extension strength (ES) was significantly higher than flexion strength (FS) (P< 0.001), and IR in both sides and BR in ES were maintained within normal range whereas BR in FS was lower than normal range in shoulder joint. In elbow joint FS was significantly higher than ES (P< 0.05), and IR and BR were lower than normal range. Consequently, the different tendency in IR between shoulder and elbow joints and lower IR and BR in elbow joints could be the characteristics in male wheelchair tennis players. It is suggested that flexor strengthening program in nondominant shoulder joint, extensor strengthening program in both elbow joint, and flexor strengthening program in non-dominant elbow joint should be introduced for male wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24278887

Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun

2013-01-01

237

Robot training of upper limb in multiple sclerosis: comparing protocols with or without manipulative task components.  

PubMed

In this pilot study, we compared two protocols for robot-based rehabilitation of upper limb in multiple sclerosis (MS): a protocol involving reaching tasks (RT) requiring arm transport only and a protocol requiring both objects' reaching and manipulation (RMT). Twenty-two MS subjects were assigned to RT or RMT group. Both protocols consisted of eight sessions. During RT training, subjects moved the handle of a planar robotic manipulandum toward circular targets displayed on a screen. RMT protocol required patients to reach and manipulate real objects, by moving the robotic arm equipped with a handle which left the hand free for distal tasks. In both trainings, the robot generated resistive and perturbing forces. Subjects were evaluated with clinical and instrumental tests. The results confirmed that MS patients maintained the ability to adapt to the robot-generated forces and that the rate of motor learning increased across sessions. Robot-therapy significantly reduced arm tremor and improved arm kinematics and functional ability. Compared to RT, RMT protocol induced a significantly larger improvement in movements involving grasp (improvement in Grasp ARAT sub-score: RMT 77.4%, RT 29.5%, p=0.035) but not precision grip. Future studies are needed to evaluate if longer trainings and the use of robotic handles would significantly improve also fine manipulation. PMID:22623407

Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Bertoni, Rita; Ferrarin, Maurizio

2012-05-01

238

Three muscles in the upper costovertebral region: description and clinical anatomy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to describe three small muscles in the upper costovertebral region that have close proximity to the ventral rami of the lower cervical and upper two thoracic spinal nerves. The study was performed using both anterior and posterior approaches to the costovertebral region. Twenty-five human cadavers, 15 males and 10 females with a mean age of 50 years and with normal spines, constituted the material of the study. Dissection revealed the presence of three triangular muscles that extended from the transverse processes of the seventh cervical through second thoracic vertebrae to the upper borders of the necks of the first through third ribs, respectively. The second and third muscles are described and reported for the first time. The ventral rami of the lower cervical and upper two thoracic spinal nerves emerged through narrow gaps between the described muscles and the bodies of seventh cervical and upper two thoracic vertebrae, respectively. The lateral branch of the dorsal ramus of the corresponding spinal nerve issued posteriorly between the muscle and the articular capsule of the zygapophyseal joint. It then curved round the posterior aspect of the muscle and passed through the gap between the muscle and the levator costarum, after supplying them both. We suggest that these three muscles were suggested to share a common embryogenesis with the intertransverse muscles. In addition, this study suggests that the three muscles described herein could be one of the potential causes of thoracic outlet syndrome. PMID:19173248

Darwish, Hassem H; Ibrahim, Ahmed F

2009-04-01

239

Comparative architectural properties of limb muscles in Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae and their relevance to divergent use of asymmetrical gaits in extant Crocodylia.  

PubMed

Crocodiles and their kin (Crocodylidae) use asymmetrical (bounding and galloping) gaits when moving rapidly. Despite being morphologically and ecologically similar, it seems alligators and their kin (Alligatoridae) do not. To investigate a possible anatomical basis for this apparent major difference in locomotor capabilities, we measured relative masses and internal architecture (fascicle lengths and physiological cross-sectional areas) of muscles of the pectoral and pelvic limbs of 40 individuals from six representative species of Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae. We found that, relative to body mass, Crocodylidae have significantly longer muscle fascicles (increased working range), particularly in the pectoral limb, and generally smaller muscle physiological cross-sectional areas (decreased force-exerting capability) than Alligatoridae. We therefore hypothesise that the ability of some crocodylians to use asymmetrical gaits may be limited more by the ability to make large, rapid limb motions (especially in the pectoral limb) than the ability to exert large limb forces. Furthermore, analysis of scaling patterns in muscle properties shows that limb anatomy in the two clades becomes more divergent during ontogeny. Limb muscle masses, fascicle lengths and physiological cross-sectional areas scale with significantly larger coefficients in Crocodylidae than Alligatoridae. This combination of factors suggests that inter-clade disparity in maximal limb power is highest in adult animals. Therefore, despite their apparent morphological similarities, both mean values and scaling patterns suggest that considerable diversity exists in the locomotor apparatus of extant Crocodylia. PMID:25418112

Allen, Vivian; Molnar, Julia; Parker, William; Pollard, Andrea; Nolan, Grant; Hutchinson, John R

2014-12-01

240

Upper extremity function and activity in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The aims of this review were (1) to provide insight into the natural course of upper-extremity (UE) impairments and UE activity limitations associated with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD), and (2) to provide an overview of outcome measures used to evaluate UE function and activity in patients with FSHD and LGMD. Methods: Scientific literature databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane) were searched for relevant publications. Inclusion criteria: (1) studies that included persons with a diagnosis of FSHD or LGMD; and (2) studies that reported the natural course of the UE functions and/or activity with outcome measures at these levels. Results: 247 publications were screened, of which 16 fulfilled the selection criteria. Most studies used manual muscle testing (MMT) to evaluate UE function and the Brooke Scale to evaluate UE mobility activities. The clinical picture of UE impairments and limitations of UE activities in FSHD and LGMD patients was highly variable. In general, FSHD and LGMD patients experience difficulty elevating their upper extremities and the execution of tasks takes considerably longer time. Conclusions: The clinical course of UE impairments and activity limitations associated with FSHD and LGMD is difficult to predict due to its high variability. Although measures like MMT and the Brooke Scale are often used, there is a lack of more specific outcome measures to assess UE function and UE capacity and performance in daily life. Measures such as 3D motion analysis and electromyography (EMG) recordings are recommended to provide additional insight in UE function. Questionnaires like the Abilhand are recommended to assess UE capacity and accelerometry to assess UE performance in daily life. Implications for Rehabilitation There is a need for specific outcome measures on the level of UE activity. Both the level of capacity and performance should be assessed. Possible outcome measures include 3D motion analysis to assess UE function, questionnaires like the Abilhand to assess UE capacity and accelerometry to assess performance of UE activities in daily life. PMID:25098592

Bergsma, Arjen; Cup, Edith H C; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M

2014-08-01

241

The role of ventral and preventral organs as attachment sites for segmental limb muscles in Onychophora  

PubMed Central

Background The so-called ventral organs are amongst the most enigmatic structures in Onychophora (velvet worms). They were described as segmental, ectodermal thickenings in the onychophoran embryo, but the same term has also been applied to mid-ventral, cuticular structures in adults, although the relationship between the embryonic and adult ventral organs is controversial. In the embryo, these structures have been regarded as anlagen of segmental ganglia, but recent studies suggest that they are not associated with neural development. Hence, their function remains obscure. Moreover, their relationship to the anteriorly located preventral organs, described from several onychophoran species, is also unclear. To clarify these issues, we studied the anatomy and development of the ventral and preventral organs in several species of Onychophora. Results Our anatomical data, based on histology, and light, confocal and scanning electron microscopy in five species of Peripatidae and three species of Peripatopsidae, revealed that the ventral and preventral organs are present in all species studied. These structures are covered externally with cuticle that forms an internal, longitudinal, apodeme-like ridge. Moreover, phalloidin-rhodamine labelling for f-actin revealed that the anterior and posterior limb depressor muscles in each trunk and the slime papilla segment attach to the preventral and ventral organs, respectively. During embryonic development, the ventral and preventral organs arise as large segmental, paired ectodermal thickenings that decrease in size and are subdivided into the smaller, anterior anlagen of the preventral organs and the larger, posterior anlagen of the ventral organs, both of which persist as paired, medially-fused structures in adults. Our expression data of the genes Delta and Notch from embryos of Euperipatoides rowelli revealed that these genes are expressed in two, paired domains in each body segment, corresponding in number, position and size with the anlagen of the ventral and preventral organs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ventral and preventral organs are a common feature of onychophorans that serve as attachment sites for segmental limb depressor muscles. The origin of these structures can be traced back in the embryo as latero-ventral segmental, ectodermal thickenings, previously suggested to be associated with the development of the nervous system. PMID:24308783

2013-01-01

242

On the use of information theory for detecting upper limb motor dysfunction: An application to Parkinson’s disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, decreased striatal dopamine levels, and consequent extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions. Several potential early diagnostic markers of PD have been proposed. Since they have not been validated in presymptomatic PD, the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease is based on subjective clinical assessment of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this study, we investigated interjoint coordination synergies in the upper limb of healthy and parkinsonian subjects during the performance of unconstrained linear-periodic movements in a horizontal plane using the mutual information (MI). We found that the MI is a sensitive metric in detecting upper limb motor dysfunction, thus suggesting that this method might be applicable to quantitatively evaluating the effects of the antiparkinsonian medication and to monitor the disease progression.

de Oliveira, M. Elias; Menegaldo, L. L.; Lucarelli, P.; Andrade, B. L. B.; Büchler, P.

2011-11-01

243

Intra-neural Ewing's sarcoma of the upper limb mimicking a peripheral nerve tumour. A report of 2 cases.  

PubMed

Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant round cell tumour of bone commonly affecting children and young adults. Intra-neural Ewings is very rare form of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES), posing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report two cases of intra-neural EES presenting with elbow pain and swelling, mimicking an upper limb peripheral nerve sheath tumour. Following a CT guided biopsy to confirm diagnosis, the patients were treated with a combination of surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These cases highlight the potential diagnostic challenges as their presentation can be misleading due to the non-specificity of symptoms. These are highly aggressive tumours with the propensity to metastasize. We review importance of collective radiological and immunohistochemical analysis followed by early, aggressive multimodal treatment within a multidisciplinary setting. This provides the best prognosis in the context of upper limb peripheral nerve tumours. PMID:21330228

Mohan, Anita T; Park, Derek H; Jalgaonkar, Azal; Alorjani, Mohammed; Aston, William; Briggs, Tim

2011-06-01

244

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presenting as upper limb weakness in a 35 year old female: a case report  

PubMed Central

Chiropractors regularly assess and provide treatment for a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Many of these respond well to conservative care however some represent conditions that must be referred for further evaluation. This article chronicles the management of a patient who presented with upper limb weakness and was subsequently diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Chiropractors should be informed of the nature and presentation of this disease to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21886282

Sigurdson, Leif A.

2011-01-01

245

Continuous theta-burst stimulation combined with occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Ten patients with history of stroke and upper limb hemiparesis (age 62.0 ± 11.1 years, time since stroke 95.7 ± 70.2 months, mean ± SD) were studied. Each patient received 13 sessions, each comprising 160 s of cTBS applied to the skull on the area of the non-lesional hemisphere (using a 70-mm figure-8 coil, three pulse bursts at 50 Hz, repeated every 200 ms, i.e., 5 Hz, with total stimulation of 2,400 pulses), followed by intensive OT (comprising 120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training) during 15-day hospitalization. The motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) on the days of admission and discharge. All patients completed the 15-day protocol without any adverse effects. Treatment significantly increased the FMA score (from 46.6 ± 8.7 to 51.6 ± 8.2 points, p < 0.01) and shortened the log performance time of WMFT (from 2.5 ± 1.1 to 2.2 ± 1.2 s, p < 0.01). The 15-day protocol of cTBS combined with intensive OT is a safe and potentially useful therapeutic modality for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. PMID:24696408

Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Kondo, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masato; Sageshima, Masashi; Mitani, Sugao; Abo, Masahiro

2014-12-01

246

Virtual rehabilitation of upper-limb function in traumatic brain injury: A mixed-approach evaluation of the Elements system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Elements virtual reality (VR) system for rehabilitation of upper-limb function in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A mixed-approach design was used. Performance was evaluated at three time points using a within-group design: Preintervention 1 and 2, conducted 4 weeks apart, and Postintervention. Subjective ratings were provided after

Peter H. Wilson; Nick Mumford; Jonathan Duckworth; Patrick Thomas; David Shum; Gavin Williams

2011-01-01

247

Upper-limb motor control in patients after stroke: attentional demands and the potential beneficial effects of arm support.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to investigate the attentional load of using the upper limb in moderately and mildly affected patients after stroke, with and without arm support. Ten patients with stroke (4 mild and 6 moderate paresis) and ten healthy, gender- and age-matched control subjects performed a dual-task experiment that consisted of a circle drawing task and an auditive Stroop task. Complexity of the motor task was manipulated by supporting the arm against gravity. Individual motor (area×speed) and cognitive (accuracy/reaction time) scores during the dual-task conditions were converted into percentage scores relative to the respective single-task scores and then combined in a single measure of net dual-task performance. Without arm support, only moderately affected patients showed significantly greater side differences in dual-task performance to the detriment of the affected upper limb. With arm support, no side differences were found for any of the three groups. Thus, the hypothesis that patients with moderate upper-limb paresis suffer from a lack of automaticity of motor control was substantiated by the dual-task condition. Furthermore, supporting the arm reduced the attentional load of using the affected side. PMID:23642704

Houwink, Annemieke; Steenbergen, Bert; Prange, Gerdienke B; Buurke, Jaap H; Geurts, Alexander C H

2013-04-01

248

The impact of recovery of visuo-spatial neglect on motor recovery of the upper paretic limb after stroke.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between improvements of synergism and strength of the upper paretic limb and severity of visuo-spatial neglect during the first 52 weeks post-stroke. The longitudinal association between severity of VSN and motor impairment using Fugl Meyer motor score and Motricity Index of the arm was measured in an intensive repeated measurement design including 18 measurement sessions for each subject. Neglect was assessed using the letter cancellation test applied in a prospective cohort of 101 ischemic, first-ever, hemispheric stroke patients. All time-dependent measures were taken weekly, starting within 14 days post-stroke. From week 10 to 20 biweekly measurements are obtained. The longitudinal relationship of (bi)weekly time on improvement of motor functions and severity of neglect was investigated using random coefficient analysis and trend analyses. Fifty-one of the 101 stroke patients showed neglect at stroke onset. Less improvement of synergism and strength of the upper paretic limb was associated with more severe neglect. This association was most pronounced in the first 10 weeks post-stroke. The seemingly suppressive effect of neglect on upper-limb motor recovery appears to take place mainly during spontaneous neurological recovery of first 10 weeks post-stroke. This finding suggests that damage to large-scale white matter tracts of especially the perceptual-attention networks suppress recovery of other networks at distance in the brain suggesting a common underlying mechanism. PMID:24950224

Nijboer, Tanja C W; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Kwakkel, Gert

2014-01-01

249

High-density surface EMG maps from upper-arm and forearm muscles  

PubMed Central

Background sEMG signal has been widely used in different applications in kinesiology and rehabilitation as well as in the control of human-machine interfaces. In general, the signals are recorded with bipolar electrodes located in different muscles. However, such configuration may disregard some aspects of the spatial distribution of the potentials like location of innervation zones and the manifestation of inhomogineties in the control of the muscular fibers. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of motor unit action potentials has recently been assessed with activation maps obtained from High Density EMG signals (HD-EMG), these lasts recorded with arrays of closely spaced electrodes. The main objective of this work is to analyze patterns in the activation maps, associating them with four movement directions at the elbow joint and with different strengths of those tasks. Although the activation pattern can be assessed with bipolar electrodes, HD-EMG maps could enable the extraction of features that depend on the spatial distribution of the potentials and on the load-sharing between muscles, in order to have a better differentiation between tasks and effort levels. Methods An experimental protocol consisting of isometric contractions at three levels of effort during flexion, extension, supination and pronation at the elbow joint was designed and HD-EMG signals were recorded with 2D electrode arrays on different upper-limb muscles. Techniques for the identification and interpolation of artifacts are explained, as well as a method for the segmentation of the activation areas. In addition, variables related to the intensity and spatial distribution of the maps were obtained, as well as variables associated to signal power of traditional single bipolar recordings. Finally, statistical tests were applied in order to assess differences between information extracted from single bipolar signals or from HD-EMG maps and to analyze differences due to type of task and effort level. Results Significant differences were observed between EMG signal power obtained from single bipolar configuration and HD-EMG and better results regarding the identification of tasks and effort levels were obtained with the latter. Additionally, average maps for a population of 12 subjects were obtained and differences in the co-activation pattern of muscles were found not only from variables related to the intensity of the maps but also to their spatial distribution. Conclusions Intensity and spatial distribution of HD-EMG maps could be useful in applications where the identification of movement intention and its strength is needed, for example in robotic-aided therapies or for devices like powered- prostheses or orthoses. Finally, additional data transformations or other features are necessary in order to improve the performance of tasks identification. PMID:23216679

2012-01-01

250

Alterations in mitochondrial function, hydrogen peroxide release and oxidative damage in mouse hind-limb skeletal muscle during aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial function, hydrogen peroxide generation and oxidative damage were measured in hind-limb skeletal muscle from young (6–8 month) and old (27–29 month) wildtype and heterozygous Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) knockout mice (Sod2+\\/?). The reduction in MnSOD activity in the Sod2+\\/? mice makes these mice a good model to examine the implications of life-long elevated endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress on mitochondrial function.

Abdellah Mansouri; Florian L. Muller; Yuhong Liu; Rainer Ng; John Faulkner; Michelle Hamilton; Arlan Richardson; Ting-Ting Huang; Charles J. Epstein; Holly Van Remmen

2006-01-01

251

Nerve conduction velocity study of the upper limb in Raynaud's phenomenon.  

PubMed

A prospective study of upper limb nerve conduction velocity was performed in 39 subjects (9 males, 30 females, mean age 46.8 years) with idiopathic Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and 18 patients (3 males, 15 females, mean age 49.9 years) with RP secondary to systemic sclerosis (SS). Five subjects with idiopathic RP (13%) showed slowing of sensory conduction velocity (SCV) of the distal median nerve, associated with delayed distal motor latency (DML) of the same nerve in three patients, without clinical signs or symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Three patients with secondary RP (17%) had reduction of SCV of the distal median nerve, associated with increased DML of the same nerve in one and with clinically silent slowing of SCV of the ulnar nerve in two (11%). Mean distal SCVs of the median nerve were significantly lower and mean DMLs were significantly higher in both groups with respect to a control group. Mean distal conduction of the ulnar nerve was significantly slower only in the group with secondary RP. No slowing was observed in the proximal part of any nerve. It seems likely that patients with idiopathic RP have slowing of conduction in the distal part of the median nerve, along the carpal tunnel. Since slowing does not occur in all parts of the nerves of the hand, it cannot be related to acral vasomotor disturbances, but to local or systemic factors. In contrast, patients with secondary RP had slowing of median and ulnar nerve conduction velocity, presumably related to subclinical distal peripheral neuropathy. A nerve conduction study of the hand could be useful in cases of suspected secondary origin of RP. In idiopathic RP, slowing of conduction may only affect the median nerve, whereas in secondary RP it may affect other nerves of the hand. PMID:10984133

Mondelli, M; Romano, C; De Stefano, R; Cioni, R

2000-01-01

252

Bradykinesia-Akinesia Incoordination Test: Validating an Online Keyboard Test of Upper Limb Function  

PubMed Central

Background The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination (BRAIN) test is a computer keyboard-tapping task that was developed for use in assessing the effect of symptomatic treatment on motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). An online version has now been designed for use in a wider clinical context and the research setting. Methods Validation of the online BRAIN test was undertaken in 58 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 93 age-matched, non-neurological controls. Kinesia scores (KS30, number of key taps in 30 seconds), akinesia times (AT30, mean dwell time on each key in milliseconds), incoordination scores (IS30, variance of travelling time between key presses) and dysmetria scores (DS30, accuracy of key presses) were compared between groups. These parameters were correlated against total motor scores and sub-scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Results Mean KS30, AT30 and IS30 were significantly different between PD patients and controls (p?0.0001). Sensitivity for 85% specificity was 50% for KS30, 40% for AT30 and 29% for IS30. KS30, AT30 and IS30 correlated significantly with UPDRS total motor scores (r?=??0.53, r?=?0.27 and r?=?0.28 respectively) and motor UPDRS sub-scores. The reliability of KS30, AT30 and DS30 was good on repeated testing. Conclusions The BRAIN test is a reliable, convenient test of upper limb motor function that can be used routinely in the outpatient clinic, at home and in clinical trials. In addition, it can be used as an objective longitudinal measurement of emerging motor dysfunction for the prediction of PD in at-risk cohorts. PMID:24781810

Noyce, Alastair J.; Nagy, Anna; Acharya, Shami; Hadavi, Shahrzad; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Fearnley, Julian; Lees, Andrew J.; Giovannoni, Gavin

2014-01-01

253

Effects of upper limb robot-assisted therapy on motor recovery in subacute stroke patients  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose There is little evidence available on the use of robot-assisted therapy in subacute stroke patients. A randomized controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the short-time efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy compared to usual physical therapy performed in the early phase after stroke onset. Methods Fifty-three subacute stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled 30?±?7 days after the acute event and randomized into two groups, both exposed to standard therapy. Additional 30 sessions of robot-assisted therapy were provided to the Experimental Group. Additional 30 sessions of usual therapy were provided to the Control Group. The following impairment evaluations were performed at the beginning (T0), after 15 sessions (T1), and at the end of the treatment (T2): Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FM), Modified Ashworth Scale-Shoulder (MAS-S), Modified Ashworth Scale-Elbow (MAS-E), Total Passive Range of Motion-Shoulder/Elbow (pROM), and Motricity Index (MI). Results Evidence of significant improvements in MAS-S (p?=?0.004), MAS-E (p?=?0.018) and pROM (p?upper limb rehabilitation treatment can contribute to increasing motor recovery in subacute stroke patients. Focusing on the early phase of stroke recovery has a high potential impact in clinical practice. PMID:24946799

2014-01-01

254

Scaling and kinematics optimisation of the scapula and thorax in upper limb musculoskeletal models  

PubMed Central

Accurate representation of individual scapula kinematics and subject geometries is vital in musculoskeletal models applied to upper limb pathology and performance. In applying individual kinematics to a model?s cadaveric geometry, model constraints are commonly prescriptive. These rely on thorax scaling to effectively define the scapula?s path but do not consider the area underneath the scapula in scaling, and assume a fixed conoid ligament length. These constraints may not allow continuous solutions or close agreement with directly measured kinematics. A novel method is presented to scale the thorax based on palpated scapula landmarks. The scapula and clavicle kinematics are optimised with the constraint that the scapula medial border does not penetrate the thorax. Conoid ligament length is not used as a constraint. This method is simulated in the UK National Shoulder Model and compared to four other methods, including the standard technique, during three pull-up techniques (n=11). These are high-performance activities covering a large range of motion. Model solutions without substantial jumps in the joint kinematics data were improved from 23% of trials with the standard method, to 100% of trials with the new method. Agreement with measured kinematics was significantly improved (more than 10° closer at p<0.001) when compared to standard methods. The removal of the conoid ligament constraint and the novel thorax scaling correction factor were shown to be key. Separation of the medial border of the scapula from the thorax was large, although this may be physiologically correct due to the high loads and high arm elevation angles. PMID:25011621

Prinold, Joe A.I.; Bull, Anthony M.J.

