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1

Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.  

PubMed

Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18?=?19.41, p???0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18?=?0.27, p?=?0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18?=?1.16 of time, p???0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception. PMID:25764200

Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

2015-05-01

2

COMBINED CORTICOSPINAL AND RETICULOSPINAL EFFECTS ON UPPER LIMB MUSCLES  

PubMed Central

Both the reticulospinal and corticospinal systems are known to control recruitment of upper limb muscles, yet no known studies have attempted to assess their combined effects in the same experiment in the awake, behaving primate. The purpose of this study is to present an approach for the analysis of the cooperative control from these two motor systems. Muscle responses to electrical stimulation in the reticulospinal system and corticospinal system alone or in combination were studied. The responses were categorized based on simple neural circuits that could explain the interactions of these systems. Five such circuits were identified that could explain 86% of the observed patterns of combined recruitment during stimulation. Improved understanding of the cooperation between these motor systems could provide insight for development of better rehabilitation approaches for stroke patients and others with movement disorders. PMID:24373988

Ortiz-Rosario, Alexis; Berrios-Torres, Ioannisely; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A.

2014-01-01

3

Novel muscle activation sensors for estimating of upper limb motion intention.  

PubMed

Measurement of muscle activation is important to understand body motion and the exertion of force. This paper presents two novel muscle activation sensors, a piezo cable muscle activation sensor (pMAS) and an optical muscle activation sensor (oMAS). The pMAS measures variations of a flexible piezo cable band that originate from diameter changes of muscle bundles. The sensors are easily attached and can be worn on clothes. The oMAS, which measures the optical density of muscle fibers, has advantages of small size, ease of use, and non-referenced individual sensing. Muscle activations of the upper limb during movements were collected to evaluate the performance of the proposed pMAS, and oMAS, respectively. Furthermore, the relation between movements and sensor signals was analyzed to estimate the upper limb movements. PMID:19964812

Han, Hyonyoung; Kim, Jung

2009-01-01

4

Can testing of six individual muscles represent a screening approach to upper limb neuropathic conditions?  

PubMed Central

Background It has previously been demonstrated that an extensive upper limb neurological examination of individual muscle function, sensation in homonymous innervated territories, and nerve trunk allodynia is reliable and that the outcome reflects symptoms. Since this approach may appear complicated and time consuming, this study deals with the value of an examination limited to manual testing of only six muscles. Methods Two examiners blinded to symptom status performed manual muscle testing of six muscles in 82 upper limbs with or without pain, weakness, and/or numbness/tingling. The six muscles represent three antagonist pairs (pectoralis major/posterior deltoid, biceps/triceps, and radial flexor of wrist/short radial extensor of wrist). The inter-rater reliability of detecting muscular weaknesses and the relation of weakness to the mentioned symptoms were analysed by kappa-statistics. Results The two examiners recognized weaknesses in 48 and 55 limbs, respectively, with moderate agreement (median kappa?=?0.58). Out of these, 35 and 32 limbs, respectively, were symptomatic. There was good correlation between findings and symptoms for one examiner (kappa?=?0.61) and fair correlation for the other one (kappa?=?0.33). Both reached high sensitivity (0.92, 0.84) but less satisfactory specificity (0.70, 0.50). Weaknesses agreed upon by the two examiners correlated moderately with symptoms (kappa?=?0.57). Conclusions Weakness in one or more muscles was present in almost all symptomatic limbs but in many non-symptomatic limbs as well. Manual testing of six muscles may represent a useful screening approach to upper limb neuropathic conditions, but a confirmative diagnosis requires further assessment. PMID:24767511

2014-01-01

5

Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

2010-10-01

6

Force irradiation effects during upper limb diagonal exercises on contralateral muscle activation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the force irradiation effects of upper limb isometric diagonal exercises on shoulder muscle activities. Interactions among diagonal directions, contraction intensities (moderate and maximum) and sex were assessed. Thirty healthy subjects (11 males) performed isometric unilateral diagonal exercises based on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique in an isokinetic dynamometer with their dominant upper limbs. The second diagonal for flexion and for extension were assessed while the participants performed their maximum isometric torque (MIT) and at 25% of their MIT. During the exercise the muscle activity of the medial deltoid, pectoralis major and upper trapezius in the non-dominant (non-exercised) upper limbs of the participants was recorded by surface electromyography. The highest muscle activity occurred in the upper trapezius during the diagonal for flexion (27% of maximum isometric voluntary contractions). Upper trapezius and pectoralis major were more active during the diagonal for flexion than diagonal for extension (p<0.001), while similar values between both diagonals were observed for the medial deltoid (p>0.05). In conclusion, we observed that force irradiation during upper limb diagonal exercises is affected by diagonal direction, contraction intensity and sex when performed by healthy participants. PMID:25592384

Abreu, Rosa; Lopes, Alfredo Alexandre; Sousa, Andreia S P; Pereira, Soraia; Castro, Marcelo P

2015-04-01

7

Muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb based on sEMG and subjective assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.

Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun

2012-07-01

8

Partial weight support differentially affects corticomotor excitability across muscles of the upper limb  

PubMed Central

Abstract Partial weight support may hold promise as a therapeutic adjuvant during rehabilitation after stroke by providing a permissive environment for reducing the expression of abnormal muscle synergies that cause upper limb impairment. We explored the neurophysiological effects of upper limb weight support in 13 healthy young adults by measuring motor?evoked potentials (MEPs) from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex and electromyography from anterior deltoid (AD), biceps brachii (BB), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), and first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Five levels of weight support, varying from none to full, were provided to the arm using a commercial device (Saebo Mobile Arm Support). For each level of support, stimulus–response (SR) curves were derived from MEPs across a range of TMS intensities. Weight support affected background EMG activity in each of the four muscles examined (P <0.0001 for each muscle). Tonic background activity was primarily reduced in the AD. Weight support had a differential effect on the size of MEPs across muscles. After curve fitting, the SR plateau for ECR increased at the lowest support level (P =0.004). For FDI, the SR plateau increased at the highest support level (P =0.0003). These results indicate that weight support of the proximal upper limb modulates corticomotor excitability across the forearm and hand. The findings support a model of integrated control of the upper limb and may inform the use of weight support in clinical settings. PMID:25501435

Runnalls, Keith D.; Anson, Greg; Wolf, Steven L.; Byblow, Winston D.

2014-01-01

9

Partial weight support differentially affects corticomotor excitability across muscles of the upper limb.  

PubMed

Partial weight support may hold promise as a therapeutic adjuvant during rehabilitation after stroke by providing a permissive environment for reducing the expression of abnormal muscle synergies that cause upper limb impairment. We explored the neurophysiological effects of upper limb weight support in 13 healthy young adults by measuring motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex and electromyography from anterior deltoid (AD), biceps brachii (BB), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), and first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Five levels of weight support, varying from none to full, were provided to the arm using a commercial device (Saebo Mobile Arm Support). For each level of support, stimulus-response (SR) curves were derived from MEPs across a range of TMS intensities. Weight support affected background EMG activity in each of the four muscles examined (P < 0.0001 for each muscle). Tonic background activity was primarily reduced in the AD. Weight support had a differential effect on the size of MEPs across muscles. After curve fitting, the SR plateau for ECR increased at the lowest support level (P = 0.004). For FDI, the SR plateau increased at the highest support level (P = 0.0003). These results indicate that weight support of the proximal upper limb modulates corticomotor excitability across the forearm and hand. The findings support a model of integrated control of the upper limb and may inform the use of weight support in clinical settings. PMID:25501435

Runnalls, Keith D; Anson, Greg; Wolf, Steven L; Byblow, Winston D

2014-12-01

10

The effect of arm weight support on upper limb muscle synergies during reaching movements  

PubMed Central

Background Compensating for the effect of gravity by providing arm-weight support (WS) is a technique often utilized in the rehabilitation of patients with neurological conditions such as stroke to facilitate the performance of arm movements during therapy. Although it has been shown that, in healthy subjects as well as in stroke survivors, the use of arm WS during the performance of reaching movements leads to a general reduction, as expected, in the level of activation of upper limb muscles, the effects of different levels of WS on the characteristics of the kinematics of motion and of the activity of upper limb muscles have not been thoroughly investigated before. Methods In this study, we systematically assessed the characteristics of the kinematics of motion and of the activity of 14 upper limb muscles in a group of 9 healthy subjects who performed 3-D arm reaching movements while provided with different levels of arm WS. We studied the hand trajectory and the trunk, shoulder, and elbow joint angular displacement trajectories for different levels of arm WS. Besides, we analyzed the amplitude of the surface electromyographic (EMG) data collected from upper limb muscles and investigated patterns of coordination via the analysis of muscle synergies. Results The characteristics of the kinematics of motion varied across WS conditions but did not show distinct trends with the level of arm WS. The level of activation of upper limb muscles generally decreased, as expected, with the increase in arm WS. The same eight muscle synergies were identified in all WS conditions. Their level of activation depended on the provided level of arm WS. Conclusions The analysis of muscle synergies allowed us to identify a modular organization underlying the generation of arm reaching movements that appears to be invariant to the level of arm WS. The results of this study provide a normative dataset for the assessment of the effects of the level of arm WS on muscle synergies in stroke survivors and other patients who could benefit from upper limb rehabilitation with arm WS. PMID:24594139

2014-01-01

11

Decoding upper limb residual muscle activity in severe chronic stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective Stroke is a leading cause of long-term motor disability. Stroke patients with severe hand weakness do not profit from rehabilitative treatments. Recently, brain-controlled robotics and sequential functional electrical stimulation allowed some improvement. However, for such therapies to succeed, it is required to decode patients' intentions for different arm movements. Here, we evaluated whether residual muscle activity could be used to predict movements from paralyzed joints in severely impaired chronic stroke patients. Methods Muscle activity was recorded with surface-electromyography (EMG) in 41 patients, with severe hand weakness (Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA] hand subscores of 2.93 ± 2.7), in order to decode their intention to perform six different motions of the affected arm, required for voluntary muscle activity and to control neuroprostheses. Decoding of paretic and nonparetic muscle activity was performed using a feed-forward neural network classifier. The contribution of each muscle to the intended movement was determined. Results Decoding of up to six arm movements was accurate (>65%) in more than 97% of nonparetic and 46% of paretic muscles. Interpretation These results demonstrate that some level of neuronal innervation to the paretic muscle remains preserved and can be used to implement neurorehabilitative treatments in 46% of patients with severe paralysis and extensive cortical and/or subcortical lesions. Such decoding may allow these patients for the first time after stroke to control different motions of arm prostheses through muscle-triggered rehabilitative treatments. PMID:25642429

Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; García-Cossio, Eliana; Walter, Armin; Cho, Woosang; Broetz, Doris; Bogdan, Martin; Cohen, Leonardo G; Birbaumer, Niels

2015-01-01

12

Influence of fatigue on upper limb muscle activity and performance in tennis.  

PubMed

The study examined the fatigue effect on tennis performance and upper limb muscle activity. Ten players were tested before and after a strenuous tennis exercise. Velocity and accuracy of serve and forehand drives, as well as corresponding surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of eight upper limb muscles were measured. EMG and force were also evaluated during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVC). Significant decreases were observed after exercise in serve accuracy (-11.7%) and velocity (-4.5%), forehand accuracy (-25.6%) and consistency (-15.6%), as well as pectoralis major (PM) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) IMVC strength (-13.0% and -8.2%, respectively). EMG amplitude decreased for PM and FCR in serve, forehand and IMVC, and for extensor carpi radialis in forehand. No modification was observed in EMG activation timing during strokes or in EMG frequency content during IMVC. Several hypotheses can be put forward to explain these results. First, muscle fatigue may induce a reduction in activation level of PM and forearm muscles, which could decrease performance. Second, conscious or subconscious strategies could lead to a redistribution of muscle activity to non-fatigued muscles in order to protect the organism and/or limit performance losses. Otherwise, the modifications of EMG activity could also illustrate the strategies adopted to manage the speed-accuracy trade-off in such a complex task. PMID:24239164

Rota, Samuel; Morel, Baptiste; Saboul, Damien; Rogowski, Isabelle; Hautier, Christophe

2014-02-01

13

Aerobic exercise modulates intracortical inhibition and facilitation in a nonexercised upper limb muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Despite growing interest in the relationship between exercise and short-term neural plasticity, the effects of exercise on motor cortical (M1) excitability are not well studied. Acute, lower-limb aerobic exercise may potentially modulate M1 excitability in working muscles, but the effects on muscles not involved in the exercise are unknown. Here we examined the excitability changes in an upper limb muscle representation following a single session of lower body aerobic exercise. Investigating the response to exercise in a non-exercised muscle may help to determine the clinical usefulness of lower-body exercise interventions for upper limb neurorehabilitation. Methods In this study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess input–output curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the extensor carpi radialis muscle in twelve healthy individuals following a single session of moderate stationary biking. Additionally, we examined whether the presence of a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene would affect the response of these measures to exercise. Results We observed significant increases in ICF and decreases in SICI following exercise. No changes in LICI were detected, and no differences were observed in input–output curves following exercise, or between BDNF groups. Conclusions The current results demonstrate that the modulation of intracortical excitability following aerobic exercise is not limited to those muscles involved in the exercise, and that while exercise does not directly modulate the excitability of motor neurons, it may facilitate the induction of experience-dependent plasticity via a decrease in intracortical inhibition and increase in intracortical facilitation. These findings indicate that exercise may create favourable conditions for adaptive plasticity in M1 and may be an effective adjunct to traditional training or rehabilitation methods. PMID:25031838

2014-01-01

14

Effect of the upper limbs muscles activity on the mechanical energy gain in pole vaulting.  

PubMed

The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (p<0.05). Stabilizing the glenohumeral joint (increase of deltoideus and biceps brachii activity) and applying a pole bending torque (increase of latissimus dorsi activity) required specific muscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles. PMID:22133664

Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-chollet, Claire

2012-04-01

15

Volitional walking via upper limb muscle-controlled stimulation of the lumbar locomotor center in man.  

PubMed

Gait disturbance in individuals with spinal cord lesion is attributed to the interruption of descending pathways to the spinal locomotor center, whereas neural circuits below and above the lesion maintain their functional capability. An artificial neural connection (ANC), which bridges supraspinal centers and locomotor networks in the lumbar spinal cord beyond the lesion site, may restore the functional impairment. To achieve an ANC that sends descending voluntary commands to the lumbar locomotor center and bypasses the thoracic spinal cord, upper limb muscle activity was converted to magnetic stimuli delivered noninvasively over the lumbar vertebra. Healthy participants were able to initiate and terminate walking-like behavior and to control the step cycle through an ANC controlled by volitional upper limb muscle activity. The walking-like behavior stopped just after the ANC was disconnected from the participants even when the participant continued to swing arms. Furthermore, additional simultaneous peripheral electrical stimulation to the foot via the ANC enhanced this walking-like behavior. Kinematics of the induced behaviors were identical to those observed in voluntary walking. These results demonstrate that the ANC induces volitionally controlled, walking-like behavior of the legs. This paradigm may be able to compensate for the dysfunction of descending pathways by sending commands to the preserved locomotor center at the lumbar spinal cord and may enable individuals with paraplegia to regain volitionally controlled walking. PMID:25122909

Sasada, Syusaku; Kato, Kenji; Kadowaki, Suguru; Groiss, Stefan J; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Nishimura, Yukio

2014-08-13

16

Relationships between power and strength of the upper and lower limb muscles and throwing velocity in male handball players.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate relationships between peak power (PP) as measured by upper limb (PPUL) and lower limb (PPLL) force-velocity tests, maximal upper limb force assessed by 1 repetition maximum bench press (1RMBP), and pullover (1RMPO) exercises, estimates of local muscle volume and 3-step running handball throwing velocity (T3-Steps). Fourteen male handball players volunteered for the investigation (age: 19.6+/-0.6 years; body mass: 86.7+/-12.9 kg; and height 1.87+/-0.07 m). Lower and upper limb force-velocity tests were performed on appropriately modified forms of a Monark cycle ergometer, with measurement of PPUL and PPLL, and the corresponding respective maximal forces (F0UL and F0LL) and velocities (V0UL and V0LL). T3-Steps was assessed using a radar Stalker ATS system. Muscle volumes of the upper and lower limbs were estimated with a standard anthropometric kit. T3-Steps was closely related to absolute PPUL and to F0UL (r=0.69, p<0.01 for both relationships). T3-Steps was also moderately related to 1RMBP and 1RMPO (r=0.56, p<0.05; r=0.55, p<0.05 respectively), and to PPLL and F0LL (r=0.56, p<0.05; r=0.62, p<0.05, respectively). When PPLL was expressed per unit of limb muscle volume, the relationship with T3-Steps disappeared. This suggests the importance of muscle volume to performance in throwing events. Force-velocity data may prove useful in regulating conditioning and rehabilitation programs for handball players. Our results also highlight the contribution of both the lower and the upper limbs to handball throwing velocity, suggesting the need for coaches to include upper and lower limb strength and power programs when improving the throwing velocity of handball players. PMID:20508448

Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Shephard, Roy J

2010-06-01

17

Upper-limb muscle responses to epidural, subdural and intraspinal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach. Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results. Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2-5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance. We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function.

Sharpe, Abigail N.; Jackson, Andrew

2014-02-01

18

Poststroke upper limb recovery.  

PubMed

Upper limb recovery after a stroke is suboptimal. Only a few individuals achieve full functional use of the hemiparetic arm. Complex primary and secondary impairments may affect recovery of upper limb function in stroke survivors. In addition, multiple personal, social, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors may interact to positively or negatively influence recovery during the different stages of rehabilitation. The current management of upper limb dysfunction poststroke has become more evidence based. In this article, we review the standard of care for upper limb poststroke rehabilitation, the evidence supporting the treatment modalities that currently exist and the exciting new developments in the therapeutic pipeline. PMID:25520020

Tsu, Adelyn P; Abrams, Gary M; Byl, Nancy N

2014-11-01

19

Upper-limb muscle responses to epidural, subdural and intraspinal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Objective Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2–5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function. PMID:24654267

Sharpe, Abigail N; Jackson, Andrew

2014-01-01

20

Non-nociceptive upper limb afferents modulate masseter muscle EMG activity in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent electrophysiological data obtained in anaesthetized rats evidenced jaw muscle excitatory responses to the electrical\\u000a stimulation of type II limb somatosensory afferents. In the present work, we describe an inhibitory reflex evoked in human\\u000a masseter muscles by stimulation of non-nociceptive fibres travelling in the median and radial nerves (MED and RAD, respectively).\\u000a Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Subjects

Franca Deriu; Marcella Milia; Gianfranco Sau; Maria Vittoria Podda; Enzo Ortu; Giacomo Chessa; Isidoro Aiello; Eusebio Tolu

2002-01-01

21

Effect of local leg cooling on upper limb trajectories and muscle function and whole body dynamic balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to find out if local leg cooling affects muscle function and trajectories of the upper limb during\\u000a repetitive light work as well as capability to maintain dynamic balance. Nine healthy female subjects performed repetitive\\u000a lifting task with right hand for 60 min while standing in front of a table with six target angles (30°–220°) and with the

Hugo Piedrahita; Juha Oksa; Hannu Rintamäki; Christer Malm

2009-01-01

22

Single low-threshold afferents innervating the skin of the human foot modulate ongoing muscle activity in the upper limbs.  

PubMed

We have shown for the first time that single cutaneous afferents in the foot dorsum have significant reflex coupling to motoneurons supplying muscles in the upper limb, particularly posterior deltoid and triceps brachii. These observations strengthen what we know from whole nerve stimulation, that skin on the foot and ankle can contribute to the modulation of interlimb muscles in distant innervation territories. The current work provides evidence of the mechanism behind the reflex, where one single skin afferent can evoke a reflex response, rather than a population. Nineteen of forty-one (46%) single cutaneous afferents isolated in the dorsum or plantar surface of the foot elicited a significant modulation of muscle activity in the upper limb. Identification of single afferents in this reflex indicates the strength of the connection and, ultimately, the importance of foot skin in interlimb coordination. The median response magnitude was 2.29% of background EMG, and the size of the evoked response did not significantly differ among the four mechanoreceptor classes (P > 0.1). Interestingly, although the distribution of afferents types did not differ across the foot dorsum, there was a significantly greater coupling response from receptors located on the medial aspect of the foot dorsum (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the most consistent coupling with upper limb muscles was demonstrated by type I afferents (fast and slowly adapting). This work contributes to the current literature on receptor specificity, supporting the view that individual classes of cutaneous afferents may subserve specific roles in kinesthesia, reflexes, and tactile perception. PMID:23274312

Bent, Leah R; Lowrey, Catherine R

2013-03-01

23

The impact of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on bradykinesia of proximal and distal upper limb muscles in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective\\u000a   To assess the\\u000a differential effects of bilateral deep\\u000a brain stimulation of the subthalamic\\u000a nucleus on proximal and distal\\u000a muscle groups of the upper limb in\\u000a Parkinson's disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Eight\\u000a parkinsonian subjects with chronic\\u000a bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic\\u000a nucleus performed index finger\\u000a tapping (differentially drawing\\u000a upon distal arm muscles), horizontal\\u000a pointing (differentially drawing\\u000a upon proximal arm muscles) and a

Manuel Dafotakis; Gereon R. Fink; Niels Allert; Dennis A. Nowak

2008-01-01

24

Upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes principles of rehabilitation, according to the ‘international classification of functioning’ model, for people who either required upper limb amputation or have a congenital absence. It also provides a description of current clinical practice at one of the largest prosthetic service providers in the UK.The aim is to provide an overview for any health professional who may work

Sachin Watve; Greg Dodd; Ruth MacDonald; Elizabeth R. Stoppard

2011-01-01

25

Prediction of upper limb muscle activity from motor cortical discharge during reaching  

PubMed Central

Movement representation by the motor cortex (M1) has been a theoretical interest for many years, but in the past several years it has become a more practical question, with the advent of the brain–machine interface. An increasing number of groups have demonstrated the ability to predict a variety of kinematic signals on the basis of M1 recordings and to use these predictions to control the movement of a cursor or robotic limb. We, on the other hand, have undertaken the prediction of myoelectric (EMG) signals recorded from various muscles of the arm and hand during button pressing and prehension movements. We have shown that these signals can be predicted with accuracy that is similar to that of kinematic signals, despite their stochastic nature and greater bandwidth. The predictions were made using a subset of 12 or 16 neural signals selected in the order of each signal’s unique, output-related information content. The accuracy of the resultant predictions remained stable through a typical experimental session. Accuracy remained above 80% of its initial level for most muscles even across periods as long as two weeks. We are exploring the use of these predictions as control signals for neuromuscular electrical stimulation in quadriplegic patients. PMID:18057504

Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Solla, Sara A; Perreault, Eric J; Miller, Lee E

2008-01-01

26

Study on the description method of upper limb's muscle force levels during simulated in-orbit operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dexterous upper limb serves as the most important tool for astronauts to implement in-orbit experiments and operations. This study developed a simulated weightlessness experiment and invented new measuring equipment to quantitatively evaluate the muscle ability of the upper limb. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of right-handed pushing at the three positions were measured for eleven subjects. In order to enhance the comprehensiveness and accuracy of muscle force assessment, the study focused on signal processing techniques. We applied a combination method, which consists of time-, frequency-, and bi-frequency-domain analyses. Time- and frequency-domain analyses estimated the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) of sEMG signals, respectively. Higher order spectra (HOS) of bi-frequency domain evaluated the maximum bispectrum amplitude ( B max), Gaussianity level (Sg) and linearity level (S l ) of sEMG signals. Results showed that B max, S l , and RMS values all increased as force increased. MDF and Sg values both declined as force increased. The research demonstrated that the combination method is superior to the conventional time- and frequency-domain analyses. The method not only described sEMG signal amplitude and power spectrum, but also deeper characterized phase coupling information and non-Gaussianity and non-linearity levels of sEMG, compared to two conventional analyses. The finding from the study can aid ergonomist to estimate astronaut muscle performance, so as to optimize in-orbit operation efficacy and minimize musculoskeletal injuries.