2014-01-01

255

[Stellate ganglion block in the treatment of ischemic syndrome in an upper limb due to accidental intra-arterial injection of pharmacologic substances or narcotics].  

PubMed

The paper describes five cases of accidental intraarterial injection of pharmacological drugs (diazepam or thiopentone) or dope (heroin) in an upper limb. Following a review of the physiopathological mechanisms which led to ischemic damage, the Authors outline a protocol of continuous pharmacological sympathicolysis in the affected limb, using repeated anesthetic blocks of the homolateral stellate ganglion. PMID:2100323

De Gasperis, A; Cosimati, F; Lorenzetti, A; Rossini, P

1990-12-01

256

Verification of the Correlation between Cognitive Function and Lower Limb Muscle Strength for the Community-dwelling Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lower limb muscle strength of the community-dwelling elderly, with or without cognitive decline, using isometric knee extension strength (IKES) and the 30-second chair stand test (CS-30). [Subjects] A total of 306 community-dwelling elderly participated in this study. Assessment items were the CS-30, IKES, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Trail-Making Test Part A (TMT-A). [Methods] Participants were divided into three groups according to their MMSE score: cognitive impairment (MMSE ? 24), cognitive decline (MMSE 25 to 27), and normal (MMSE ? 28). We compared IKES and CS-30 among the three groups. [Results] IKES was not significantly different among the three groups. However, the CS-30 was significantly different among the three groups. Upon further analysis the CS-30 score of each group, when adjusted for age and TMT-A, did not indicate a significant difference. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the lower limb muscle strength of the elderly does not differ with cognitive decline. Moreover, we suggest that when using the CS-30 score as an indicator of lower limb muscle strength attentional function should be taken into account. PMID:25540482

Ohsugi, Hironori; Murata, Shin; Kubo, Atsuko; Hachiya, Mizuki; Hirao, Aya; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Kamijou, Kenji

2014-01-01

257

Effect of Ankle-foot Orthosis on Lower Limb Muscle Activities and Static Balance of Stroke Patients Authors’ Names  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined the effects of an ankle-foot orthosis worn during balance training on lower limb muscle activity and static balance of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were twenty-five inpatients receiving physical therapy for chronic stroke. [Methods] The chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: thirteen patients were assigned to the ankle-foot orthosis group, while the remaining twelve patients wore only their shoes. Each group performed balance training for 20 minutes, twice per day, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks. The lower limb muscle activities of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, and the stability index were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. [Results] Comparison of the groups indicated a significant difference in the muscle activity of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior and the stability index of the eyes-open standing position. After the intervention, the ankle-foot orthosis group evidenced a significant difference in the muscle activities of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior and paralyzed side medial gastrocnemius as well as the stability index of the eyes-open standing position, eyes-closed standing position, eyes-open standing position on a sponge, and eyes-closed standing position on a sponge. The group that only wore their shoes showed significant differences in the stability indexes of eyes-open standing and eyes-open standing on a sponge. [Conclusion] Using the ankle-foot orthosis was effective during the initial training of lower limb muscle activities and the static balance training of chronic stroke patients. However, it was not effective for a variety of dynamic situations. PMID:24648626

Lee, Youngmin; Her, Jin Gang; Choi, Youngeun; Kim, Heesoo

2014-01-01

258

FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: Neural correlates and prognostic indicators  

PubMed Central

Rationale Functional strength training in addition to conventional physical therapy could enhance upper limb recovery early after stroke more than movement performance therapy plus conventional physical therapy. Aims To determine (a) the relative clinical efficacy of conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy for upper limb recovery; (b) the neural correlates of response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy; (c) whether any one or combination of baseline measures predict motor improvement in response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Design Randomized, controlled, observer-blind trial. Study The sample will consist of 288 participants with upper limb paresis resulting from a stroke that occurred within the previous 60 days. All will be allocated to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Functional strength training and movement performance therapy will be undertaken for up to 1·5 h/day, five-days/week for six-weeks. Outcomes and Analysis Measurements will be undertaken before randomization, six-weeks thereafter, and six-months after stroke. Primary efficacy outcome will be the Action Research Arm Test. Explanatory measurements will include voxel-wise estimates of brain activity during hand movement, brain white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy), and brain–muscle connectivity (e.g. latency of motor evoked potentials). The primary clinical efficacy analysis will compare treatment groups using a multilevel normal linear model adjusting for stratification variables and for which therapist administered the treatment. Effect of conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training versus conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy will be summarized using the adjusted mean difference and 95% confidence interval. To identify the neural correlates of improvement in both groups, we will investigate associations between change from baseline in clinical outcomes and each explanatory measure. To identify baseline measurements that independently predict motor improvement, we will develop a multiple regression model. PMID:24025033

Pomeroy, Valerie M; Ward, Nick S; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; van Vliet, Paulette; Burridge, Jane; Hunter, Susan M; Lemon, Roger N; Rothwell, John; Weir, Christopher J; Wing, Alan; Walker, Andrew A; Kennedy, Niamh; Barton, Garry; Greenwood, Richard J; McConnachie, Alex

2014-01-01

259

Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke  

PubMed Central

The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. PMID:25206611

Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S.; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

2013-01-01

260

Metabolic and Structural Changes in Lower-Limb Skeletal Muscle Following Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be applied as a complementary intervention to regular exercise training programs. A distinction can be made between high-frequency (HF) NMES and low-frequency (LF) NMES. In order to increase understanding of the mechanisms of functional improvements following NMES, the purpose of this study was to systematically review changes in enzyme activity, muscle fiber type composition and muscle fiber size in human lower-limb skeletal muscles following only NMES. Methods Trials were collected up to march 2012 and were identified by searching the Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and The Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases and reference lists. 18 trials were reviewed in detail: 8 trials studied changes in enzyme activities, 7 trials studied changes in muscle fiber type composition and 14 trials studied changes in muscle fiber size following NMES. Results The methodological quality generally was poor, and the heterogeneity in study design, study population, NMES features and outcome parameters prohibited the use of meta-analysis. Most of the LF-NMES studies reported significant increases in oxidative enzyme activity, while the results concerning changes in muscle fiber composition and muscle size were conflicting. HF-NMES significantly increased muscle size in 50% of the studies. Conclusion NMES seems to be a training modality resulting in changes in oxidative enzyme activity, skeletal muscle fiber type and skeletal muscle fiber size. However, considering the small sample sizes, the variance in study populations, the non-randomized controlled study designs, the variance in primary outcomes, and the large heterogeneity in NMES protocols, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the effects of stimulation frequencies on muscular changes. PMID:24019860

Sillen, Maurice J. H.; Franssen, Frits M. E.; Gosker, Harry R.; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Spruit, Martijn A.

2013-01-01

261

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G with myopathic-neurogenic motor unit potentials and a novel muscle image pattern  

PubMed Central

Background Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G (LGMD2G) is a subtype of autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the telethonin gene. There are few LGMD2G patients worldwide reported, and this is the first description associated with early tibialis anterior sparing on muscle image and myopathic-neurogenic motor unit potentials. Case presentation Here we report a 31 years old caucasian male patient with progressive gait disturbance, and severe lower limb proximal weakness since the age of 20 years, associated with subtle facial muscle weakness. Computed tomography demonstrated soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and diffuse thigh muscles involvement with tibialis anterior sparing. Electromyography disclosed both neurogenic and myopathic motor unit potentials. Muscle biopsy demonstrated large groups of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers, frequent fibers with intracytoplasmic rimmed vacuoles full of autophagic membrane and sarcoplasmic debris, and a total deficiency of telethonin. Molecular investigation identified the common homozygous c.157C?>?T in the TCAP gene. Conclusion This report expands the phenotypic variability of telethoninopathy/ LGMD2G, including: 1) mixed neurogenic and myopathic motor unit potentials, 2) facial weakness, and 3) tibialis anterior sparing. Appropriate diagnosis in these cases is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. PMID:25298746

2014-01-01

262

Kinematic MRI study of upper-airway biomechanics using electrical muscle stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new and powerful method to study the movement and function of upper airway muscles. Our method is to use direct electrical stimulation of individual upper airway muscles, while performing state of the art high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have adapted a paralyzed isolated UA cat model so that positive or negative static pressure in the UA can be controlled at specific levels while electrical muscle stimulation is applied during MRI. With these techniques we can assess the effect of muscle stimulation on airway cross-sectional area compliance and soft tissue motion. We are reporting the preliminary results and MRI techniques which have enabled us to examine changes in airway dimensions which result form electrical stimulation of specific upper airway dilator muscles. The results of this study will be relevant to the development of new clinical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea by providing new information as to exactly how upper airway muscles function to dilate the upper airway and the strength of stimulation required to prevent the airway obstruction when overall muscle tone may not be sufficient to maintain regular breathing.

Brennick, Michael J.; Margulies, Susan S.; Ford, John C.; Gefter, Warren B.; Pack, Allan I.

1997-05-01

263

The development of an adaptive upper-limb stroke rehabilitation robotic system  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is the primary cause of adult disability. To support this large population in recovery, robotic technologies are being developed to assist in the delivery of rehabilitation. This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task. The system uses a decision theoretic model (a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP) as its primary engine for decision making. The POMDP allows the system to automatically modify exercise parameters to account for the specific needs and abilities of different individuals, and to use these parameters to take appropriate decisions about stroke rehabilitation exercises. Methods The performance of the system was evaluated by comparing the decisions made by the system with those of a human therapist. A single patient participant was paired up with a therapist participant for the duration of the study, for a total of six sessions. Each session was an hour long and occurred three times a week for two weeks. During each session, three steps were followed: (A) after the system made a decision, the therapist either agreed or disagreed with the decision made; (B) the researcher had the device execute the decision made by the therapist; (C) the patient then performed the reaching exercise. These parts were repeated in the order of A-B-C until the end of the session. Qualitative and quantitative question were asked at the end of each session and at the completion of the study for both participants. Results Overall, the therapist agreed with the system decisions approximately 65% of the time. In general, the therapist thought the system decisions were believable and could envision this system being used in both a clinical and home setting. The patient was satisfied with the system and would use this system as his/her primary method of rehabilitation. Conclusions The data collected in this study can only be used to provide insight into the performance of the system since the sample size was limited. The next stage for this project is to test the system with a larger sample size to obtain significant results. PMID:21679457

2011-01-01

264

Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.  

PubMed

This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - [Formula: see text]O2peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-[Formula: see text]O2peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), [Formula: see text]O2 at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and [Formula: see text]O2 at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

2014-10-30

265

CARDIAC PATHOLOGY EXCEEDS SKELETAL MUSCLE PATHOLOGY IN TWO CASES OF LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY TYPE 2I  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD-2I) is caused by mutations in fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP) that lead to abnormal glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan in skeletal muscle. Heart involvement in LGMD-2I is common, but little is known about underlying cardiac pathology. Here, we describe two patients with LGMD-2I (homozygous FKRP mutation c.826C>A, p.Leu276Ile) who developed severe congestive heart failure requiring cardiac transplantation. The dystrophic pathology and impairment of ?-dystroglycan glycosylation were severe in the heart but mild in the skeletal muscle, underscoring the lack of correlation between cardiac and skeletal muscle involvement in some LGMD-2I patients. PMID:19705481

Margeta, Marta; Connolly, Anne M.; Winder, Thomas L.; Pestronk, Alan; Moore, Steven A.

2010-01-01

266

The effects of shoulder joint abduction angles on the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle while vibrations are applied  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the ratio between the upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles during diverse shoulder abduction exercises applied with vibrations in order to determine the appropriate exercise methods for recovery of scapular muscle balance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed shoulder abduction at various shoulder joint abduction angles (90°, 120°, 150°, 180°) with oscillation movements. [Results] At 120°, all the subjects showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle in comparison with the upper trapezius muscle. However, no significant difference was found at angles other than 120°. [Conclusion] To selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, applying vibration stimuli at the 120° shoulder abduction position is considered to be appropriate. PMID:25642052

Jung, Da-eun; Moon, Dong-chul

2015-01-01

267

Quantification of functional weakness and abnormal synergy patterns in the lower limb of individuals with chronic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The presence of abnormal muscle activation patterns is a well documented factor limiting the motor rehabilitation of patients following stroke. These abnormal muscle activation patterns, or synergies, have previously been quantified in the upper limbs. Presented here are the lower limb joint torque patterns measured in a standing position of sixteen chronic hemiparetic stroke subjects and sixteen age matched

Nathan Neckel; Marlena Pelliccio; Diane Nichols; Joseph Hidler

2006-01-01

268

Effects of the Racket Polar Moment of Inertia on Dominant Upper Limb Joint Moments during Tennis Serve  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players. PMID:25117871

Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël

2014-01-01

269

The influence of wheelchair propulsion technique on upper extremity muscle demand: A simulation study  

E-print Network

The influence of wheelchair propulsion technique on upper extremity muscle demand: A simulation with wheelchair propulsion. Recent studies have identified cadence, contact angle and peak force as important factors for reduc- ing upper extremity demand during propulsion. However, studies often make comparisons

270

Effects of two workstation positions for below-knee assembly work on upper extremity muscle activity  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study was performed to determine which set of below-knee working conditions minimizes upper extremity muscle activity and which of upward- or downward-direction workstations poses the greater risk of upper extremity disorder. [Subjects] The study population consisted of 15 young male workers. [Methods] EMG activities of the right anterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and lower trapezius muscles were measured in two below-knee assembly workstation positions. [Results] The anterior deltoid and biceps brachii muscle activities of Position 1 were significantly higher than those of Position 2. The lower trapezius muscle activity of Position 2 was significantly higher than that of Position 1. [Conclusion] Upward-direction workstations appear to pose a greater risk of upper extremity disorder than downward-direction workstations in below-knee assembly work. PMID:25642024

Shin, Seung-je; Yoo, Won-gyu

2015-01-01

271

Normalization of surface EMG amplitude from the upper trapezius muscle in ergonomic studies — A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude from the upper trapezius muscle is widely used as a measure of shoulder-neck load in ergonomic studies. A variety of methods for normalizing EMG amplitude from the upper trapezius (EMGamput) have been presented in the literature. This impedes meta-analyses of, for instance, upper trapezius load in relation to development of shoulder-neck disorders. The review offers a

S. E. Mathiassen; J. Winkel; G. M. Hägg

1995-01-01

272

Lingual Muscle Activity Across Sleep–Wake States in Rats with Surgically Altered Upper Airway  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients have increased upper airway muscle activity, including such lingual muscles as the genioglossus (GG), geniohyoid (GH), and hyoglossus (HG). This adaptation partially protects their upper airway against obstructions. Rodents are used to study the central neural control of sleep and breathing but they do not naturally exhibit OSA. We investigated whether, in chronically instrumented, behaving rats, disconnecting the GH and HG muscles from the hyoid (H) apparatus would result in a compensatory increase of other upper airway muscle activity (electromyogram, EMG) and/or other signs of upper airway instability. We first determined that, in intact rats, lingual (GG and intrinsic) muscles maintained stable activity levels when quantified based on 2?h-long recordings conducted on days 6 through 22 after instrumentation. We then studied five rats in which the tendons connecting the GH and HG muscles to the H apparatus were experimentally severed. When quantified across all recording days, lingual EMG during slow-wave sleep (SWS) was modestly but significantly increased in rats with surgically altered upper airway [8.6?±?0.7% (SE) vs. 6.1?±?0.7% of the mean during wakefulness; p?=?0.012]. Respiratory modulation of lingual EMG occurred mainly during SWS and was similarly infrequent in both groups, and the incidence of sighs and central apneas also was similar. Thus, a weakened action of selected lingual muscles did not produce sleep-disordered breathing but resulted in a relatively elevated activity in other lingual muscles during SWS. These results encourage more extensive surgical manipulations with the aim to obtain a rodent model with collapsible upper airway. PMID:24803913

Rukhadze, Irma; Kalter, Julie; Stettner, Georg M.; Kubin, Leszek

2014-01-01

273

Dissociating effect of upper limb non-use and overuse on space and body representations.  

PubMed

Accurate and updated representations of the space where the body acts, i.e. the peripersonal space (PPS), and the location and dimension of body parts (body representation, BR) are essential to perform actions. Because both PPS and BR are involved in motor execution and display the same plastic proprieties after the use of a tool to reach far objects, it has been suggested that they overlap in a unique representation of the body in a space devoted to action. Here we determined whether manipulating actions in space, without modifying body metrics, i.e. through immobilization, induces a dissociation of the plastic properties of PPS and BR. In 39 healthy subjects we evaluated PPS and BR for the non-used right limb and the overused left limb before and after 10h of right arm immobilization. We observed that non-use reduces PPS representation around the immobilized arm, without affecting the metric representation (i.e. perceived length) of that limb. In contrast, overuse modulates the metric representation of the free arm, leaving PPS unchanged around that limb. These results suggest that the plasticity in PPS and BR depends on different mechanisms; while PPS representation is shaped as a function of the dimension of the acting space, metric characteristics of BR are forged on a complex interplay between visual and sensorimotor information related to the body. This behavioral dissociation between PPS and BR defines a new scenario for the role of action in shaping space and body representations. PMID:25462198

Bassolino, Michela; Finisguerra, Alessandra; Canzoneri, Elisa; Serino, Andrea; Pozzo, Thierry

2014-11-25

274

Transducer and base compliance alter the in situ 6 dof force measured from muscle during an isometric contraction in a multi-joint limb  

PubMed Central

Although musculoskeletal models are commonly used, validating the muscle actions predicted by such models is often difficult. In situ isometric measurements are a possible solution. The base of the skeleton is immobilized and the endpoint of the limb is rigidly attached to a 6-axis force transducer. Individual muscles are stimulated and the resulting forces and moments recorded. Such analyses generally assume idealized conditions. In this study we have developed an analysis taking into account the compliances due to imperfect fixation of the skeleton, imperfect attachment of the force transducer, and extra degrees of freedom (dof) in the joints that sometimes become necessary in fixed end contractions. We use simulations of the rat hindlimb to illustrate the consequences of such compliances. We show that when the limb is overconstrained, i.e. when there are fewer dof within the limb than are restrained by the skeletal fixation, the compliances of the skeletal fixation and of the transducer attachment can significantly affect measured forces and moments. When the limb dofs and restrained dofs are matched, however, the measured forces and moments are independent of these compliances. We also show that this framework can be used to model limb dofs, so that rather than simply omitting dofs in which a limb does not move (e.g. abduction at the knee), the limited motion of the limb in these dofs can be more realistically modeled as a very low compliance. Finally, we discuss the practical implications of these results to experimental measurements of muscle actions. PMID:22304843

Sandercock, Thomas G.; Yeo, Sang Hoon; Pai, Dinesh. K.; Tresch, Matthew. C.

2013-01-01

275

Construction of efficacious gait and upper limb functional interventions based on brain plasticity evidence and model-based measures for stroke patients.  

PubMed

For neurorehabilitation to advance from art to science, it must become evidence-based. Historically, there has been a dearth of evidence from which to construct rehabilitation interventions that are properly framed, accurately targeted, and credibly measured. In many instances, evidence of treatment response has not been sufficiently robust to demonstrate a change in function that is clinically, statistically, and economically important. Research evidence of activity-dependent central nervous system (CNS) plasticity and the requisite motor learning principles can be used to construct an efficacious motor recovery intervention. Brain plasticity after stroke refers to the regeneration of brain neuronal structures and/or reorganization of the function of neurons. Not only can CNS structure and function change in response to injury, but also, the changes may be modified by "activity". For gait training or upper limb functional training for stroke survivors, the "activity" is motor behavior, including coordination and strengthening exercise and functional training that comprise motor learning. Critical principles of motor learning required for CNS activity-dependent plasticity include: close-to-normal movements, muscle activation driving practice of movement; focused attention, repetition of desired movements, and training specificity. The ultimate goal of rehabilitation is to restore function so that a satisfying quality of life can be experienced. Accurate measurement of dysfunction and its underlying impairments are critical to the development of accurately targeted interventions that are sufficiently robust to produce gains, not only in function, but also in quality of life. The Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Model (ICF) model of disablement, put forth by the World Health Organization, can provide not only some guidance in measurement level selection, but also can serve as a guide to incorporate function and quality of life enhancement as the ultimate goals of rehabilitation interventions. Based on the evidence and principles of activity-dependent plasticity and motor learning, we developed gait training and upper limb functional training protocols. Guided by the ICF model, we selected and developed measures with characteristics rendering them most likely to capture change in the targeted aspects of intervention, as well as measures having membership not only in the impairment, but also in the functional or life role participation levels contained in the ICF model. We measured response to innovative gait training using a knee flexion coordination measure, coefficient of coordination consistency (ACC) of relative hip/knee (H/K) movement across multiple steps (H/K ACC), and milestones of participation in life role activities. We measured response to upper limb functional training according to measures designed to quantify functional gains in response to treatment targeted at wrist/hand or shoulder elbow training (Arm Motor Ability Test for wrist/hand (AMAT W/H) or shoulder/elbow (AMAT S/E)). We found that there was a statistically significant advantage for adding FES-IM gait training to an otherwise comparable and comprehensive gait training, according to the following measures: H/K ACC, the measure of consistently executed hip/knee coordination during walking; a specific measure of isolated joint knee flexion coordination; and a measure of multiple coordinated gait components. Further, enhanced gains in gait component coordination were robust enough to result in achievement of milestones in participation in life role activities. In the upper limb functional training study, we found that robotics + motor learning (ROB ML; shoulder/elbow robotics practice plus motor learning) produced a statistically significant gain in AMAT S/E; whereas functional electrical stimulation + motor learning (FES ML) did not. We found that FES ML (wrist/hand FES plus motor learning) produced a statistically significant gain in AMAT W/H; whereas ROB ML did not. These results together, support the phenome

Daly, Janis J; Ruff, Robert L

2007-01-01

276

The neural correlates of upper limb motor blocks in Parkinson's disease and their relation to freezing of gait.  

PubMed

Due to basal ganglia dysfunction, bimanual motor performance in Parkinson patients reportedly relies on compensatory brain activation in premotor-parietal-cerebellar circuitries. A subgroup of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with freezing of gait (FOG) may exhibit greater bimanual impairments up to the point that motor blocks occur. This study investigated the neural mechanisms of upper limb motor blocks and explored their relation with FOG. Brain activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during bilateral finger movements in 16 PD with FOG, 16 without FOG (PD + FOG and PD - FOG), and 16 controls. During successful movement, PD + FOG showed decreased activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), as well as left M1 and bilaterally increased activation in dorsal putamen, pallidum, as well as subthalamic nucleus compared with PD - FOG and controls. On the contrary, upper limb motor blocks were associated with increased activation in right M1, PMd, supplementary motor area, and left PFC compared with successful movement, whereas bilateral pallidum and putamen activity was decreased. Complex striatofrontal activation changes may be involved in the difficulties of PD + FOG to perform bimanual movements, or sequential movements in general. These novel results suggest that, whatever the exact underlying cause, PD + FOG seem to have reached a saturation point of normal neural compensation and respond belatedly to actual movement breakdown. PMID:23861319

Vercruysse, S; Spildooren, J; Heremans, E; Wenderoth, N; Swinnen, S P; Vandenberghe, W; Nieuwboer, A

2014-12-01

277

Efficacy of stellate ganglion block with an adjuvant ketamine for peripheral vascular disease of the upper limbs  

PubMed Central

Stellate ganglion block (STGB) is commonly indicated in painful conditions like reflex sympathetic dystrophy, malignancies of head and neck, Reynaud’s disease and vascular insufficiency of the upper limbs. The sympathetic blockade helps to relieve pain and ischaemia. Diagnostic STGB is usually performed with local anaesthetics followed by therapeutic blockade with steroids, neurolytic agents or radiofrequency ablation of ganglion. There is increasing popularity and evidence for the use of adjuvants like opioid, clonidine and N Methyl d Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist – ketamine – for the regional and neuroaxial blocks. The action of ketamine with sympatholytic block is through blockade of peripherally located NMDA receptors that are the target in the management of neuropathic pain, with the added benefit of counteracting the “wind-up” phenomena of chronic pain. We studied ketamine as an adjuvant to the local anaesthetic for STGB in 20 cases of peripheral vascular disease of upper limbs during the last 5 years at our institution. STGB was given for 2 days with 2 ml of 2% lignocaine + 8 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine, followed by block with the addition of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine for three consecutive days. There was significant pain relief of longer duration with significant rise in hand temperature. We also observed complete healing of the gangrenous fingers in 17/19 patients. PMID:21224973

Kulkarni, Kalpana R; Kadam, Anita I; Namazi, Ismile J

2010-01-01

278

Proposal of Method for Control of Muscle Activation Level for Limbs during Motion and Application of this Method in Strength Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increase in the number of elderly people in our society, the need for equipments that ensure activities of daily living and that can be used in strength training for reducing the need for nursing care is increasing. In this paper, we propose a method for controlling the level of muscle activation for a particular muscle group without EMG sensors; the force exerted by the tips of the limbs during motion is used to control the level of muscle activation. The method is based on a musculoskeletal model for limbs called functionally different effective muscles of three antagonistic pairs of six muscles in 2D space. Hill's equation is incorporated in the method to consider force-velocity characteristics of muscles. EMG measurement results for two muscles under isokinetic contraction in the lower limbs of a subject show that difference between the achieved activation level and the desired activation level is less than the error of the output force distribution. Moreover, the control method is applied to strength training. A manipulator that can facilitate the isokinetic contraction with more than the desired activation level for a specific muscle group is developed.

Komada, Satoshi; Murakami, Yosuke; Hirai, Junji

279

Muscle precursor cells in the developing limbs of two isopods (Crustacea, Peracarida): an immunohistochemical study using a novel monoclonal antibody against myosin heavy chain  

PubMed Central

In the hot debate on arthropod relationships, Crustaceans and the morphology of their appendages play a pivotal role. To gain new insights into how arthropod appendages evolved, developmental biologists recently have begun to examine the expression and function of Drosophila appendage genes in Crustaceans. However, cellular aspects of Crustacean limb development such as myogenesis are poorly understood in Crustaceans so that the interpretative context in which to analyse gene functions is still fragmentary. The goal of the present project was to analyse muscle development in Crustacean appendages, and to that end, monoclonal antibodies against arthropod muscle proteins were generated. One of these antibodies recognises certain isoforms of myosin heavy chain and strongly binds to muscle precursor cells in malacostracan Crustacea. We used this antibody to study myogenesis in two isopods, Porcellio scaber and Idotea balthica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida), by immunohistochemistry. In these animals, muscles in the limbs originate from single muscle precursor cells, which subsequently grow to form multinucleated muscle precursors. The pattern of primordial muscles in the thoracic limbs was mapped, and results compared to muscle development in other Crustaceans and in insects. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00427-008-0216-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18443823

Kreissl, S.; Uber, A.

2008-01-01

280

Body Structures and Physical Complaints in Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency: A 24-Year Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe upper body structures associated with upper limb reduction deficiency and the development of these structures over time, to examine the presence of physical complaints in this population, and to compare body structures and complaints between groups based on prosthesis use. Design Prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 24 years, with matched able-bodied controls. Subjects Twenty-eight patients with unilateral below-elbow reduction deficiency fitted with myoelectric prostheses, aged 8–18 years at inclusion. Method Measurements of upper arm, trunk and spine were performed and study-specific questionnaires were answered at baseline and follow-up; the Brief Pain Inventory and the Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaires were answered at follow-up. Results Both at baseline and follow-up, within-subjects differences in structures of the arm and trunk were shown in patients but not in controls. Spinal deviations, although small, were greater in patients compared to controls. Self-reported disability was higher in patients compared to controls. Differences in back pain and effect of prostheses use could not be shown. Conclusions Patients with unilateral below-elbow reduction deficiency have consistent differences in upper body structures. Deviations of the spine, probably of functional origin, do not progress to clinically relevant scoliosis. PMID:23226218

Postema, Sietke G.; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Waldenlöv, Kristina; Norling Hermansson, Liselotte M.

2012-01-01

281

Optimization of Muscle Activity for Task-Level Goals Predicts Complex Changes in Limb Forces across Biomechanical Contexts  

PubMed Central

Optimality principles have been proposed as a general framework for understanding motor control in animals and humans largely based on their ability to predict general features movement in idealized motor tasks. However, generalizing these concepts past proof-of-principle to understand the neuromechanical transformation from task-level control to detailed execution-level muscle activity and forces during behaviorally-relevant motor tasks has proved difficult. In an unrestrained balance task in cats, we demonstrate that achieving task-level constraints center of mass forces and moments while minimizing control effort predicts detailed patterns of muscle activity and ground reaction forces in an anatomically-realistic musculoskeletal model. Whereas optimization is typically used to resolve redundancy at a single level of the motor hierarchy, we simultaneously resolved redundancy across both muscles and limbs and directly compared predictions to experimental measures across multiple perturbation directions that elicit different intra- and interlimb coordination patterns. Further, although some candidate task-level variables and cost functions generated indistinguishable predictions in a single biomechanical context, we identified a common optimization framework that could predict up to 48 experimental conditions per animal (n?=?3) across both perturbation directions and different biomechanical contexts created by altering animals' postural configuration. Predictions were further improved by imposing experimentally-derived muscle synergy constraints, suggesting additional task variables or costs that may be relevant to the neural control of balance. These results suggested that reduced-dimension neural control mechanisms such as muscle synergies can achieve similar kinetics to the optimal solution, but with increased control effort (?2×) compared to individual muscle control. Our results are consistent with the idea that hierarchical, task-level neural control mechanisms previously associated with voluntary tasks may also be used in automatic brainstem-mediated pathways for balance. PMID:22511857

McKay, J. Lucas; Ting, Lena H.

2012-01-01

282

Development and preliminary evaluation of a novel low cost VR-based upper limb stroke rehabilitation platform using Wii technology.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: This paper proposes a novel system (using the Nintendo Wii remote) that offers customised, non-immersive, virtual reality-based, upper-limb stroke rehabilitation and reports on promising preliminary findings with stroke survivors. Method: The system novelty lies in the high accuracy of the full kinematic tracking of the upper limb movement in real-time, offering strong personal connection between the stroke survivor and a virtual character when executing therapist prescribed adjustable exercises/games. It allows the therapist to monitor patient performance and to individually calibrate the system in terms of range of movement, speed and duration. Results: The system was tested for acceptability with three stroke survivors with differing levels of disability. Participants reported an overwhelming connection with the system and avatar. A two-week, single case study with a long-term stroke survivor showed positive changes in all four outcome measures employed, with the participant reporting better wrist control and greater functional use. Activities, which were deemed too challenging or too easy were associated with lower scores of enjoyment/motivation, highlighting the need for activities to be individually calibrated. Conclusions: Given the preliminary findings, it would be beneficial to extend the case study in terms of duration and participants and to conduct an acceptability and feasibility study with community dwelling survivors. Implications for Rehabilitation Low-cost, off-the-shelf game sensors, such as the Nintendo Wii remote, are acceptable by stroke survivors as an add-on to upper limb stroke rehabilitation but have to be bespoked to provide high-fidelity and real-time kinematic tracking of the arm movement. Providing therapists with real-time and remote monitoring of the quality of the movement and not just the amount of practice, is imperative and most critical for getting a better understanding of each patient and administering the right amount and type of exercise. The ability to translate therapeutic arm movement into individually calibrated exercises and games, allows accommodation of the wide range of movement difficulties seen after stroke and the ability to adjust these activities (in terms of speed, range of movement and duration) will aid motivation and adherence - key issues in rehabilitation. With increasing pressures on resources and the move to more community-based rehabilitation, the proposed system has the potential for promoting the intensity of practice necessary for recovery in both community and acute settings. PMID:25391221

Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis Theoklitos; Warland, Alyson; Kilbride, Cherry

2014-11-13

283

The efficacy of SMART Arm training early after stroke for stroke survivors with severe upper limb disability: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recovery of upper limb function after stroke is poor. The acute to subacute phase after stroke is the optimal time window to promote the recovery of upper limb function. The dose and content of training provided conventionally during this phase is however, unlikely to be adequate to drive functional recovery, especially in the presence of severe motor disability. The current study concerns an approach to address this shortcoming, through evaluation of the SMART Arm, a non-robotic device that enables intensive and repetitive practice of reaching by stroke survivors with severe upper limb disability, with the aim of improving upper limb function. The outcomes of SMART Arm training with or without outcome-triggered electrical stimulation (OT-stim) to augment movement and usual therapy will be compared to usual therapy alone. Methods/Design A prospective, assessor-blinded parallel, three-group randomised controlled trial is being conducted. Seventy-five participants with a first-ever unilateral stroke less than 4 months previously, who present with severe arm disability (three or fewer out of a possible six points on the Motor Assessment Scale [MAS] Item 6), will be recruited from inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of three dose-matched groups: SMART Arm training with OT-stim and usual therapy; SMART Arm training without OT-stim and usual therapy; or usual therapy alone. All participants will receive 20 hours of upper limb training over four weeks. Blinded assessors will conduct four assessments: pre intervention (0-weeks), post intervention (4-weeks), 26 weeks and 52 weeks follow-up. The primary outcome measure is MAS item 6. All analyses will be based on an intention-to-treat principle. Discussion By enabling intensive and repetitive practice of a functional upper limb task during inpatient rehabilitation, SMART Arm training with or without OT-stim in combination with usual therapy, has the potential to improve recovery of upper limb function in those with severe motor disability. The immediate and long-term effects of SMART Arm training on upper limb impairment, activity and participation will be explored, in addition to the benefit of training with or without OT-stim to augment movement when compared to usual therapy alone. Trial registration ACTRN12608000457347 PMID:23815739

2013-01-01

284

Activity of respiratory pump and upper airway muscles during sleep onset.  

PubMed

Ventilation decreases at sleep onset. This change is initiated abruptly at alpha-theta electroencephalographic transitions. The aim of this study was to determine the contributions of reduced activity in respiratory pump muscles and upper airway dilator muscles to this change. Surface electromyograms over the diaphragm (Di) and intercostal muscles and fine-wire intramuscular electrodes in genioglossus (GG) and tensor palatini (TP) muscles were recorded in nine healthy young men. It was shown that phasic Di and both phasic and tonic TP activities were lower during theta than during alpha activity. Breath-by-breath analysis of the changes at alpha-theta transitions during the sleep-onset period showed a number of changes. At alpha-theta transitions, phasic activity of Di, intercostal, and GG muscles fell and rose again, and phasic and tonic activities of TP fell and remained at low levels during theta. With a state transition from theta to alpha, the phasic and tonic activities of the Di, GG, and TP increased dramatically. It is now clear that the fall in ventilation that occurs with sleep is related to a fall in activities of both upper airway dilator muscles and respiratory pump muscles. PMID:9729564

Worsnop, C; Kay, A; Pierce, R; Kim, Y; Trinder, J

1998-09-01

285

Indocyanine Green (ICG) Lymphography Is Superior to Lymphoscintigraphy for Diagnostic Imaging of Early Lymphedema of the Upper Limbs  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary lymphedema causes swelling in limbs due to lymph retention following lymph node dissection in cancer therapy. Initiation of treatment soon after appearance of edema is very important, but there is no method for early diagnosis of lymphedema. In this study, we compared the utility of four diagnostic imaging methods: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), lymphoscintigraphy, and Indocyanine Green (ICG) lymphography. Patients and Methods Between April 2010 and November 2011, we examined 21 female patients (42 arms) with unilateral mild upper limb lymphedema using the four methods. The mean age of the patients was 60.4 years old (35–81 years old). Biopsies of skin and collecting lymphatic vessels were performed in 7 patients who underwent lymphaticovenous anastomosis. Results The specificity was 1 for all four methods. The sensitivity was 1 in ICG lymphography and MRI, 0.62 in lymphoscintigraphy, and 0.33 in CT. These results show that MRI and ICG lymphography are superior to lymphoscintigraphy or CT for diagnosis of lymphedema. In some cases, biopsy findings suggested abnormalities in skin and lymphatic vessels for which lymphoscintigraphy showed no abnormal findings. ICG lymphography showed a dermal backflow pattern in these cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest the importance of dual diagnosis by examination of the lymphatic system using ICG lymphography and evaluation of edema in subcutaneous fat tissue using MRI. PMID:22675520

Araki, Jun; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Yamamoto, Takumi; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Murai, Noriyuki; Mitsui, Kito; Okitsu, Taro; Koshima, Isao

2012-01-01

286

Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part II. Body segment inertial properties and muscle architecture of the pelvic limb  

PubMed Central

In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed) and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics) changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers used had no observed lameness, but we document the limb pathologies identified post mortem, since these two factors do not always correlate, as shown here. The most common leg disorders, including bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and rotational and angular deformities of the lower limb, were observed in chickens at all developmental stages. Whole limb morphology is not uniform relative to body size, with broilers obtaining large thighs and feet between four and six weeks of age. This implies that the energetic cost of swinging the limbs is markedly increased across this growth period, perhaps contributing to reduced activity levels. Hindlimb bone length does not change during this period, which may be advantageous for increased stability despite the increased energetic costs. Increased pectoral muscle growth appears to move the centre of mass cranio-dorsally in the last two weeks of growth. This has direct consequences for locomotion (potentially greater limb muscle stresses during standing and moving). Our study is the first to measure these changes in the musculoskeletal system across growth in chickens, and reveals how artificially selected changes of the morphology of the pectoral apparatus may cause deficits in locomotion. PMID:25071996

Tickle, Peter G.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Codd, Jonathan R.; Hutchinson, John R.

2014-01-01

287

Control of upper airway muscle activity in younger versus older men during sleep onset.  

PubMed

Pharyngeal dilator muscles are clearly important in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA). We have previously shown that the activity of both the genioglossus (GGEMG) and tensor palatini (TPEMG) are decreased at sleep onset, and that this decrement in muscle activity is greater in the apnoea patient than in healthy controls. We have also previously shown this decrement to be greater in older men when compared with younger ones. In order to explore the mechanisms responsible for this decrement in muscle activity nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was applied to reduce negative pressure mediated muscle activation. We then investigated the effect of sleep onset (transition from predominantly alpha to predominantly theta EEG activity) on ventilation, upper airway muscle activation and upper airway resistance (UAR) in middle-aged and younger healthy men. We found that both GGEMG and TPEMG were reduced by the application of nasal CPAP during wakefulness, but that CPAP did not alter the decrement in activity in either muscle seen in the first two breaths following an alpha to theta transition. However, CPAP prevented both the rise in UAR at sleep onset that occurred on the control night, and the recruitment in GGEMG seen in the third to fifth breaths following the alpha to theta transition. Further, GGEMG was higher in the middle-aged men than in the younger men during wakefulness and was decreased more in the middle-aged men with the application of nasal CPAP. No differences were seen in TPEMG between the two age groups. These data suggest that the initial sleep onset reduction in upper airway muscle activity is due to loss of a 'wakefulness' stimulus, rather than to loss of responsiveness to negative pressure. In addition, it suggests that in older men, higher wakeful muscle activity is due to an anatomically more collapsible upper airway with more negative pressure driven muscle activation. Sleep onset per se does not appear to have a greater effect on upper airway muscle activity as one ages. PMID:12963804

Fogel, Robert B; White, David P; Pierce, Robert J; Malhotra, Atul; Edwards, Jill K; Dunai, Judy; Kleverlaan, Darci; Trinder, John

2003-12-01

288

Stress-Shielding Effect of Nitinol Swan-Like Memory Compressive Connector on Fracture Healing of Upper Limb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the stress-shielding effect of a Nitinol swan-like memory compressive connector (SMC) is evaluated. Patients with fracture healing of an upper limb after SMC internal fixation or stainless steel plate fixation were randomly selected and observed comparatively. With the informed consent of the SMC group, minimal cortical bone under the swan-body and swan-neck was harvested; and in the steel plate fixation group, minimal cortical bone under the steel plate and opposite side to the steel plate was also harvested for observation. Main outcome measurements were taken such as osteocyte morphology, Harversian canal histological observation under light microscope; radiographic observation of fracture healing, and computed tomography quantitative scanning of cortical bone. As a conclusion, SMC has a lesser stress-shielding effect to fixed bone than steel plate. Finally, the mechanism of the lesser stress-shielding effect of SMC is discussed.