Zhao, Yan; Li, DongXu; Liu, ZhiZhen; Liu, Liang

2013-03-01

27

Novel muscle activation sensors for estimating of upper limb motion intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of muscle activation is important to understand body motion and the exertion of force. This paper presents two novel muscle activation sensors, a piezo cable muscle activation sensor (pMAS) and an optical muscle activation sensor (oMAS). The pMAS measures variations of a flexible piezo cable band that originate from diameter changes of muscle bundles. The sensors are easily attached

Hyonyoung Han; Jung Kim

2009-01-01

28

Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle strength and volume vary greatly among individuals. Maximum isometric joint moment, a standard measurement of strength, has typically been assessed in young, healthy subjects, whereas muscle volumes have generally been measured in cadavers. This has made it difficult to characterize the relationship between isometric strength and muscle size in humans. We measured maximum isometric moments about the shoulder, elbow,

Katherine R. S. Holzbaur; Scott L. Delp; Garry E. Gold; Wendy M. Murray

29

Alterations in upper limb muscle synergy structure in chronic stroke survivors  

PubMed Central

Previous studies in neurologically intact subjects have shown that motor coordination can be described by task-dependent combinations of a few muscle synergies, defined here as a fixed pattern of activation across a set of muscles. Arm function in severely impaired stroke survivors is characterized by stereotypical postural and movement patterns involving the shoulder and elbow. Accordingly, we hypothesized that muscle synergy composition is altered in severely impaired stroke survivors. Using an isometric force matching protocol, we examined the spatial activation patterns of elbow and shoulder muscles in the affected arm of 10 stroke survivors (Fugl-Meyer <25/66) and in both arms of six age-matched controls. Underlying muscle synergies were identified using non-negative matrix factorization. In both groups, muscle activation patterns could be reconstructed by combinations of a few muscle synergies (typically 4). We did not find abnormal coupling of shoulder and elbow muscles within individual muscle synergies. In stroke survivors, as in controls, two of the synergies were comprised of isolated activation of the elbow flexors and extensors. However, muscle synergies involving proximal muscles exhibited consistent alterations following stroke. Unlike controls, the anterior deltoid was coactivated with medial and posterior deltoids within the shoulder abductor/extensor synergy and the shoulder adductor/flexor synergy in stroke was dominated by activation of pectoralis major, with limited anterior deltoid activation. Recruitment of the altered shoulder muscle synergies was strongly associated with abnormal task performance. Overall, our results suggest that an impaired control of the individual deltoid heads may contribute to poststroke deficits in arm function. PMID:23155178

Rymer, William Z.; Perreault, Eric J.; Yoo, Seng Bum; Beer, Randall F.

2013-01-01

30

A 3 DOF Exoskeleton for Upper Limb Motion Assist: Consideration of the Effect of Bi-articular Muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing exoskeleton systems to assist the motion of physically weak persons such as elderly, disabled, and injured persons. The proposed exoskeletons are controlled basically based on the electromyogram (EMG) signals. Even though the EMG signals contain very important information, however, it is not very easy to predict the user's upper-limb motion (elbow and shoulder motion) based on

Kazuo Kiguchi; Toshio Fukuda

2004-01-01

31

Effect of Intensive Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy on Upper-Limb Motor Recovery after Stroke  

E-print Network

Recovery after Stroke: Case Study of a Patient with Chronic Stroke Noritaka Kawashima, PhD;* Milos R level of the upper-limb muscles did not show significant improvement, the ability to initiate and stop the muscle contraction voluntarily was regained in several upper-limb muscles (approx. 5%­15% of the maximum

Popovic, Milos R.

32

Preparatory trunk motion accompanies rapid upper limb movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of trunk movements, trunk muscle activation, intra-abdominal pressure and displacement of centres of pressure\\u000a and mass was undertaken to determine whether trunk orientation is a controlled variable prior to and during rapid bilateral\\u000a movement of the upper limbs. Standing subjects performed rapid bilateral symmetrical upper limb movements in three directions\\u000a (flexion, abduction and extension). The results indicated a small

Paul Hodges; Andrew Cresswell; Alf Thorstensson

1999-01-01

33

Influence of complementing a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with video games on the engagement of the participants: a study focusing on muscle activities.  

PubMed

Efficacious stroke rehabilitation depends not only on patients' medical treatment but also on their motivation and engagement during rehabilitation exercises. Although traditional rehabilitation exercises are often mundane, technology-assisted upper-limb robotic training can provide engaging and task-oriented training in a natural environment. The factors that influence engagement, however, are not fully understood. This paper therefore studies the relationship between engagement and muscle activities as well as the influencing factors of engagement. To this end, an experiment was conducted using a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with healthy individuals in three training exercises: (a) a traditional exercise, which is typically used for training the grasping function, (b) a tracking exercise, currently used in robot-assisted stroke patient rehabilitation for fine motor movement, and (c) a video game exercise, which is a proliferating approach of robot-assisted rehabilitation enabling high-level active engagement of stroke patients. These exercises differ not only in the characteristics of the motion that they use but also in their method of triggering engagement. To measure the level of engagement, we used facial expressions, motion analysis of the arm movements, and electromyography. The results show that (a) the video game exercise could engage the participants for a longer period than the other two exercises, (b) the engagement level decreased when the participants became too familiar with the exercises, and (c) analysis of normalized root mean square in electromyographic data indicated that muscle activities were more intense when the participants are engaged. This study shows that several sub-factors on engagement, such as versatility of feedback, cognitive tasks, and competitiveness, may influence engagement more than the others. To maintain a high level of engagement, the rehabilitation system needs to be adaptive, providing different exercises to engage the participants. PMID:25221845

Li, Chong; Rusák, Zoltán; Horváth, Imre; Ji, Linhong

2014-12-01

34

The effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling in upper-limb extensor muscles during elite cross-country skiing with the double-poling technique.  

PubMed

This investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling (SSC(EFF)) in upper-limb extensor muscles while cross-country skiing using the double-poling technique (DP). To this end, SSC(EFF) was analyzed in relation to DP velocity and performance. Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed an incremental test to determine maximal DP velocity (V(max)). Thereafter, cycle characteristics, elbow joint kinematics and poling forces were monitored on a treadmill while skiing at two sub-maximal and racing velocity (85% of V(max)). The average EMG activities of the triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were determined during the flexion and extension sub-phases of the poling cycle (EMG(FLEX), EMG(EXT)), as well as prior to pole plant (EMG(PRE)). SSC(EFF) was defined as the ratio of aEMG(FLEX) to aEMG(EXT). EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) increased with velocity for both muscles (P < 0.01), as did SSC(EFF) (from 0.9 ± 0.3 to 1.3 ± 0.5 for the triceps brachii and from 0.9 ± 0.4 to 1.5 ± 0.5 for the latissimus dorsi) and poling force (from 253 ± 33 to 290 ± 36N; P < 0.05). Furthermore, SSC(EFF) was positively correlated to Vmax, to EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) (P < 0.05). The neuromuscular adaptations made at higher velocities, when more poling force must be applied to the ground, exert a major influence on the DP performance of elite cross-country skiers. PMID:24064180

Zoppirolli, Chiara; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pellegrini, Barbara; Quaglia, Diego; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Schena, Federico

2013-12-01

35

An investigation of fatigue phenomenon in the upper limb muscle due to short duration pulses in an FES system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a method of artificially stimulating muscles or nerves in order to result in contraction or relaxation of muscles. Many studies have shown that FES system has helped patients to live a better lives especially those who are suffering from physical mobility. Unfortunately, one of the main limitations of an FES system besides of its high cost is largely due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue will affect the training duration which could delay patients' recovery rate. In this paper, we analyzed the occurrence of this fatigue phenomenon in terms of stimulator parameters such as amplitude, frequency, pulse width and pulse shape. The objective of this investigation is to identify other key features of the FES system parameters in order to prolong the training duration among patients. The experiment has been done on a healthy person for the duration of one minute and later the muscles response will be observed. Resultant muscle response is recorded as force using force resistive sensor. The experimental results show muscles will get fatigue at a different rate as the frequency increases. The experiment also shows that the duty cycle is reciprocal to the resultant force.

Naeem, Jannatul; Wong Azman, Amelia; Khan, Sheroz; Mohd Mustafah, Yasir

2013-12-01

36

Three dimensional preparatory trunk motion precedes asymmetrical upper limb movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional trunk motion, trunk muscle electromyography and intra-abdominal pressure were evaluated to investigate the preparatory control of the trunk associated with voluntary unilateral upper limb movement. The directions of angular motion produced by moments reactive to limb movement in each direction were predicted using a three-dimensional model of the body. Preparatory motion of the trunk occurred in three dimensions in

P. W Hodges; A. G Cresswell; K Daggfeldt; A Thorstensson

2000-01-01

37

Comparison of muscle and joint pressure-pain thresholds in patients with complex regional pain syndrome and upper limb pain of other origin.  

PubMed

Pain localized in the deep tissues occurs frequently in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In addition, hyperalgesia to blunt pressure over muscles is common in CRPS, but it often appears in limb pain of other origin as well. Considering that 3-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) reveals periarticular enhanced bone metabolism in CRPS, joint-associated hyperalgesia to blunt pressure might be a more specific finding than hyperalgesia over muscles. In 34 patients with upper limb pain (18 CRPS, 16 non-CRPS; diagnosed in accordance to the Budapest criteria) and in 18 healthy controls, pressure-pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over the thenar (PPTThenar), the metacarpophalangeal (PPTMCP), and the proximal interphalangeal (PPTPIP) joints using a pressure algometer (Somedic, Sweden). Beforehand, all patients had received TPBS for diagnostic purposes independently of the study. Region-of-interest (ROI) ratios (mineralization phase) for the MCP and PIP, excluding fracture sites, were correlated with the PPT. In CRPS, all ROI ratios were significantly increased and all PPT of the affected hand were decreased compared to non-CRPS (PPTThenar: 243±150kPa vs 358±197kPa, PPTMCP: 80±67kPa vs 159±93kPa, PPTPIP: 80±56kPa vs 184±110kPa; P<.01) and controls (PPTThenar: 478±106kPa, PPTMCP: 254±50kPa, PPTPIP: 275±76kPa; P<.01). A PPTThenar below 293kPa revealed 77% sensitivity but only 63% specificity, whereas a PPTPIP below 102kPa had 82% sensitivity and 94% specificity to identify CRPS. Only in CRPS were PPTMCP and PPTPIP correlated significantly inversely with the ROI ratio (MCP: r=-0.439, PIP: r=-0.447). PPTPIP shows higher specificity for CRPS type I than PPTThenar without loss of sensitivity. Therefore, measurement of joint PPT could be a noninvasive diagnostic tool reflecting increased bone metabolism assessed by TPBS as a sign of bone pathophysiology. PMID:24333949

Mainka, Tina; Bischoff, Florian S; Baron, Ralf; Krumova, Elena K; Nicolas, Volkmar; Pennekamp, Werner; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vollert, Jan; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

2014-03-01

38

Upper limb injuries associated with rock climbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cases of upper limb injuries secondary to rock-climbing or training for rock climbing are presented. All four cases had diagnosis and treatment delayed because of unawareness of the range of injuries seen in high grade rock climbing.

P Bannister; P Foster

1986-01-01

39

The anatomy and ontogeny of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of Lemur catta and Propithecus coquereli (primates): discussion on the parallelism between ontogeny and phylogeny and implications for evolutionary and developmental biology.  

PubMed

Most anatomical studies of primates focus on skeletal tissues, but muscular anatomy can provide valuable information about phylogeny, functional specializations, and evolution. Herein, we present the first detailed description of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of the fetal lemuriforms Lemur catta (Lemuridae) and Propithecus coquereli (Indriidae). These two species belong to the suborder Strepsirrhini, which is often presumed to possess some plesiomorphic anatomical features within primates. We compare the muscular anatomy of the fetuses with that of infants and adults and discuss the evolutionary and developmental implications. The fetal anatomy reflects a phylogenetically more plesiomorphic condition in nine of the muscles we studied and a more derived condition in only two, supporting a parallel between ontogeny and phylogeny. The derived exceptions concern muscles with additional insertions in the fetus which are lost in adults of the same species, that is, flexor carpi radialis inserts on metacarpal III and levator claviculae inserts on the clavicle. Interestingly, these two muscles are involved in movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb, which are mainly important for activities in later stages of life, such as locomotion and prey capture, rather than activities in fetal life. Accordingly, our findings suggest that some exceptions to the "ontogeny parallels phylogeny" rule are probably driven more by ontogenetic constraints than by adaptive plasticity. PMID:24757163

Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia L; Smith, Timothy D

2014-08-01

40

Upper limb prosthesis controlled by myoelectric signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a design of a myoelectric prosthesis with two active and one passive degrees of freedom to fit on a limb with an above elbow amputation. It will be controlled by myoelectric electrodes implanted directly on the muscle surface

Z. Escudero; L. Leija; J. Alvarez; R. Munoz

1999-01-01

41

Inertial measurements of upper limb motion.  

PubMed

We present an inertial sensor based monitoring system for measuring upper limb movements in real time. The purpose of this study is to develop a motion tracking device that can be integrated within a home-based rehabilitation system for stroke patients. Human upper limbs are represented by a kinematic chain in which there are four joint variables to be considered: three for the shoulder joint and one for the elbow joint. Kinematic models are built to estimate upper limb motion in 3-D, based on the inertial measurements of the wrist motion. An efficient simulated annealing optimisation method is proposed to reduce errors in estimates. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed system has less than 5% errors in most motion manners, compared to a standard motion tracker. PMID:16937199

Zhou, Huiyu; Hu, Huosheng; Tao, Yaqin

2006-06-01

42

Critical ischaemia of the upper limb.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-seven patients who presented to the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, with critical upper limb ischaemia between 1980 and 1989 were studied. Only 13 patients had emboli, while 23 presented with arteritis, seven involving large vessels and 16 with small vessel disease. Other causes included nine patients with trauma, six with atherosclerosis (of whom five were women), and four with vascular complications of thoracic outlet obstruction. Single examples of ischaemia due to radiation fibrosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation were also seen. Critical ischaemia of the upper limb remains an uncommon yet challenging problem. The review demonstrates that total limb arteriography should be performed in all patients, except the minority who present with direct arterial trauma or classical emboli. PMID:1433088

Quraishy, M S; Cawthorn, S J; Giddings, A E

1992-01-01

43

Upper-Limb Powered Exoskeleton Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exoskeleton is an external structural mechanism with joints and links corresponding to those of the human body. With applications in rehabilitation medicine and virtual reality simulation, exoskeletons offer benefits for both disabled and healthy populations. A pilot database defining the kinematics and dynamics of the upper limb during daily living activities was one among several factors guiding the development

Joel C. Perry; Jacob Rosen; Stephen Burns

2007-01-01

44

Effect of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current knowledge and questions remaining concerning the effects of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle is reviewed. The most dramatic of these effects is muscle atrophy, which has been noted in cases of muscles fixed at or below their resting length. Immobilization is also accompanied by a substantial decrease in motoneuronal discharges, which results in the conversion of slow-twitch muscle to muscle with fast-twitch characteristics. Sarcolemma effects include no change or a decrease in resting membrane potential, the appearance of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors, and no change in acetylcholinesterase activity. Evidence of changes in motoneuron after hyperpolarization characteristics suggests that the muscle inactivity is responsible for neuronal changes, rather than vice versa. The rate of protein loss from atrophying muscles is determined solely by the first-order rate constant for degradation. Various other biochemical and functional changes have been noted, including decreased insulin responsiveness and protein synthesis. The model of limb immobilization may also be useful for related studies of muscle adaptation.

Booth, F. W.

1982-01-01

45

Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

2011-01-01

46

Abnormal spontaneous muscle activity in plegic limb appears to initiate distal to the upper motor neuron: a case report in a stroke patient  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the effect of the cutaneous silent period (CSP) on spontaneous muscle activity occurring after an upper motor injury from stroke, with a goal of developing an insight into the origin of the pathological activity. Methods: A patient with an acute right centrum semiovale ischemic stroke had left hemiparesis. Fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves were recorded in several left arm muscles. CSP silent period studies were performed in both arms. Results: The CSP inhibited the volitional activity in the unaffected right arm. In the plegic left arm, fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves persisted during the time period during which the CSP would have been expected, based upon the right-sided studies. Conclusions: Spontaneous activity after a cerebrovascular accident was resistant to inhibition from CSP. These findings suggest that the localization of the origin of the spontaneous activity is distal to the upper motor neuron. A confirmatory study with more patients and in a variety of stroke subtypes would strengthen this conclusion. PMID:23459145

Souayah, N; Saadeh, P; Krivitskaya, N; Sander, HW

2013-01-01

47

Balneotherapy in Treatment of Spastic Upper Limb after Stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction: After stroke, spasticity is often the main problem that prevents functional recovery. Pain occurs in up to 70% of patients during the first year post-stroke. Materials and methods: A total of 70 patients (30 female and 45 male) mean age (65.67) participated in prospective, controlled study. Inclusion criteria: ischaemic stroke, developed spasticity of upper limb, post-stroke interval <6 months. Exclusion criteria: contraindications for balneotherapy and inability to follow commands. Experimental group (Ex) (n=35) was treated with sulphurous baths (31°-33°C) and controlled group (Co) with taped water baths, during 21 days. All patients were additionally treated with kinesitherapy and cryotherapy. The outcome was evaluated using Modified Ashworth scale for spasticity and VAS scale for pain. The significance value was sat at p<0.05. Goal: To find out the effects of balneotherapy with sulphurous bath on spasticity and pain in affected upper limb. Results: Reduction in tone of affected upper limb muscles was significant in Ex group (p<0.05). Pain decreased significantly in Ex-group (p<0.01). Conclusion: Our results show that balneotherapy with sulphurous water reduces spasticity and pain significantly and can help in treatment of post-stroke patients.

Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo

2015-01-01

48

A Real-time EMG-based Assistive Computer Interface for the Upper Limb Disabled  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of an assistive real-time system for the upper limb disabled to access a computer via residual muscle activities without standard computer interfaces (e.g. a mouse and a keyboard). For this purpose, electromyogram (EMG) signals from muscles in the lower arm were extracted and filtered using signal statistics (mean and variance). In order to control movement

Changmok Choi; Jung Kim

2007-01-01

49

Prevalence and Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain and Residual Limb Pain in the Long Term after Upper Limb Amputation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…

Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

2010-01-01

50

Compressive neuropathy in the upper limb  

PubMed Central

Entrampment neuropathy or compression neuropathy is a fairly common problem in the upper limb. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the commonest, followed by Cubital tunnel compression or Ulnar Neuropathy at Elbow. There are rarer entities like supinator syndrome and pronator syndrome affecting the Radial and Median nerves respectively. This article seeks to review comprehensively the pathophysiology, Anatomy and treatment of these conditions in a way that is intended for the practicing Hand Surgeon as well as postgraduates in training. It is generally a rewarding exercise to treat these conditions because they generally do well after corrective surgery. Diagnostic guidelines, treatment protocols and surgical technique has been discussed. PMID:22022039

Thatte, Mukund R.; Mansukhani, Khushnuma A.

2011-01-01

51

Chronic Pain Associated with Upper-Limb Loss  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence, intensity, and functional impact of the following types of pain associated with upper-limb loss: phantom limb, residual limb, back, neck, and nonamputated-limb pain. Design Cross-sectional survey; 104 respondents with upper-limb loss at least 6 months postamputation completed measures of pain intensity, interference, disability, and health-related quality-of-life. Results Nearly all (90%) of the respondents reported pain, with 76% reporting more than one pain type. Phantom-limb pain and residual-limb pain were the most prevalent (79% and 71%, respectively), followed by back (52%), neck (43%), and nonamputated-limb pain (33%). Although nonamputated-limb pain was least prevalent, it was reported to cause the highest levels of interference and pain-related disability days. Self-reported quality-of-life was significantly lower for individuals with each type of pain compared with those without any pain. Age, time since amputation, and cause of amputation were not associated with pain. Conclusions In addition to pain in the phantom and residual limb, back, neck, and nonamputated-limb pain are also common after upper-limb loss. All of these pain types are associated with significant disability and activity interference for some individuals, suggesting that assessment of multiple pain types in persons with upper-limb amputation may be important. PMID:19692791

Hanley, Marisol A.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Jensen, Mark; Czerniecki, Joseph; Smith, Douglas G.; Robinson, Lawrence R.

2011-01-01

52

The Ipsilesional Upper Limb Can Be Affected following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective. Neurological dysfunction commonly occurs in the upper limb contralateral to the hemisphere of the brain in which stroke occurs; however, the impact of stroke on function of the ipsilesional upper limb is not well understood. This study aims to systematically review the literature relating to the function of the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke and answer the following research question: Is the ipsilesional upper limb affected by stroke? Data Source. A systematic review was carried out in Medline, Embase, and PubMed. Review Methods. All studies investigating the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke were included and analysed for important characteristics. Outcomes were extracted and summarised. Results. This review captured 27 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All studies provided evidence that the ipsilesional upper limb can be affected following stroke. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that clinicians should consider ipsilesional upper limb deficits in rehabilitation and address this reduced functional capacity. Furthermore, the ipsilesional upper limb should not be used as a “control” measure of recovery for the contralateral upper limb. PMID:24379748

Kitsos, Gemma H.; Hubbard, Isobel J.; Kitsos, Alex R.; Parsons, Mark W.

2013-01-01

53

Glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in muscles from immobilized limbs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defects in glucose metabolism in muscles of immobilized limbs of mice were related to alterations in insulin binding, insulin responsiveness, glucose supply, and insulin activation of glycogen synthase. These were tested by in vitro methodology. A significant lessening in the insulin-induced maximal response of 2-deoxyglucose uptake into the mouse soleus muscle occurred between the 3rd and 8th h of limb immobilization, suggesting a decreased insulin responsiveness. Lack of change in the specific binding of insulin to muscles of 24-h immobilized limbs indicates that a change in insulin receptor number did not play a role in the failure of insulin to stimulate glucose metabolism. Its inability to stimulate glycogen synthesis in muscle from immobilized limbs is due, in part, to a lack of glucose supply to glycogen synthesis and also to the ineffectiveness of insulin to increase the percentage of glycogen synthase in its active form in muscles from 24-h immobilized limbs.

Nicholson, W. F.; Watson, P. A.; Booth, F. W.

1984-01-01

54

Upper limb ischemic gangrene as a complication of hemodialysis access.  

PubMed

Upper limb ischemia is a well-recognized complication of dialysis access creation but progression to gangrene is uncommon. We report a case of upper limb ischemic gangrene and discuss the lessons learned during the management of this case. Clinicians must be vigilant for this complication and they should be reminded that it requires urgent management to prevent tissue loss. PMID:25810944

Cawich, Shamir O; Mohammed, Emil; Mencia, Marlon; Naraynsingh, Vijay

2015-01-01

55

Upper Limb Ischemic Gangrene as a Complication of Hemodialysis Access  

PubMed Central

Upper limb ischemia is a well-recognized complication of dialysis access creation but progression to gangrene is uncommon. We report a case of upper limb ischemic gangrene and discuss the lessons learned during the management of this case. Clinicians must be vigilant for this complication and they should be reminded that it requires urgent management to prevent tissue loss.

Cawich, Shamir O.; Mohammed, Emil; Mencia, Marlon

2015-01-01

56

Comparison of upper limb musculoskeletal function and throwing performance in adolescent baseball players and matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare upper limb musculoskeletal profile and throwing speed in adolescent baseball players and matched controls. Participants: Fourteen elite early adolescent (13–16 years) baseball players and 14 age, height and weight matched control subjects. Main outcome measures: Joint range of motion, isometric muscle strength and overhead throwing speed. Results: No significant differences in shoulder or elbow joint range of

Anita S. Clements; Karen A. Ginn; Elizabeth C. Henley

2001-01-01

57

Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface  

PubMed Central

Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head) and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius) of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system. PMID:22882763

2012-01-01

58

Modulation of masseter exteroceptive suppression by non-nociceptive upper limb afferent activation in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a The effects induced by non-noxious electrical stimulation of upper limb nerves on exteroceptive suppression (ES) of masseter\\u000a muscle EMG activity were studied in 15 healthy subjects. EMG activity of masseter muscles was recorded bilaterally and great\\u000a care was taken to minimise the activation of afferents other than the stimulated ones. Masseter ES was elicited by applying\\u000a a non-noxious electrical

Franca Deriu; Marcella Milia; Gianfranco Sau; Maria Vittoria Podda; Enzo Ortu; Elena Giaconi; Isidoro Aiello; Eusebio Tolu

2003-01-01

59

Impaired lower limb muscle synergies post-stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the impaired motor output of the lower limb post-stroke, we argue that cortical damage alters the modular control structure underlying muscle activation patterns during both static and dynamic tasks. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMG collected during isometric hip torque production performed by chronic stroke and control subjects. The stroke group presented a reduction in muscle synergies, consistently displaying

Theresa H. Cruz; Yasin Y. Dhaher

2009-01-01

60

Sonic hedgehog acts cell-autonomously on muscle precursor cells to generate limb muscle diversity  

PubMed Central

How muscle diversity is generated in the vertebrate body is poorly understood. In the limb, dorsal and ventral muscle masses constitute the first myogenic diversification, as each gives rise to distinct muscles. Myogenesis initiates after muscle precursor cells (MPCs) have migrated from the somites to the limb bud and populated the prospective muscle masses. Here, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) drives myogenesis specifically within the ventral muscle mass. Shh directly induces ventral MPCs to initiate Myf5 transcription and myogenesis through essential Gli-binding sites located in the Myf5 limb enhancer. In the absence of Shh signaling, myogenesis is delayed, MPCs fail to migrate distally, and ventral paw muscles fail to form. Thus, Shh production in the limb ZPA is essential for the spatiotemporal control of myogenesis and coordinates muscle and skeletal development by acting directly to regulate the formation of specific ventral muscles. PMID:22987640

Anderson, Claire; Williams, Victoria C.; Moyon, Benjamin; Daubas, Philippe; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Buckingham, Margaret E.; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Hughes, Simon M.; Borycki, Anne-Gaëlle

2012-01-01

61

Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.  

PubMed

During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P < 0.001). After a 2-min knee flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P < 0.01). After the contralateral (left) MVC (experiment 3; n = 8), mean voluntary activation of the right leg was similar with or without ischemia (92 ± 6% vs. 93 ± 4%; P = 0.65). After fatiguing exercise, activity in group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents. PMID:25525208

Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

2015-02-15

62

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measure- ment objectives are stratospheric C10, 03, H20, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has

F. T. Barath; M. C. Chavez; R. E. Cofield; D. A. Flower; M. A. Frerking; M. B. Gram; W. M. Harris; J. R. Holden; R. F. Jarnot; W. G. Kloezeman; G. J. Klose; G. K. Lau; M. S. Loo; B. J. Maddison; R. J. Mattauch; R. P. McKlnney; G. E. Peckham; H. M. Pickett; G. Siebes; F. S. Soltis; R. A. Suttie; J. A. Tarsala; J. W. Waters; W. J. Wilson

1993-01-01

63

Facts about Upper and Lower Limb Reduction Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... each year about 1,500 babies in the United States are born with upper limb reductions and about ... specific variation of selected birth defects in the United States, 1999-2001. Birth Defects Res A. 2006;76( ...

64

Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

2012-06-01

65

Ubiquitous human upper-limb motion estimation using wearable sensors.  

PubMed

Human motion capture technologies have been widely used in a wide spectrum of applications, including interactive game and learning, animation, film special effects, health care, navigation, and so on. The existing human motion capture techniques, which use structured multiple high-resolution cameras in a dedicated studio, are complicated and expensive. With the rapid development of microsensors-on-chip, human motion capture using wearable microsensors has become an active research topic. Because of the agility in movement, upper-limb motion estimation has been regarded as the most difficult problem in human motion capture. In this paper, we take the upper limb as our research subject and propose a novel ubiquitous upper-limb motion estimation algorithm, which concentrates on modeling the relationship between upper-arm movement and forearm movement. A link structure with 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to model the human upper-limb skeleton structure. Parameters are defined according to Denavit-Hartenberg convention, forward kinematics equations are derived, and an unscented Kalman filter is deployed to estimate the defined parameters. The experimental results have shown that the proposed upper-limb motion capture and analysis algorithm outperforms other fusion methods and provides accurate results in comparison to the BTS optical motion tracker. PMID:21659035

Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wong, Wai-Choong; Wu, Jian-Kang

2011-07-01

66

Cortical motor activity and reorganization following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation.  

PubMed

Previous studies have postulated that the amount of brain reorganization following peripheral injuries may be correlated with negative symptoms or consequences. However, it is unknown whether restoring effective limb function may then be associated with further changes in the expression of this reorganization. Recently, targeted reinnervation (TR), a surgical technique that restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to new peripheral targets such as muscle, has been successfully applied to upper-limb amputees. It has been shown to be effective in restoring both peripheral motor and sensory functions via the reinnervated nerves as soon as a few months after the surgery. However, it was unclear whether TR could also restore normal cortical motor representations for control of the missing limb. To answer this question, we used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) to localize cortical activity related to cued motor tasks generated by the intact and missing limb. Using a case study of 3 upper-limb amputees, 2 of whom went through pre and post-TR experiments, we present unique quantitative evidence for the re-mapping of motor representations for the missing limb closer to their original locations following TR. This provides evidence that an effective restoration of peripheral function from TR can be linked to the return of more normal cortical expression for the missing limb. Therefore, cortical mapping may be used as a potential guide for monitoring rehabilitation following peripheral injuries. PMID:24273732

Chen, Albert; Yao, Jun; Kuiken, Todd; Dewald, Julius P A

2013-01-01

67

Cortical motor activity and reorganization following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation?  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have postulated that the amount of brain reorganization following peripheral injuries may be correlated with negative symptoms or consequences. However, it is unknown whether restoring effective limb function may then be associated with further changes in the expression of this reorganization. Recently, targeted reinnervation (TR), a surgical technique that restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to new peripheral targets such as muscle, has been successfully applied to upper-limb amputees. It has been shown to be effective in restoring both peripheral motor and sensory functions via the reinnervated nerves as soon as a few months after the surgery. However, it was unclear whether TR could also restore normal cortical motor representations for control of the missing limb. To answer this question, we used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) to localize cortical activity related to cued motor tasks generated by the intact and missing limb. Using a case study of 3 upper-limb amputees, 2 of whom went through pre and post-TR experiments, we present unique quantitative evidence for the re-mapping of motor representations for the missing limb closer to their original locations following TR. This provides evidence that an effective restoration of peripheral function from TR can be linked to the return of more normal cortical expression for the missing limb. Therefore, cortical mapping may be used as a potential guide for monitoring rehabilitation following peripheral injuries. PMID:24273732

Chen, Albert; Yao, Jun; Kuiken, Todd; Dewald, Julius P.A.

2013-01-01

68

Muscle phenotype remains unaltered after limb autotomy and unloading.  

PubMed

Loss of chelipeds in crustaceans results in severe atrophy of the major muscle responsible for lifting the limb, the anterior levator. We decided to test if this loss of mechanical load altered muscle phenotype as measured by SDS-PAGE analysis of levator total protein and actomyosin fractions. Levator muscles of adult crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, with either functional regenerate limbs or lack of limb buds (papilla stage) were compared with those from normal contralateral limbs and those from pristine animals. We find that there is no difference in protein profiles among the three conditions. However, the total protein profile for the dually excited levator muscle is unique compared to those of fast or slow muscles of the abdomen (L and SEL, respectively), which receive only phasic or tonic excitatory innervation. The levator myosin heavy chain profile is similar to that of slow phenotype muscles such as the SEL and opener. We conclude that load does not influence levator phenotype. This is likely due either to the intact innervation and continued activation of the levator during atrophy or to the maintenance of passive tension on the muscle. J. Exp. Zool. 289:10-22, 2001. PMID:11169489

Griffis, B; Moffett, S B; Cooper, R L

2001-01-01

69

Bone lengthening in malformed upper limbs: a four year experience.  

PubMed

Bone lengthening by corticotomy, gradual distraction and stabilization with an external frame has proved to be effective in the repair of osseous defects in lower extremities. More recently this technique has been introduced also in the treatment of post-traumatic deformities and malformations of the upper limbs. From 1989 to 1992 we treated 38 patients (46 upper limbs) with bone lengthening of which 12 (16 upper limbs) affected by post-traumatic deformities and 26 (30 upper limbs) by malformations. We present herein our four year experience with malformed cases only. The results suggest that bone lengthening is a simple and reliable procedure to obtain good function, to correct angular deviations and, also, to give a better esthetic appearance. Satisfying results, low complication rates and simple execution recommend its use in the treatment of many congenital malformations of the upper limbs, usually in association with traditional techniques. However, we are now strongly selecting the indications in order to improve our future results. We stress in particular that the treatment of some malformations, as ulnar or radial club hands, could be radically modified by introduction of bone lengthening. PMID:7618398

Pajardi, G; Campiglio, G L; Candiani, P

1994-01-01

70

Upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome  

SciTech Connect

We report on upper limb anomalies in two children with a complete DiGeorge sequence: conotruncal defects, hypocalcemia, thymic aplasia, and facial anomalies. One child had preaxial polydactyly, and the other had club hands with hypoplastic first metacarpal. In both patients, molecular analysis documented a 22q11 deletion. To our knowledge, limb anomalies have rarely been reported in DiGeorge syndrome, and they illustrate the variable clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Cormier-Daire, V.; Iserin, L.; Sidi, D. [and others

1995-03-13

71

The formation of skeletal muscle: from somite to limb  

PubMed Central

During embryogenesis, skeletal muscle forms in the vertebrate limb from progenitor cells originating in the somites. These cells delaminate from the hypaxial edge of the dorsal part of the somite, the dermomyotome, and migrate into the limb bud, where they proliferate, express myogenic determination factors and subsequently differentiate into skeletal muscle. A number of regulatory factors involved in these different steps have been identified. These include Pax3 with its target c-met, Lbx1 and Mox2 as well as the myogenic determination factors Myf5 and MyoD and factors required for differentiation such as Myogenin, Mrf4 and Mef2 isoforms. Mutants for genes such as Lbx1 and Mox2, expressed uniformly in limb muscle progenitors, reveal unexpected differences between fore and hind limb muscles, also indicated by the differential expression of Tbx genes. As development proceeds, a secondary wave of myogenesis takes place, and, postnatally, satellite cells become located under the basal lamina of adult muscle fibres. Satellite cells are thought to be the progenitor cells for adult muscle regeneration, during which similar genes to those which regulate myogenesis in the embryo also play a role. In particular, Pax3 as well as its orthologue Pax7 are important. The origin of secondary/fetal myoblasts and of adult satellite cells is unclear, as is the relation of the latter to so-called SP or stem cell populations, or indeed to potential mesangioblast progenitors, present in blood vessels. The oligoclonal origin of postnatal muscles points to a small number of founder cells, whether or not these have additional origins to the progenitor cells of the somite which form the first skeletal muscles, as discussed here for the embryonic limb. PMID:12587921

Buckingham, Margaret; Bajard, Lola; Chang, Ted; Daubas, Philippe; Hadchouel, Juliette; Meilhac, Sigolène; Montarras, Didier; Rocancourt, Didier; Relaix, Frédéric

2003-01-01

72

Upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in highly repetitive industries: precise anatomical physical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical assessment of 146 female workers in highly repetitive jobs found 54% to have evidence of musculoskeletal disorders in the upper limb that are potentially work-related. Many workers had multiple problems, and many were affected bilaterally (33% of workers). Muscle pain and tenderness was the largest problem, both in the neck\\/shoulder area (31%) as expected and in the forearm\\/hand musculature

D. RANNEY; R. WELLS; A. MOORE

1995-01-01

73

The influence of scapular depression on upper limb neurodynamic test responses  

PubMed Central

Objectives Upper limb neurodynamic testing (ULNT) can be used clinically to assist in identifying neural tissue involvement in patients with upper quarter pain and dysfunction. Consideration for scapular positioning is a crucial component of ULNT standardization, as variations in positioning may dramatically impact sensory and motor responses. This study aimed to determine if there was a meaningful difference in test outcomes when the ULNT was performed in alternative scapular positions. Methods This cross-sectional study included 40 asymptomatic individuals. Repeated ULNT testing was performed on the dominant limb with the scapula blocked in neutral (ULNTb) and in scapular depression (ULNTd). Sensory responses, muscle activity, and range of motion outcomes were compared between the two test variations. Results Pre-positioning in scapular depression (ULNTd) led to reduced elbow extension range of motion, provoked greater upper trapezius muscle activity and an earlier onset and broader area of sensory responses compared to ULNTb. Discussion During ULNTb, the limbs were taken further into range and elicited reduced muscle activation and more localized sensory response providing a less vigorous version of the test. This study demonstrates that scapular positioning has a meaningful impact on ULNT test outcomes in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. The ULNTd can be considered a more vigorous version that may be appropriate when the cervical motions commonly utilized for structural differentiation are limited or contraindicated. PMID:23633886

Legakis, Allison; Boyd, Benjamin S

2012-01-01

74

The Effect of Lateral Epicondylosis on Upper Limb Mechanical Parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral epicondylosis is a prevalent and costly musculoskeletal disorder characterized by degeneration of the common extensor tendon origin at the lateral epicondyle. Grip strength is commonly affected due to lateral epicondylosis. However, less is known about the effect of lateral epicondylosis on other functional parameters such as ability to react to rapid loading. Methods Twenty-nine lateral epicondylosis participants and ten controls participated in a case-control study comparing mechanical parameters (mass, stiffness and damping), magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity and grip strength of injured and uninjured limbs. A mixed effects model was used to assess the effect of dominance and injury on mechanical parameters and grip strength. Findings Significant effect of injury and dominance was observed on stiffness, damping and grip strength. An injured upper limb had, on average, 18% less stiffness (p<0.01, 95% CI [9.8%, 26%]), 21% less damping (p<0.01, 95% CI [11%, 31%]) and 50% less grip strength (p<0.01, 95% CI [37%, 61%]) than an uninjured upper limb. The dominant limb had on average 15% more stiffness (p<0.01, 95% CI [8.0%, 23%], 33% more damping (p<0.01, 95% CI [22%, 45%]), and 24% more grip strength (p<0.01, 95% CI [6.6%, 44%]) than the non-dominant limb. Interpretation Lower mechanical parameters are indicative of a lower capacity to oppose rapidly rising forces and quantify an important aspect of upper limb function. For individuals engaged in manual or repetitive activities involving the upper limb, a reduction in ability to oppose these forces may result in increased risk for injury or recurrence. PMID:21937156

Chourasia, Amrish O.; Buhr, Kevin A.; Rabago, David P.; Kijowski, Richard

2011-01-01

75

Prediction of Gene Network Models in Limb Muscle Precursors  

PubMed Central

The ventrolateral dermomyotome gives rise to all muscles of the limbs through the delamination and migration of cells into the limb buds. These cells proliferate and form myoblasts, withdraw from the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated. The myogenic lineage colonizes pre-patterned regions to form muscle anlagen as muscle fibers are assembled. The regulatory mechanisms that control the later steps of this myogenic program are not well understood. The homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2 is expressed in the muscle lineage from the migration of precursors to adult muscle. Ablation of Pitx2 results in distortion, rather than loss, of limb muscle anlagen, suggesting that its function becomes critical during the colonization of, and/or fiber assembly in, the anlagen. Gene expression arrays were used to identify changes in gene expression in flow-sorted migratory muscle precursors, labeled by Lbx1EGFP, which resulted from the loss of Pitx2. Target genes of Pitx2 were clustered using the “David Bioinformatics Functional Annotation Tool” to bin genes according to enrichment of gene ontology keywords. This provided a way to both narrow the target genes and identify potential gene families regulated by Pitx2. Representative target genes in the most enriched bins were analyzed for the presence and evolutionary conservation of Pitx2 consensus binding sequence, TAATCY, on the ?20kb, intronic, and coding regions of the genes. Fifteen Pitx2 target genes were selected based on the above analysis and were identified as having functions involving cytoskeleton organization, tissue specification, and transcription factors. Data from these studies suggest that Pitx2 acts to regulate cell motility and expression of muscle specific genes in the muscle precursors during forelimb muscle development. This work provides a framework to develop the gene network leading to skeletal muscle development, growth and regeneration. PMID:22917675

Campbell, Adam L; Eng, Diana; Gross, Michael K; Kioussi, Chrissa

2012-01-01

76

Potassium contractures in mouse limb muscles.  

PubMed Central

The force of contractures produced by 14-400 mM-K+ (as methanesulphonate) was measured in whole mouse soleus (sol.), extensor digitorum longus (e.d.l.), and in bundles from these muscles. Frog semitendinosus muscles were used for comparison. Whole mouse muscles displayed biphasic contracture responses lasting more than 5 min when provoked by 150m M-K+. Contractures of bundles dissected from these muscles were monophasic and had a short duration. The time required for the muscle bundles to contract and relax to 1/2 maximum force (T) was an inverse function of [K+]. T was increased by lowering [K+] from 400 to 50 mM by a factor of 8.3 and 7.0 in proximal and distal portions of sol. and by a factor of 4.2 and 2.8 in proximal and distal portions of e.d.l., respectively. The force-[K+] relation was steeper for sol. than for e.d.l., and the proximal portions were more sensitive to K+ than the distal portions, particularly in e.d.l. The capability of the muscles to produce force in response to 400 mM-K+ after a 10 min exposure to 30 or 50 mM-K+ was high in sol., somewhat lower in proximal parts of e.d.l. and in frog semitendinosus, and lowest in distal parts of e.d.l. It was concluded that K contractures of mouse muscles are basically monophasic, and that biphasic contractures of whole muscles arise because of K+-diffusion delays, slow responses to intermediate [K+], and differences in responsiveness of the fibres contained in a particular muscle. PMID:6606035

Lorkovi?, H

1983-01-01

77

Distressing upper extremity phantom limb sensation during intravenous regional anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: The objective of this article is to describe a case of distressing upper extremity phantom limb sensation during intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). Case Report: A 33-year-old American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status I female with an uncomplicated intrauterine gestation presented for endoscopic carpal tunnel release. Following gravity-assisted exsanguination of the vertically positioned left upper extremity, she underwent

Eric Dominguez

2001-01-01

78

Kinematic model aided inertial motion tracking of human upper limb  

E-print Network

frequently used in navigation and augmented reality modelling [1], [2]. These inertial sensors come up@essex.ac.uk Abstract-- A new motion tracking framework has been devel- oped to estimate the position and orientation are accommodated in a commercially available inertial sensor MT9. Human upper limb motion can be represented

Hu, Huosheng

79

Hierarchical myoelectric control of a human upper limb prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myolectric control is nowadays the most used approach for electrically-powered upper limb prostheses. The myoelectric controllers use electromyographic (EMG) signals as inputs. These signals can be collected from the skin surface using surface EMG sensors, or intramuscular, using needle sensors. No matter which method is used, they have to be processed before being used as controller inputs. In this paper,

S. Herle; S. Man; G. Lazea; C. Marcu; P. Raica; R. Robotin

2010-01-01

80

A virtual upper limb prosthesis as a training system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual reality system that improves the functional adjustment between an amputee and an active prosthesis is described. It includes the development of a virtual prosthesis and a myoelectric interface integration. The main purpose of this work is to provide a training system as a previous stage, to subjects who need to use an upper limb myoelectric prosthesis, which will

José Antonio Barraza-Madrigal; Alfredo Ramírez-García; Roberto Muñoz-Guerrero

2010-01-01

81

Exoskeleton for human upper-limb motion support  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing exoskeletons (exoskeletal robots) for assisting the motion of physically weak persons such as elderly persons or slightly disabled persons in daily life. In this paper, we propose a 3 DOF exoskeleton and its control system to assist the human upper-limb motion (shoulder joint motion and elbow joint motion) of physically weak persons. The proposed robot automatically

Kazuo Kiguchi; Takakazu Tanaka; Keigo Watanabe; Toshio Fukudaa

2003-01-01

82

Functional and oncological outcomes after limb-salvage surgery for primary sarcomas of the upper limb.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of upper limb sarcoma poses an oncological and reconstructive challenge. Limb-salvage surgery aims to balance adequate excision margins for disease control and preservation of all important structures to retain maximum function. Reported here is an assessment of the functional and oncological outcomes of limb salvage surgery for primary sarcoma of the upper limb and limb girdle in 72 patients referred to a specialist musculoskeletal tumour unit over 9 years. All patients underwent excision of the sarcoma with reconstruction and adjuvant treatment as needed. Functional outcome was assessed using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) after discharge from hospital. The upper limb sarcomas treated by limb-salvage surgery achieved planned margins of excision in 85% of cases with primary surgery. This increased to 100% with re-excision, resulting in local recurrence in 15% and survival of 75% among those at 5 years or more after surgery, while retaining good to excellent function (TESS mean of 87 out of 100). A total of 38 patients completed TESS questionnaires and, as a single group, had a mean TESS of 87. Patient age, anatomical site of tumour and adjuvant treatment made no significant difference to TESS. Liposarcomas had a significantly better TESS than leiomyosarcomas, chondrosarcomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Oncological outcome was assessed in terms of excision margins achieved, local recurrence, re-excision and disease-free survival. Eight patients died of disease, all with high-grade primary tumours. Fourteen had local recurrence, four low-grade disease and the remaining high-grade disease. All four low-grade recurrences were successfully re-excised, as were five of the high-grade recurrences. The remaining five died of disease, with or without further recurrences. Consistently good functional results as measured by TESS were reported by responders, but high-grade disease and early recurrence were identified as predictors of recurrence and death from disease, respectively. PMID:17889633

Wright, E H C; Gwilym, S; Gibbons, C L M H; Critchley, P; Giele, H P

2008-01-01

83

Muscle Flaps and Their Role in Limb Salvage  

PubMed Central

Muscle flaps have proved to be a valuable and versatile tool in the surgical treatment of the severely compromised lower extremity. Utilized as both local pedicle flaps and free tissue transfers, muscles have been successfully employed to cover complex wounds, manage osteomyelitis, salvage infected vascular grafts, treat recalcitrant venous stasis ulcers, preserve amputation levels, and restore motion following compartment syndrome. Free flap pedicles have also been used in a flow-through fashion to create a distal arterial bypass. This article explores the multipurpose role of muscle flaps in limb salvage surgery and their beneficial physiologic characteristics in hostile wound environments. PMID:23805342

Klebuc, Michael; Menn, Zachary

2013-01-01

84

Upper limb neuropathy in computer operators? A clinical case study of 21 patients  

PubMed Central

Background The character of upper limb disorder in computer operators remains obscure and their treatment and prevention have had limited success. Symptoms tend to be mostly perceived as relating to pathology in muscles, tendons or insertions. However, the conception of a neuropathic disorder would be supported by objective findings reflecting the common complaints of pain, subjective weakness, and numbness/tingling. By examining characteristics in terms of symptoms, signs, and course, this study aimed at forming a hypothesis concerning the nature and consequences of the disorder. Methods I have studied a consecutive series of 21 heavily exposed and severely handicapped computer-aided designers. Their history was recorded and questionnaire information was collected, encompassing their status 1/2 – 1 1/2 years after the initial clinical contact. The physical examination included an assessment of the following items: Isometric strength in ten upper limb muscles; sensibility in five homonymously innervated territories; and the presence of abnormal tenderness along nerve trunks at 14 locations. Results Rather uniform physical findings in all patients suggested a brachial plexus neuropathy combined with median and posterior interosseous neuropathy at elbow level. In spite of reduced symptoms at follow-up, the prognosis was serious in terms of work-status and persisting pain. Conclusions This small-scale study of a clinical case series suggests the association of symptoms to focal neuropathy with specific locations. The inclusion of a detailed neurological examination would appear to be advantageous with upper limb symptoms in computer operators. PMID:15310393

Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

2004-01-01

85

Primary Amyloidosis Presenting as Upper Limb Multiple Mononeuropathies  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy in primary (AL) amyloidosis is usually lower limb predominant, length-dependent, symmetrical, and affects small (pain and autonomic) fibers, as much or more than large fibers. We report a patient with step-wise progressive, multiple upper limb mononeuropathies that were due to nerve biopsy-proven primary amyloidosis (lambda light chain), with no systemic or autonomic features. Recognition that light chain amyloidosis may be the cause of a multiple mononeuropathy pattern adds to the differential diagnosis of this clinical phenotype. PMID:20405503

Tracy, Jennifer A.; Dyck, Peter J.; Dyck, P. James B.