Fu, Q. G.; Liu, X. W.; Xu, S. G.; Li, M.; Zhang, C. C.

2009-08-01

289

Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Robot-mediated post-stroke therapy for the upper-extremity dates back to the 1990s. Since then, a number of robotic devices have become commercially available. There is clear evidence that robotic interventions improve upper limb motor scores and strength, but these improvements are often not transferred to performance of activities of daily living. We wish to better understand why. Our systematic review of 74 papers focuses on the targeted stage of recovery, the part of the limb trained, the different modalities used, and the effectiveness of each. The review shows that most of the studies so far focus on training of the proximal arm for chronic stroke patients. About the training modalities, studies typically refer to active, active-assisted and passive interaction. Robot-therapy in active assisted mode was associated with consistent improvements in arm function. More specifically, the use of HRI features stressing active contribution by the patient, such as EMG-modulated forces or a pushing force in combination with spring-damper guidance, may be beneficial. Our work also highlights that current literature frequently lacks information regarding the mechanism about the physical human-robot interaction (HRI). It is often unclear how the different modalities are implemented by different research groups (using different robots and platforms). In order to have a better and more reliable evidence of usefulness for these technologies, it is recommended that the HRI is better described and documented so that work of various teams can be considered in the same group and categories, allowing to infer for more suitable approaches. We propose a framework for categorisation of HRI modalities and features that will allow comparing their therapeutic benefits. PMID:25012864

2014-01-01

290

A randomized trial of upper limb botulimun toxin versus placebo injection, combined with physiotherapy, in children with hemiplegia.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A), combined with an individualized intensive physiotherapy/orthoses treatment, in improving upper limb activity and competence in daily activity in children with hemiplegia, and to compare its effectiveness with that of non-pharmacological instruments. It was a Randomized Clinical Trial of 27 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy, outpatients of two high speciality Centres for child rehabilitation. Each child was assigned by simple randomization to experimental group (BoNT-A) or control group (placebo). Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was chosen as primary outcome measure; other measures were selected according to ICF dimensions. Participants were assessed at baseline (T0), at T1, T2, T3 (1-3-6 months after injection, respectively). Every patient was given a specific physiotherapeutic treatment, consisting of individualized goal directed exercises, task oriented activities, daily stretching manoeuvres, functional and/or static orthoses. BoNT-A group showed a significant increase of AHA raw scores at T2, compared to control group (T2-T0: p=.025) and functional goals achievement (GAS) was also slightly better in the same group (p=.033). Other measures indicated some improvement in both groups, without significant intergroup differences. Children with intermediate severity of hand function at House scale for upper limb impairment seem to have a better benefit from BoNT-A protocol. BoNT-A was effective in improving manipulation in the activity domain, in association with individualized goal-directed physiotherapy and orthoses; the combined treatment is recommended. The study brings more evidence for the efficacy of a combined treatment botulinum toxin injection-physiotherapy-orthoses, and it gives some suggestions for candidate selection and individualized treatment. PMID:24995688

Ferrari, Adriano; Maoret, Anna Rosa; Muzzini, Simonetta; Alboresi, Silvia; Lombardi, Francesco; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Paolicelli, Paola Bruna; Sicola, Elisa; Cioni, Giovanni

2014-10-01

291

Identification of neuropathic pain in patients with neck/upper limb pain: application of a grading system and screening tools.  

PubMed

The Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain has proposed a grading system for the presence of neuropathic pain (NeP) using the following categories: no NeP, possible, probable, or definite NeP. To further evaluate this system, we investigated patients with neck/upper limb pain with a suspected nerve lesion, to explore: (i) the clinical application of this grading system; (ii) the suitability of 2 NeP questionnaires (Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale [LANSS] and the painDETECT questionnaire [PD-Q]) in identifying NeP in this patient cohort; and (iii) the level of agreement in identifying NeP between the NeuPSIG classification system and 2 NeP questionnaires. Patients (n = 152; age 52 ± 12 years; 53% male) completed the PD-Q and LANSS questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive clinical examination. The NeuPSIG grading system proved feasible for application in this patient cohort, although it required considerable time and expertise. Both questionnaires failed to identify a large number of patients with clinically classified definite NeP (LANSS sensitivity 22%, specificity 88%; PD-Q sensitivity 64%, specificity 62%). These lowered sensitivity scores contrast with those from the original PD-Q and LANSS validation studies and may reflect differences in the clinical characteristics of the study populations. The diagnostic accuracy of LANSS and PD-Q for the identification of NeP in patients with neck/upper limb pain appears limited. PMID:23973362

Tampin, Brigitte; Briffa, Noelle Kathryn; Goucke, Roger; Slater, Helen

2013-12-01

292

Aging and limb alter the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements is different for young and older adults with the upper and lower limbs. Twenty young (25.1 ± 3.9 years) and twenty older adults (71.5 ± 4.8 years) attempted to accurately match the displacement of their limb to a spatiotemporal target during ankle dorsiflexion or elbow flexion movements. We quantified neuromuscular control by examining the movement endpoint accuracy and variability, and the antagonistic muscle activity using surface electromyography (EMG). Our results indicate that older adults exhibit impaired endpoint accuracy with both limbs due to greater time variability. In addition, older adults exhibit greater EMG burst and lower EMG burst variability as well as lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles. The impaired accuracy of older adults during upper limb movements was related to lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles, whereas their impaired accuracy during lower limb movements was related to the amplified EMG bursts. The upper limb exhibited greater movement control than the lower limb, and different neuromuscular parameters were related to the accuracy and consistency for each limb. Greater endpoint error during upper limb movements was related to lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles, whereas greater endpoint error during lower limb movements was related to the amplified EMG bursts. These findings indicate that the age-associated impairments in movement control are associated with altered activation of the involved antagonistic muscles. In addition, independent of age, the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements is different for the upper and lower limbs. PMID:24557320

Kwon, MinHyuk; Chen, Yen-Ting; Fox, Emily J; Christou, Evangelos A

2014-06-01

293

Effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly women  

PubMed Central

Abstract: To study the effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly female, 105 urban elderly women, who do insufficient exercise in daily life, are selected as the subject and randomly divided into an observation group (Tai Chi Group), a control group I (Dance Group) and a control group II (Walking Group). Each group is consists of 35 women. Among them, the women in the observation group do Tai-chi exercise once a day, while the women in the control group I dance once a day and in the control group II stick to brisk walking once a day. All women in the three groups do the above said exercises for 40 minutes and the exercise intensity is controlled to be medium. At the time of selection and after 4, 8 and 12 months upon their exercises, respectively detect and compare the lower limb skeletal muscle mass, lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of the subject. Results: At the time of selection, the general information of the subjects in the three groups show no significant difference (P > 0.05); however, after 4 months’ exercise, most of the study indexes in the control group I and group II are improved significantly (P < 0.05), while most of the study indexes in the observation group show no significant difference (P > 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection and their general improvement effect is slightly lower than that in the control group; after 8 months, relevant study indexes of the subjects in the three groups are significantly improved (P < 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection, especially, the effect in the observation group is more obvious and is better than that of the control group II (P < 0.05). 12 months later, the effect of the observation group is improved significantly from day to day when comparing to theose in the control group I and group II (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conclusion: Compared with the senile dance and walking exercises, the short-term Tai-chi exercise effect is not obvious, however, once the exercise period is extended, that is, continuous exercise for 8 months or even above 12 months, the advantage of Tai Chi is more and more significant. The study suggests that as a fitness measure, Tai Chi is more suitable for long-term exercise and its short-term effect is not obvious. PMID:25035781

Song, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Xu, Rong-Mei; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Shen, Guo-Qing; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

2014-01-01

294

Age- and Sex-Related Differences in Force-Velocity Characteristics of Upper and Lower Limbs of Competitive Adolescent Swimmers  

PubMed Central

While there is a direct relationship between maximal anaerobic power (Pmax) and swimming performance, the relationship between upper and lower limbs with regard to Pmax and force-velocity (F-v) characteristics is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age and sex on the ratios of mechanical characteristics between upper and lower extremities of adolescent swimmers. Seventeen girls (aged 14.7±1.8 yr) (mean±standard deviation) and 28 boys (14.6±1.4 yr), all members of competitive swimming clubs, performed a F-v test for both legs and arms. In legs, boys had higher values of Pmax (t43=2.4, p<0.05), Pmax expressed in relative to body mass values (rPmax, t43=3.4, p<0.01) and v0 (t43=4.3, p<0.001), while no differences were found for F0 (t43=1.0, p=0.31) and v0/F0 (t43=0.55, p=0.59). In arms, boys had higher values of Pmax (t43=3.2, p<0.01), rPmax (t43=3.9, p<0.001) and v0 (t43=3.4, p<0.01), while no differences were found for F0 (t43=1.9, p=0.06) and v0/F0 (t43=0.16, p=0.87). However, no sex difference was found with regard to the ratios of Pmax (t43=1.9, p=0.06), F0 (t43=1.2, p=0.23) and v0 (t43=1.3, p=0.20) between upper and lower extremities. There was direct relationship between age and Pmax of legs (r=0.64, p<0.01 in girls; r=0.43, p<0.05 in boys) and arms (r=0.56, p<0.05; r=0.57, p<0.01 respectively), while there was not any significant association between age and the ratios of mechanical characteristics of upper and lower limbs. These findings emphasize the need for separate evaluation of arms’ and legs’ force-velocity characteristics on a regular basis and the consideration of these measures in training design. PMID:23487511

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

2012-01-01

295

Fiber size and myosin phenotypes of selected rhesus lower limb muscles after a 14-day spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Muscle biopsies were taken from the rhesus (Macaca mulatta) soleus (Sol, a slow ankle extensor), medial gastrocnemius (MG, a fast ankle extensor), tibialis anterior (TA, a fast ankle flexor), and vastus lateralis (VL, a fast knee extensor) muscles in vivarium controls (n=5) before and after either a 14-day spaceflight (Bion 11, n=2) or a 14-day ground-based flight simulation (n=3). Myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition (gel electrophoresis), fiber type distribution (immunohistochemistry), and fiber size were determined. Although there were no significant changes, each muscle showed trends towards adaptation.

Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Bodine, S. C.; Pierotti, D. J.; Talmadge, R. J.; Barkhoudarian, G.; Kim, J.; Fanton, J. W.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Edgerton, V. R.

2000-01-01

296

"Development of Haptic Feedback Devices for Upper Limb Amputees" Andrew Erwin  

E-print Network

: Professor Frank Sup, Mechanical Engineering With the advent of myoelectric prostheses in the 1960s, amputees the amputee's efferent commands to control the device, they do not relay the necessary afferent signals back and coil systems that wrap around the upper or lower arm, providing feedback in 3-dimensional space

Mountziaris, T. J.

297

Upper Extremity Artificial Limb Control as an Issue Related to Movement and Mobility in Daily Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1992 NIH Research Planning Conference on Prosthetic and Orthotic Research for the 21st Century (Childress, 1992) recognized that the field of prosthetics lacks theoretical understanding and empirical studies on learning to control an upper-extremity prosthesis. We have addressed this problem using a novel approach in which persons without…

Wallace, Steve; Anderson, David I.; Trujillo, Michael; Weeks, Douglas L.

2005-01-01

298

Comparative Study of Motor Performance of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Reaction Time, Visual-Motor Control and Upper Limb Speed and Dexterity Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test the motor performance of 34 deaf--hard-of-hearing pupils, 6-14 year, was evaluated in reaction time, visual-motor control and upper limb speed and dexterity. The two-way ANOVA variance analysis for two independent variables, group, age, and the Post Hoc (Scheffe test) for multiple comparisons were used. The…

Gkouvatzi, Anastasia N.; Mantis, Konstantinos; Kambas, Antonis

2010-01-01

299

Variations of the arterial pattern in the upper limb revisited: a morphological and statistical study, with a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

A total of 192 embalmed cadavers were examined in order to present a detailed study of arterial variations in the upper limb and a meta-analysis of them. The variable terminology previously used was unified into a homogenous and complete classification, with 12 categories covering all the previously reported variant patterns of the arm and forearm. PMID:11760886

RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; VÁZQUEZ, T.; NEARN, L.; FERREIRA, B.; PARKIN, I.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

2001-01-01

300

Optimum ratio of upper to lower limb lengths in hand-carrying of a load under the assumption of frequency coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of the upper to lower limb lengths [or the intermembral index (IMI)] in the earliest human ancestors is closer to that of the living chimpanzees than to our own, although the former show undoubted adaptations to bipedality. What biomechanical factors could then have led to the phenomenon of genus Homo? This paper proposes and evaluates a relationship between

W. J. Wang; R. H. Crompton; Y. Li; M. M. Gunther

2003-01-01

301

Comparison of multi-sensor admittance control in joint space and task space for a seven degree of freedom upper limb exoskeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and overall system performance of an upper limb exoskeleton, as a wearable robot, is dictated in part by the human machine interface and the implemented control algorithm. The ultimate goal is to develop algorithms so the operator feels as if the exoskeleton is a natural extension the body. The aim of the current research is to compare the system

Levi Makaio Miller; Jacob Rosen

2010-01-01

302

The 4-Day Wave as Observed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "4-day wave" is an eastward moving quasi-nondispersive feature with period near 4 days occurring near the winter polar stratopause. This paper presents evidence of the 4-day feature in Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature, geopotential height, and ozone data from the late southern winters of 1992 and 1993. Space-time spectral analyses reveal a double-peaked temperature structure consisting of one peak near the stratopause and another in the lower mesosphere, with an out-of-phase relationship between the two peaks. This double- peaked structure is reminiscent of recent three-dimensional barotropic/baroclinic instability model predictions and is observed here for the first time. The height variation of the 4-day ozone signal is shown to compare well with a linear advective-photochemical tracer model. Negative regions of quasigeostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradient and positive Eliassen-Palm flux divergence are shown to occur, consistent with instability dynamics playing a role in wave forcing. Spectral analyses of PV derived from MLS geopotential height fields reveal a 4-day signal peaking near the polar stratopause. The three-dimensional structure of the 4-day wave resembles the potential vorticity "charge" concept, wherein a PV anomaly in the atmosphere (analogous to an electrical charge in a dielectric material) induces a geopotential field, a vertically oriented temperature dipole, and circulation about the vertical axis.

Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Elson, L. S.; Fishbein, E. F.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

1997-01-01

303

Isometric Contraction of an Upper Extremity and Its Effects on the Contralateral Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine effects of the isometric contraction of an upper limb in a supine position on the muscle activity of a healthy adult in the contralateral lower limb. [Subjects] The subjects were 40 healthy adults (35 males and 5 females). [Methods] The muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris, anterior tibialis, and medial gastrocnemius (MG) of the contralateral lower limb was measured using electromyography while the subjects flexed, extended, abducted, and adducted the shoulder joint of an upper limb. [Results] The muscle activity of the RF of the contralateral lower limb was significantly high when the subject flexed the shoulder joint of an upper limb, and the muscle activity of the MG of the contralateral lower limb was significantly high when the subject adducted the shoulder joint of an upper limb. [Conclusion] The isometric contraction that results from flexion and adduction of the shoulder joint of an upper limb in a supine position is considered to selectively affect the RF and MG activity of the contralateral lower limb. PMID:25435682

Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

2014-01-01

304

Isometric contraction of an upper extremity and its effects on the contralateral lower extremity.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine effects of the isometric contraction of an upper limb in a supine position on the muscle activity of a healthy adult in the contralateral lower limb. [Subjects] The subjects were 40 healthy adults (35 males and 5 females). [Methods] The muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris, anterior tibialis, and medial gastrocnemius (MG) of the contralateral lower limb was measured using electromyography while the subjects flexed, extended, abducted, and adducted the shoulder joint of an upper limb. [Results] The muscle activity of the RF of the contralateral lower limb was significantly high when the subject flexed the shoulder joint of an upper limb, and the muscle activity of the MG of the contralateral lower limb was significantly high when the subject adducted the shoulder joint of an upper limb. [Conclusion] The isometric contraction that results from flexion and adduction of the shoulder joint of an upper limb in a supine position is considered to selectively affect the RF and MG activity of the contralateral lower limb. PMID:25435682

Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

2014-11-01

305

Built for rowing: frog muscle is tuned to limb morphology to power swimming  

PubMed Central

Rowing is demanding, in part, because drag on the oars increases as the square of their speed. Hence, as muscles shorten faster, their force capacity falls, whereas drag rises. How do frogs resolve this dilemma to swim rapidly? We predicted that shortening velocity cannot exceed a terminal velocity where muscle and fluid torques balance. This terminal velocity, which is below Vmax, depends on gear ratio (GR = outlever/inlever) and webbed foot area. Perhaps such properties of swimmers are ‘tuned’, enabling shortening speeds of approximately 0.3Vmax for maximal power. Predictions were tested using a ‘musculo-robotic’ Xenopus laevis foot driven either by a living in vitro or computational in silico plantaris longus muscle. Experiments verified predictions. Our principle finding is that GR ranges from 11.5 to 20 near the predicted optimum for rowing (GR ? 11). However, gearing influences muscle power more strongly than foot area. No single morphology is optimal for producing muscle power. Rather, the ‘optimal’ GR decreases with foot size, implying that rowing ability need not compromise jumping (and vice versa). Thus, despite our neglect of additional forces (e.g. added mass), our model predicts pairings of physiological and morphological properties to confer effective rowing. Beyond frogs, the model may apply across a range of size and complexity from aquatic insects to human-powered rowing. PMID:23676897

Richards, Christopher T.; Clemente, Christofer J.

2013-01-01

306

Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1?year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

Yu, Jaeho

2014-01-01

307

Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1?year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

Yu, Jaeho

2014-09-01

308

Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and upper limb among sewing machine operators: a clinical investigation.  

PubMed

One hundred and seven women participated in a clinical study of an age-stratified random sample of sewing machine operators compared to a group of auxiliary nurses and home helpers. Four groups, according to years of being a sewing machine operator, consisted of: (controls) 25; (0-7 years) 21; (8-15 years) 25; and (more than 15 years) 36. The numbers of the main clinical diagnoses in the four groups were: cervicobrachial fibromyalgia (myofascial pain syndrome) 2, 4, 11, 24; cervical syndrome 0, 1, 3, 10; and rotator cuff syndrome 1, 1, 6, 11. The observed exposure-response relationship between clinical outcomes and years as a sewing machine operator was maintained when adjusting for current exposure to musculoskeletal strain and other potential confounders. Muscle palpation proved to be a reproducible examination with kappa values around 0.70. PMID:8311099

Andersen, J H; Gaardboe, O

1993-12-01

309

An inverse dynamic analysis on the influence of upper limb gravity compensation during reaching.  