2010-01-01

86

Long-Duration Muscle Dedifferentiation during Limb Regeneration in Axolotls  

PubMed Central

Although still debated, limb regeneration in salamanders is thought to depend on the dedifferentiation of remnant tissue occurring early after amputation and generating the progenitor cells that initiate regeneration. This dedifferentiation has been demonstrated previously by showing the fragmentation of muscle fibers into mononucleated cells and by revealing the contribution of mature muscle fibers to the regenerates by using lineage-tracing studies. Here, we provide additional evidence of dedifferentiation by showing that Pax7 (paired-box protein-7) transcripts are expressed at the ends of remnant muscle fibers in axolotls by using in situ hybridization and by demonstrating the presence of Pax7+ muscle-fiber nuclei in the early bud and mid-bud stages by means of immunohistochemical staining. During the course of regeneration, the remnant muscles did not progress; instead, muscle progenitors migrated out from the remnants and proliferated and differentiated in the new tissues at an early stage of differentiation. The regenerating muscles and remnant muscles were largely disconnected, and this left a gap between them until extremely late in the late stage of differentiation, at which point the new and old muscles connected together. Notably, Pax7 transcripts were detected in the regions of muscles that faced these gaps; thus, Pax7 expression might indicate dedifferentiation in the remnant-muscle ends and partial differentiation in the regenerating muscles. The roles of this long-duration dedifferentiation in the remnants remain unknown. However, the results presented here could support the hypothesis that long-duration muscle dedifferentiation facilitates the connection and fusion between the new and old muscles that are both in an immature state; this is because immature Pax7+ myoblasts readily fuse during developmental myogenesis. PMID:25671422

Wu, Cheng-Han; Huang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Bo-Sung; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Lee, Hsuan-Shu

2015-01-01

87

Upper limb grafts for hemodialysis access.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous (AV) grafts are required for hemodialysis access when options for native fistulas have been fully exhausted, where they continue to play an important role in hemodialysis patients, offering a better alternative to central vein catheters. When planning autogenous accesses using Doppler ultrasound, adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow must be consciously preserved for future access creation with grafts. Efforts to improve graft patency include changing graft configuration, graft biology and hemodynamics. Industry offers early cannulation grafts to reduce central catheter use and a bioengineered graft is undergoing clinical studies. Although the outcome of AV grafts is inferior to fistulas, grafts can provide long-term hemodialysis access that is a better alternative to central venous catheters. AV grafts have significant drawbacks, mainly poor patency, infection and cost but also have some advantages: early maturation, ease of creation and needling and widespread availability. The outcome of AV graft surgery is variable from center to center. The primary patency rate for AV grafts is 58% at 6 months and the secondary patency rate is 76% at 6 months and 55% at 18 months. There are centers of excellence that report a 1 year secondary patency rate of up to 91%. In this review of the use of AV grafts for hemodialysis access in the upper extremities, technical issues involved in planning the access and performing the surgery in its different configurations are discussed and the role of surveillance and maintenance with their attendant surgical and radiological interventions is described. PMID:25751548

Shemesh, David; Goldin, Ilya; Verstandig, Anthony; Berelowitz, Daniel; Zaghal, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded

2015-03-01

88

Motor Impairment Evaluation for Upper Limb in Stroke Patients on the Basis of a Microsensor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an urgent need for an effective and efficient upper limb rehabilitation method for poststroke patients. We present a Micro-Sensor-based Upper Limb rehabilitation System for poststroke patients. The wearable motion capture units are attached to upper limb segments embedded in the fabric of garments. The body segment orientation…

Huang, Shuai; Luo, Chun; Ye, Shiwei; Liu, Fei; Xie, Bin; Wang, Caifeng; Yang, Li; Huang, Zhen; Wu, Jiankang

2012-01-01

89

Redundancy and Joint Limits of a Seven Degree of Freedom Upper Limb Exoskeleton  

E-print Network

Redundancy and Joint Limits of a Seven Degree of Freedom Upper Limb Exoskeleton Levi Makaio Miller. The human machine interface (HMI) is a critical part of these system and for upper limb exoskeletons], upper limb exoskeletons [6] [7] [1] [8], biomechanics [9] [10] [11], and much more. The seven DoF model

Rosen, Jacob

90

An Experimental Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Upper Limb.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is the knowledge of the upper limb kinematics for various final tasks requiring effort or precision. The aim is to integrate these results in a C.A.D. system for human engineering studies. The description of these movements proceeds from the 3-D trajectories of anatomical landmarks delivered by the VICON system. Such a representation using fixed orthogonal reference system x, y, z, does not lead to a simple analysis of the gesture. So from these data we compute a set of angular parameters which are in closer relation with the real kinematics of the upper limb. We obtain this result by the introduction of pertinent intermediate reference systems, related to each rotation degree of freedom. The result exhibit typical patterns of the temporal evolution of the angular parameters related to the task assigned to the subject. The collected data constitute a computerized catalogue of movements included in ERGODATA system.

Hennion, P.-Y.; Mollard, R.; Lornet, P.

1986-07-01

91

Innovative methods to assess upper limb strength and function in non-ambulant Duchenne patients.  

PubMed

Upper limb assessment in non-ambulant patients remains a challenge. We have designed new tools to precisely assess pinch (MyoPinch), grip (MyoGrip), wrist flexion and extension (MyoWrist) strength. We have also designed a new tool to assess the ability of patients to produce repetitive flexion/extension movements of wrist and fingers (MoviPlate). We have assessed the feasibility and reliability of these new tools in 30 non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and in 30 age-matched male controls. Existing measures, such as Motor Function Measure, Tapping, and the Brooke Upper Extremity Functional Rating Scale were also performed. Results demonstrated that assessments were feasible in nearly all upper limbs tested for MyoGrip, MyoPinch and MoviPlate. The reliability of all tests, including MyoWrist which was not feasible in the patients presenting with contractures, was excellent in patients as in controls. Motor capacities decrease with the number of months spent in the wheelchair. The scores in the tests were partially correlated with each other, and with clinical measures such as vital capacity, Motor Function Measure, functional hand scale and Brooke score. This study validates a panel of upper limb muscle strength and function measures for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy which can be applied from controls to extremely weak patients. PMID:23219352

Servais, L; Deconinck, N; Moraux, A; Benali, M; Canal, A; Van Parys, F; Vereecke, W; Wittevrongel, S; Mayer, M; Desguerre, I; Maincent, K; Themar-Noel, C; Quijano-Roy, S; Serari, N; Voit, T; Hogrel, J-Y

2013-02-01

92

Quantification of upper limb kinetic asymmetries in front crawl swimming.  

PubMed

This study aimed at quantifying upper limb kinetic asymmetries in maximal front crawl swimming and to examine if these asymmetries would affect the contribution of force exertion to swimming performance. Eighteen high level male swimmers with unilateral breathing patterns and sprint or middle distance specialists, volunteered as participants. A load-cell was used to quantify the forces exerted in water by completing a 30s maximal front crawl tethered swimming test and a maximal 50m free swimming was considered as a performance criterion. Individual force-time curves were obtained to calculate the mean and maximum forces per cycle, for each upper limb. Following, symmetry index was estimated and breathing laterality identified by questionnaire. Lastly, the pattern of asymmetries along the test was estimated for each upper limb using linear regression of peak forces per cycle. Asymmetrical force exertion was observed in the majority of the swimmers (66.7%), with a total correspondence of breathing laterality opposite to the side of the force asymmetry. Forces exerted by the dominant upper limb presented a higher decrease than from the non-dominant. Very strong associations were found between exerted forces and swimming performance, when controlling the isolated effect of symmetry index. Results point that force asymmetries occur in the majority of the swimmers, and that these asymmetries are most evident in the first cycles of a maximum bout. Symmetry index stood up as an influencing factor on the contribution of tethered forces over swimming performance. Thus, to some extent, a certain degree of asymmetry is not critical for short swimming performance. PMID:25591132

Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Marques, Mário C

2015-04-01

93

Surgical treatment of common entrapment neuropathies in the upper limbs.  

PubMed

Entrapment neuropathies of the upper extremity are common, debilitating conditions. Most patients with these neuropathies are readily diagnosed on purely clinical grounds and may be effectively managed with nonoperative measures. However, the broad differential diagnosis often necessitates electrodiagnostic testing and radiographic imaging to clarify the situation. This review focuses on three of the most common entrapment neuropathies in the upper limbs: carpal tunnel syndrome (median nerve entrapment at the wrist), cubital tunnel syndrome (ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow), and radial tunnel syndrome (posterior interosseous nerve entrapment). Anatomical considerations, patient evaluation, indications for surgical intervention, options for surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications are discussed. PMID:10918251

Arle, J E; Zager, E L

2000-08-01

94

Slow potassium contractures in mouse limb muscles.  

PubMed Central

1. Mouse extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles respond to a sudden maintained increase in external K ion concentration with a fast contracture which inactivates and is followed by a slow contracture. 2. The slow contracture could not be selectively eliminated by altering the tonicity, ionic strength, anionic composition or buffer system of the external solution and depended only on the increase on external potassium concentration. The slow contracture differed from the fast K contracture in its time course, temperature sensitivity, fibre type dependence, and inactivation kinetics. The fast and slow contractures were similarly altered by changes in external anion species, by changes in external divalent cations, and by the presence of 20 mM-caffeine. 3. The mechanism and functional significance of the slow contracture are obscure. The results suggest that its generation is not identical to that of the fast contracture, but may depend, in part, upon the normal activation processes. PMID:7310704

Dulhunty, A F

1981-01-01

95

Dynamic expression of molecules that control limb muscle development including Fhl1 in hind limbs of different gestational age.  

PubMed

Muscle abnormality could be a key reason for congenital clubfoot (CCF) deformity, which manifests itself during fetal development. FHL1 down-regulated expression is involved in the formation of skeletal muscle abnormalities in CCF and FHL1 gene mutations contribute to the development of some kinds of myopathies. Therefore, detecting dynamic expression of Fhl1 and other molecules (Hgf, MyoD1, Myogenin, and Myh4) that control limb muscle development in hind limbs of different gestational age will provide a foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism involves in the myopathies or CCF. The dynamic gene expression levels of Fhl1, Hgf, MyoD1, Myogenin, and Myh4 in the lower limbs of E16, E17, E19, and E20 rat embryos were examined by real-time RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence was used to detect formation of specific muscle fibers (fast or slow fibers) in distal E17 hind limbs. The expression levels of Fhl1, Hgf, MyoD1, Myogenin, and Myh4 were varying in hind limbs of different gestational age. Real-time PCR results showed that all the genes that control skeletal muscle development except for Fhl1 exhibited a peak in E17 lower limbs. Immunofluorescence results showed obviously positive fast-myosin in the distal E17 lower limbs and meanwhile slow-myosin had no apparently signals. E17 was a critical time point for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation in the lower limbs of rat embryos. PMID:24475781

Wang, Li-Li; Peng, Zhao-Hong; Fan, Yang; Li, Lian-Yong; Wu, Di; Zhang, Yi; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bai, Yu-Zuo; Yuan, Zheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Lin; Sun, Kai-Lai

2014-09-01

96

The raccoon as an animal model for upper limb neural prosthetics.  

PubMed

The raccoon was evaluated as an animal model for upper limb neural prosthetics. This animal was selected primarily because the functional use of its forelimb mimics in many ways the usage in humans and because of its optimal size and commercial availability. Eight cadaver and fresh specimen forearms were dissected. Important characteristics of the raccoon forearm were: 1) large muscles in the volar forearm, 2) large digits in the paw that appear more similar to humans than to other species such as cat or dog, 3) persistence of two median nerve cords into the forearm, 4) no separation of individual tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus in the carpal tunnel, 5) a small thumb digit with little function and 6) a primary origin of flexor policis longus on the proximal ulna with a secondary origin on the radius. Four animals were anesthetized and responses of the forearm and paw to stimulation of the volar forearm muscles with percutaneous electrodes were evaluated. A pair of stimulating electrodes was placed in each of four muscles or muscle groups. Recording electrodes were placed in two muscles which showed the greatest separation of muscle movements to stimulation. Stimulation currents just above threshold produced discrete motion as well as recordable EMG M-waves. Incremental increases in stimulation current produced an increase in M-wave amplitude up to a maximal stimulating current. Torque recordings for pronation, wrist flexion and finger flexion showed graded and selective responses. These results including anatomical descriptions indicate both the limitations of this animal model and its potential use in the development of upper limb neural prosthetics. We conclude that the raccoon model may be superior to other nonprimate animal models such as the cat because of its extensive forearm and paw movements. PMID:9237790

Walter, J S; Griffith, P; Scarpine, V; Bidnar, M; Dauzvardis, M; Turner, M; McLane, J; Sweeney, J; Robinson, C J

1996-10-01

97

Effect of STS space suit on astronaut dominant upper limb EVA work performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.

Greenisen, Michael C.

1987-01-01

98

Implications of low mechanical impedance in upper limb reaching motion.  

PubMed

The equilibrium point hypothesis (EPH), much discussed in recent years, is central in a class of theories that posits an important role for muscular mechanical and reflex properties in the control of voluntary movement. We review briefly the findings of our studies testing the idea of equifinality, a major tenet of the EPH, which predicts that terminal limb position will be achieved regardless of transient perturbations in initial position or during ongoing movement. Our observations do not support this prediction of equifinality. We also report our findings that joint viscosity and elastic stiffness estimated during ballistic motion are unexpectedly low, limiting their potential contributions to the regulation either of limb movement trajectory or of limb stability. Taken together, our results imply that neuromuscular mechanical properties are unlikely to be used for regulating voluntary motion, and that other control strategies, most notably the use of feedforward controllers in which muscles act as force generators acting primarily on inertial loads, are more consistent with our observations. PMID:14999131

Popescu, Florin C; Rymeri, W Zev

2003-10-01

99

Reciprocal axo-axonal synapses between the common inhibitor and excitor motoneurons in crustacean limb muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nerve terminals of the common inhibitor motoneuron in a crab (Eriphia spinifrons) limb closer muscle and in a crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) limb accessory flexor muscle make neuromuscular synapses with the muscle membrane (postsynaptic inhibition) as well as axo-axonal synapses with the terminals of the excitatory axon (presynaptic inhibition). That transmission is from the inhibitor to the excitor terminals at

J. Pearce; C. K. Govind

1993-01-01

100

Sonography of entrapment neuropathies in the upper limb (wrist excluded).  

PubMed

The progressive refinement of broadband transducers with frequencies higher than 10 MHz and improved near-field resolution has enhanced the potential of sonography to evaluate a variety of nerve entrapment syndromes occurring in the upper limb, such as suprascapular neuropathy in the area of the spinoglenoid-supraspinous notch, the quadrilateral space syndrome (axillary neuropathy), radial neuropathy in the area of the spiral groove, the supinator syndrome (posterior interosseous neuropathy), the cubital tunnel syndrome (ulnar neuropathy), and the Kiloh-Nevin syndrome (anterior interosseous neuropathy). In these settings, high-resolution sonography can depict changes in the nerve's shape and echotexture and can depict many extrinsic causes of nerve entrapment. PMID:15558622

Martinoli, Carlo; Bianchi, Stefano; Pugliese, Francesca; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Gauglio, Cristina; Valle, Maura; Derchi, Lorenzo E

2004-01-01

101

A solitary fibrous tumor of the upper limb.  

PubMed

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) of the upper limb are extremely rare, and we report this tumor in the arm of a 30-year-old male. He is presented with a 22 cm painless mass. Complete surgical excision was performed. The histological diagnosis of SFT was based on the presence of ectatic blood vessels and positive staining for CD34 and vimentin. He remains disease-free at the 3-year follow-up interval. The report aims to increase the awareness of the criteria for the histological diagnosis of SFT, as well as the principles of their surgical excision and follow-up.  PMID:25719592

Al-Shanawani, Bisher N; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Arafah, Maha M; Al-Motairi, Muhammed I

2015-02-01

102

A solitary fibrous tumor of the upper limb  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) of the upper limb are extremely rare, and we report this tumor in the arm of a 30-year-old male. He is presented with a 22 cm painless mass. Complete surgical excision was performed. The histological diagnosis of SFT was based on the presence of ectatic blood vessels and positive staining for CD34 and vimentin. He remains disease-free at the 3-year follow-up interval. The report aims to increase the awareness of the criteria for the histological diagnosis of SFT, as well as the principles of their surgical excision and follow-up. PMID:25719592

Al-Shanawani, Bisher N.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.; Arafah, Maha M.; Al-Motairi, Muhammed I.

2015-01-01

103

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite microwave limb sounder instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measurement objectives are stratospheric ClO, O3, H2O, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has a 1.6-m mechanically scanning antenna system and contains heterodyne radiometers in spectral bands centred near 63, 183, and 205 GHz. The radiometers operate at ambient temperature and use Schottky-diode mixers with local oscillators derived from phase-locked Gunn oscillators. Frequency tripling by varactor multipliers generates the 183- and 205-GHz local oscillators, and quasi-optical techniques inject these into the mixers. Six 15-channel filter banks spectrally resolve stratospheric thermal emission lines and produce an output spectrum every 2 s. Thermal stability is sufficient for 'total power' measurements which do not require fast chopping. Radiometric calibration, consisting of measurements of cold space and an internal target, is performed every 65-s limb scan. Instrument in-orbit performance has been excellent, and all objectives are being met.

Barath, F. T.; Chavez, M. C.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Frerking, M. A.; Gram, M. B.; Harris, W. M.; Holden, J. R.; Jarnot, R. F.; Kloezeman, W. G.

1993-01-01

104

A survey on robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

The existing shortage of therapists and caregivers assisting physically disabled individuals at home is expected to increase and become serious problem in the near future. The patient population needing physical rehabilitation of the upper extremity is also constantly increasing. Robotic devices have the potential to address this problem as noted by the results of recent research studies. However, the availability of these devices in clinical settings is limited, leaving plenty of room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to document a review of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation including those in developing phase in order to provide a comprehensive reference about existing solutions and facilitate the development of new and improved devices. In particular the following issues are discussed: application field, target group, type of assistance, mechanical design, control strategy and clinical evaluation. This paper also includes a comprehensive, tabulated comparison of technical solutions implemented in various systems. PMID:24401110

2014-01-01

105

Upper-limb power test in rock-climbing.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to validate a new ecological power-test on athletes of different levels and to assess rock climbers' profiles (boulderers vs. route climbers). 34 athletes divided into novice, skilled and elite groups performed the arm-jump board test (AJ). Power, time, velocity, and efficiency index were recorded. Validity was assessed by comparing the distance with the value extracted from the accelerometer (500?Hz) and the reliability of intra- and inter-session scores. Moreover, a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the climbers' profiles. The AJ test was quite valid, showing a low systematic bias of -0.88?cm (-1.25%) and low limits of agreement (< 6%), and reliable ( Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.98 and CV < 5%), and was able to distinguish between the 3 samples (p < 0.0001). There was a good correlation between relative upper-limb power (r = 0.70; p < 0.01) and the AJ score. Moreover, the PCA revealed an explosive profile for boulderers and either a weak and quick or slow profile for route climbers, revealing a biomechanical signature of the sub-discipline. The AJ test provides excellent absolute and relative reliabilities for climbing, and can effectively distinguish between climbing athletes of different competitive levels. Thus, the AJ may be suitable for field assessment of upper limb strength in climbing practitioners. PMID:24554556

Laffaye, G; Collin, J-M; Levernier, G; Padulo, J

2014-07-01

106

Upper limb kinesthetic asymmetries: gender and handedness effects.  

PubMed

Proprioceptive and motor information contribute to movement representation; however, the equivalence of homologous contralateral sensorimotor processes as a function of gender and handedness has received little attention. The present work investigated asymmetry in contralateral reproductions of movements elicited by tendon vibration in right and left handed young adults of both genders. With eyes closed, illusions of elbow flexion movement elicited by a 100 Hz vibration applied to the distal tendon of the right or left triceps muscle were matched concurrently with the opposite limb. Overall, movement velocity was larger for females than males, asymmetric and handedness dependent in males. Conversely, consistent symmetry was found between left and right-handed females. These findings lead us to suggest that hand preference and gender contribute to differences in movement representation that may result from the combination of cortical structural differences and information processing specific to each hemisphere and gender. PMID:22490887

Adamo, Diane E; Scotland, Samantha; Martin, Bernard J

2012-05-16

107

Protein synthesis rates in atrophied gastrocnemius muscles after limb immobilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noting that protein synthesis declines in the gastrocnemius 6 hr after immobilization, the study sought to detect an increase of protein synthesis when the limb was freed, and to examine the effects of exercise on the rate of increase. Rats were used as subjects, with their hind legs in plaster of Paris in plantar flexion to eliminate strain on the gastrocnemius. Periods of immobilization were varied and samples of blood from the muscle were taken to track protein synthesis rates for different groups in immobilization and exercise regimens (running and weightlifting). Synthesis rates declined 3.6% during time in the cast, then increased 6.3%/day after the casts were removed. Both running and weightlifting were found to increase the fractional rate of protein formation in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared with contralateral muscles that were not exercised and were used as controls, suggesting that the mechanism controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscles is rapidly responsive to changes in muscular contractile activity.

Tucker, K. R.; Seider, M. J.; Booth, F. W.