PubMed

Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of arm supports in an attempt to restore arm function. Lowering the load allows the user to employ the residual muscle force for movement as well as for posture stabilization. In this pilot study three conditions were investigated during a reaching task performed by three healthy subjects and three MD subjects: a control condition involving reaching; a similar movement with gravity compensation using braces to support the forearm; an identical reaching movement in simulated zero-gravity. In the control condition the highest values of shoulder moments were present, with a maximum of about 6 Nm for shoulder flexion and abduction. In the gravity compensation and zero gravity conditions the maximum shoulder moments were decreased by more than 70% and instead of increasing during reaching, they remained almost unvaried, fluctuating around an offset value less than 1 Nm. Similarly, the elbow moments in the control condition were the highest with a peak around 3.3 Nm for elbow flexion, while the moments were substantially reduced in the remaining two conditions, fluctuating around offset values between 0 to 0.5 Nm. In conclusion, gravity compensation by lower arm support is effective in healthy subjects and MD subjects and lowers the amount of shoulder and elbow moments by an amount comparable to a zero gravity environment. However the influence of gravity compensation still needs to be investigated on more people with MDs in order to quantify any beneficial effect on this population. PMID:24187187

Essers, J M N Hans; Meijer, Kenneth; Murgia, Alessio; Bergsma, Arjen; Verstegen, Paul

2013-06-01

310

Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Calpain 3 and Protein Expression in Muscle from Patients with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2A  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies were raised to two regions of calpain 3 (muscle-specific calcium-activated neutral protease), which is the product of the gene that is defective in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. The antibodies produced characteristic patterns of bands on Western blots: normal calpain 3 protein was represented by bands at 94 kd, plus additional fragments at ?60 or 30 kd, according to the antibody used. Specificity was confirmed by the loss of all bands in patients with null gene mutations. The “normal” profile of bands was observed in muscle from 33 control subjects and 70 disease-control patients. Calpain 3 protein was found to be extremely stable in fresh human muscle, with full-size protein being detected 8 hours after the muscle had been removed. Blots of muscle from nine limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A patients with defined mutations showed variation in protein expression, with seven showing a clear reduction in the abundance of protein detected. No simple relationship was found between the abundance and clinical severity. Two patients showed normal expression of the full-size 94 kd band accompanied by a clear reduction in the smaller fragments. This pattern was also observed in one patient with an undefined form of limb-girdle dystrophy. These results indicate that immunodiagnosis is feasible, but caution will need to be exercised with the interpretation of near-normal protein profiles. PMID:9777948

Anderson, Louise V. B.; Davison, Keith; Moss, Jennifer A.; Richard, Isabelle; Fardeau, Michel; Tomé, Fernando M. S.; Hübner, Christoph; Lasa, Adriana; Colomer, Jaume; Beckmann, Jacques S.

1998-01-01

311

Evolution of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A duplication: a 2-year clinico-electrophysiological and lower-limb muscle MRI longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) evolution. We conducted a 2-year longitudinal study in 14 CMT1A patients and 14 age- and sex-matched controls. In the patients, we performed neurological examination with hand-held dynamometry, electrophysiology, and lower-limb muscle MRI, both at baseline and 2 years later, while controls were examined at baseline only. Patients' ages ranged from 12 to 51 years. Outstanding manifestations on initial evaluation included pes cavus, areflexia, lower-limb weakness, and foot hypopallesthesia. In evaluating muscle power, good correlation was observed between manual testing and dynamometry. Compared to controls, Lunge, 10-Meter-Walking, and 9-Hole-Peg tests were impaired. Their CMT neuropathy score and functional disability scale showed that patients exhibited mild phenotype and at most slight walking difficulty. Electrophysiology revealed marked nerve conduction slowing and variable compound muscle action potential amplitude reduction. On lower-limb muscle MRI, there was distally accentuated fatty infiltration accompanied by edema in calf muscles. All these clinico-electrophysiological and imaging findings remained almost unaltered during monitoring. Using multivariate analysis, no significant predictors of progression associated to the disease were obtained. We conclude that in the 2-year period of study, CMT1A patients showed mild progression with good concordance between clinico-electrophysiological and imaging findings. PMID:24449066

Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Gallardo, Elena; García, Antonio; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Infante, Jon; Berciano, José

2014-04-01

312

The dopaminergic system in upper limb motor blocks (ULMB) investigated during bimanual coordination in Parkinson's disease (PD).  

PubMed

Upper limb motor blocks (ULMB) (inability to initiate or sudden discontinue in voluntary movements) have been identified in both unimanual and bimanual tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, ULMB have been observed during rhythmic bimanual coordination when switching between phase patterns which is required (e.g. between in-phase and anti-phase). While sensory-perceptual mechanisms have recently been suggested to be involved in lower limb freezing, there has been no consensus on the mechanism that evokes ULMB or whether motor blocks respond to dopamine replacement like other motor symptoms of PD. The current study investigated the occurrence of ULMB in PD participants without ('off') and with ('on') dopamine replacement using bimanual wrist flexion-extension with external auditory cues. In Experiment 1, coordination was performed in either in-phase (simultaneous flexion and extension) or anti-phase (asymmetrical flexion and extension between the limbs) in one of three sensory conditions: no vision, normal vision or augmented vision. Cycle frequency was increased within each trial across seven cycle frequencies (0.75-2 Hz). In Experiment 2, coordination was initiated in either phase pattern and participants were cued to make an intentional switch between phases in the middle of trials. Trials were performed at one of two cycle frequencies (1 or 2 Hz) and one of two sensory conditions: no vision or normal vision. Healthy age-matched control participants were also investigated in both experiments for the occurrence of motor blocks that were measured using automated detection from a computer algorithm. The results from Experiment 1 indicated that increasing cycle frequency resulted in more ULMB in individuals with PD during continuous coordinated movement, regardless of dopaminergic status, phase pattern or sensory condition. Experiment 2 also confirmed an increased occurrence of ULMB with increased cycle frequency. Furthermore, a large amount of ULMB were observed when initiating anti-phase coordination at 2 Hz, as well as after both externally-cued switches and in 'catch trials' with distracting auditory cues when no switch was required. Dopamine replacement was not found to influence the frequency of ULMB in either experiment. Therefore, ULMB likely result from non-hypodopaminergic impairments associated with PD. Specifically, ULMB may be caused by an inability to shift attentional control under increased cognitive demand that could be associated with hypoactivation in motor and prefrontal areas. PMID:25280861

Brown, Matt J N; Almeida, Quincy J; Rahimi, Fariborz

2015-01-01

313

The Relationship between Independent Transfer Skills and Upper Limb Kinetics in Wheelchair Users  

PubMed Central

Transfers are one of the most physically demanding wheelchair activities. The purpose of this study was to determine if using proper transfer skills as measured by the Transfer Assessment Instrument (TAI) is associated with reduced loading on the upper extremities. Twenty-three wheelchair users performed transfers to a level-height bench while a series of forces plates, load cells, and a motion capture system recorded the biomechanics of their natural transferring techniques. Their transfer skills were simultaneously evaluated by two study clinicians using the TAI. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were used to determine the relationships between TAI scores and the kinetic variables on both arms across all joints. The results showed that the TAI measured transfer skills were closely associated with the magnitude and timing of joint moments (P < .02, model R2 values ranged from 0.27 to 0.79). Proper completion of the skills which targeted the trailing arm was associated with lower average resultant moments and rates of rise of resultant moments at the trailing shoulder and/or elbow. Some skills involving the leading side had the effect of increasing the magnitude or rate loading on the leading side. Knowledge of the kinetic outcomes associated with each skill may help users to achieve the best load-relieving effects for their upper extremities. PMID:25162039

Boninger, Michael L.; Koontz, Alicia M.

2014-01-01

314

The effect of limb support on muscle activation during shoulder exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the dif- ference in demands on glenohumeral musculature during unsupported and supported active range-of- motion (AROM) shoulder exercises. Twenty healthy subjects volunteered for this study. Surface or fine- wire bipolar electrodes were applied to the infraspi- natus, posterior deltoid, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and supraspinatus muscles. Subjects per- formed vertical wall slides

Michael Brian Wise; Tim L. Uhl; Carl G. Mattacola; Arthur J. Nitz; W. Ben Kibler

315

Time-dependence between upper arm muscles activity during rapid movements: observation of the proportional effects predicted by the kinematic theory.  

PubMed

Rapid human movements can be assimilated to the output of a neuromuscular system with an impulse response modeled by a Delta-Lognormal equation. In such a model, the main assumption concerns the cumulative time delays of the response as it propagates toward the effector following a command. To verify the validity of this assumption, delays between bursts in electromyographic (EMG) signals of agonist and antagonist muscles activated during a rapid hand movement were investigated. Delays were measured between the surface EMG signals of six muscles of the upper limb during single rapid handwriting strokes. From EMG envelopes, regressions were obtained between the timing of the burst of activity produced by each monitored muscle. High correlation coefficients were obtained supporting the proportionality of the cumulative time delays, the basic hypothesis of the Delta-Lognormal model. A paradigm governing the sequence of muscle activities in a rapid movement could, in the long run, be useful for applications dealing with the analysis and synthesis of human movements. PMID:23219167

Plamondon, Réjean; Djioua, Moussa; Mathieu, Pierre A

2013-10-01

316

Tailored exercise program reduces symptoms of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders in a group of metalworkers: A randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) are a leading cause of work-related disability and loss of productivity in the developed countries; these disorders may concur with the indirect costs of an illness or injury included losses of potential output. Literature on workplace physical activity program provided a mixed but positive impact on health and important worksite outcomes. Therefore, programs of physical activity organized and performed in the workplace could reveal as essential tool to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. This investigation aimed to assess the effectiveness of a tailored physical activity program, performed in a work-environment, to reduce the symptoms in upper extremities and neck with the novelty in personalizing the approach applied to the exercise protocol, basing on pain and disability levels, to reduce the onset and symptoms in upper extremity and neck WRMDs increasing upper-limb strength and flexibility. 68 metalworkers were recruited, 34 were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG), while the other 34 to a control group. Primary outcomes concerned pain symptoms measured with visual analog scales while disability was measured by DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and NPDS-I (Neck Pain and Disability Scale) questionnaires. Grip strength, upper-limb mobility, neck and shoulder range of motion were also assessed. After the 9-month intervention, IG reduced pain symptoms on neck, shoulders, elbows and on wrists. Grip strength and upper-limb mobility improved as well as scores on questionnaires. This protocol suggests that performing a tailored physical activity program is beneficial to reduce pain and disability on upper-limb WRMDs. PMID:25027479

Rasotto, Chiara; Bergamin, Marco; Simonetti, Alberto; Maso, Stefano; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Ermolao, Andrea; Zaccaria, Marco

2015-02-01

317

Upper limb children action-observation training (UP-CAT): a randomised controlled trial in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background Rehabilitation for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) aimed to improve function of the impaired upper limb (UL) uses a wide range of intervention programs. A new rehabilitative approach, called Action-Observation Therapy, based on the recent discovery of mirror neurons, has been used in adult stroke but not in children. The purpose of the present study is to design a randomised controlled trial (RCT) for evaluating the efficacy of Action-Observation Therapy in improving UL activity in children with HCP. Methods/Design The trial is designed according to CONSORT Statement. It is a randomised, evaluator-blinded, match-pair group trial. Children with HCP will be randomised within pairs to either experimental or control group. The experimental group will perform an Action-Observation Therapy, called UP-CAT (Upper Limb-Children Action-Observation Training) in which they will watch video sequences showing goal-directed actions, chosen according to children UL functional level, combined with motor training with their hemiplegic UL. The control group will perform the same tailored actions after watching computer games. A careful revision of psychometric properties of UL outcome measures for children with hemiplegia was performed. Assisting Hand Assessment was chosen as primary measure and, based on its calculation power, a sample size of 12 matched pairs was established. Moreover, Melbourne and ABILHAND-Kids were included as secondary measures. The time line of assessments will be T0 (in the week preceding the onset of the treatment), T1 and T2 (in the week after the end of the treatment and 8 weeks later, respectively). A further assessment will be performed at T3 (24 weeks after T1), to evaluate the retention of effects. In a subgroup of children enrolled in both groups functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, exploring the mirror system and sensory-motor function, will be performed at T0, T1 and T2. Discussion The paper aims to describe the methodology of a RCT for evaluating the efficacy of Action-Observation Therapy in improving UL activity in children with hemiplegia. This study will be the first to test this new type of treatment in childhood. The paper presents the theoretical background, study hypotheses, outcome measures and trial methodology. Trial Registration NCT01016496 PMID:21711525

2011-01-01

318

EMGD-FE: an open source graphical user interface for estimating isometric muscle forces in the lower limb using an EMG-driven model  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the “EMG Driven Force Estimator (EMGD-FE)”, a Matlab® graphical user interface (GUI) application that estimates skeletal muscle forces from electromyography (EMG) signals. Muscle forces are obtained by numerically integrating a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that simulates Hill-type muscle dynamics and that utilises EMG signals as input. In the current version, the GUI can estimate the forces of lower limb muscles executing isometric contractions. Muscles from other parts of the body can be tested as well, although no default values for model parameters are provided. To achieve accurate evaluations, EMG collection is performed simultaneously with torque measurement from a dynamometer. The computer application guides the user, step-by-step, to pre-process the raw EMG signals, create inputs for the muscle model, numerically integrate the ODEs and analyse the results. Results An example of the application’s functions is presented using the quadriceps femoris muscle. Individual muscle force estimations for the four components as well the knee isometric torque are shown. Conclusions The proposed GUI can estimate individual muscle forces from EMG signals of skeletal muscles. The estimation accuracy depends on several factors, including signal collection and modelling hypothesis issues. PMID:24708668

2014-01-01

319

Rapid feedback responses correlate with reach adaptation and properties of novel upper limb loads.  

PubMed

A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to adjust motor patterns for novel mechanical or visuomotor contexts. Recent work has also highlighted the importance of feedback for voluntary control, leading to the hypothesis that feedback responses should adapt when we learn new motor skills. We tested this prediction with a novel paradigm requiring that human subjects adapt to a viscous elbow load while reaching to three targets. Target 1 required combined shoulder and elbow motion, target 2 required only elbow motion, and target 3 (probe target) required shoulder but no elbow motion. This simple approach controlled muscle activity at the probe target before, during, and after the application of novel elbow loads. Our paradigm allowed us to perturb the elbow during reaching movements to the probe target and identify several key properties of adapted stretch responses. Adapted long-latency responses expressed (de-) adaptation similar to reaching errors observed when we introduced (removed) the elbow load. Moreover, reaching errors during learning correlated with changes in the long-latency response, showing subjects who adapted more to the elbow load displayed greater modulation of their stretch responses. These adapted responses were sensitive to the size and direction of the viscous training load. Our results highlight an important link between the adaptation of feedforward and feedback control and suggest a key part of motor adaptation is to adjust feedback responses to the requirements of novel motor skills. PMID:24089496

Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H

2013-10-01

320

[Development of newer rehabilitative measures for hemiparetic upper limb after stroke].  

PubMed

Because recovery of upper extremity (UE) function to a practical level has been difficult in many stroke patients, compensatory approaches have been emphasized. Based on researches indicating greater potential for brain plasticity, newer approaches targeting at functional restoration have been attempted. However, no intervention has been shown to be effective to improve hand function. We therefore devised a therapeutic approach to facilitate the use of the hemiparetic hand in daily life by combining EMG triggered electrical stimulation with a wrist splint, called hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation (HANDS). With HANDS, we demonstrated improved motor function, spasticity, functional scores and neurophysiological parameters in chronic stroke. With a RCT, we also demonstrated its effectiveness in subacute stroke. However, to be its candidates, electromyogram must be recorded from finger extensors, and it cannot be applied to patients with complete paralysis. For them, we recently developed a Brain Machine Interface (BMI) neurorehabilitation system. Based on analysis of volitionally decreased amplitudes of sensory motor rhythm during motor imagery involving extending the affected fingers, real-time visual feedback is provided. In patients with severe hemiparesis, we demonstrated its effectiveness with clinical scales, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies. These newer interventions might offer useful neurorehabilitative tools for hemiparetic UE. PMID:23196555

Liu, Meigen

2012-01-01

321

Integrated vision-based robotic arm interface for operators with upper limb mobility impairments.  

PubMed

An integrated, computer vision-based system was developed to operate a commercial wheelchair-mounted robotic manipulator (WMRM). In this paper, a gesture recognition interface system developed specifically for individuals with upper-level spinal cord injuries (SCIs) was combined with object tracking and face recognition systems to be an efficient, hands-free WMRM controller. In this test system, two Kinect cameras were used synergistically to perform a variety of simple object retrieval tasks. One camera was used to interpret the hand gestures to send as commands to control the WMRM and locate the operator's face for object positioning. The other sensor was used to automatically recognize different daily living objects for test subjects to select. The gesture recognition interface incorporated hand detection, tracking and recognition algorithms to obtain a high recognition accuracy of 97.5% for an eight-gesture lexicon. An object recognition module employing Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm was performed and recognition results were sent as a command for "coarse positioning" of the robotic arm near the selected daily living object. Automatic face detection was also provided as a shortcut for the subjects to position the objects to the face by using a WMRM. Completion time tasks were conducted to compare manual (gestures only) and semi-manual (gestures, automatic face detection and object recognition) WMRM control modes. The use of automatic face and object detection significantly increased the completion times for retrieving a variety of daily living objects. PMID:24187264

Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Duerstock, Bradley S

2013-06-01

322

The Effects of PNF Techniques on Lymphoma in the Upper Limbs  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study were to identify whether painless dynamic PNF techniques can reduce lymphedema, and to provide basic reference data for use in the treatment of lymphedema patients. [Subjects] This experiment was conducted from March 2012 to July 2012 at Busan University Hospital D. The subjects were upper extremity lymphedema patients who were receiving rehabilitation treatment. Those with dual lymphedema site pain or who did not want to participate in the experiment were excluded. [Methods] A total of 40 women participated in this study, and they received PNF techniques before the application of lymph compression bandages. Group 1 of 20 subjects were adminstered PNF techniques three times a week for 30 minutes each time. Group 2 of 20 subjects only edema reducing massage for 30 minutes. [Results] The interaction between treatment method and treatment time was significant, which indicates that the change in edema at different measurement times was different according to treatment methods. In this study, Group 1 had a steeper rate of decline in edema than Group 2. [Conclusion] In conclusion, both massage and PNF techniques helped to lower edema rates. Four weeks after the beginning of treatment, a larger degree of decline in edema was exhibited in the PNF group than in the massage group. PMID:24259865

Hwang, Okchul; Ha, Kyungjin; Choi, Seungjun

2013-01-01

323

Report of an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations in a cadaveric upper limb  

PubMed Central

In this study an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations discovered during dissection of cervical, axillary and brachial area of a cadaver is described. Variations are thoroughly described and literature is briefly reviewed. Lateral cord of brachial plexus was not formed; Eight Cervical root divided into anterior and posterior division before uniting with First Thoracic root and Upper Trunk was unusually short. Axillary artery gave origin to a superficial brachial artery and then continued as deep brachial artery. Multiple variations in typical axillary artery branches were present including existence of inferior pectoral artery. Cephalic vein was absent. A variety of interventions, from relative simple as central venous catheter placement to most complicated as brachial plexus injury repair demand thorough knowledge of area’s regional anatomy. Familiarity with anatomic variations allows more precise and careful interventions. Research on these variations is valuable for anatomists and embryologists but also for clinicians because it may provide useful information for non - typical cases but also helps in raising a high level of suspicion. PMID:24495850

2014-01-01

324

Effects of different unstable sole construction on kinematics and muscle activity of lower limb.  

PubMed

Unstable sole construction can change biomechanics of lower extremity as highlighted by some previous studies, which could potentially help developing special training or rehabilitation schemes. In this study, unstable elements are fixed in heel and forefoot zone to exert unstable perturbations, and the position changes (medial, neutral and lateral) of unstable elements in forefoot coronal plane are adjusted to analyze changes of lower extremity kinematics and muscle activities. Twenty-two healthy male subjects participated in the test, walking with control shoes and experimental shoes randomly under self-selected speed. Kinematics and surface electromyography measurements were carried out simultaneously. It is found that experimental shoes can lead to the reduction of knee abduction and internal rotation and hip internal rotation, with p<.05. Ankle inversion and internal rotation amplitude were also reduced, which are associated with significantly increased activation levels of muscles (TA-tibialis anterior, PL-peroneus longus, LG-lateral gastrocnemius) in order to compensate perturbations. It is suggested that a training equipment incorporating unstable elements would enhance postural control by adjusting lower extremity kinematics and reorganizing muscle activity. More research can be conducted to testify the feasibility of unstable shoes construction on human postural control and gait, even guide training regime design, injury prevention and rehabilitation. PMID:24929612

Gu, Yaodong; Lu, Yong; Mei, Qichang; Li, Jianshe; Ren, James

2014-08-01

325

Lower limb joint angular position and muscle activity during elliptical exercise in healthy young men.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity joint angular position and muscle activity during elliptical exercise using different foot positions and also during exercise on a lateral elliptical trainer. Sixteen men exercised on a lateral elliptical and on a standard elliptical trainer using straight foot position, increased toe-out angle, and a wide step. Motion capture and electromyography systems were used to obtain 3D lower extremity joint kinematics and muscle activity, respectively. The lateral trainer produced greater sagittal and frontal plane knee range of motion (ROM), greater peak knee flexion and extension, and higher vastus medialis activation compared with other conditions (P < .05). Toe-out and wide step produced the greatest and smallest peak knee adduction angles, respectively (P < .05). The lateral trainer produced greater sagittal and frontal plane hip ROM and greater peak hip extension and flexion compared with all other conditions (P < .05). Toe-out angle produced the largest peak hip external rotation angle and lowest gluteus muscle activation (P < .05). Findings from this study indicate that standard elliptical exercise with wide step may place the knee joint in a desirable frontal plane angular position to reduce medial knee loads, and that lateral elliptical exercise could help improve quadriceps strength but could also lead to larger knee contact forces. PMID:25268277

Paquette, Max R; Zucker-Levin, Audrey; DeVita, Paul; Hoekstra, Joseph; Pearsall, David

2015-02-01

326

Trunk postures and upper-body muscle activations during physically demanding wildfire suppression tasks.  

PubMed

This study examined the trunk postures and upper-body muscle activations during four physically demanding wildfire suppression tasks. Bilateral, wireless surface electromyography was recorded from the trapezius and erector spinae muscles of nine experienced, wildfire fighters. Synchronised video captured two retroreflective markers to allow for quantification of two-dimensional sagittal trunk flexion. In all tasks, significantly longer time was spent in the mild and severe trunk flexion (p ? 0.002) compared to the time spent in a neutral posture. Mean and peak muscle activation in all tasks exceeded previously established safe limits. These activation levels also significantly increased through the performance of each task (p < 0.001). The results suggest that the wildfire suppression tasks analysed impose significant musculoskeletal demand on firefighters. Fire agencies should consider developing interventions to reduce the exposure of their personnel to these potentially injurious musculoskeletal demands. PMID:24365452

Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Aisbett, Brad; Netto, Kevin

2014-01-01

327

Osteopoikilosis associated with fibromyalgia and active myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius muscles.  

PubMed

Osteopoikilosis is a sclerosing bone dysplasia, characterized by multiple oval spots of radiodensities within the trabecular bone. It occurs equally common among men and women. Prevalence is estimated to be as high as 1:50,000. Most reported cases have been found incidentally on roentgenograms taken for other purposes. We present a 58-year-old woman with OPK associated with fibromyalgia and active myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius muscles. PMID:22142715

Uludag, Murat; Kaparov, Asylbek; Sari, Hidayet; Ornek, Nurettin Irem; Gün, Kerem; Suzen, Sibel; Akarirmak, Ulku

2011-01-01

328

Feature extraction using extrema sampling of discrete derivatives for spike sorting in implantable upper-limb neural prostheses.  

PubMed

Next generation neural interfaces for upper-limb (and other) prostheses aim to develop implantable interfaces for one or more nerves, each interface having many neural signal channels that work reliably in the stump without harming the nerves. To achieve real-time multi-channel processing it is important to integrate spike sorting on-chip to overcome limitations in transmission bandwidth. This requires computationally efficient algorithms for feature extraction and clustering suitable for low-power hardware implementation. This paper describes a new feature extraction method for real-time spike sorting based on extrema analysis (namely positive peaks and negative peaks) of spike shapes and their discrete derivatives at different frequency bands. Employing simulation across different datasets, the accuracy and computational complexity of the proposed method are assessed and compared with other methods. The average classification accuracy of the proposed method in conjunction with online sorting (O-Sort) is 91.6%, outperforming all the other methods tested with the O-Sort clustering algorithm. The proposed method offers a better tradeoff between classification error and computational complexity, making it a particularly strong choice for on-chip spike sorting. PMID:24760942

Zamani, Majid; Demosthenous, Andreas

2014-07-01

329

Treatment with 4-aminopyridine improves upper limb tremor of a patient with multiple sclerosis: a video case report.  

PubMed

The reversible potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine is effective in the treatment of numerous cerebellar dysfunctions, such as episodic ataxia type 2 and downbeat nystagmus syndrome. In 2011, its sustained release form, dalfampridine, was admitted in Europe for the treatment of walking difficulties in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we report the case of a 44-year old patient with a progressive MS whose upper limb tremor was markedly reduced under treatment with 4-aminopyridine, as documented in a Tremor Activities of Daily Living questionnaire and in the 9-Hole Peg test. Hand accelerations decreased in the left hand from 10.9 m/sec(2) to 2.2 m/sec(2) and in the right hand from 4.2 m/sec(2) to 0.9 m/sec(2). This case report indicates for the first time that 4-aminopyridine might be effective in the symptomatic treatment of tremor entities in patients with MS. The finding calls for further prospective studies to determine the usefulness of 4-aminopyridine or its sustained-release form dalfampridine in treating patients with tremor and MS. PMID:23069878

Schniepp, Roman; Jakl, Veronika; Wuehr, Max; Havla, Joachim; Kümpfel, Tanja; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; Jahn, Klaus

2013-04-01

330

Development of a model Osseo-Magnetic Link for intuitive rotational control of upper-limb prostheses  

PubMed Central

The lack of proprioceptive feedback is a serious deficiency of current prosthetic control systems. The Osseo-Magnetic Link (OML) is a novel humeral or wrist rotation control system that could preserve proprioception. It utilizes a magnet implanted within the residual bone and sensors mounted in the prosthetic socket to detect magnetic field vectors and determine the bone's orientation. This allows the use of volitional bone rotation to control a prosthetic rotator. We evaluated the performance of the OML using a physical model of a transhumeral residual limb. A small Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnet was placed in a model humerus, inside a model upper arm. Four 3-axis Hall-effect sensors were mounted on a ring 3 cm distal to the magnet. An optimization algorithm based on Newton's method determined the position and orientation of the magnet within the model humerus under various conditions, including bone translations, interference, and magnet misalignment. The orientation of the model humerus was determined within 3° for rotations centered in the arm; an additional 6° error was found for translations 20 mm from center. Adjustments in sensor placement may reduce these errors. The results demonstrate that the OML is a feasible solution for providing prosthesis rotation control while preserving rotational proprioception. PMID:21193382

Rouse, Elliott; Nahlik, David; Peshkin, Michael; Kuiken, Todd

2014-01-01

331

Retrieval of water vapor in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere from MIPAS/Envisat limb emission spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) are required to assess its influence on the radiation budget of the Earth and for its use as a suitable tracer for the study of troposphere-stratosphere exchange processes (STE). MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) is a Fourier transform spectrometer measuring limb emission spectra. The field of view of the satellite-borne MIPAS/Envisat is rather wide compared to horizontal and vertical structures in real water vapor distributions (e.g. hygropause). Our aim is to derive UT/LS water vapor profiles from MIPAS/Envisat data with optimized spatial resolution and accuracy. The retrieval errors and vertical resolution were assessed in an altitude- range 5 - 25 km with respect to a MIPAS standard observation scenario and the retrieval of the water vapor profile to be performed on the measurement grid. As target parameters we used water vapor and continuum in the first case and water vapor, temperature and continuum in the second scenario. Improvements by joint retrieval of water vapor and temperature are investigated, in particular for saturated H(subscript 2)O- signatures originating from the troposphere. The vertical resolution was estimated by the use of so-called averaging kernels.

Milz, Mathias; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Fischer, Herbert

1999-10-01

332

Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and CO Observations in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global satellite observations of ozone and carbon monoxide from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the EOS Aura spacecraft are discussed with emphasis on those observations in the 2 15 - 100 hPa region (the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). The precision, resolution and accuracy of the data produced by the MLS "version 2.2" processing algorithms are discussed and quantified. O3 accuracy is estimated at approx.40 ppbv +5% (approx.20 ppbv +20% at 215 hPa) while the CO accuracy is estimated at approx.30 ppbv +30% for pressures of 147 hPa and less. Comparisons with expectations and other observations show good agreements for the O3 product, generally consistent with the systematic errors quoted above. In the case of COY a persistent factor of approx.2 high bias is seen at 215 hPa. However, the morphology is shown to be realistic, consistent with raw MLS radiance data, and useful for scientific study. The MLS CO data at higher altitudes are shown to be consistent with other observations.

Livesey, N. J.; Filipiak, M. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lambert, A.; Santee, J. L.; Jiang, J. H.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Waters, J. W.; Cofield, R. E.; Cuddy, D. T.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Jiang, Y. B.; Knosp, B. W.; Li, Q. B.; Perun, V. S.; Schwartz, M. J.; Snyder, W. V.; Stek, P. C.; Thurstans, R. P.; Wagner, P. A.; Avery, M.

2008-01-01

333

Assessment and prediction of inter-joint upper limb movement correlations based on kinematic analysis and statistical regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Musculoskeletal impairment of the upper limb can cause difficulties in performing basic daily activities. Three dimensional motion analyses can provide valuable data of arm movement in order to precisely determine arm movement and inter-joint coordination. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the degree of impairment based on the influence of shoulder movements in the amplitude of elbow flexion and extension based on the assumption that a lack of motion of the elbow joint will be compensated by an increased shoulder activity. In order to develop and validate a statistical model, one healthy young volunteer has been involved in the study. The activity of choice simulated blowing the nose, starting from a slight flexion of the elbow and raising the hand until the middle finger touches the tip of the nose and return to the start position. Inter-joint coordination between the elbow and shoulder movements showed significant correlation. Statistical regression was used to fit an equation model describing the influence of shoulder movements on the elbow mobility. The study provides a brief description of the kinematic analysis protocol and statistical models that may be useful in describing the relation between inter-joint movements of daily activities.

Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Balanean, Flavia; Krepelka, Mircea

2013-10-01

334

Feasibility of SaeboFlex upper-limb training in acute stroke rehabilitation: a clinical case series.  

PubMed

Upper-limb (UL) recovery following stroke is often poor. UL rehabilitation therefore continues to be a major focus for occupational therapy. Published evidence for the effectiveness of SaeboFlex training in acute stroke rehabilitation is scarce. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and patient experience of SaeboFlex training in acute stroke. This feasibility study recruited stroke patients (

Stuck, Rebecca A; Marshall, Lisa M; Sivakumar, Ramachandran

2014-09-01

335

A single muscle moves a crustacean limb joint rhythmically by acting against a spring containing resilin  

PubMed Central

Background The beating or fanning movements of three pairs of maxilliped flagella in crabs and crayfish modify exhalent gill currents while drawing water over chemoreceptors on the head. They play an integral part both in signalling by distributing urine odours, and in active chemosensation. Results The rhythmical maxilliped movements start with maxilliped 3 followed after a delay of 15 to 20 ms in shore crabs by maxilliped 2 and then maxilliped 1, at a frequency of 18 to 20 Hz in crabs and 10 to 13 Hz in signal crayfish. The contraction of a single abductor muscle controls the power stroke (abduction) of each flagellum, which is accompanied by flaring of feather-like setae which increase its surface area. No muscle can bring about the return stroke (adduction). Release of an isolated flagellum from an imposed abduction is followed by a rapid recoil to its resting adducted position. The relationship between the extent of abduction and the angular velocity of the return stroke indicates the operation of a spring. Blue fluorescence under UV light, and its dependence on the pH of the bathing medium, indicates that resilin is present at the joint between an exopodite and flagellum, at the annuli of a flagellum and at the base of the setae. Conclusion Resilin is progressively bent as a flagellum is abducted and resumes its natural shape when the joint recoils. Other distortions of the exopodites may also contribute to this spring-like action. The joint is therefore controlled by a single abductor muscle operating against a spring in which the elastic properties of resilin play a key role. PMID:19480647

Burrows, Malcolm

2009-01-01

336

Muscle fatigue does not lead to increased instability of upper extremity repetitive movements  

PubMed Central

Muscle fatigue alters neuromuscular responses. This may lead to increased sensitivity to perturbations and possibly to subsequent injury risk. We studied the effects of muscle fatigue on movement stability during a repetitive upper extremity task. Twenty healthy young subjects performed a repetitive work task, similar to sawing, synchronized with a metronome before and after performing each of two fatiguing tasks. The first fatigue task (“LIFT”) primarily fatigued the shoulder flexor muscles, while the second fatigue task (“SAW”) fatigued all of the muscles of the arm. Subjects performed each task in random order on two different days at least seven days apart. Instantaneous mean EMG frequencies (IMNF) decreased over both fatiguing tasks indicating that subjects did experience significant muscle fatigue. The slopes of the IMNF over time and the decreases in maximum force measurements demonstrated that the LIFT fatigue task successfully fatigued the shoulder flexors to a greater extent than any other muscle. On average, subjects exhibited more locally stable shoulder movements after the LIFT fatigue task (p = 0.035). They also exhibited more orbitally stable shoulder (p = 0.021) and elbow (p = 0.013) movements after the SAW fatigue task. Subjects also had decreased cocontraction at the wrist post-fatigue for both tasks (p = 0.001) and at the shoulder (p < 0.001) for the LIFT fatigue task. Therefore, increased dynamic stability of these repeated movements cannot be explained by subjects movements did not become more dynamically stable as a result of increased muscle cocontraction. Possible alternative mechanisms are discussed. PMID:19942220

Gates, Deanna H.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

2009-01-01

337

Ultrasonic Characterization of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in taut bands of skeletal muscle that are painful on compression. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Localization, diagnosis, and clinical outcome measures of painful MTrPs can be improved by objectively characterizing and quantitatively measuring their properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasound imaging and elastography can differentiate symptomatic (active) MTrPs from normal muscle. Patients with chronic (>3 months) neck pain with spontaneously painful, palpable (i.e., active) MTrPs and healthy volunteers without spontaneous pain (having palpably normal muscle tissue) were recruited for this study. The upper trapezius muscles in all subjects were imaged, and the echotexture was analyzed using entropy filtering of B-mode images. Vibration elastography was performed by vibrating the muscle externally at 100 Hz. Color Doppler variance imaging was used to quantify the regions of color deficit exhibiting low vibration amplitude. The imaging measures were compared against the clinical findings of a standardized physical exam. We found that sites with active MTrPs (n = 14) have significantly lower entropy (p < 0.05) and significantly larger nonvibrating regions (p < 0.05) during vibration elastography compared with normal, uninvolved muscle (n = 15). A combination of both entropy analysis and vibration elastography yielded 69% sensitivity and 81% specificity in discriminating active MTrPs from normal muscle. These results suggest that active MTrPs have more homogeneous texture and heterogeneous stiffness when compared with normal, unaffected muscle. Our methods enabled us to improve the imaging contrast between suspected MTrPs and surrounding muscle. Our results indicate that in subjects with chronic neck pain and active MTrPs, the abnormalities are not confined to discrete isolated nodules but instead affect the milieu of the muscle surrounding palpable MTrPs. With further refinement, ultrasound imaging can be a promising objective method for characterizing soft tissue abnormalities associated with active MTrPs and elucidating the role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS. PMID:23493615

Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P.; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Zaazhoa, Maryam; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha

2015-01-01

338

Comparison of dosage of intensive upper limb therapy for children with unilateral cerebral palsy: How big should the therapy pill be?  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare efficacy of two dosages of modified constraint induced movement therapy (mCIMT) and bimanual therapy on upper limb and individualized outcomes for children with unilateral cerebral palsy. This secondary analysis included two separate randomized trials that compared equal doses (high or low) of mCIMT to bimanual therapy; Study 1 (full dose - 60h) n=64 and; Study 2 (half dose - 30h) n=18 for children aged five to 16 years with unilateral cerebral palsy. Outcomes for both studies included the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, Assisting Hand Assessment, Jebsen Taylor Test of Hand Function and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure which were administered at baseline, three and 26 weeks. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare between dose (e.g. "full dose" to "half dose" of either mCIMT or bimanual therapy) on outcomes at three and 26 weeks post-intervention. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline, however, on average the half dose mCIMT group was younger with better hand function compared to the other groups. The full compared to half dose mCIMT group achieved greater gains in bimanual performance at three weeks and dexterity and quality of movement at 26 weeks. There were no between group differences for bimanual therapy doses. Half dose groups receiving either mCIMT or bimanual therapy did not make significant within group gains on any upper limb motor outcome, however gains in occupational performance were clinically meaningful. These results suggest that a half dose (30h) of either mCIMT or bimanual therapy may not be sufficient to impact upper limb outcomes, but made clinically meaningful gains in occupational performance for school aged children with UCP. PMID:25460215

Sakzewski, Leanne; Provan, Kerry; Ziviani, Jenny; Boyd, Roslyn N

2014-11-24

339

Change in blood flow velocity demonstrated by Doppler ultrasound in upper limb after axillary dissection surgery for the treatment of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the arterial and venous blood flow in women who underwent upper limb axillary dissection\\u000a surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. Sixty women were divided into two groups: group 1 (G1)—30 women who underwent\\u000a breast surgery with axillary dissection level II or III (55.6 ± 8.6 years); group 2 (G2)—control, 30 women with no breast

Carolina Nascimben Matheus; Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro

2011-01-01

340

Journal of Biomechanics 35 (2002) 1926 Scaling of peak moment arms of elbow muscles with upper extremity  

E-print Network

joint rotation. Moment arms also play an important role in determining muscle contributions to jointJournal of Biomechanics 35 (2002) 19­26 Scaling of peak moment arms of elbow muscles with upper and anthropometric dimensions are generally not available. We hypothesized that peak moment arms of the elbow flexor

Delp, Scott

341

The effect of the rate of stretch upon the development of active reflex tension in hind limb muscles of the decerebrate cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The influence of rate of stretch upon the development of tension in the stretch reflex was studied in fast (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius) and slow (soleus) hind limb muscles of the decerebrate cat. Linearly rising stretches at rates of 1–100 mm\\/sec and final lengths of 2–14 mm were used. In the majority of experiments the active tension was recorded directly by

Kohsi Takano; Hans-Dieter Henatsch

1971-01-01

342

[Repetitive movements of the upper limbs: results of exposure evaluation and clinical investigation during the sorting and packaging of apples].  

PubMed

In the fruit industry, workers sorting and packing apples perform a job that is characterised by repetitive actions, that require them to remain in an upright position for prolonged periods of time and, occasionally, to manually lift loads of apples. The aim of the study was to detect and provide a preliminary quantification of any possible risks for the musculo-skeletal system, as well as any disorders present among the workers. A risk analysis for WMSDs was performed in an apple packing plant, using video recordings of the job cycles associated with two different tasks (semi-automatic sorting and manual packing). A clinical and anamnestic investigation was carried out in nine plants; a standard questionnaire was distributed to 180 employees, with the purpose of detecting disorders and diseases of the locomotor system. An initial evaluation of the risks for WMSDs indicated that the routine tasks performed by the female apple workers featured a very high frequency of actions, also in view of the fact that the repetitive tasks lasted for the duration of the entire work shift. In the situation examined, the action frequency limits were greatly exceeded; moreover, the recovery times were inadequate in terms both of their duration and distribution. Regarding clinical and anamnestic examination, an overall analysis of the results shows a very high prevalence of spinal and hand-arm disorders. Given these preliminary findings, the authors suggest that the sample population of fruit sorters should undergo clinical and instrumental testing to evaluate the condition of the spine and upper limbs, and that a specific health surveillance programme should be adopted across the industry. PMID:9148117

Merseburger, A

1996-01-01

343

Automatic real-time monitoring and assessment of tremor parameters in the upper limb from orientation data  

PubMed Central

Upper limb tremor is the most prevalent movement disorder and, unfortunately, it is not effectively managed in a large proportion of the patients. Neuroprostheses that stimulate the sensorimotor pathways are one of the most promising alternatives although they are still under development. To enrich the interpretation of data recorded during long-term tremor monitoring and to increase the intelligence of tremor suppression neuroprostheses we need to be aware of the context. Context awareness is a major challenge for neuroprostheses and would allow these devices to react more quickly and appropriately to the changing demands of the user and/or task. Traditionally kinematic features are used to extract context information, with most recently the use of joint angles as highly potential features. In this paper we present two algorithms that enable the robust extraction of joint angle and related features to enable long-term continuous monitoring of tremor with context awareness. First, we describe a novel relative sensor placement identification technique based on orientation data. We focus on relative rather than absolute sensor location, because in many medical applications magnetic and inertial measurement units (MIMU) are used in a chain stretching over adjacent segments, or are always placed on a fixed set of locations. Subsequently we demonstrate how tremor parameters can be extracted from orientation data using an adaptive estimation algorithm. Relative sensor location was detected with an accuracy of 94.12% for the 4 MIMU configuration, and 100% for the 3 MIMU configurations. Kinematic tracking error values with an average deviation of 8% demonstrate our ability to estimate tremor from orientation data. The methods presented in this study constitute an important step toward more user-friendly and context-aware neuroprostheses for tremor suppression and monitoring. PMID:25120424

Lambrecht, Stefan; Gallego, Juan A.; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, Jose L.

2014-01-01

344

Mechanisms of force failure during repetitive maximal efforts in a human upper airway muscle.  