1981-01-01

108

Muscle Activation Patterns When Passively Stretching Spastic Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n?=?35/19; 10.8±3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n?=? 32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I–IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position zones during low velocity stretches was found to be the most sensitive in categorizing muscles into activation patterns (p<0.01). Future studies should investigate whether muscles with different patterns react differently to treatment. PMID:24651860

Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

2014-01-01

109

Disuse osteoporosis of the upper limb: assessment of thirty patients  

PubMed Central

Summary Osteoporosis is a multifactorial skeletal disorder characterized by the decrease of bone mass and the alteration of bone microarchitecture that leads to the increase of fracture risks. Traditionally, osteoporosis has been classified into primary and secondary osteoporosis. Primary osteoporosis refers to osteoporotic conditions which are not related to other chronic illnesses and is usually associated with aging and decreased gonadal function, such as decreased level of estrogen, whereas secondary osteoporosis is the type of osteoporosis caused by other health problems. Disuse is one of the many reasons inducing bone loss and resulting in secondary osteoporosis. The disuse osteoporosis appeared for the first time in the literature in 1974 when Minaire reported some histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies performed after a spinal cord injury. The most common skeleton sites in which disuse osteoporosis can be observed are knees and ankles. There are three clinical situation in which this disease can be observed: neurological or muscular disease that causes a pathological and prolonged immobilization. The most frequent is caused by a spinal cord injury, long term bed rest or space flight that causes the immobilization linked to changes in mechanical environment and experimental immobilizations in healthy subjects. Physical exercise is essential for increasing or maintaining bone mass and strength. In our study we wondered if the disuse of the upper limbs of a certain entity, lasting for a long time, can cause a decrease in BMD quantifiable with a densitometric evaluation of the distal radius and with an evaluation of the humeral cortical index such as to define a real osteoporosis from disuse. We analyzed 30 female patients without secondary osteoporosis older than 60 years: everyone underwent to vit D evaluation, densitometric exams of spine, hip and distal radius, Constant score and femoral and humeral cortical index evaluation. We observed that the distal radius BMD and humeral cortical index were worse in patients with low upper limb functionality than in patients with normal shoulder function. The results of this study suggest that humeral cortical index and radial BMD can be useful methods of upper limb bone density evaluation and that they can be useful to select a correct surgical treatment in orthopaedic and traumatologic diseases. PMID:24133531

Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; De Paola, Gaia; Bugelli, Giulia; Pini, Erica; Guido, Giulio

2013-01-01

110

Effect of Intensive Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy on Upper-Limb Motor Recovery after Stroke: Case Study of a Patient with Chronic Stroke  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Motivated by a prior successful randomized controlled trial showing that functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy can restore voluntary arm and hand function in people with severe stroke, this study was designed to examine neuromuscular changes in the upper limb following intensive FES therapy, consisting of task-specific upper-limb movements with a combination of preprogrammed FES and manual assisted motion. Methods: The patient was a 22-year-old woman who had suffered a haemorrhagic stroke 2 years earlier. FES therapy was administered for 1 hour twice daily for 12 weeks, for a total of 108 treatment sessions. Results: While maximal voluntary contraction level of the upper-limb muscles did not show significant improvement, the ability to initiate and stop the muscle contraction voluntarily was regained in several upper-limb muscles (approx. 5%–15% of the maximum voluntary contraction of the same muscle in the less-affected arm). A reduction in arm spasticity was also observed, as indicated by the reduction of H-reflex in the wrist flexor muscle (82.1% to 45.0% in Hmax/Mmax) and decreased Modified Ashworth Scale scores (from 3 to 2 for the hand and 4 to 3 for the arm). Coordination between shoulder and elbow joints during the circle-drawing test improved considerably over the course of FES therapy: the patient was unable to draw a circle at all at baseline but was able to do so proficiently at discharge. Conclusion: Improvements in upper-limb function observed in people with severe stroke following intensive FES therapy can be attributed to (a) regained ability to voluntarily contract muscles of the affected arm, (b) reduced spasticity and improved muscle tone in the same muscles, and (c) increased range of motion of all joints. PMID:24381377

Popovic, Milos R.; Zivanovic, Vera

2013-01-01

111

Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (?=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (?=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (?=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (?=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation. PMID:22317463

Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

2012-01-01

112

Comparison between Flail Arm Syndrome and Upper Limb Onset Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Clinical Features and Electromyographic Findings  

PubMed Central

Flail arm syndrome (FAS), an atypical presentation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is characterized by progressive, predominantly proximal, weakness of upper limbs, without involvement of the lower limb, bulbar, or respiratory muscles. When encountering a patient who presents with this symptomatic profile, possible diagnoses include upper limb onset ALS (UL-ALS), and FAS. The lack of information regarding FAS may make differential diagnosis between FAS and UL-ALS difficult in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and electromyographic findings from patients diagnosed with FAS with those from patients diagnosed with UL-ALS. To accomplish this, 18 patients with FAS and 56 patients with UL-ALS were examined. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups pertaining to the rate of fasciculation, patterns of predominantly affected muscles, and the Medical Research Council scale of the weakest muscle. The presence of upper motor neuron signs and lower motor neuron involvement evidenced through electromyography showed no significant between-group differences. PMID:25258573

Yoon, Byung-Nam; Choi, Seong Hye; Rha, Joung-Ho; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Lee, Kwang-Woo

2014-01-01

113

Identifying the role of proprioception in upper-limb prosthesis control: Studies on targeted motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proprioception plays a crucial role in enabling humans to move purposively and interact with their physical surroundings. Current technology in upper-limb prostheses, while beginning to incorporate some haptic feedback, does not provide amputees with proprioceptive information about the state of the limb. Thus, the wearer must visually monitor the limb, which is often inconvenient or even impossible for some tasks.

Amy Blank; Allison M. Okamura; Katherine J. Kuchenbecker

2010-01-01

114

Surgical Treatment of Aneurysms in the Upper Limbs  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the experience of aneurysms in the upper limbs treated with surgery and assess the outcomes. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of five patients with upper extremity aneurysms treated with surgical resection at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital between March 2000 and February 2012. These patients were treated with excision surgery either with or without reconstructive surgery. Results: Two of the five patients were males and three were females with a mean age of 52 years (age range: 25–72 years). We treated 2 brachial, 2 ulnar, and 1 radial aneurysms. All aneurysms were excised, and two patients had reconstructive surgery. Three patients had false aneurysms, which included an ulnar artery aneurysm diagnosed as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. During follow-up period, all grafts were clinically patent, and no cases had recurrent lesions. No patients had ischemic symptoms or any other postoperative complications. Conclusion: Arterial aneurysms of the upper extremities are uncommon, and were most commonly caused by non-traumatic etiology in this series. These aneurysms were excised with or without reconstructive surgery, because of the fear of rupture and embolization. Revascularization can be performed selectively. PMID:24130621

2013-01-01

115

Microwave limb sounder. [measuring trace gases in the upper atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace gases in the upper atmosphere can be measured by comparing spectral noise content of limb soundings with the spectral noise content of cold space. An offset Cassegrain antenna system and tiltable input mirror alternately look out at the limb and up at cold space at an elevation angle of about 22. The mirror can also be tilted to look at a black body calibration target. Reflection from the mirror is directed into a radiometer whose head functions as a diplexer to combine the input radiation and a local ocillator (klystron) beam. The radiometer head is comprised of a Fabry-Perot resonator consisting of two Fabry-Perot cavities spaced a number of half wavelengths apart. Incoming radiation received on one side is reflected and rotated 90 deg in polarization by the resonator so that it will be reflected by an input grid into a mixer, while the klystron beam received on the other side is also reflected and rotated 90 deg, but not without passing some energy to be reflected by the input grid into the mixer.

Gustincic, J. J. (inventor)

1981-01-01

116

Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations. PMID:25276479

Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2014-01-01

117

Ambulatory measurement of upper limb usage and mobility-related activities during normal daily life with an upper limb-activity monitor: A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to assess the ability of an upper limb-activity monitor (ULAM) to discriminate between upper\\u000a limb usage and non-usage in healthy and disabled subjects during normal daily life. The ULAM was based on ambulatory accelerometry\\u000a and consisted of several acceleration sensors connected to a small recorder worn around the waist. While wearing this ULAM,\\u000a four

F. C. Schasfoort; J. B. J. Bussmann; H. J. Stam

2002-01-01

118

Amyoplasia involving only the upper limbs or only involving the lower limbs with review of the relevant differential diagnoses.  

PubMed

Of individuals with Amyoplasia, 16.8% (94/560) involve only the upper limbs (Upper Limb Amyoplasia-ULA) and 15.2% (85/560) involve only the lower limbs (Lower Limb Amyoplasia-LLA). The accompanying paper deals with other forms of Amyoplasia [Hall et al., 2013] and discusses etiology. An excess of one of monozygotic (MZ) twins is seen in both groups (ULA 4/94 (4.3%), LLA 5/85 (5.9%)), gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities thought to be of vascular origin (bowel atresia and gastroschisis) (ULA 16/94 (17%), LLA 4/85 (4.7%)), small or partial absence of digits (ULA 6/94 (6.2%), LLA 8/85 (9.4%)), and umbilical cord wrapping around the limbs at birth (ULA 3/94 (3.2%), LLA 7/85 (8.2%)) (severe enough to leave a permanent groove). Pregnancy complications occurred in 42/60 (70%) of ULA and 36/54 (67%) of LLA. Prenatal diagnosis, after ultrasound usage became routine, occurred in only 7/25 (28%) of ULA and 5/12 (12%) of LLA. This series may represent an over estimate of the complications and associations occurring in ULA and LLA. Differential diagnoses separating LLA from the genetic forms of "lower limb only" arthrogryposis and ULA from "upper limb only" genetic forms of arthrogryposis and Erb's palsy is provided. PMID:24459095

Hall, Judith G

2014-04-01

119

EEG controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the upper limb for stroke patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system and the experiments to allow post-acute (<3 months) stroke patients to use electroencephalogram (EEG) to trigger neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-assisted extension of the wrist/fingers, which are essential pre-requisites for useful hand function. EEG was recorded while subjects performed motor imagery of their paretic limb, and then analyzed to determine the optimal frequency range within the mu-rhythm, with the greatest attenuation. Aided by visual feedback, subjects then trained to regulate their mu-rhythm EEG to operate the BCI to trigger NMES of the wrist/finger. 6 post-acute stroke patients successfully completed the training, with 4 able to learn to control and use the BCI to initiate NMES. This result is consistent with the reported BCI literacy rate of healthy subjects. Thereafter, without the loss of generality, the controller of the NMES is developed and is based on a model of the upper limb muscle (biceps/triceps) groups to determine the intensity of NMES required to flex or extend the forearm by a specific angle. The muscle model is based on a phenomenological approach, with parameters that are easily measured and conveniently implemented.

Tan, Hock Guan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Kong, Keng He; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Wei Tech

2011-03-01

120

Muscle Co-Contraction Modulates Damping and Joint Stability in a Three-Link Biomechanical Limb  

PubMed Central

Computational models of neuromotor control require forward models of limb movement that can replicate the natural relationships between muscle activation and joint dynamics without the burdens of excessive anatomical detail. We present a model of a three-link biomechanical limb that emphasizes the dynamics of limb movement within a simplified two-dimensional framework. Muscle co-contraction effects were incorporated into the model by flanking each joint with a pair of antagonist muscles that may be activated independently. Muscle co-contraction is known to alter the damping and stiffness of limb joints without altering net joint torque. Idealized muscle actuators were implemented using the Voigt muscle model which incorporates the parallel elasticity of muscle and tendon but omits series elasticity. The natural force-length-velocity relationships of contractile muscle tissue were incorporated into the actuators using ideal mathematical forms. Numerical stability analysis confirmed that co-contraction of these simplified actuators increased damping in the biomechanical limb consistent with observations of human motor control. Dynamic changes in joint stiffness were excluded by the omission of series elasticity. The analysis also revealed the unexpected finding that distinct stable (bistable) equilibrium positions can co-exist under identical levels of muscle co-contraction. We map the conditions under which bistability arises and prove analytically that monostability (equifinality) is guaranteed when the antagonist muscles are identical. Lastly we verify these analytic findings in the full biomechanical limb model. PMID:22275897

Heitmann, Stewart; Ferns, Norm; Breakspear, Michael

2012-01-01

121

Incidence of upper limb venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to prospectively determine the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) in the upper limbs in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). We prospectively investigated the incidence of VT in the upper limbs of 26 patients who had PICC inserted. The inclusion criteria were all patients who had a PICC inserted, whilst the exclusion criterion

B J J Abdullah; N MOHAMMAD; J V SANGKAR; Y F ABD AZIZ; G G GAN; K Y GOH; I BENEDICT

2005-01-01

122

The MANUS-HAND Dextrous Robotics Upper Limb Prosthesis: Mechanical and Manipulation Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dextrous artificial hand design and manipulation is an active research topic. A very interesting practical application is the field of upper limb prosthetics. This paper presents the mechanical design and manipulation aspects of the MANUS-HAND project to develop a multifunctional upper limb prosthesis. The kinematics of our design makes use of the so-called underactuated principle and leads to an innovative

José Luis Pons Rovira; Eduardo Rocon De Lima; R. Ceres; D. Reynaerts; B. Saro; S. Levin; W. Van Moorleghem

2004-01-01

123

Reliability of the Performance of Upper Limb assessment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The Performance of Upper Limb was specifically designed to assess upper limb function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to assess (1) a cohort of typically developing children from the age of 3years onwards in order to identify the age when the activities assessed in the individual items are consistently achieved, and (2) a cohort of 322 Duchenne children and young adults to establish the range of findings at different ages. We collected normative data for the scale validation on 277 typically developing subjects from 3 to 25years old. A full score was consistently achieved by the age of 5years. In the Duchenne cohort there was early involvement of the proximal muscles and a proximal to distal progressive involvement. The scale was capable of measuring small distal movements, related to activities of daily living, even in the oldest and weakest patients. Our data suggest that the assessment can be reliably used in both ambulant and non ambulant Duchenne patients in a multicentric setting and could therefore be considered as an outcome measure for future trials. PMID:24440357

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Bianco, Flaviana; Sivo, Serena; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gianluca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Michela; Palermo, Concetta; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Iotti, Elena; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Morandi, Lucia; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Sormani, MariaPia; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-03-01

124

Movement analysis of upper limb during resistance training using general purpose robot arm "PA10"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we perform movement analysis of an upper limb during resistance training. We selected sanding training, which is one type of resistance training for upper limbs widely performed in occupational therapy. Our final aims in the future are to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training and to develop a new rehabilitation training support system. For these purposes, first of all we perform movement analysis using a conventional training tool. By measuring upper limb motion during the sanding training we perform feature abstraction. Next we perform movement analysis using the simulated sanding training system. This system is constructed using the general purpose robot arm "PA10". This system enables us to measure the force/torque exerted by subjects and to easily change the load of resistance. The control algorithm is based on impedance control. We found these features of the upper limb motion during the sanding training.

Morita, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hirose, Akinori; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

2005-12-01

125

[A case of early-onset cortical cerebellar atrophy with rhythmic skeletal myoclonus in the left upper limb].  

PubMed

A 19-year-old man developed progressive unsteady gait and speech disturbance two years ago. He recently noticed muscle twitches in the left limb. Neurological examination revealed scanning speech, saccadic ocular movement, ataxia of trunk and limbs predominant on the left side. Rhythmic myoclonus was present at rest around the left shoulder and arm, and amplified by raising the left arm. There was no myoclonus in the soft palate. MRI revealed only a cerebellar atrophy. This patient was diagnosed as having cortical cerebellar atrophy with rhythmic skeletal myoclonus (RSM). Tc-99m ECD SPECT showed a decrease in the blood flow of the right thalamus when the myoclonus was enhanced by raising the left upper limb, which suggests that the cerebello-thalamo-cortical system as well as Guillain-McIlaret triangle is involved in the development of RSM. PMID:9916523

Murakami, I; Yamada, T; Hara, H; Taniwaki, T; Sasaki, M; Kato, M; Kira, J

1998-08-01

126

Upper Limb Function and Cortical Organization in Youth with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Aim: To explore the relationship between motor cortical and descending motor pathway reorganization, lesion type, and upper limb function in youth with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twenty participants with unilateral CP (mean age 15?±?3?years; 11 males) completed a range of upper limb functional measures. Structural MRI, diffusion-weighted, and functional MRI were conducted to determine type and extent of brain lesion, descending white matter integrity, and whole-brain activity during affected hand use. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) (n?=?12) was used to examine functional integrity of the corticospinal pathway as well as primary motor cortex intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition from motor-evoked potentials and silent periods. Results: Fractional anisotropy measures within the posterior limb of the internal capsule were a predictor of upper limb function (R2?=?0.41, F?=?11.3, p?=?0.004). Participants with periventricular lesions tended to have better upper limb function [F(2, 17)?=?42.48, p?upper limb function. Deficits in intracortical and interhemispheric inhibitory mechanisms were found in participants with worse upper limb function (Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function: Mann Whitney p?=?0.02). Conclusion: Neuroimaging and TMS can provide useful information related to hand function of individuals with unilateral CP and may have potential to assist as a predictive tool and/or guide rehabilitation. PMID:25071705

Mackey, Anna; Stinear, Cathy; Stott, Susan; Byblow, Winston D.

2014-01-01

127

Analysis of Neurotrophic Factors in Limb and Extraocular Muscles of Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is currently an incurable fatal motor neuron syndrome characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting and death ensuing 3–5 years after diagnosis. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be important in both nervous system development and maintenance. However, the attempt to translate the potential of NTFs into the therapeutic options remains limited despite substantial number of approaches, which have been tested clinically. Using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, the present study investigated mRNA expression of four different NTFs: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in limb muscles and extraocular muscles (EOMs) from SOD1G93A transgenic mice at early and terminal stages of ALS. General morphological examination revealed that muscle fibres were well preserved in both limb muscles and EOMs in early stage ALS mice. However, in terminal ALS mice, most muscle fibres were either atrophied or hypertrophied in limb muscles but unaffected in EOMs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in early stage ALS mice, NT-4 was significantly down-regulated in limb muscles whereas NT-3 and GDNF were markedly up-regulated in EOMs. In terminal ALS mice, only GDNF was significantly up-regulated in limb muscles. We concluded that the early down-regulation of NT-4 in limb muscles is closely associated with muscle dystrophy and dysfunction at late stage, whereas the early up-regulations of GDNF and NT-3 in EOMs are closely associated with the relatively well-preserved muscle morphology at late stage. Collectively, the data suggested that comparing NTFs expression between limb muscles and EOMs from different stages of ALS animal models is a useful method in revealing the patho-physiology and progression of ALS, and eventually rescuing motor neuron in ALS patients. PMID:25334047

Harandi, Vahid M.; Lindquist, Susanne; Kolan, Shrikant Shantilal; Brännström, Thomas; Liu, Jing-Xia

2014-01-01

128

Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles.  

PubMed

Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain between-muscle differences. Two hypotheses were evaluated: 1) that muscle-specific motor-unit properties influence the bandwidth of vestibular reflexes; and 2) that frequency responses of vestibular reflexes differ between neck, back, and lower limb muscles because of neural filtering. Subjects were exposed to electrical vestibular stimuli over bandwidths of 0-25 and 0-75 Hz while recording activity in sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, erector spinae, soleus, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Coherence between stimulus and muscle activity revealed markedly larger vestibular reflex bandwidths in neck muscles (0-70 Hz) than back (0-15 Hz) or lower limb muscles (0-20 Hz). In addition, vestibular reflexes in back and lower limb muscles undergo low-pass filtering compared with neck-muscle responses, which span a broader dynamic range. These results suggest that the wider bandwidth of head-neck biomechanics requires a vestibular influence on neck-muscle activation across a larger dynamic range than lower limb muscles. A computational model of vestibular afferents and a motoneuron pool indicates that motor-unit properties are not primary contributors to the bandwidth filtering of vestibular reflexes in different muscles. Instead, our experimental findings suggest that pathway-dependent neural filtering, not captured in our model, contributes to these muscle-specific responses. Furthermore, gain-phase discontinuities in the neck-muscle vestibular reflexes provide evidence of destructive interaction between different reflex components, likely via indirect vestibular-motor pathways. PMID:23904494

Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Vardy, Alistair N; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

2013-10-01

129

Sensory capacity of reinnervated skin after redirection of amputated upper limb nerves to the chest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted reinnervation is a new neural-machine interface that has been developed to help improve the function of new- generation prosthetic limbs. Targeted reinnervation is a surgical procedure that takes the nerves that once innervated a severed limb and redirects them to proximal muscle and skin sites. The sensory afferents of the redirected nerves reinnervate the skin overlying the transfer site.

Paul D. Marasco; Aimee E. Schultz; Todd A. Kuiken

2009-01-01

130

Entrapment neuropathies I: upper limb (carpal tunnel excluded).  

PubMed

Several entrapment neuropathies of the upper extremity can cause hypoechoic swelling and nerve compression as seen at ultrasound. The ulnar nerve can be compressed at the cubital tunnel of the elbow and Guyon's canal at the wrist. The deep branch of the radial nerve can be compressed at the supinator muscle at the elbow, and the superficial radial nerve may be compressed at the dorsal wrist (Wartenberg's syndrome). In addition to compression at the carpal tunnel, the median nerve may be compressed at the elbow, related to a supracondylar process or by the pronator teres. Knowledge of these key anatomical sites of potential nerve compression is essential for accurate diagnosis of entrapment neuropathies. PMID:21072726

Jacobson, Jon A; Fessell, David P; Lobo, Lucas Da Gama; Yang, Lynda J-S

2010-11-01

131

Computationally efficient modeling of proprioceptive signals in the upper limb for prostheses: a simulation study  

PubMed Central

Accurate models of proprioceptive neural patterns could 1 day play an important role in the creation of an intuitive proprioceptive neural prosthesis for amputees. This paper looks at combining efficient implementations of biomechanical and proprioceptor models in order to generate signals that mimic human muscular proprioceptive patterns for future experimental work in prosthesis feedback. A neuro-musculoskeletal model of the upper limb with 7 degrees of freedom and 17 muscles is presented and generates real time estimates of muscle spindle and Golgi Tendon Organ neural firing patterns. Unlike previous neuro-musculoskeletal models, muscle activation and excitation levels are unknowns in this application and an inverse dynamics tool (static optimization) is integrated to estimate these variables. A proprioceptive prosthesis will need to be portable and this is incompatible with the computationally demanding nature of standard biomechanical and proprioceptor modeling. This paper uses and proposes a number of approximations and optimizations to make real time operation on portable hardware feasible. Finally technical obstacles to mimicking natural feedback for an intuitive proprioceptive prosthesis, as well as issues and limitations with existing models, are identified and discussed. PMID:25009463

Williams, Ian; Constandinou, Timothy G.

2014-01-01

132

Mechanical designs of active upper-limb exoskeleton robots: State-of-the-art and design difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active upper-limb exoskeleton robots have been developing from 1960s. In recent years, the mechanical designs and control algorithms of active upper-limb exoskeleton robots were developed significantly. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of active upper-limb exoskeleton robots that are applied in the areas of rehabilitation and assistive robotics. In addition, the main requirements of the active upper-limb exoskeleton robot are identified

R. A. R. C. Gopura; Kazuo Kiguchi

2009-01-01

133

A report of 18 blackthorn injuries of the upper limb.  

PubMed

This study aims to analyse various manifestations and to evaluate the clinical outcome in the patients who had exploratory procedures following blackthorn (Prunus spinosus) injury. We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 18 patients admitted between April 1997 and March 2001 to a District General Hospital of the UK. In all the cases, the site of injury was the upper limb. The mean age at presentation was 39.1 years. There was a male predominance (83.33%) and a marginal right side preponderance. The majority of the patients (83.33%) presented between March and August, which correlates with hedge-cutting time. The mean delay in presentation was 3 days (range: 1-14 days). The final postoperative outcome was satisfactory in all cases. We conclude that conservative treatment alone failed to resolve the symptoms. We recommend that all patients presenting with a history of blackthorn injury should undergo an immediate and thorough exploration to avoid undue complications. PMID:15302250

Sharma, Himanshu; Meredith, A D

2004-09-01

134

Upper limb malformations in chromosome 22q11 deletions  

SciTech Connect

We read with interest the report of Cormier-Daire et al. in a recent issue of the journal, describing upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. We observed a family with this group of rare clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. The proposita was examined in our clinic when she was 4 years old. She was mildly mentally retarded. Clinical evaluation showed normal growth, long thin nose with squared tip, nasal speech, and abundant scalp hair and no cardiac anomalies. The girl was accompanied by her mother. Facial similarities were noted between the two. The mother reported to be treated with oral calcium due to hypoparathyroidism, diagnosed several years ago. Clinical evaluation showed wide flat face, short stature, mild mental retardation, slight hypertelorism, peculiar nose similar to her daughter`s, and nasal speech. No cardiac anomalies were found. Recently, a brother was born. Clinical examination documented large ventriculo-septal defect, retrognathia, narrow palpebral fissures, and long thin nose with squared tip. 1 ref.

Shalev, S.A.; Dar, H.; Barel, H.; Borochowitz, Z. [Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa (Israel)

1996-03-29

135

Temporal alignment of electrocorticographic recordings for upper limb movement  

PubMed Central

The detection of movement-related components of the brain activity is useful in the design of brain-machine interfaces. A common approach is to classify the brain activity into a number of templates or states. To find these templates, the neural responses are averaged over each movement task. For averaging to be effective, one must assume that the neural components occur at identical times over repeated trials. However, complex arm movements such as reaching and grasping are prone to cross-trial variability due to the way movements are performed. Typically initiation time, duration of movement and movement speed are variable even as a subject tries to reproduce the same task identically across trials. Therefore, movement-related neural activity will tend to occur at different times across the trials. Due to this mismatch, the averaging of neural activity will not bring into salience movement-related components. To address this problem, we present a method of alignment that accounts for the variabilities in the way the movements are conducted. In this study, arm speed was used to align neural activity. Four subjects had electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrodes implanted over their primary motor cortex and were asked to perform reaching and retrieving tasks using the upper limb contralateral to the site of electrode implantation. The arm speeds were aligned using a non-linear transformation of the temporal axes resulting in average spectrograms with superior visualization of movement-related neural activity when compared to averaging without alignment. PMID:25628522

Talakoub, Omid; Popovic, Milos R.; Navaro, Jessie; Hamani, Clement; Fonoff, Erich T.; Wong, Willy

2015-01-01

136

Effect of Acute Exercise on Upper-Limb Volume in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Strenuous upper-extremity activity and/or exercise have traditionally been prescribed for breast cancer survivors with or at risk of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an acute bout of exercise on upper-limb volume and symptoms in breast cancer survivors, with the intent to provide pilot data to guide a subsequent larger study. Methods: Twenty-three women who regularly participated in dragon-boat racing took part in the study. A single exercise bout was performed at a moderate intensity (rating of perceived exertion: 13–14) for 20 continuous minutes on an arm ergometer. The difference between affected and unaffected limb volume was assessed pre- and post-exercise via measurements of limb circumference at five time points. Results: Although limb volume increased following exercise in both limbs, the difference between the limbs remained stable at each measurement point. Only one participant was found to have an increase in arm-volume difference of >100 ml post intervention, and only four participants reported symptoms of tension and/or heaviness in the affected limb. Conclusion: The results suggest that limb volume in breast cancer survivors increases after an acute bout of upper-limb exercise but that, for the majority of women, the response is not different between affected and unaffected limbs. Future research using a larger sample and more sensitive measurement methods are recommended. PMID:20808486

Campbell, Kristin L.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.

2009-01-01

137

Muscle contributions to support and progression during single-limb stance in crouch gait.  

PubMed

Pathological movement patterns like crouch gait are characterized by abnormal kinematics and muscle activations that alter how muscles support the body weight during walking. Individual muscles are often the target of interventions to improve crouch gait, yet the roles of individual muscles during crouch gait remain unknown. The goal of this study was to examine how muscles contribute to mass center accelerations and joint angular accelerations during single-limb stance in crouch gait, and compare these contributions to unimpaired gait. Subject-specific dynamic simulations were created for ten children who walked in a mild crouch gait and had no previous surgeries. The simulations were analyzed to determine the acceleration of the mass center and angular accelerations of the hip, knee, and ankle generated by individual muscles. The results of this analysis indicate that children walking in crouch gait have less passive skeletal support of body weight and utilize substantially higher muscle forces to walk than unimpaired individuals. Crouch gait relies on the same muscles as unimpaired gait to accelerate the mass center upward, including the soleus, vasti, gastrocnemius, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and gluteus maximus. However, during crouch gait, these muscles are active throughout single-limb stance, in contrast to the modulation of muscle forces seen during single-limb stance in an unimpaired gait. Subjects walking in crouch gait rely more on proximal muscles, including the gluteus medius and hamstrings, to accelerate the mass center forward during single-limb stance than subjects with an unimpaired gait. PMID:20493489

Steele, Katherine M; Seth, Ajay; Hicks, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Michael S; Delp, Scott L

2010-08-10

138

Cancer cachexia decreases specific force and accelerates fatigue in limb muscle  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle absolute force. •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle specific force. •C-26 cancer cachexia decreases fatigue resistance in the soleus muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs time to peak twitch tension in limb muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs one half twitch relaxation time in limb muscle. -- Abstract: Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. However, more recently, we provided evidence that during severe cancer cachexia muscle weakness in the diaphragm muscle cannot be entirely accounted for by the muscle atrophy. This indicates that muscle weakness is not just a consequence of muscle atrophy but that there is also significant contractile dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine whether contractile dysfunction is also present in limb muscles during severe Colon-26 (C26) carcinoma cachexia by studying the glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the oxidative soleus muscle, which has an activity pattern that more closely resembles the diaphragm. Severe C-26 cancer cachexia caused significant muscle fiber atrophy and a reduction in maximum absolute force in both the EDL and soleus muscles. However, normalization to muscle cross sectional area further demonstrated a 13% decrease in maximum isometric specific force in the EDL and an even greater decrease (17%) in maximum isometric specific force in the soleus. Time to peak tension and half relaxation time were also significantly slowed in both the EDL and the solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. Since, in addition to postural control, the oxidative soleus is also important for normal locomotion, we further performed a fatigue trial in the soleus and found that the decrease in relative force was greater and more rapid in solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. These data demonstrate that severe cancer cachexia causes profound muscle weakness that is not entirely explained by the muscle atrophy. In addition, cancer cachexia decreases the fatigue resistance of the soleus muscle, a postural muscle typically resistant to fatigue. Thus, specifically targeting contractile dysfunction represents an additional means to counter muscle weakness in cancer cachexia, in addition to targeting the prevention of muscle atrophy.

Roberts, B.M. [1225 Center Drive, HPNP Building Room 1142, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)] [1225 Center Drive, HPNP Building Room 1142, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Frye, G.S.; Ahn, B.; Ferreira, L.F. [1864 Stadium Road, Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)] [1864 Stadium Road, Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Judge, A.R., E-mail: arjudge@phhp.ufl.edu [1225 Center Drive, HPNP Building Room 1142, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

2013-06-07

139

US of nerve entrapments in osteofibrous tunnels of the upper and lower limbs.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of nerve entrapment at osteofibrous tunnels relies primarily on clinical and electrodiagnostic findings. Recently, the refinement of high-frequency broadband transducers with a range of 5-15 MHz, sophisticated focusing in the near field, and sensitive color and power Doppler technology have improved the ability to evaluate peripheral nerve entrapment in osteofibrous tunnels with ultrasonography (US). In the upper limb, osteofibrous tunnels amenable to US examination include the carpal tunnel for the median nerve and the cubital and Guyon tunnels for the ulnar nerve. In the lower limb, these tunnels include the fibular neck for the common peroneal nerve, the tarsal tunnel for the posterior tibial nerve, and the intermetatarsal spaces for the interdigital nerves. High-resolution US allows direct imaging of the involved nerves, as well as documentation of changes in nerve shape and echotexture that occur in compressive syndromes. A spectrum of extrinsic causes of entrapment, such as tenosynovitis, ganglia, soft-tissue tumors, bone and joint abnormalities, and anomalous muscles, can also be diagnosed with US. With continued experience, it is likely that this technique will be increasingly used to evaluate nerve entrapment syndromes. PMID:11046171

Martinoli, C; Bianchi, S; Gandolfo, N; Valle, M; Simonetti, S; Derchi, L E

2000-10-01

140

Acupuncture in the Treatment of Upper-Limb Lymphedema  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Current treatments for lymphedema after breast cancer treatment are expensive and require ongoing intervention. Clinical experience and our preliminary published results suggest that acupuncture is safe and potentially useful. This study evaluates the safety and potential efficacy of acupuncture on upper-limb circumference in women with lymphedema. METHODS Women with a clinical diagnosis of breast cancer?related lymphedema (BCRL) for 0.5-5 years and with affected arm circumference ?2 cm larger than unaffected arm received acupuncture treatment twice weekly for 4 weeks. Affected and unaffected arm circumferences were measured before and after each acupuncture treatment. Response, defined as ?30% reduction in circumference difference between affected/unaffected arms, was assessed. Monthly follow-up calls for 6 months thereafter were made to document any complications and self-reported lymphedema status. RESULTS Among 37 enrolled patients, 33 were evaluated; 4 discontinued due to time constraints. Mean reduction in arm circumference difference was 0.90 cm (95% CI, 0.72-1.07; P < .0005). Eleven patients (33%) exhibited a reduction of ?30% after acupuncture treatment. Seventy-six percent of patients received all treatments; 21% missed 1 treatment, and another patient missed 2 treatments. During the treatment period, 14 of the 33 patients reported minor complaints, including mild local bruising or pain/tingling. There were no serious adverse events and no infections or severe exacerbations after 255 treatment sessions and 6 months of follow-up interviews. CONCLUSIONS Acupuncture for BCRL appears safe and may reduce arm circumference. Although these results await confirmation in a randomized trial, acupuncture can be considered for women with no other options for sustained arm circumference reduction. Cancer 2013;119:2455-2461. © 2013 American Cancer Society. PMID:23576267

Cassileth, Barrie R; Van Zee, Kimberly J; Yeung, K Simon; Coleton, Marci I; Cohen, Sara; Chan, Yi H; Vickers, Andrew J; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Hudis, Clifford A

2013-01-01

141

The physiological impact of upper limb position in prone restraint.  

PubMed

Deaths occurring during and/or in close proximity to physical restraint have been attributed to positional asphyxia. This study investigated the physiological impact of three recognized prone-restraint positions with participants remaining passive. Position 3 (P3) the supported prone position (SPP) was designed to reduce the extent of pressure on the anterior chest wall (PAC) by bringing the upper limbs underneath the shoulder joint whereas for the other two positions (P1 and P2) the arms were abducted from the torso. Twenty-five adults participated. Forced vital capacity (FVC), expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturations (SpO2) were taken three times in an upright seated position (baseline) and in each prone position. Mean PAC was measured at 102.6 (±24.3) and 101.4 (±24.4)?mmHg for P1 and P2, respectively; however, in the SPP (P3) the mean PAC pressure reduced to 72.7 (±16.9)?mmHg. All three prone-restraint positions reduced FVC and FEV1 compared with baseline (P?

Barnett, Richard; Hanson, Paul; Stirling, Chris; Pandyan, Anand D

2013-07-01

142

Common Interlimb Asymmetries and Neurogenic Responses during Upper Limb Neurodynamic Testing: Implications for Test Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper limb neurodynamic testing (ULNT1) uses interlimb comparisons to investigate nerve sensitivity to movement. The study design used was a clinical measurement, pilot study. The purpose of the study was to establish the magnitude of range of motion asymmetries between limbs and the frequency of neurogenic sensory responses during ULNT1. Elbow extension range of motion (EE-ROM) and sensory responses were

Benjamin S. Boyd

143

The effect of perinatal brachial plexus lesion on upper limb development  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiency in upper limb development is a sequel of the perinatal brachial plexus palsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of brachial plexus birth lesion on upper limb development. Methods Forty-four patients with unilateral obstetric brachial plexus palsy underwent measurements of both upper extremities. The average age at the time of evaluation was 6.8 years. Active motion was assessed using Gilbert-Raimondi, the modified MRC, and Al-Qattan scales. Paired t test was used for statistical analysis. Correlation between limb length / circumference discrepancy and age / time of surgery was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Results A decrease in the circumference and length was observed in all limbs with brachial plexus lesion. We found a statistically significant difference between degree of hand length and width decrease and its useful and useless function. We observed a statistically significant difference in measurement: forearm length, hand length and width dependent on the type of surgical procedure (neurolysis, reconstruction). We observed no correlation between age and limb length / circumference discrepancy. We also observed no correlation between time of surgery and limb length / circumference discrepancy. Conclusions The decrease in dimensions of the affected limbs occurred predominantly during the period of early childhood. Disparities in dimensions are observed in both cases of deficiency of useful function of upper limb and cases in which functional efficiency appears. PMID:24694070

2014-01-01

144

Development of a Haptic Feedback Device for Upper Limb Amputees Andrew Erwin and Professor Frank Sup  

E-print Network

and 20 trials of pattern stimulations. The amplitude of the current was varied randomly during limb to control their prostheses. However, upper-limb prosthetics still lack the feedback necessary this problem haptic feedback devices have been explored. Haptic feedback is the use of a created stimulation

Mountziaris, T. J.

145

Journal of Biomechanics 35 (2002) 1926 Scaling of peak moment arms of elbow muscles with upper extremity  

E-print Network

August 2001 Abstract It is often assumed that moment arms scale with size and can be normalized by bodyJournal of Biomechanics 35 (2002) 19­26 Scaling of peak moment arms of elbow muscles with upper segment lengths or limb circumferences. However, quantitative scaling relationships between moment arms

Delp, Scott

2002-01-01

146

Circulating angiogenic biomolecules at rest and in response to upper-limb exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) show structural and functional vascular maladaptations and muscle loss in their lower limbs. Angiogenic biomolecules play important roles in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, and are implicated in the maintenance of muscle mass. This study examined the responses of angiogenic molecules during upper-limb aerobic exercise in patients with SCI and in able-bodied (AB) individuals. Methods Eight SCI patients with thoracic lesions (T6–T12, ASIA A) and eight AB individuals performed an arm-cranking exercise for 30 minutes at 60% of their VO2max. Plasma concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A165), VEGF receptor 1 (sVEGFr-1), VEGF receptor 2 (sVEGFr-2), metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and endostatin were measured at rest, after exercise, and at 1.5 and 3.0 hours during recovery. Results The two-way analysis of variance showed non-significant main effects of “group” and significant main effects of “time/exercise” for all angiogenic biomolecules examined (P < 0.01–0.001). The arm-cranking exercise significantly increased plasma concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFr-1, sVEGFr-2, MMP-2, and endostatin in both groups (P < 0.001–0.01). The magnitude of the increase was similar in both patients with SCI and AB individuals, as shown by the non-significant group × time interaction for all angiogenic parameters. Conclusions Upper-limb exercise (arm-cranking for 30 minutes at 60% of VO2max) is a sufficient stimulus to trigger a coordinated circulating angiogenic response in patients with SCI. The response of angiogenic molecules to upper-limb aerobic exercise in SCI appears relatively similar to that observed in AB individuals. PMID:24090471

Vasiliadis, Angelo V.; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Galanis, Nikiforos; Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Vrabas, Ioannis S.

2014-01-01

147

Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS) protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10) in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) and surface electromyography (sEMG) of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and vastus lateralis (VL) were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD). ANOVA (2x2) (group x condition) was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001). A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control) for peak force for control group (p = 0.045). Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched) or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching) for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL). In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation. Key points The jump performance can be affected negatively by an intense extensive static-stretching protocol. An intense acute extensive SS protocol can affect positively the shoulder ROM. The intense acute extensive SS protocol does not change the level of muscle activation for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis. PMID:25435789

Marchetti, Paulo H.; Silva, Fernando H. D. de Oliveira; Soares, Enrico G.; Serpa, Érica P.; Nardi, Priscyla S. M.; Vilela, Guanis de B.; Behm, David G.

2014-01-01

148

An Upper-Limb Power-Assist Exoskeleton Using Proportional Myoelectric Control  

PubMed Central

We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:24727501

Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang

2014-01-01

149

An upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton using proportional myoelectric control.  

PubMed

We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:24727501

Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang

2014-01-01

150

Muscle cross-sectional areas and performance power of limbs and trunk in the rowing motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is clear that rowers have a large muscle mass, their distribution of muscle mass and which of the main motions in rowing mediates muscle hypertrophy in each body part are unclear. We examine the relationships between partial motion power in rowing and muscle cross-sectional area of the thigh, lower back, and upper arms. Sixty young rowers (39 males

KANTA TACHIBANA; KAZUYA YASHIRO; JUN MIYAZAKI; YASUO IKEGAMI; MITSURU HIGUCHI

2007-01-01

151

Muscle MRI findings in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L.  

PubMed

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L) is an adult-onset slowly progressive muscular dystrophy associated with recessive mutations in the ANO5 gene. We analysed the muscle MRI pattern in a cohort of 25 LGMD2L patients in order to understand the extent and progression of muscle pathology in LGM2L and assess if muscle MRI might help in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Our results showed a homogeneous pattern of muscle pathology on muscle MRI, with a predominant involvement of the posterior compartment muscles in both the thighs and calves. The muscles of the anterior compartments in the leg together with the sartorius and gracilis muscles were best preserved, which partially overlaps with patterns observed for other recessive LGMDs. Muscle MRI therefore does not appear to be as useful in the diagnostic work up of LGMD2L as for other neuromuscular diseases, such as Bethlem myopathy or myofibrillar myopathy. PMID:22980763

Sarkozy, Anna; Deschauer, Marcus; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Schrank, Bertold; Seeger, Jürgen; Walter, Maggie C; Schoser, Benedikt; Reilich, Peter; Leturq, France; Radunovic, Aleksandar; Behin, Anthony; Laforet, Pascal; Eymard, Bruno; Schreiber, Herbert; Hicks, Debbie; Vaidya, Sujit S; Gläser, Dieter; Carlier, Pierre G; Bushby, Kate; Lochmüller, Hanns; Straub, Volker

2012-10-01

152

Lower limb muscle impairment in myotonic dystrophy type 1: The need for better guidelines.  

PubMed

In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), leg muscle weakness is a major impairment. There are challenges to obtaining a clear portrait of muscle strength impairment. A systematic literature review was conducted on lower limb strength impairment in late-onset and adult phenotypes to document variables which affect strength measurement. Thirty-two articles were reviewed using the COSMIN guidelines. Only a third of the studies described a reproducible protocol. Only 2 muscle groups have documented reliability for quantitative muscle testing and only 1 total score for manual muscle testing. Variables affecting muscle strength impairment are not described in most studies. This review illustrates the variability in muscle strength assessment in relation to DM1 characteristics and the questionable validity of the results with regard to undocumented methodological properties. There is therefore a clear need to adopt a consensus on the use of a standardized muscle strength assessment protocol. Muscle Nerve 51: 473-478, 2015. PMID:25399769

Petitclerc, Émilie; Hébert, Luc J; Desrosiers, Johanne; Gagnon, Cynthia

2015-04-01

153

Upper limb swelling following mastectomy: lymphedema or not?  

PubMed

Having experienced an excisional biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and mastectomy, BH is at lifetime risk of developing post-breast cancer lymphedema in the arm on the side where her breast cancer was treated. She has two additional risk factors, among those documented in the literature: history of an infection (specifically a systemic infection, significant in that it required hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics) in the postsurgery period, and a moderate increase in bilateral limb volume and weight (body mass index) over the months and years following the breast cancer diagnosis. Further, the patient-reported transient hand swelling on the affected side and gradual weight increase are cues indicating a need for patient vigilance and careful monitoring by the health-care team. Preventing future infections, managing weight at an optimal level, and preventing trauma or injury to the affected arm and chest are important self-management precautions to reduce risk of chronic lymphedema development. BH needs continued support in reviewing evidence-based risk-reduction guidelines and understanding ways to apply them to her lifestyle. In the absence of preoperative baseline or contralateral limb measurements (with circumferences or perometry or water displacement), assessment of limb change at a level identified as diagnostic of lymphedema (commonly, 200-mL volume or 2-cm girth increase from baseline or as compared to the contralateral limb) is very challenging. Without bilateral preop limb measurements for baseline and contralateral limb comparisons, BH might have been diagnosed with lymphedema at postop or at 48 months, when both limbs increased symmetrically. Symptom assessment is also crucial, as symptom report of heaviness and swelling is found to be associated with limb volume changes indicative of lymphedema. Transient hand swelling may be evidence of latent lymphedema and cause for increased risk-reduction education and vigilance in assessment for emergence of nonresolving chronic lymphedema. million American women are breast cancer survivors. According to the American Cancer Society, every person treated for cancer with lymph node removal, surgery, or radiation has a lifetime risk for lymphedema, swelling caused by an increase in protein-rich interstitial fluid. Some will develop lymphedema soon after cancer treatment (within weeks or months) and others may not experience PMID:17508496

Armer, Jane

2007-04-01

154

Gait and upper limb variability in Parkinson's disease patients with and without freezing of gait.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) (freezers) demonstrate high gait variability. The objective of this study was to determine whether freezers display a higher variability of upper limb movements and elucidate if these changes correlate with gait. We were the first group to compare directly objectively measured gait and upper limb movement variability of freezers between freezing episodes. Patients with objectively verified FOG (n = 11) and PD patients without FOG (non-freezers) (n = 11) in a non-randomized medication condition (OFF/ON) were analyzed. Uncued antiphasic finger tapping and forearm diadochokinetic movements were analyzed via three-dimensional ultrasound kinematic measurements. Gait variability of straight gait was assessed using ground reaction forces. Freezers had shorter stride length (p = 0.004) and higher stride length variability (p = 0.005) in the medication OFF condition. Movement variability was not different during finger tapping or diadochokinesia between the groups. There was a trend towards more freezing of the upper limb during finger tapping for the freezers (p = 0.07). Variability in stride length generation and stride timing was not associated with variability of upper limb movement in freezers. Our findings demonstrate that: (1) freezers have a higher spatial gait variability between freezing episodes; (2) freezing-like episodes of the upper limb occur in PD patients, and tend to be more pronounced among freezers than non-freezers for finger tapping; (3) spatial and temporal upper extremity variability is equally affected in freezers and non-freezers in an uncued task. Upper limb freezing is not correlated to lower limb freezing, implicating a different pathophysiology. PMID:24305993

Barbe, Michael T; Amarell, Martin; Snijders, Anke H; Florin, Esther; Quatuor, Eva-Lotte; Schönau, Eckhard; Fink, Gereon R; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Timmermann, Lars

2014-02-01

155

Principles of tendon reconstruction following complex trauma of the upper limb.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of tendons following complex trauma to the upper limb presents unique clinical and research challenges. In this article, the authors review the principles guiding preoperative assessment, surgical reconstruction, and postoperative rehabilitation and management of the upper extremity. Tissue engineering approaches to address tissue shortages for tendon reconstruction are also discussed. PMID:25685101

Chattopadhyay, Arhana; McGoldrick, Rory; Umansky, Elise; Chang, James

2015-02-01

156

Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement. PMID:21869628

Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim

2011-09-01

157

Thermographic Patterns of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Baseline Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency. PMID:25648145

Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Kenneth P.; De Raffaele, Clifford; Mizzi, Stephen; Cristina, Stefania

2015-01-01

158

Thermographic patterns of the upper and lower limbs: baseline data.  