PubMed

The upper airway respiratory muscles play an important role in the regulation of airway resistance, but surprisingly little is known about their contractile properties and endurance performance. We developed a technique that allows measurement of force and the electromyogram (EMG) of human nasal dilator muscles (NDMs). Endurance performance was quantified by measuring NDM "flaring" force and EMG activity as healthy human subjects performed 10 s maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), separated by 10 s rest, until the area under the force curve fell to 50% MVC (the time limit of the fatigue task, Tlim), which was reached in 34.2 +/- 3.1 contractions (685.0 +/- 62.3 s). EMG activity was unchanged except at Tlim, where it averaged 78.7 +/- 3.6% of pretest activity (P < 0.01). M-wave amplitude did not change, suggesting that neuromuscular propagation was not impaired. MVC force increased to 80% of the pretest level within 10 min of recovery but twitch force failed to recover, suggesting low-frequency fatigue. The data suggest that a failure of the nervous system to excite muscle could explain at most only a small fraction of the NDM force loss during an intermittent fatigue task, and then only at Tlim. Thus, the majority of the force failure during this task is due to impairment of mechanisms that reside within the muscle fibers. PMID:12115954

DelloRusso, Christiana; Khurana, Nilam; Rankin, Lucinda; Sullivan, Jenna; Fregosi, Ralph F

2002-07-01

345

Effect of head and limb orientation on trunk muscle activation during abdominal hollowing in chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) have altered activations patterns of the anterior trunk musculature when performing the abdominal hollowing manœuvre (attempt to pull umbilicus inward and upward towards the spine). There is a subgroup of individuals with CLBP who have high neurocognitive and sensory motor deficits with associated primitive reflexes (PR). The objective of the study was to determine if orienting the head and extremities to positions, which mimic PR patterns would alter anterior trunk musculature activation during the hollowing manoeuvre. Methods This study compared surface electromyography (EMG) of bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal obliques (IO) of 11 individuals with CLBP and evident PR to 9 healthy controls during the hollowing manoeuvre in seven positions of the upper quarter. Results Using magnitude based inferences it was likely (>75%) that controls had a higher ratio of left IO:RA activation with supine (cervical neutral), asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) left and right, right cervical rotation and cervical extension positions. A higher ratio of right IO:RA was detected in the cervical neutral and ATNR left position for the control group. The CLBP group were more likely to show higher activation of the left RA in the cervical neutral, ATNR left and right, right cervical rotation and cervical flexion positions as well as in the cervical neutral and cervical flexion position for the right RA. Conclusions Individuals with CLBP and PR manifested altered activation patterns during the hollowing maneuver compared to healthy controls and that altering cervical and upper extremity position can diminish the group differences. Altered cervical and limb positions can change the activation levels of the IO and EO in both groups. PMID:24558971

2014-01-01

346

Upper airway collapsibility, dilator muscle activation and resistance in sleep apnoea.  

PubMed

The calibre of the upper airway is thought to be dependant upon its passive anatomy/collapsibility and the activation of pharyngeal dilator muscles. During awake periods, the more collapsible upper airway in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) increases the dilator muscle activity through a negative-pressure reflex. A direct correlation between the critical closing pressure (P(crit)), as a measure of anatomy/collapsability and electromyogram (EMG) activity of genioglossus EMG (GG-EMG) and tensor palatini EMG (TP-EMG), was hypothesised. The relationship between these indices and pharyngeal resistance (R(phar)) was also examined. The study involved eight males with a mean age of 48 (interquartile range 46-52) yrs with OSA, and an apnoea/hypopnoea index of 75 (65-101).hr(-1) on two nights breathing normally and on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). The P(crit )was measured during nonrapid eye movement sleep on nCPAP using brief, incremental reductions in mask pressure. GG-EMG and TP-EMG were measured breath-by-breath, awake, during sleep onset and on nCPAP. R(phar) was measured using airway pressures and flow. Wakeful GG-EMG, early sleep TP-EMG and the sleep decrement in TP-EMG were directly related to P(crit). Muscle activation was negatively correlated with R(phar) for TP-EMG awake and GG-EMG early in sleep. In conclusion these results confirm that dilator muscle activation is directly related to airway narrowing and reduces resistance across patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. PMID:17459896

Pierce, R; White, D; Malhotra, A; Edwards, J K; Kleverlaan, D; Palmer, L; Trinder, J

2007-08-01

347

The cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle physical activity intervention in addition to a work style intervention on recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms and pain reduction in computer workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a work style (WS) intervention and a work style plus physical activity (WSPA) intervention in computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms compared with usual care.MethodsAn economic evaluation was conducted from an employer's perspective and alongside a randomised controlled trial in which 466 computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised to

Claire M Bernaards; Judith E Bosmans; Vincent H Hildebrandt; Maurits W van Tulder; Martijn W Heymans

2010-01-01

348

Postnatal development of cat hind limb motoneurons supplying the intrinsic muscles of the foot sole.  

PubMed

The postnatal development of dendrite anatomy in alpha-motoneurons intracellularly labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), innervating the intrinsic muscles of the sole of the foot (IFS MNs) in the cat, was investigated. The number of dendrites per neuron was about 11 and did not change from birth to adult. The number of branches per dendrite decreased during the same period by 20-25%. The net elimination of dendritic branches appeared to occur at distal branching points, as revealed by topological analysis. The dendritic branching pattern tended to be asymmetric at birth and the net decrease in dendritic branching postnatally did not alter this pattern. The length of preterminal branches (PTB) increased by a factor of 2, while terminal branch (TB) length increased by a factor of 3.3 postnatally. The large increase in TB length was attributed to both longitudinal growth and an apparent lengthening caused by resorption of distal branches during development. Dendritic length in the transverse spinal cord plane increased in parallel with the overall growth of the parent spinal cord segment, while dendritic growth along the rostro-caudal axis exceeded, by about one order of magnitude, dendritic growth in the transverse plane. Average branch diameter doubled from birth to adult. The decrease in branch diameter across branching points did not obey satisfactorily to the 'power rule' of Rall. However, the 1.5 power ratio of daughters-to-parents branch dropped from 1.18 to 1.08 between 3 weeks of age and adult. Tapering was evident in both PTBs and TBs. The rate of taper did not change postnatally. From birth onwards, 'local' branch diameter correlated closely with amount of membrane area and combined length of the dendritic branches located distal to the 'supporting' parent branch. These relations were similar in all age groups and are suggested to be properties intrinsic to the IFS MNs. The local branch diameter also co-varied with the number of distal dendritic branches, but in this case there was a systematic shift in the relationship with increasing postnatal age. It appears that the local diameter in IFS MN dendrites is a key indicator of the size of the distal dendritic arborization. PMID:1769098

Ramírez, V; Ulfhake, B

1991-10-21

349

The effect of individually adjusted workstations on upper quadrant posture and muscle activity in school children.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests there is increasing use of computers by children and poor workstation designs for children. This laboratory study investigated the effect of adjusting computer display height and desk height on upper quadrant posture and muscle activity. Thirty three children aged 4-17 years worked on a desktop computer at a standard school workstation and at a workstation adjusted to the individual, typically consisting of a lower display and desk height. The adjustments resulted in increased head tilt, neck flexion, gaze angle, cervical erector spinae activity and a trend for lower right upper trapezius activity. The recent evidence that suggests more head and neck flexion is not necessarily worse is discussed and normative values for children's head tilt and neck flexion presented. The role of forearm support in decreasing trapezius activity is also discussed. PMID:12441564

Straker, Leon; Briggs, Andrew; Greig, Alison

2002-01-01

350

A flexible electrode array for muscle impedance measurements in the mouse hind limb: A tool to speed research in neuromuscular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a bioelectrical impedance technique focused on the assessment of neuromuscular diseases using tetrapolar surface arrays. Recently, we have shown that reproducible and sensitive EIM measurements can be made on the gastrocnemius muscle of the mouse hind limb and that these are sensitive to disease alterations. A dedicated array would help speed data acquisition and provide additional sensitivity to disease-induced alterations. A flexible electrode array was developed with electrode sizes of 1mm × 1mm by Parlex, Inc. Tetrapolar electrode sets were arranged both parallel to (longitudinal) and orthogonally to (transverse) the major muscle fiber direction of the gastrocnemius muscle. Measurements were made with a dedicated EIM system. A total of 11 healthy animals and 7 animals with spinal muscular atrophy (a form of motor neuron disease) were evaluated after the fur was completely removed with a depilatory agent from the hind limb. Standard electrophysiologic testing (compound motor action potential amplitude and motor unit number estimation) was also performed. The flexible electrode array demonstrated high repeatability in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in the healthy and diseased animals (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively, for phase angle measured transversely). In addition, differences between healthy and diseased animals were identifiable. For example, the 50 kHz transverse phase angle was higher in the healthy as compared to the SMA animals (16.8° ± 0.5 vs. 14.3° ± 0.7, respectively) at 21 weeks of age (p = 0.01). Differences in anisotropy were also identifiable. Correlations to several standard neurophysiologic parameters also appeared promising. This novel flexible tetrapolar electrode array can be used on the mouse hind limb and provides multidirectional data that can be used to assess muscle health. This technique has the potential of finding widespread use in the evaluation of drug therapies in neuromuscular animal disease models.

Li, J.; Rutkove, S. B.

2013-04-01

351

Quantitative assessment of upper limb motor function in Multiple Sclerosis using an instrumented Action Research Arm Test  

PubMed Central

Background Arm impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is commonly assessed with clinical scales, such as Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) which evaluates the ability to handle and transport smaller and larger objects. ARAT provides a complete upper limb assessment, as it considers both proximal arm and hand, but suffers from subjectivity and poor sensitivity to mild impairment. In this study an instrumented ARAT is proposed to overcome these limitations and supplement the assessment of arm function in MS. Methods ARAT was executed by 12 healthy volunteers and 21 MS subjects wearing a single inertial sensor on the wrist. Accelerometers and gyroscopes signals were used to calculate the duration of each task and its sub-phases (reaching, manipulation, transport, release and return). A jerk index was computed to quantify movement smoothness. For each parameter, z-scores were calculated to analyze the deviation from normative data. MS subjects were clinically assessed with ARAT score, Nine-Hole Peg test (9HPT) and Fahn Tremor Rating Scale (FTRS). Results ARAT tasks executed by MS patients were significantly slower (duration increase: 70%) and less smooth (jerk increase: 16%) with respect to controls. These anomalies were mainly related to manipulation, transport and release sub-movements, with the former showing the greatest alterations. A statistically significant decrease in movement velocity and smoothness was also noticed in patients with normal ARAT score. Z-scores related to duration and jerk were strongly correlated with ARAT rating (r?

2014-01-01

352

Embracing change: practical and theoretical considerations for successful implementation of technology assisting upper limb training in stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Rehabilitation technology for upper limb training of stroke patients may play an important role as therapy tool in future, in order to meet the increasing therapy demand. Currently, implementation of this technology in the clinic remains low. This study aimed at identifying criteria and conditions that people, involved in development of such technology, should take into account to achieve a (more) successful implementation of the technology in the clinic. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and IEEE databases, and semi-structured interviews with therapists in stroke rehabilitation were held, to identify criteria and conditions technology should meet to facilitate (implementation of) technology-assisted arm-hand skills training in rehabilitation therapy of stroke patients. In addition, an implementation strategy frequently applied in general health care was used to compose a stepwise guidance to facilitate successful implementation of this technology in therapy of stroke patients. Implementation-related criteria mentioned by therapists during the interviews were integrated in this guidance. Results Results indicate that, related to therapy content, technology should facilitate repetition of task-related movements, tailored to the patient and patient’s goals, in a meaningful context. Variability and increasing levels of difficulty in exercises should be on offer. Regarding hardware and software design of technology, the system should facilitate quick familiarisation and be easily adjustable to individual patients during therapy by therapists (and assistants). The system should facilitate adaptation to individual patients’ needs and their progression over time, should be adjustable as to various task-related variables, should be able to provide instructions and feedback, and should be able to document patient’s progression. The implementation process of technology in the clinic is provided as a stepwise guidance that consists of five phases therapists have to go through. The guidance includes criteria and conditions that motivate therapists, and make it possible for them, to actually use technology in their daily clinical practice. Conclusions The reported requirements are important as guidance for people involved in the development of rehabilitation technology for arm-hand therapy of stroke patients. The stepwise guide provides a tool for facilitating successful implementation of technology in clinical practice, thus meeting future therapy demand. PMID:22856548

2012-01-01

353

First results using NCAR research retrieval algorithm on Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite/Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer blocker 3 level 1 extracted radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two approaches have been explored for the retrieval of atmospheric constituent and aerosol extinction profiles from radiance measurements made by a limb sounding satellite radiometer. One of the retrieval schemes can be used with different signal to noise ratios and with measurements from different spectral regions. Multiple constituents can be retrieved simultaneously. Characterization and error analysis of the retrieved products arise naturally from theoretical considerations. The algorithms have been implemented on CLAES, an infrared limb sounder on the upper atmospheric research satellite. The CLAES measurement technique requires the level 1 extracted radiance data from CLAES to be processed before they are input to the NCAR research retrieval algorithm. The algorithms are applied to blocker 3 radiance measurements and some initial results are presented.

Gopalan, Arun; Gille, John C.; Bailey, Paul L.

1996-10-01

354

Is salamander limb regeneration really perfect? Anatomical and morphogenetic analysis of forelimb muscle regeneration in GFP-transgenic axolotls as a basis for regenerative, developmental, and evolutionary studies.  

PubMed

The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most commonly used model organisms in developmental and regenerative studies because it can reconstitute what is believed to be a completely normal anatomical and functional forelimb/hindlimb after amputation. However, to date it has not been confirmed whether each regenerated forelimb muscle is really a "perfect" copy of the original muscle. This study describes the regeneration of the arm, forearm, hand, and some pectoral muscles (e.g., coracoradialis) in transgenic axolotls that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in muscle fibers. The observations found that: (1) there were muscle anomalies in 43% of the regenerated forelimbs; (2) however, on average in each regenerated forelimb there are anomalies in only 2.5% of the total number of muscles examined, and there were no significant differences observed in the specific insertion and origin of the other muscles analyzed; (3) one of the most notable and common anomalies (seen in 35% of the regenerated forelimbs) was the presence of a fleshy coracoradialis at the level of the arm; this is a particularly outstanding configuration because in axolotls and in urodeles in general this muscle only has a thin tendon at the level of the arm, and the additional fleshy belly in the regenerated arms is strikingly similar to the fleshy biceps brachii of amniotes, suggesting a remarkable parallel between a regeneration defect and a major phenotypic change that occurred during tetrapod limb evolution; (4) during forelimb muscle regeneration there was a clear proximo-distal and radio-ulnar morphogenetic gradient, as seen in normal development, but also a ventro-dorsal gradient in the order of regeneration, which was not previously described in the literature. These results have broader implications for regenerative, evolutionary, developmental and morphogenetic studies. PMID:24692358

Diogo, R; Nacu, E; Tanaka, E M

2014-06-01

355

Poland's Syndrome with Absent Limb Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Poland's syndrome comprises a spectrum of chest-wall deformities affecting, to various degrees, the rib cage, the chest-wall muscles, neurovascular structures of the ipsilateral arm and the overlying breast. We present a neonate with features of depressed right chest-wall with no respiratory distress. Computed tomography showed hypolasia of the right pectoralis major muscle, with reduced subcutaneous fat on the ipsilateral side of the chest, with abnormalities of the ribs on the same side but absent upper limb deformities. There is negative history of other family members of being affected. PMID:24741541

Al Faleh, Khalid; Al Saadi, Muslim; Khalid-Bantuas, Shialinee

2014-01-01

356

FORCE ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL MUSCLES ACTING SIMULTANEOUSLY ON THE SHOULDER  

E-print Network

' or physiological cross-sectional areas. The effective cross-sectional area was expressed as a function·, FORCE ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL MUSCLES ACTING SIMULTANEOUSLY ON THE SHOULDER JOINT DURING by individual muscles that contribute to isometric abduction of the upper limb in the coronal plane

De Luca, Carlo J.

357

The effect of combined somatosensory stimulation and task-specific training on upper limb function in chronic stroke: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background. Somatosensory stimulation (SS) is a potential adjuvant to stroke rehabilitation, but the effect on function needs further investigation. Objective. To explore the effect of combining SS with task-specific training (TST) on upper limb function and arm use in chronic stroke survivors and determine underlying mechanisms. Methods. In this double-blinded randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN 05542931), 33 patients (mean 37.7 months poststroke) were block randomized to 2 groups: active or sham SS. They received 12 sessions of 2 hours of SS (active or sham) to all 3 upper limb nerves immediately before 30 minutes of TST. The primary outcome was the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) score. Secondary outcomes were time to perform the ARAT, Fugl-Meyer Assessment score (FM), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and Goal Attainment Scale (GAS). Underlying mechanisms were explored using transcranial magnetic stimulation stimulus-response curves and intracortical inhibition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, immediately following the intervention (mean 2 days), and 3 and 6 months (mean 96 and 190 days) after the intervention. Results. The active group (n = 16) demonstrated greater improvement in ARAT score and time immediately postintervention (between-group difference; P < .05), but not at 3- or 6-month follow-ups (P > .2). Within-group improvements were seen for both groups for ARAT and GAS, but for the active group only for FM and MAL (P < .05). Corticospinal excitability did not change. Conclusions. Long-lasting improvements in upper limb function were observed following TST. Additional benefit of SS was seen immediately post treatment, but did not persist and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. PMID:24803495

Fleming, Melanie K; Sorinola, Isaac O; Roberts-Lewis, Sarah F; Wolfe, Charles D; Wellwood, Ian; Newham, Di J

2015-02-01

358

Force-EMG changes during sustained contractions of a human upper airway muscle.  

PubMed

Human upper airway and facial muscles support breathing, swallowing, speech, mastication, and facial expression, but their endurance performance in sustained contractions is poorly understood. The muscular fatigue typically associated with task failure during sustained contractions has both central and intramuscular causes, with the contribution of each believed to be task dependent. Previously we failed to show central fatigue in the nasal dilator muscles of subjects that performed intermittent maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Here we test the hypothesis that central mechanisms contribute to the fatigue of submaximal, sustained contractions in nasal dilator muscles. Nasal dilator muscle force and EMG activities were recorded in 11 subjects that performed submaximal contractions (20, 35, and 65% MVC) until force dropped to or=3 s, which we defined as task failure. MVC and twitch forces (the latter obtained by applying supramaximal shocks to the facial nerve) were recorded before the trial and at several time points over the first 10 min of recovery. The time to task failure was inversely related to contraction intensity. MVC force was depressed by roughly 30% at task failure in all three trials, but recovered within 2 min. Twitch force fell by 30-44% depending on contraction intensity and remained depressed after 10 min of recovery, consistent with low-frequency fatigue. Average EMG activity increased with time, but never exceeded 75% of the maximal, pretrial level despite task failure. EMG mean power frequency declined by 20-25% in all trials, suggesting reduced action potential conduction velocity at task failure. In contrast, the maximal evoked potential did not change significantly in any of the tasks, indicating that the EMG deficit at task failure was due largely to mechanisms proximal to the neuromuscular junction. Additional experiments using the interpolated twitch technique suggest that subjects can produce about 92% of the maximal evocable force with this muscle, which is not a large enough deficit to explain the entire shortfall in the EMG at task failure. These data show that the nervous system fails to fully activate the nasal dilator muscles during sustained, submaximal contractions; putative mechanisms are discussed. PMID:19091923

Schmitt, Kori; DelloRusso, Christiana; Fregosi, Ralph F

2009-02-01

359

Non-contrast-enhanced MR venography of the upper limb: a comparative study of acquisitions with fresh blood imaging vs. time-of-flight methods.  

PubMed

Non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (MRV) of the upper limb acquired by fresh blood imaging (FBI) was compared with time-of-flight (TOF)-MRV. Visualization of three veins (basilic, brachial, and cephalic veins), small branches, and fat suppression was evaluated with a four-point scale (0-3). FBI-MRV was significantly superior for the basilic veins and small venous branches and equivalent for the brachial and cephalic veins to TOF-MRV, with no difference in fat suppression. FBI-MRV would be useful in venous mapping and detection of thrombus. PMID:22920352

Harigai, Motoko; Okada, Tomohisa; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Nagayama, Satoshi; Tanaka, Eiji; Fujimoto, Koji; Kido, Aki; Takeda, Kazuna; Togashi, Kaori; Sakai, Yoshiharu

2012-01-01

360

Marked reduction of cerebellar deficits in upper limbs following transcranial cerebello-cerebral DC stimulation: tremor reduction and re-programming of the timing of antagonist commands.  

PubMed

Cerebellar ataxias represent a very heterogeneous group of disabling disorders for which we lack effective symptomatic therapies in most cases. There is currently an intense interest in the use of non-invasive transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) to modulate the activity of the cerebellum in ataxic disorders. We performed a detailed laboratory assessment of the effects of transcranial cerebello-cerebral DC stimulation (tCCDCS, including a sham procedure) on upper limb tremor and dysmetria in 2 patients presenting a dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 2, one of the most common SCAs encountered during practice. Both patients had a very similar triplet expansion size in the ATXN2 gene (respectively, 39 and 40 triplets). tCCDCS reduced both postural tremor and action tremor, as confirmed by spectral analysis. Quadratical PSD (power spectral density) of postural tremor dropped to 38.63 and 41.42% of baseline values in patient 1 and 2, respectively. The integral of the subband 4-20 Hz dropped to 46.9 and 62.3% of baseline values, respectively. Remarkably, tCCDCS canceled hypermetria and reduced dramatically the onset latency of the antagonist EMG activity associated with fast goal-directed movements toward 3 aimed targets (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 rad). Following tCCDCS, the latency dropped from 108-98 to 63-57 ms in patient 1, and from 74-87 to 41-46 ms in patient 2 (mean control values ± SD: 36 ± 8 to 45 ± 11 ms), corresponding to a major drop of z scores for the 2 patients from 7.12 ± 0.69 to 1.28 ± 1.27 (sham procedure: 6.79 ± 0.71). This is the first demonstration that tCCDCS improves upper limb tremor and hypermetria in SCA type 2. In particular, this is the first report of a favorable effect on the onset latency of the antagonist EMG activity, a neurophysiological marker of the defect in programming of timing of motor commands. Our results indicate that tCCDCS should be considered in the symptomatic management of upper limb motor deficits in cerebellar ataxias. Future studies addressing a tDCS-based neuromodulation to improve motor control of upper limbs are required (a) in a large group of cerebellar disorders, and (b) in different subgroups of ataxic patients. The anatomical location of the cerebellum below the skull is particularly well suited for such studies. PMID:24523678

Grimaldi, Giuliana; Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Manto, Mario; Bodranghien, Florian

2014-01-01

361

SEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

sEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture*1 Introduction Now the research on the isotonic muscle actions by using Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is becoming a pop topic in fields of astronaut life support training and rehabilitations. And researchers paid more attention on the sEMG signal processes for reducing the influence of noise which is produced during monitoring process and the fatigue estimation of isotonic muscle actions with different force levels by using the parameters which are obtained from sEMG signals such as Condition Velocity(CV), Median Frequency(MDF), Mean Frequency(MNF) and so on. As the lucubrated research is done, more and more research on muscle fatigue issue of isotonic muscle actions are carried out with sEMG analysis and subjective estimate system of Borg scales at the same time. In this paper, the relationship between the variable for fatigue based on sEMG and the Borg scale during the course of isotonic muscle actions of the upper arm with different contraction levels are going to be investigated. Methods 13 young male subjects(23.4±2.45years, 64.7±5.43Kg, 171.7±5.41cm) with normal standing postures were introduced to do isotonic actions of the upper arm with different force levels(10% MVC, 30%MVC and 50%MVC). And the MVC which means maximal voluntary contraction was obtained firstly in the experiment. Also the sEMG would be recorded during the experiments; the Borg scales would be recorded for each contraction level. By using one-third band octave method, the fatigue variable (p) based on sEMG were set up and it was expressed as p = i g(fi ) · F (fi ). And g(fi ) is defined as the frequent factor which was 0.42+0.5 cos(? fi /f0 )+0.08 cos(2? fi /f0 ), 0 < FI fi 0, orf0 ?> f0 . According to the equations, the p could be computed and the relationship between variable p and the Borg scale would be investigated. Results In the research, three kinds of fitted curves between variable p and Borg scale were done, which were the quadratic curve, quintic curve and exponent curve. And 1 * Foundation Item: Supported by National Nature Science Foundation (60673013) the results showed that the relationship could be expressed as quadratic curve curves in certain scales. From the results it could concluded that the variable based on sEMG with one-third band octave method could really reflected the changes of fatigue caused by different isotonic contraction force levels; the variable and the Borg scale could be fitted with conic curves. And the continuous study could be done for learning the numerical relations between fatigue and sEMG during isometric actions with different force levels. Also it would be better for the supports training and rehabilitation training and other involved issues. References 1. Coorevits P, Danneels L, Cambier D, et al. Correlations between short-time Fourier-and continuous wavelet transforms in the analysis of localized back and hip muscle fatigue during isometric contractions[J]. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2008, 18(??): 637-644. 2. Ryan E D, Cramer J T, Egan A D, et al. Time and frequency domain responses of the mechanomyogram and electromyogram during isometric ramp contractions: A comparison of the short-time Fourier and continuous wavelet transforms[J]. Journal of Electromyog-raphy and Kinesiology. 2008, 18(??): 54-67. 3. Coorevits P,danneels L, Cambier D E A. Correlations between short-time Fourier-and continuous wavelet transforms in the analysis of localized back and hip muscle fatigue during isometric contractions[J]. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2008, 18(??): 637-644. 4. Dimitrova N A, Arabadzhiev T I, Hogrel J Y E A. Fatigue analysis of interference EMG signals obtained from biceps brachii during isometric voluntary contraction at various force levels[J]. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2009, 19(??): 252-258. 5. Troiano A, Mesin L, Naddeo F, et al. Assessment of force and fatigue in isometric contractions of upper trapezius muscle by perceived exertion

Qianxiang, Zhou; Chao, Ma; Xiaohui, Zheng

362

Evaluation of upper body muscle activity during cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance in simulated microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of efficient single-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is vital to maintain cardiac and cerebral perfusion during the 2-4 min it takes for deployment of advanced life support during a space mission. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential differences in upper body muscle activity during CPR performance at terrestrial gravity (+1Gz) and in simulated microgravity (?G). Muscle activity of the triceps brachii, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and pectoralis major was measured via superficial electromyography in 20 healthy male volunteers. Four sets of 30 external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed on a mannequin. Microgravity was simulated using a body suspension device and harness; the Evetts-Russomano (ER) method was adopted for CPR performance in simulated microgravity. Heart rate and perceived exertion via Borg scores were also measured. While a significantly lower depth of ECCs was observed in simulated microgravity, compared with +1Gz, it was still within the target range of 40-50 mm. There was a 7.7% decrease of the mean (±SEM) ECC depth from 48 ± 0.3 mm at +1Gz, to 44.3 ± 0.5 mm during microgravity simulation (p < 0.001). No significant difference in number or rate of compressions was found between the two conditions. Heart rate displayed a significantly larger increase during CPR in simulated microgravity than at +1Gz, the former presenting a mean (±SEM) of 23.6 ± 2.91 bpm and the latter, 76.6 ± 3.8 bpm (p < 0.001). Borg scores were 70% higher post-microgravity compressions (17 ± 1) than post +1Gz compressions (10 ± 1) (p < 0.001). Intermuscular comparisons showed the triceps brachii to have significantly lower muscle activity than each of the other three tested muscles, in both +1Gz and microgravity. As shown by greater Borg scores and heart rate increases, CPR performance in simulated microgravity is more fatiguing than at +1Gz. Nevertheless, no significant difference in muscle activity between conditions was found, a result that is favourable for astronauts, given the inevitable muscular and cardiovascular deconditioning that occurs during space travel.

Waye, A. B.; Krygiel, R. G.; Susin, T. B.; Baptista, R.; Rehnberg, L.; Heidner, G. S.; de Campos, F.; Falcão, F. P.; Russomano, T.

2013-09-01

363

The effect of breast support on upper body muscle activity during 5km treadmill running.  

PubMed

Breast support has previously been shown to influence surface EMG of the pectoralis major during running. Reductions in muscle activity have previously been associated with a reduction in energy cost, which may be advantageous for female runners. Ten female participants performed two self-paced (average pace 9kmh(-1)) 5km treadmill runs under two breast support conditions (low and high); an additional bare-breasted 2min run was also conducted. Surface EMG electrodes were positioned on the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and upper trapezius, with data collected during the first 2min of running and each kilometer interval thereafter. Reductions in peak EMG of the pectoralis major, anterior and medial deltoid were reported when participants ran in the high breast support during the initial intervals of the run (up to the second kilometer). The increased activation in the pectoralis major, anterior and medial deltoid in the low breast support may be due to increased tension within these muscles, induced by the greater breast pain experienced in the low breast support. This may be a strategy to reduce the independent breast movement causing the pain through increased muscular activation. This study further promotes the use of a high breast support during running with potential benefits for treadmill running associated with reductions in muscular demand during a 5km run. PMID:25255202

Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

2014-12-01

364

Hormonal and Neuromuscular Responses to Mechanical Vibration Applied to Upper Extremity Muscles  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the acute residual hormonal and neuromuscular responses exhibited following a single session of mechanical vibration applied to the upper extremities among different acceleration loads. Methods Thirty male students were randomly assigned to a high vibration group (HVG), a low vibration group (LVG), or a control group (CG). A randomized double-blind, controlled-parallel study design was employed. The measurements and interventions were performed at the Laboratory of Biomechanics of the University of L'Aquila. The HVG and LVG participants were exposed to a series of 20 trials ×10 s of synchronous whole-body vibration (WBV) with a 10-s pause between each trial and a 4-min pause after the first 10 trials. The CG participants assumed an isometric push-up position without WBV. The outcome measures were growth hormone (GH), testosterone, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during bench-press, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during handgrip, and electromyography root-mean-square (EMGrms) muscle activity (pectoralis major [PM], triceps brachii [TB], anterior deltoid [DE], and flexor carpi radialis [FCR]). Results The GH increased significantly over time only in the HVG (P?=?0.003). Additionally, the testosterone levels changed significantly over time in the LVG (P?=?0.011) and the HVG (P?=?0.001). MVC during bench press decreased significantly in the LVG (P?=?0.001) and the HVG (P?=?0.002). In the HVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the TB (P?=?0.006) muscle. In the LVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the DE (P?=?0.009) and FCR (P?=?0.006) muscles. Conclusion Synchronous WBV acutely increased GH and testosterone serum concentrations and decreased the MVC and their respective maximal EMGrms activities, which indicated a possible central fatigue effect. Interestingly, only the GH response was dependent on the acceleration with respect to the subjects' responsiveness. PMID:25368995

Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Fabiani, Leila; Baldini, Giuliano; Cardelli, Giovanni; Giovannelli, Aldo; Tihanyi, Jozsef

2014-01-01

365

The effect of stem material and surface treatment on the torsional stability at the metal-cement interface of upper limb joint replacement systems.  

PubMed

Stem surface treatment and material are two design factors that may affect the onset of implant loosening. For upper limb applications, no known in vitro studies have addressed the role of these two factors on cemented implant stability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the torsional stability of cemented titanium and cobalt chrome stems with varying surface treatments in vitro. Thirty implant stems of circular cross-section (Ø = 8mm) were machined from cobalt chrome (n = 15) and titanium (n = 15). For each type, stems were subdivided into three groups for application of clinically relevant surface treatments: smooth, sintered beads, or plasma spray. Stems were potted in bone cement, allowed 24 h to cure, and placed in a materials testing machine. Stems were tested under cyclic torsion (1-30 Nm), using a staircase loading protocol. Failure was defined as either the first rapid increase in stem rotation without resistance, or attaining a maximum torque of 30 Nm. Implant stems with non-smooth surfaces offered greater resistance to torsion (p < 0.05), with the plasma spray treatment outlasting the beaded and smooth stems (p < 0.05). Titanium offered superior interface strength (p < 0.05) but reduced resistance to motion (p < 0.05) when compared to cobalt chrome. Therefore, these design features should be considered during upper limb implant design. PMID:24644238

Hosein, Yara K; King, Graham J W; Dunning, Cynthia E

2014-08-01

366

Shock Waves in the Treatment of Muscle Hypertonia and Dystonia  

PubMed Central

Since 1997, focused shock waves therapy (FSWT) has been reported to be useful in the treatment of muscle hypertonia and dystonia. More recently, also radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) has been successfully used to treat muscle hypertonia. The studies where FSWT and RSWT have been used to treat muscle hypertonia and dystonia are reviewed in this paper. The more consistent and long lasting results were obtained in the lower limb muscles of patients affected by cerebral palsy with both FSWT and RSWT and in the distal upper limb muscles of adult stroke patients using FSWT. The most probable mechanism of action is a direct effect of shock waves on muscle fibrosis and other nonreflex components of muscle hypertonia. However, we believe that up to now the biological effects of shock waves on muscle hypertonia and dystonia cannot be clearly separated from a placebo effect. PMID:25309915

Mori, Laura; Currà, Antonio; Molfetta, Luigi; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

2014-01-01

367

Effect of the Neck Retraction Taping (NRT) on Forward Head Posture and the Upper Trapezius Muscle during Computer Work  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck retraction taping on forward head posture and the upper trapezius muscle of computer workers during computer work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–30?years were recruited. [Methods] We measured forward head angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work before and after NRT. [Results] The FHP angle significantly decreased during computer work performed with NRT compared to without NRT. The UT muscle activity was also significantly decreased during computer work performed with NRT compared to without NRT. [Conclusion] We think that the taping tension provided by NRT may have provided a mechanical effect that prevented FHP. NRT may also encourage a proper head posture in patients unfamiliar with the neck retraction posture. PMID:24259806

Yoo, Won-gyu

2013-01-01

368

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... sequence Use of certain drugs during pregnancy including thalidomide, which causes the upper part of the arms ... Knobloch J, Shaughnessy Jr JD, Ruther U. Thalidomide induces limb ... J . 2007 Feb 5; [Epub ahead of print]. Canale ST. Campbell's ...

369

Attenuation of Skeletal Muscle and Renal Injury to the Lower Limb following Ischemia-Reperfusion Using mPTP Inhibitor NIM-811  

PubMed Central

Introduction Operation on the infrarenal aorta and large arteries of the lower extremities may cause rhabdomyolysis of the skeletal muscle, which in turn may induce remote kidney injury. NIM-811 (N-metyl-4-isoleucine-cyclosporine) is a mitochondria specific drug, which can prevent ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury, by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTP). Objectives Our aim was to reduce damages in the skeletal muscle and the kidney after IR of the lower limb with NIM-811. Materials and methods Wistar rats underwent 180 minutes of bilateral lower limb ischemia and 240 minutes of reperfusion. Four animal groups were formed called Sham (receiving vehicle and sham surgery), NIM-Sham (receiving NIM-811 and sham surgery), IR (receiving vehicle and surgery), and NIM-IR (receiving NIM-811 and surgery). Serum, urine and histological samples were taken at the end of reperfusion. NADH-tetrazolium staining, muscle Wet/Dry (W/D) ratio calculations, laser Doppler-flowmetry (LDF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) monitoring were performed. Renal peroxynitrite concentration, serum TNF-? and IL-6 levels were measured. Results Less significant histopathological changes were observable in the NIM-IR group as compared with the IR group. Serum K+ and necroenzyme levels were significantly lower in the NIM-IR group than in the IR group (LDH: p<0.001; CK: p<0.001; K+: p?=?0.017). Muscle mitochondrial viability proved to be significantly higher (p?=?0.001) and renal function parameters were significantly better (creatinine: p?=?0.016; FENa: p<0.001) in the NIM-IR group in comparison to the IR group. Serum TNF-? and IL-6 levels were significantly lower (TNF-?: p?=?0.003, IL-6: p?=?0.040) as well as W/D ratio and peroxynitrite concentration were significantly lower (p?=?0.014; p<0.001) in the NIM-IR group than in the IR group. Conclusion NIM-811 could have the potential of reducing rhabdomyolysis and impairment of the kidney after lower limb IR injury. PMID:24968303

Garbaisz, David; Turoczi, Zsolt; Aranyi, Peter; Fulop, Andras; Rosero, Oliver; Hermesz, Edit; Ferencz, Agnes; Lotz, Gabor; Harsanyi, Laszlo; Szijarto, Attila

2014-01-01

370

The effect of gait and digital flexor muscle activation on limb compliance in the forelimb of the horse Equus caballus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A horse's legs are compressed during the stance phase, storing and then returning elastic strain energy in spring- like muscle-tendon units. The arrangement of the muscle- tendon units around the lever-like joints means that as the leg shortens the muscle-tendon units are stretched. The forelimb anatomy means that the leg can be conceptually divided into two springs: the proximal spring,

M. Polly McGuigan; Alan M. Wilson

2003-01-01

371

Intensive virtual reality-based training for upper limb motor function in chronic stroke: a feasibility study using a single case experimental design and fMRI.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and neurophysiological changes after virtual reality (VR)-based training of upper limb (UL) movements. Method: Single-case A-B-A-design with two male stroke patients (P1:67?y and 50?y, 3.5 and 3?y after onset) with UL motor impairments, 45-min therapy sessions 5×/week over 4 weeks. Patients facing screen, used bimanual data gloves to control virtual arms. Three applications trained bimanual reaching, grasping, hand opening. Assessments during 2-week baseline, weekly during intervention, at 3-month follow-up (FU): Goal Attainment Scale (GAS), Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI), Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA), Extended Barthel Index (EBI), Motor Activity Log (MAL). Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans (FMRI) before, immediately after treatment and at FU. Results: P1 executed 5478 grasps (paretic arm). Improvements in CAHAI (+4) were maintained at FU. GAS changed to +1 post-test and +2 at FU. P2 executed 9835 grasps (paretic arm). CAHAI improvements (+13) were maintained at FU. GAS scores changed to -1 post-test and +1 at FU. MAL scores changed from 3.7 at pre-test to 5.5 post-test and 3.3 at FU. Conclusion: The VR-based intervention was feasible, safe, and intense. Adjustable application settings maintained training challenge and patient motivation. ADL-relevant UL functional improvements persisted at FU and were related to changed cortical activation patterns. Implications for Rehabilitation YouGrabber trains uni- and bimanual upper motor function. Its application is feasible, safe, and intense. The control of the virtual arms can be done in three main ways: (a) normal (b) virtual mirror therapy, or (c) virtual following. The mirroring feature provides an illusion of affected limb movements during the period when the affected upper limb (UL) is resting. The YouGrabber training led to ADL-relevant UL functional improvements that were still assessable 12 weeks after intervention finalization and were related to changed cortical activation patterns. PMID:24730659

Schuster-Amft, Corina; Henneke, Andrea; Hartog-Keisker, Birgit; Holper, Lisa; Siekierka, Ewa; Chevrier, Edith; Pyk, Pawel; Kollias, Spyros; Kiper, Daniel; Eng, Kynan

2014-04-14

372

Detection of the onset of upper-limb movements based on the combined analysis of changes in the sensorimotor rhythms and slow cortical potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Characterizing the intention to move by means of electroencephalographic activity can be used in rehabilitation protocols with patients’ cortical activity taking an active role during the intervention. In such applications, the reliability of the intention estimation is critical both in terms of specificity ‘number of misclassifications’ and temporal accuracy. Here, a detector of the onset of voluntary upper-limb reaching movements based on the cortical rhythms and the slow cortical potentials is proposed. The improvement in detections due to the combination of these two cortical patterns is also studied. Approach. Upper-limb movements and cortical activity were recorded in healthy subjects and stroke patients performing self-paced reaching movements. A logistic regression combined the output of two classifiers: (i) a naïve Bayes classifier trained to detect the event-related desynchronization preceding the movement onset and (ii) a matched filter detecting the bereitschaftspotential. The proposed detector was compared with the detectors by using each one of these cortical patterns separately. In addition, differences between the patients and healthy subjects were analysed. Main results. On average, 74.5 ± 13.8% and 82.2 ± 10.4% of the movements were detected with 1.32 ± 0.87 and 1.50 ± 1.09 false detections generated per minute in the healthy subjects and the patients, respectively. A significantly better performance was achieved by the combined detector (as compared to the detectors of the two cortical patterns separately) in terms of true detections (p = 0.099) and false positives (p = 0.0083). Significance. A rationale is provided for combining information from cortical rhythms and slow cortical potentials to detect the onsets of voluntary upper-limb movements. It is demonstrated that the two cortical processes supply complementary information that can be summed up to boost the performance of the detector. Successful results have been also obtained with stroke patients, which supports the use of the proposed system in brain-computer interface applications with this group of patients.

Ibáñez, J.; Serrano, J. I.; del Castillo, M. D.; Monge-Pereira, E.; Molina-Rueda, F.; Alguacil-Diego, I.; Pons, J. L.

2014-10-01

373

The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from ?6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires were inserted into each of the brachiocephalicus (Bc), biceps brachii (BB), splenius (Sp), and pectoralis descendens (PD) in the forelimb experiment and into the longissimus dorsi (LD), vastus lateralis (VL), gluteus medius (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in the hind limb experiment. The EMG recordings were taken at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. At a walk, the iEMG values for the forelimb were not significantly different under any of the inclinations. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the GM and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. At a trot, the iEMG values for the Bc in the forelimb significantly decreased as the inclination of the treadmill decreased. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the LD, GM, and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. Uphill exercise increased the iEMG values for the Bc, LD, GM, and BF, while downhill exercise resulted in little increase in the iEMG values. It was concluded that the effects of inclination on the muscle activities were larger for the uphill exercises, and for the hind limb muscles compared with the forelimb muscles.

TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; MATSUI, Akira; MUKAI, Kazutaka; OHMURA, Hajime; HIRAGA, Atsushi; AIDA, Hiroko

2014-01-01

374

White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p < 0.001), the correlation coefficients were comparable. Finally, better motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls. PMID:23760816