PubMed

Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency. PMID:25648145

Gatt, Alfred; Formosa, Cynthia; Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Kenneth P; De Raffaele, Clifford; Mizzi, Anabelle; Azzopardi, Carl; Mizzi, Stephen; Falzon, Owen; Cristina, Stefania; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

2015-01-01

159

The Microwave Limb Sounder For The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Microwave Limb Sounder is designed to map the concentrations of a number of trace gases from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. This will improve our understanding of the photochemical reactions which take place in this part of the atmosphere. The instrument will measure the intensity of thermal radiation from molecules in the atmosphere at frequencies corresponding to rotational

J. W. Waters; G. E. Peckham; R. A. Suttie; P. D. Curtis; B. J. Madison; R. S. Harwood

1988-01-01

160

Passive resting state and history of antagonist muscle activity shape active extensions in an insect limb  

PubMed Central

Limb movements can be driven by muscle contractions, external forces, or intrinsic passive forces. For lightweight limbs like those of insects or small vertebrates, passive forces can be large enough to overcome the effects of gravity and may even generate limb movements in the absence of active muscle contractions. Understanding the sources and actions of such forces is therefore important in understanding motor control. We describe passive properties of the femur-tibia joint of the locust hind leg. The resting angle is determined primarily by passive properties of the relatively large extensor tibiae muscle and is influenced by the history of activation of the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron. The resting angle is therefore better described as a history-dependent resting state. We selectively stimulated different flexor tibiae motor neurons to generate a range of isometric contractions of the flexor tibiae muscle and then stimulated the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron to elicit active tibial extensions. Residual forces in the flexor muscle have only a small effect on subsequent active extensions, but the effect is larger for distal than for proximal flexor motor neurons and varies with the strength of flexor activation. We conclude that passive properties of a lightweight limb make substantial and complex contributions to the resting state of the limb that must be taken into account in the patterning of neuronal control signals driving its active movements. Low variability in the effects of the passive forces may permit the nervous system to accurately predict their contributions to behavior. PMID:22357791

Ache, Jan M.

2012-01-01

161

Upper Limb Posture Estimation in Robotic and Virtual Reality-Based Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation. PMID:25110698

Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F.; Cuesta-Gómez, A.; Ruiz, Oscar E.

2014-01-01

162

A Systematic Review of Bilateral Upper Limb Training Devices for Poststroke Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics). Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus) value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required. PMID:23251833

van Delden, A. (Lex) E. Q.; Peper, C. (Lieke) E.; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J.

2012-01-01

163

The Influence of Dopaminergic Striatal Innervation on Upper Limb Locomotor Synergies  

PubMed Central

To determine the role of striatal dopaminergic innervation on upper limb synergies during walking, we measured arm kinematics in 13 subjects with Parkinson disease. Patients were recruited according to several inclusion criteria to represent the best possible in vivo model of dopaminergic denervation. Of relevance, we included only subjects with normal spatio-temporal parameters of the stride and gait speed to avoid an impairment of upper limbs locomotor synergies as a consequence of gait impairment per se. Dopaminergic innervation of the striatum was measured by FP-CIT and SPECT. All patients showed a reduction of gait-associated arms movement. No linear correlation was found between arm ROM reduction and contralateral dopaminergic putaminal innervation loss. Still, a partition analysis revealed a 80% chance of reduced arm ROM when putaminal dopamine content loss was >47%. A significant correlation was described between the asymmetry indices of the swinging of the two arms and dopaminergic striatal innervation. When arm ROM was reduced, we found a positive correlation between upper-lower limb phase shift modulation (at different gait velocities) and striatal dopaminergic innervation. These findings are preliminary evidence that dopaminergic striatal tone plays a modulatory role in upper-limb locomotor synergies and upper-lower limb coupling while walking at different velocities. PMID:23236504

Isaias, Ioannis U.; Volkmann, Jens; Marzegan, Alberto; Marotta, Giorgio; Cavallari, Paolo; Pezzoli, Gianni

2012-01-01

164

THE EFFECT OF DOUBLE VERSUS SINGLE OSCILLATING EXERCISE DEVICES ON TRUNK AND LIMB MUSCLE ACTIVATION  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Background: Proper strengthening of the core and upper extremities is important for muscular health, performance, and rehabilitation. Exercise devices have been developed that attempt to disrupt the center of gravity in order to activate the trunk stabilizing muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the trunk and shoulder girdle muscle activation with double and single oscillating exercise devices (DOD and SOD respectively) in various planes. Methods: Twelve male subjects performed three interventions using both devices under randomized conditions: single-handed vertical orientation of DOD and SOD to produce 1) medio-lateral oscillation in the frontal plane 2) dorso-ventral oscillation in the sagittal plane and 3) single-handed horizontal orientation for superior and inferior oscillation in the transverse plane. Electromyographic (EMG) activity during the interventions of the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, forearm flexors as well as lower abdominal and back stabilizer muscles was collected, and were normalized to maximal voluntary contractions. A two way repeated measures ANOVA (2x3) was conducted to assess the influence of the devices and movement planes on muscle activation. Results: The DOD provided 35.9%, 40.8%, and 52.3% greater anterior deltoid, transverse abdominus (TA)/internal oblique (IO) and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) activation than did the SOD respectively. Effect size calculations revealed that these differences were of moderate to large magnitude (0.86, 0.48, and 0.61 respectively). There were no significant differences in muscular activation achieved between devices for the triceps brachii, biceps brachii and forearm flexor muscles. Exercise in the transverse plane resulted in 30.5%, 29.5%, and 19.5% greater activation than the sagittal and 21.8%, 17.2%, and 26.3% greater activation than the frontal plane for the anterior deltoid, TA/IO and LSES respectively. Conclusions: A DOD demonstrated greater muscular activity for trunk and shoulder muscle activation but does not provide an advantage for limb activation. Overall, oscillating the devices in the transverse plane provided greater muscular activation of the anterior deltoid, TA/IO and LSES than use of the devices during frontal or sagittal plane movements. Level of evidence: 2c: Outcomes research. PMID:24175124

Arora, Shruti; Button, Duane C.; Basset, Fabien A.

2013-01-01

165

Effects of 8-week in-season plyometric training on upper and lower limb performance of elite adolescent handball players.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that replacement of a part of the normal in-season regimen of top-level adolescent handball players by an 8-week biweekly course of lower and upper limb plyometric training would enhance characteristics important to competition, including peak power output (Wpeak), jump performance, muscle volume, and ball throwing velocity. Study participants (23 men, age: 17.4 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 79.9 ± 11.5 kg, height: 1.79 ± 6.19 m, body fat: 13.8 ± 2.1%) were randomly assigned between controls (C; n = 11) and an experimental group (E, n = 12). Measures preintervention and postintervention included force-velocity ergometer tests for upper (Wupper peak) and lower limbs (Wlower peak), force platform determinations of squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) characteristics (jump height, maximal force, initial velocity, and average power), video filming of sprint velocities (first step [V1S], first 5 m [V5m], and 25-30 m [Vmax]), and anthropometric estimates of leg muscle volume. E showed gains relative to C in Wupper peak and Wlower peak (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001), SJ (height p < 0.01; force p ? 0.05), CMJ (height p < 0.01; force p < 0.01 and relative power p ? 0.05), and sprint velocities (p < 0.001 for V1S, V5m, and Vmax). E also showed increases in leg and thigh muscle volumes (p < 0.001), but arm muscle volumes did not differ from control. We conclude that introduction of biweekly plyometric training into the standard regimen improved components important to handball performance, particularly explosive actions, such as sprinting, jumping, and ball throwing velocity. PMID:24149768

Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy J

2014-05-01

166

An upper limb mathematical model of an oil palm harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. In this paper, a 2-D closed-kinematic biomechanical model that represents a harvesting movement is developed. The model of six segments consisted of upper right arm, right forearm, harvesting equipment, left forearm, upper left arm, and upper part of trunk. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in matrix form.

Tumit, N. P.; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh, Y. M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail, I. A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.

2014-09-01

167

Venous pressures in the isolated upper limb during saline injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous pressure changes were assessed in the antecubital vein of an isolated arm during saline injection via an intravenous\\u000a site on the dorsum of the hand. Although leak of contrast medium has been radiologically demonstrated in these circumstances,\\u000a the compliance of the venous system of the isolated and exsanguinated limb has not been investigated. In five male and five\\u000a female

Barry A. Finegan; M. David Bukht

1984-01-01

168

Advances in upper limb stroke rehabilitation: a technology push  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strokes affect thousands of people worldwide leaving sufferers with severe disabilities affecting their daily activities.\\u000a In recent years, new rehabilitation techniques have emerged such as constraint-induced therapy, biofeedback therapy and robot-aided\\u000a therapy. In particular, robotic techniques allow precise recording of movements and application of forces to the affected\\u000a limb, making it a valuable tool for motor rehabilitation. In addition, robot-aided

Rui C. V. LoureiroWilliam; William S. Harwin; Kiyoshi Nagai; Michelle Johnson

169

Time but not Force Is Transferred Between Ipsilateral Upper and Lower Limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared the force and time endpoint accuracy of goal-directed ipsilateral upper and lower limb isometric contractions and determined the components of motor performance that can be transferred from 1 limb to the other after practice. Ten young adults (27.4 ± 4.4 years) performed 100 trials that involved their matching peak force to a force-time target with ankle dorsiflexor

Evangelos A. Christou; Tiffany M. Rodriguez

2008-01-01

170

Serially Sectioned Images of the Whole Body (Eighth Report: Segmentation of the Upper Limb's Structures)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body of a Korean male cadaver was serially milled to make sectioned images. Segmentation of various anatomical structures can expand the utilization of the sectioned images such as three-dimensional (3D) recon- struction of the structures of real human. Following previous outlining of lower limb's structures, we decided to make segmented images of upper limb's structures in detail. Ninety-one structures

Dong Sun Shin; Min Suk Chung; Sung Bae Hwang; Jin Seo Park; Wonsug Jung

2009-01-01

171

Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Adult Upper Limb Spasticity  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with upper limb spasticity (ULS). Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of adult ULS published in English between January 1991 and January 2013. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE) were searched, and a total of 295 records were identified. Of these, 12 primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of ULS were included in the final data report. Synthesis Total ABO doses ranged between 500 and 1500 U for ULS. Most of the studies in ULS showed statistically significant benefits (reduction in muscle tone based on Ashworth score) of ABO vs. placebo. Statistical significance was reached for most evaluations of spasticity using the Modified Ashworth Scale. Statistically significant effects on active movement and pain were demonstrated, albeit less consistently. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies; most adverse events reported were considered unrelated to treatment. Adverse events considered associated with ABO treatment included fatigue, tiredness, arm pain, skin rashes, flu-like symptoms, worsening of spasm, and weakness. Conclusions On the basis of data extracted from 12 randomized clinical studies, a strong evidence base (9/12 studies) exists for the use of ABO to reduce ULS caused by stroke. PMID:25299523

Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Walker, Heather W.; Lee, Michael Y.

2015-01-01

172

Development of an adaptive framework for the control of upper limb myoelectric prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the development of a sensor for detecting human muscle contraction, which captures myoelectric signals (EMG), in order to control a myoelectric prosthesis of superior limb. The analysis of the signal is carried out through software running in a microcontroller that decides how to open or close the artificial hand. The facilities in changing the acting form by

C. P. Fermo; C. V. De Vincenzo; T. F. Bastos-Filho; V. I. Dynnikov

2000-01-01

173

Upper limb kinematical analysis of an elite weight lifter in the squat snatch.  

PubMed

The kinematical parameters such as translational acceleration and angular acceleration in the upper limb of a weightlifter may change regularly during different phases of squat snatch. This study aims to make this question clear. At first, the joint coordinate system (JCS) of human upper limb based on the anatomical landmarks is defined. Then a novel method for calculating the kinematical parameters was brought forward, which was based on analyzing the relative position of the JCS to world coordinate system during an instantaneous situation and the relationship among each JCS at different times during squat snatch. Motion capture system is used to gather the data of the upper limb in an elite weightlifter during squat snatch (the mass of the barbell is 20 kg) and the method mentioned before is applied to analyze the data. Finally, the law of the change of kinematical parameters in each phase of squat snatch is found. PMID:22800497

Tang, Gang; Qian, Liwei; Wang, Dongmei; Wei, Gaofeng; Chang, Daofang; Wang, Chengtao; Mi, Weijian

2014-01-01

174

An objective assessment of safety to drive in an upper limb cast.  

PubMed

Patients managed with upper limb cast immobilization often seek advice about driving. There is very little published data to assist in decision making, and advice given varies between healthcare professionals. There are no specific guidelines available from the UK Drivers and Vehicles Licensing Agency, police, or insurance companies. Evidence-based guidelines would enable clinicians to standardize the advice given to patients. Six individuals (three male, three female; mean age 36 years, range 27-43 years) were assessed by a mobility occupational therapist and driving standards agency examiner while completing a formal driving test in six different types of upper limb casts (above-elbow, below-elbow neutral, and below-elbow cast incorporating the thumb [Bennett's cast]) on both left and right sides. Of the 36 tests, participants passed 31 tests, suggesting that most people were able to safely drive with upper limb cast immobilization. However, driving in a left above-elbow cast was considered unsafe. PMID:22745153

Stevenson, H L; Peterson, N; Talbot, C; Dalal, S; Watts, A C; Trail, I A

2013-03-01

175

Muscle recovery in the lower limbs in poliomyelitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  468 muscles in different grades of post-poliomyelitis paralysis were studied for six months after the onset of disease. Patients\\u000a reporting earlier showed better recovery. The maximum number of muscles reaching normal grade were from muscle power 3 and\\u000a above.\\u000a \\u000a Recovery at different time intervals, has been more or less uniform throughout the period of study. The maximum quantum of\\u000a recovery

K. Natarajan; J. B. Joshi; B. P. Yadav

1968-01-01

176

The application of precisely controlled functional electrical stimulation to the shoulder, elbow and wrist for upper limb stroke rehabilitation: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES) during repetitive practice of everyday tasks can facilitate recovery of upper limb function following stroke. Reduction in impairment is strongly associated with how closely FES assists performance, with advanced iterative learning control (ILC) technology providing precise upper-limb assistance. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of extending ILC technology to control FES of three muscle groups in the upper limb to facilitate functional motor recovery post-stroke. Methods Five stroke participants with established hemiplegia undertook eighteen intervention sessions, each of one hour duration. During each session FES was applied to the anterior deltoid, triceps, and wrist/finger extensors to assist performance of functional tasks with real-objects, including closing a drawer and pressing a light switch. Advanced model-based ILC controllers used kinematic data from previous attempts at each task to update the FES applied to each muscle on the subsequent trial. This produced stimulation profiles that facilitated accurate completion of each task while encouraging voluntary effort by the participant. Kinematic data were collected using a Microsoft Kinect, and mechanical arm support was provided by a SaeboMAS. Participants completed Fugl-Meyer and Action Research Arm Test clinical assessments pre- and post-intervention, as well as FES-unassisted tasks during each intervention session. Results Fugl-Meyer and Action Research Arm Test scores both significantly improved from pre- to post-intervention by 4.4 points. Improvements were also found in FES-unassisted performance, and the amount of arm support required to successfully perform the tasks was reduced. Conclusions This feasibility study indicates that technology comprising low-cost hardware fused with advanced FES controllers accurately assists upper limb movement and may reduce upper limb impairments following stroke. PMID:24981060

2014-01-01

177

Hypotheses for ongoing evolution of muscles of the upper extremity.  

PubMed

There are organs and muscles in the human body that may be considered rudimentary in that they have insignificant or undetermined function. Several such muscles are found in the upper extremity. In this review, four muscles that appear to be undergoing evolutionary changes are discussed: flexor digitorum superficialis to the fifth finger, anconeus, palmaris longus, and anconeus epitrochlearis. The present study synthesizes, advances and extends previously described work about these muscles and extends the hypotheses and concludes that: (a) the flexor digitorum superficialis to the fifth finger is currently under adaptive evolution, (b) the anconeus has currently stabilized its evolution and is serving as a transient stability augmenter during a short portion of the human lifespan, and (c) the entire distal upper extremity is currently in the process of undergoing evolutionary change. Understanding of these muscles and their evolutionary context is important for understanding of impact on function, dysfunction, treatment and future research. PMID:24529649

Capdarest-Arest, Nicole; Gonzalez, Jorge P; Türker, Tolga

2014-04-01

178

ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY AND RELATIVE LENGTH CHANGES OF DOG LIMB MUSCLES AS A FUNCTION OF SPEED AND GAIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Electrical activity and length changes of 11 muscles of the fore- and hind- limbs of dogs walking, running, and galloping on a treadmill, were measured as a function of forward speed and gait. Our purpose was to find out whether the activity patterns of the major limb muscles were consistent with the two mechanisms proposed for storage and recovery

G. E. GOSLOW; H. J. SEEHERMANf; C. R. TAYLOR

1981-01-01

179

Development of a Physics-based Target Shooting Game to Train Amputee Users of Multijoint Upper Limb Prostheses  

E-print Network

movements of the residual limbs can be used to control the movement of a simulated prosthesis to point Limb Prostheses Rahman Davoodi and Gerald E Loeb Department of Biomedical Engineering University For upper limb amputees, learning the control of myoelectric prostheses is difficult and challenging

Loeb, Gerald E.

180

MyoD and Myf-5 differentially regulate the development of limb versus trunk skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The myogenic progenitors of epaxial (paraspinal and intercostal) and hypaxial (limb and abdominal wall) musculature are believed to originate in dorsal-medial and ventral-lateral domains, respectively, of the developing somite. To investigate the hypothesis that Myf-5 and MyoD have different roles in the development of epaxial and hypaxial musculature, we further characterized myogenesis in Myf-5- and MyoD-deficient embryos by several approaches. We examined expression of a MyoD-lacZ transgene in Myf-5 and MyoD mutant embryos to characterize the temporal-spatial patterns of myogenesis in mutant embryos. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry on sectioned Myf-5 and MyoD mutant embryos with antibodies reactive with desmin, nestin, myosin heavy chain, sarcomeric actin, Myf-5, MyoD and myogenin. While MyoD(-/-) embryos displayed normal development of paraspinal and intercostal muscles in the body proper, muscle development in limb buds and brachial arches was delayed by about 2.5 days. By contrast, Myf-5(-/-) embryos displayed normal muscle development in limb buds and brachial arches, and markedly delayed development of paraspinal and intercostal muscles. Although MyoD mutant embryos exhibited delayed development of limb musculature, normal migration of Pax-3-expressing cells into the limb buds and normal subsequent induction of Myf-5 in myogenic precursors was observed. These results suggest that Myf-5 expression in the limb is insufficient for the normal progression of myogenic development. Taken together, these observations strongly support the hypothesis that Myf-5 and MyoD play unique roles in the development of epaxial and hypaxial muscle, respectively. PMID:9428409

Kablar, B; Krastel, K; Ying, C; Asakura, A; Tapscott, S J; Rudnicki, M A

1997-12-01

181

Bioelectrical activity of limb muscles during cold shivering of stimulation of the vestibular apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of caloric and electric stimulation of the vestibular receptors on the EMG activity of limb muslces in anesthetized cats during cold induced shivering involved flexor muscles alone. Both types of stimulation suppressed bioelectrical activity more effectively in the ipsilateral muscles. The suppression of shivering activity seems to be due to the increased inhibitory effect of descending labyrinth pathways on the function of flexor motoneurons.

Kuzmina, G. I.

1980-01-01

182

Calibration of the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a three-radiometer, passive, limb emission instrument onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Radiometric, spectral and field-of-view calibrations of the MLS instrument are described in this paper. In-orbit noise performance, gain stability, spectral baseline and dynamic range are described, as well as use of in-flight data for validation and refinement of prelaunch calibrations. Estimated systematic scaling uncertainties (3 sigma) on calibrated limb radiances from prelaunch calibrations are 2.6% in bands 1 through 3, 3.4% in band 4, and 6% in band 5. The observed systematic errors in band 6 are about 15%, consistent with prelaunch calibration uncertainties. Random uncertainties on individual limb radiance measurements are very close to the levels predicted from measured radiometer noise temperature, with negligible contribution from noise and drifts on the regular in-flight gain calibration measurements.

Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Waters, J. W.; Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.

1996-01-01

183

Task-related training combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation promotes upper limb functions in patients with chronic stroke.  

PubMed

Severe upper limb paresis is a major contributor to disability after stroke. This study investigated the efficacy of task-related training (TRT) with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on recovery of upper limb motor function in chronic-stroke survivors. Thirty patients with chronic stroke were randomly allocated two groups: the TRT+TENS group (n = 15) and the TRT+placebo (TRT+PLBO) group (n = 15). Patients in the TRT+TENS group received TENS stimulation (two to three times the sensory threshold), while subjects in the TRT+PLBO group received TENS without real electrical stimulation. TENS was applied to muscle belly of triceps and wrist extensors, while placebo (PLBO) stimulation was administrated without real electrical stimulation. Both interventions were given for 30 minutes per day, 5 days per week, for a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcomes were assessed with Fugl-Meyer assessment scores (FMA), Manual function test (MFT), Box and block test (BBT), and Modified Ashworth scale (MAS), each of which was performed one day before and one day after intervention. Both groups showed significant improvements in FMA, MFT, and BBT after intervention. When compared with the TRT+PLBO group, the TRT+TENS group showed significantly greater improvements in FMA (p = 0.034), MFT (p = 0.037), and BBT (p = 0.042). In MAS score, significant improvement was observed only in the TRT+TENS group (p = 0.011). Our findings indicate that TRT with TENS can reduce motor impairment and improve motor activity in stroke survivors with chronic upper limb paresis, highlighting the benefits of somatosensory stimulation from TENS. PMID:24097280

Kim, Tae Hoon; In, Tae Sung; Cho, Hwi-young

2013-01-01

184

Upper Limb Assessment in Tetraplegia: Clinical, Functional and Kinematic Correlations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and functional evaluations with kinematic variables of upper limp reach-to-grasp movement in patients with tetraplegia. Twenty chronic patients were selected to perform reach-to-grasp kinematic assessment using a target placed at a distance equal to the arm's length. Kinematic variables (hand peak…

Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; de Oliveira, Roberta; Ortolan, Rodrigo L.; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto

2011-01-01

185

A method for positioning electrodes during surface EMG recordings in lower limb muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this work is to provide information about the degree of inter-subject uniformity of location of innervation zone (IZ) in 13 superficial muscles of the lower limb. The availability of such information will allow researchers to standardize and optimize their electrode positioning procedure and to obtain accurate and repeatable estimates of surface electromyography (sEMG) signal amplitude, spectral

A. Rainoldi; G. Melchiorri; I. Caruso

2004-01-01

186

Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13?years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50?kg/m2) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30?min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

2015-01-01

187

Timing Training in Three Children with Diplegic Cerebral Palsy: Short- and Long-Term Effects on Upper-Limb Movement Organization and Functioning  

PubMed Central

Despite the great need of interventions to maintain and improve motor functions in children with diplegic cerebral palsy (DCP), scientific evaluations of existing training methods are rare. This study aimed to explore individual effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on motor timing, spatio-temporal movement organization, and subjective experiences of changes in upper-limb functions in three children with DCP. All children participated in an individualized 4-week/12 session SMT training regime. Measurements before training (Pre), after training (Post1), and at 6?months post completed training (Post2) were made by the applied SMT training equipment, optoelectronic registrations of goal-directed upper-limb movements, and a questionnaire assessing subjective experiences of changes in upper-limb functions and usability. In general, the training regime was shown to have little effect on motor timing. However, some positive changes in spatio-temporal movement organization were found. Two children also reported substantial long-lasting positive changes in subjective experiences of hand/arm functionality in terms of increased movement control and reduced muscle tone. For these children, parallel kinematic findings also indicated smoother and faster movement trajectories that remained at Post2. Although highly individualized, the shown improvements in upper-limb kinematics and subjective experiences of improved functionality of the hands/arms for two of the cases warrant further explorations of SMT outcomes in children with DCP. PMID:24744747

Johansson, Anna-Maria; Domellöf, Erik; Rönnqvist, Louise

2014-01-01

188

Entrapment neuropathies in the upper and lower limbs: anatomy and MRI features.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve entrapment occurs at specific anatomic locations. Familiarity with the anatomy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of nerve entrapment syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of entrapment neuropathies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the normal anatomy of peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs and to review the MRI features of common disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, both compressive/entrapment and noncompressive, involving the suprascapular nerve, the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median verve in the upper limb and the sciatic nerve, the common peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the interdigital nerves in the lower limb. PMID:23125929

Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A; Gandikota, Girish; Brandon, Catherine; Morag, Yoav; Fessell, David P; Kim, Sung-Moon

2012-01-01

189

The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

1998-01-01

190

Transposed brachial-basilic arteriovenous fistulas versus prosthetic upper limb grafts: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundControversy exists regarding the best type of arteriovenous (AV) fistula to be formed in secondary and tertiary access procedures when primary fistulas have failed. This meta-analysis aimed to compare transposed brachial-basilic AV fistulas (BBAVFs) with upper limb AV prosthetic grafts.

M. K. Lazarides; G. S. Georgiadis; C. P. Papasideris; G. Trellopoulos; V. D. Tzilalis

2008-01-01

191

The 6 Minute Walk Test and Performance of Upper Limb in Ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Boys  

PubMed Central

The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D’Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D’Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-01-01

192

Robot-Mediated Upper Limb Physiotherapy: Review and Recommendations for Future Clinical Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robot-mediated physiotherapy provides a new possibility for improving the outcome of rehabilitation of patients who are recovering from stroke. This study is a review of robot-supported upper limb physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, OVID, and EBSCO for clinical trials with robots…

Peter, Orsolya; Fazekas, Gabor; Zsiga, Katalin; Denes, Zoltan

2011-01-01

193

The principles of management of congenital anomalies of the upper limb  

PubMed Central

Management of congenital anomalies of the upper limb is reviewed with reference to classification and aetiology, incidence, diagnosis before birth, broad principles of treatment, timing of x rays and scans, functional aims, cosmetic appearance, counselling of parents, therapists, scars, skin grafts, growth, and timing of surgery. Notes on 11 congenital hand conditions are given.?? PMID:10868991

Watson, S.

2000-01-01

194

A Review of Nerve Conduction Studies in Cases of Suspected Compression Neuropathies of the Upper Limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Entrapment neuropathies, particularly those affecting upper limbs, are common reasons for referral for nerve conduction studies (NCS). However, concordance between clinical findings and NCS findings, especially in patients being considered for intervention including decompressive surgery, has not been assessed. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using records from a tertiary referral centre’s neurophysiology database. We aimed to establish the

A. Neligan; S. S. O’Sullivan; G. M. Mullins; A. McCarthy; R. G. Kowalski; J. Kinsella; B. McNamara

2010-01-01

195

Neural interconnections between the nerves of the upper limb and surgical implications.  

PubMed

The knowledge of neural interconnections between adjacent nerves of the upper limb is important to the surgeon as such variations may lead to issues with surgical identification and thus iatrogenic injury. Trauma or entrapment of these nerves may cause functional losses different from those expected and thus result in misdiagnosis. The authors review the literature regarding such nervous system derangements. PMID:20486894

Loukas, Marios; Abel, Nicole; Tubbs, R Shane; Matusz, Petru; Zurada, Anna; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2011-01-01

196

Severe upper limb injuries in four passengers of a ‘People Carrier’; the contribution of design faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four passengers of a ‘People Carrier’ in a single vehicle motor accident sustained severe left upper limb trauma, when the vehicle rolled onto the near side. These injuries were directly attributable to the large glass interface between patient and road. The glass windows shattered on contact, providing no protection and in effect created a secondary injury mechanism. We advocate both

D. N. Teanby; A. G. B. Perks; S. B. Watson; A. Thorlby

1995-01-01

197

Relationships between upper-limb functional limitation and self-reported disability 3 months after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored relationships between upper- limb (UL) functional limitations and self-reported disability in stroke patients with relatively pure motor hemiparesis who were enrolled in an acute rehabilitation treatment trial. All participants were enrolled in the VECTORS (Very Early Constraint Treat- ment for Recovery from Stroke) study. VECTORS is a single- center pilot clinical trial of early application of constraint-

Alexander W. Dromerick; Catherine E. Lang; Rebecca Birkenmeier; Michele G. Hahn; Shirley A. Sahrmann; Dorothy F. Edwards

2006-01-01

198

Kinetics of the upper limb during table tennis topspin forehands in advanced and intermediate players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of mechanical energy generation and transfer in the upper limb in generating the racket speed during table tennis topspin forehands. Nine advanced and eight intermediate table tennis players performed the forehand stroke at maximum effort against light and heavy backspin balls. Five high-speed video cameras operating at 200 fps were used

Yoichi Iino; Takeji Kojima

2011-01-01

199

The 6 minute walk test and performance of upper limb in ambulant duchenne muscular dystrophy boys.  

PubMed

The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-01-01

200

A CAN-based distributed control system for upper limb myoelectric prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the definition of a prosthetic protocol, specifing an application profile based on CAN bus standard. Aim of this definition is to realize an upper limb prosthesis control oriented bus, which grant an efficient sensors and actuators management, with the possibility both of centralized and distributed control, through the transmission and reception of high level commands and data.

Stefano Banzi; E. Mainardi; A. Davalli

2005-01-01

201

Dynamics simulation on object handling tasks by using a myoelectric upper limb prosthesis with bimanual coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed the upper limb prosthesis control system which helps an amputee perform a two-handed task with the healthy arm and the prosthesis in our previous work. Our first focus was on motion generation of the prosthesis. However, ideal motion of the prosthesis does not guarantee success of a two-hand task because of interaction between the prosthesis and the

E. Inohira; M. Harata

2010-01-01

202

"Development of Haptic Feedback Devices for Upper Limb Amputees" Andrew Erwin  

E-print Network

"Development of Haptic Feedback Devices for Upper Limb Amputees" Andrew Erwin Faculty Mentor the prosthesis is in relation to the rest of the body. To make prostheses more natural for amputees, haptic feedback is required. Many attempts have been made to create a prosthesis that incorporates haptic feedback

Mountziaris, T. J.

203

A novel motion tracking system for evaluation of functional rehabilitation of the upper limbs  

PubMed Central

Upper limb function impairment is one of the most common sequelae of central nervous system injury, especially in stroke patients and when spinal cord injury produces tetraplegia. Conventional assessment methods cannot provide objective evaluation of patient performance and the tiveness of therapies. The most common assessment tools are based on rating scales, which are inefficient when measuring small changes and can yield subjective bias. In this study, we designed an inertial sensor-based monitoring system composed of five sensors to measure and analyze the complex movements of the upper limbs, which are common in activities of daily living. We developed a kinematic model with nine degrees of freedom to analyze upper limb and head movements in three dimensions. This system was then validated using a commercial optoelectronic system. These findings suggest that an inertial sensor-based motion tracking system can be used in patients who have upper limb impairment through data integration with a virtual reality-based neuroretation system. PMID:25206474

Gil-Agudo, Ángel; de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Dimbwadyo-Terrer, Iris; Peñasco-Martín, Benito; Bernal-Sahún, Alberto; López-Monteagudo, Patricia; del Ama-Espinosa, Antonio; Pons, José Luis

2013-01-01

204

A neural tracking and motor control approach to improve rehabilitation of upper limb movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Restoration of upper limb movements in subjects recovering from stroke is an essential keystone in rehabilitative practices. Rehabilitation of arm movements, in fact, is usually a far more difficult one as compared to that of lower extremities. For these reasons, researchers are developing new methods and technologies so that the rehabilitative process could be more accurate, rapid and easily

Michela Goffredo; Ivan Bernabucci; Maurizio Schmid; Silvia Conforto

2008-01-01

205

Study on motion measurement of human upper limb based on electromagnetic tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement and analysis of human motion is widely used in rehabilitation, athletics, ergonomics, diagnosis, bionics and computer graphics etc. We have developed a motion measurement and analysis system for human upper limb based on Polhemus¿ electromagnetic tracking system in this paper. According to the skeleton structure of human, the joint coordinate systems were built in shoulder, elbow and wrist

Jianguo Zhang; Haiyan Song; Qiang Xue

2008-01-01

206

A Novel Linear PID Controller for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu and Jacob Rosen  

E-print Network

-- An upper limb exoskeleton is a wearable robotic system that is physically linked to the arm of the human operators and its seven actuated degrees of freedom (DOF) match the seven DOF of the human arm - Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. e-mail: rosen@ucsc.edu. URL: http://bionics

Rosen, Jacob

207

Design of a 7 Degree-of-Freedom Upper-Limb Powered Exoskeleton  

E-print Network

Design of a 7 Degree-of-Freedom Upper-Limb Powered Exoskeleton Joel C. Perry(+), Jacob Rosen.ee.washington.edu .Abstract ­ The exoskeleton is an external structural mechanism with joints and links corresponding to those of the human body. Worn by the human, the exoskeleton transmits torques from proximally located actuators

208

PID Admittance Control for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu, Jacob Rosen, Xiaoou Li  

E-print Network

PID Admittance Control for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu, Jacob Rosen, Xiaoou Li Abstract-- The unique exoskeleton system (EXO-UL7) in UCSC is controlled in two levels. The lower-level uses standard a model-based impedance/admittance control when the model of the exoskeleton is unavailable. In this paper

Rosen, Jacob

209

Design of a 7 Degree-of-Freedom Upper-Limb Powered Exoskeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exoskeleton is an external structural mechanism with joints and links corresponding to those of the human body. Worn by the human, the exoskeleton transmits torques from proximally located actuators through rigid exoskeletal links to the human joints. This paper presents the development of an anthropometric seven degree-of-freedom powered exoskeleton for the upper limb. The design was based on a

Joel C. Perry; Jacob Rosen

2006-01-01

210

Pain tolerance in upper limb disorders: findings from a community survey  

PubMed Central

Aims: To test the hypothesis that non-specific upper limb pain arises from altered pain perception with reduced tolerance of sensory stimuli. Methods: Subjects undergoing clinical examination as part of a community based survey of upper limb disorders were invited to return for an assessment of pain tolerance. A standardised algorithm was used to classify the 94 participants according to whether they had specific upper limb disorders (n = 22), non-specific arm pain (n = 15), or no arm pain (n = 57). Pain tolerance was assessed at three anatomical sites in each arm in response to electrocutaneous stimulation with alternating currents up to a maximum of 10 mA at three frequencies (5, 250, and 2000 Hz). A proportional odds model was used to compare pain tolerance thresholds according to sex, age, and diagnosis. Results: Women were less tolerant of pain than men (OR 0.13) and tolerance also declined with age (OR for one year increase in age 0.97). After allowance for sex and age, there was no indication that pain tolerance was lower in subjects with non-specific arm pain than in those with specific upper limb disorders or those who had no arm pain. Conclusions: The study hypothesis was not supported. However, before the hypothesis is dismissed, it should be tested further in patients with more severe and disabling arm pain. PMID:12598671

Mitchell, S; Reading, I; Walker-Bone, K; Palmer, K; Cooper, C; Coggon, D

2003-01-01

211

Prescription of the first prosthesis and later use in children with congenital unilateral upper limb deficiency: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prosthetic rejection rates in children with an upper limb transversal reduction deficiency are considerable. It is unclear whether the timing of the first prescription of the prosthesis contributes to the rejection rates. Objective: To reveal whether scientific evidence is available in literature to confirm the hypothesis that the first prosthesis of children with an upper limb deficiency should

M. Meurs; C. G. B. Maathuis; C. Lucas; M. Hadders-Algra; Sluis van der C. K

2006-01-01

212

Abstract--This paper presents the preliminary design of a new dexterous upper-limb prosthesis provided with a novel  

E-print Network

Abstract-- This paper presents the preliminary design of a new dexterous upper-limb prosthesis to cover different levels of upper- limb amputations. The hand has 20 DoFs and 11 motors, with a dexterous to enable dexterous manipulation and enhance grasp performance. I. INTRODUCTION ISTORICALLY humans have

Arleo, Angelo

213

Constraining upper limb synergies of hemiparetic patients using a robotic exoskeleton in the perspective of neuro-rehabilitation  

E-print Network

Constraining upper limb synergies of hemiparetic patients using a robotic exoskeleton--The aim of this article was to explore how an upper limb exoskeleton can be programmed to impose specific the exoskeleton during active-assisted exercises. An original feature of this controller is that the hand

214

Does oxidative stress modulate limb muscle atrophy in severe COPD patients?  

PubMed

Oxidative stress may differentially regulate protein loss within peripheral muscles of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients exhibiting different body composition. Oxidation levels of proteins, myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and myonuclei, superoxide anion, antioxidants, actin, creatine kinase, carbonic anhydrase-3, ubiquitin-proteasome system, redox-signalling pathways, inflammation and muscle structure, and damage were quantified in limb muscles of severe COPD patients with and without muscle wasting, and in sedentary controls. Compared with controls, in the quadriceps of muscle-wasted COPD patients, levels of protein carbonylation, oxidation of MyHC and myonuclei, superoxide anion production, superoxide dismutase, total protein ubiquinitation, E2(14k), atrogin-1, FoxO1 and p65 were higher, while content of MyHC, creatine kinase, carbonic anhydrase-3, myogenin, and fast-twitch fibre size were decreased. Importantly, in nonwasted COPD patients, where MyHC was more oxidised than in controls, its content was preserved. Muscle inflammation and glutathione levels did not differ between patients and controls. In all patients, muscle structure abnormalities were increased, while muscle force and exercise capacity were reduced. In severe COPD, while muscle oxidative stress increases regardless of their body composition, protein ubiquitination and loss of MyHC were enhanced only in patients exhibiting muscle atrophy. Oxidative stress does not seem to directly modulate muscle protein loss in these patients. PMID:22408199

Fermoselle, Clara; Rabinovich, Roberto; Ausín, Pilar; Puig-Vilanova, Ester; Coronell, Carlos; Sanchez, Francisco; Roca, Josep; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

2012-10-01

215

Upper limb impairments associated with spasticity in neurological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  While upper-extremity movement in individuals with neurological disorders such as stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) has\\u000a been studied for many years, the effects of spasticity on arm movement have been poorly quantified. The present study is designed\\u000a to characterize the nature of impaired arm movements associated with spasticity in these two clinical populations. By comparing\\u000a impaired voluntary movements between

Cheng-Chi Tsao; Mehdi M Mirbagheri

2007-01-01

216

Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

1989-01-01

217

Biomedical research on the International Space Station postural and manipulation problems of the human upper limb in weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulated evidence, based on information gathered on space flight missions and ground based models involving both humans and animals, clearly suggests that exposure to states of microgravity conditions for varying duration induces certain physiological changes; they involve cardiovascular deconditioning, balance disorders, bone weakening, muscle hypertrophy, disturbed sleep patterns and depressed immune responses. The effects of the microgravity on the astronauts' movement and attitude have been studied during different space missions, increasing the knowledge of the human physiology in weightlessness. The purpose of the research addressed in the present paper is to understand and to assess the performances of the upper limb, especially during grasp. Objects of the research are the physiological changes related to the long-term duration spaceflight environment. Specifically, the changes concerning the upper limb are investigated, with particular regard to the performances of the hand in zero-g environments. This research presents also effects on the Earth, improving the studies on a number of pathological states, on the health care and the rehabilitation. In this perspective, a set of experiments are proposed, aimed at the evaluation of the effects of the zero-g environments on neurophysiology of grasping movements, fatigue assessment, precision grip. .

Neri, Gianluca; Zolesi, Valfredo

2000-01-01

218

Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.  

PubMed

The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. PMID:25413362

Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

2014-11-21

219

Characteristics of human knee muscle coordination during isometric contractions in a standing posture: The effect of limb task  

PubMed Central

Different functional roles for the hands have been demonstrated, however leg control is not as well understood. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate bilateral knee neuromuscular control to determine if the limb receiving greater attention would have more well-tuned control compared to an unattended limb. Surface electrodes were placed on seven muscles of each limb, before standing on two force platforms. Visual feedback was given of the forces and moments of the “focus limb,” but not the “unattended limb.” Static isometric forces were matched with their focus limb, requiring their unattended limb to push in the opposite direction, using a combination of forward-backward-medial-lateral shear forces while muscle activity was collected bilaterally. There was a significant main effect for limb task (p = 0.02), with the medial hamstrings being more specific (p = 0.001) while performing the unattended limb and the lateral hamstring being more well-tuned (p = 0.007) while performing the focus limb task. The focus limb's medial and lateral gastrocnemius were principally active in the forwards direction, but only the unattended limb's lateral gastrocnemius was active in the backwards direction. Findings suggest unique neuromuscular control strategies are used for the legs depending on limb task. PMID:23790392

MacLeod, Toran D.; Manal, Kurt; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Buchanan, Thomas S.

2015-01-01

220

Distinct underlying mechanisms of limb and respiratory muscle fiber weaknesses in nemaline myopathy.  

PubMed

Nemaline myopathy is the most common congenital myopathy and is caused by mutations in various genes such as ACTA1 (encoding skeletal ?-actin). It is associated with limb and respiratory muscle weakness. Despite increasing clinical and scientific interest, the molecular and cellular events leading to such weakness remain unknown, which prevents the development of specific therapeutic interventions. To unravel the potential mechanisms involved, we dissected lower limb and diaphragm muscles from a knock-in mouse model of severe nemaline myopathy expressing the ACTA1 His40Tyr actin mutation found in human patients. We then studied a broad range of structural and functional characteristics assessing single-myofiber contraction, protein expression, and electron microscopy. One of the major findings in the diaphragm was the presence of numerous noncontractile areas (including disrupted sarcomeric structures and nemaline bodies). This greatly reduced the number of functional sarcomeres, decreased the force generation capacity at the muscle fiber level, and likely would contribute to respiratory weakness. In limb muscle, by contrast, there were fewer noncontractile areas and they did not seem to have a major role in the pathogenesis of weakness. These divergent muscle-specific results provide new important insights into the pathophysiology of severe nemaline myopathy and crucial information for future development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:23656990

Lindqvist, Johan; Cheng, Arthur J; Renaud, Guillaume; Hardeman, Edna C; Ochala, Julien

2013-06-01

221

Development of adaptive pneumatic tourniquet systems based on minimal inflation pressure for upper limb surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background Pneumatic tourniquets are medical devices that occlude blood flow to distal part of extremities and are commonly used in upper limb surgeries to provide a dry, clean and bloodless field. To decrease pressure-related injuries and potential risk of complications subjected to the high inflation pressure of pneumatic tourniquet, minimal inflation pressures are recommended. Methods A new occlusion pressure mathematical model for the upper limb was established based on the correlation analysis between several possible influencing parameters and the minimal pneumatic tourniquet pressure at which the peripheral pulse disappeared was recorded using a digital plethysmograph. A prototype of an adaptive pneumatic tourniquet which automatically varies the pressure in the tourniquet cuff according to the above prediction model was developed for the upper limb which used the lowest possible inflation pressure to achieve occlusion. The prototype comprises a blood pressure monitoring module, an inflatable tourniquet cuff, and a pressure relief mechanism to maintain an optimal cuff inflation pressure. Simulation experiments were conducted to verify the function and stability of the designed adaptive pneumatic tourniquet and clinical experiments using volunteers were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the prototype design in achieving adequate haemostasis in the upper limb. Results Results demonstrated that the mean arterial occlusion pressure was 152.3?±?16.7 mmHg, obviously below the 250 to 300 mmHg previously recommended (J Bone Joint Surg Br 68:625-628, 1986 and Arthroscopy 11:307–311, 1995). Conclusions In conclusion, this adaptive method and apparatus which can provide minimal inflation pressure may be a clinically practical alternative for upper limb surgery performed with pneumatic tourniquets. PMID:24053348

2013-01-01

222

P-31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of limb muscles during bedrest with exercise countermeasures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nineteen volunteers in bed with head down tilt (-6 deg) for 1 month and doing or not exercise training while in bed (lido or ergometer) had their limb muscle studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A protocol of repetitive exercise in the magnet was set and a wooden probe designed to support the limb and to allow exercise. Spectra were recorded continuously during the protocol. In each spectrum, inorganic phosphate, phosphocreatin, adenosin triphosphate, and pH were measured. All the subjects were studied before, after bedrest, and 6 weeks later. After 1 month, the lido group show no changes in the spectra of their leg muscles while the group doing no exercise or ergometer do. For the arms, a loss of muscle function is only seen in the group doing no exercise.

Berry, P.; Berry, I.; Arnaud, S.; Moseley, M.

1987-01-01

223

Hands in motion: an upper-limb-selective area in the occipitotemporal cortex shows sensitivity to viewed hand kinematics.  

PubMed

Regions in the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) show clear selectivity to static images of human body parts, and upper limbs in particular, with respect to other object categories. Such selectivity was previously attributed to shape aspects, which presumably vary across categories. Alternatively, it has been proposed that functional selectivity for upper limbs is driven by processing of their distinctive motion features. In the present study we show that selectivity to static upper-limb images and motion processing go hand in hand. Using resting-state and task-based functional MRI, we demonstrate that OTC voxels showing greater preference to static images of arms and hands also show stronger functional connectivity with motion coding regions within the human middle temporal complex (hMT+), but not with shape-selective midtier areas, such as hV4 or LO-1, suggesting a tight link between upper-limb selectivity and motion processing. To test this directly, we created a set of natural arm-movement videos where kinematic patterns were parametrically manipulated, while keeping shape information constant. Using multivariate pattern analysis, we show that the degree of (dis)similarity in arm-velocity profiles across the video set predicts, to a significant extent, the degree of (dis)similarity in multivoxel activation patterns in both upper-limb-selective OTC regions and the hMT+. Together, these results suggest that the functional specificity of upper-limb-selective regions may be partially determined by their involvement in the processing of upper-limb dynamics. We propose that the selectivity to static upper-limb images in the OTC may be a result of experience-dependent association between shape elements, which characterize upper limbs, and upper-limb-specific motion patterns. PMID:24695707

Orlov, Tanya; Porat, Yuval; Makin, Tamar R; Zohary, Ehud

2014-04-01

224

The role of upper limb segment rotations in the development of spin in the tennis forehand.  

PubMed

Increased topspin in the tennis forehand is produced by maintaining a perpendicular racket-face to the court surface at impact and increasing the trajectory and vertical velocity of the racket-head. These modifications to stroke technique from those previously identified in the flat forehand drive are the result of changes to the movement patterns of the segments of the upper limb. The contributions that the upper limb segment's anatomical rotations make to racket-head velocity at impact depend on both their angular velocity and the instantaneous position of the racket with respect to these movements. Six high performance tennis players were filmed at a nominal rate of 200 Hz by three Photosonics cameras while hitting flat (no spin) and topspin groundstrokes and a forehand topspin lob. The three-dimensional (3-D) displacement histories of 16 selected landmarks were then calculated using the direct linear transformation approach and 3-D individual segment rotations for the upper limb were calculated using vector equations. Significant differences were recorded in the effect that the various segment rotations made to the x-direction (forward) and y-direction (upward) impact velocities of the racket-head. These differences were not reflected in the contributions to racket-head velocity when the absolute velocities were expressed relative to the impact velocity. Trunk rotation, upper arm flexion/abduction, upper arm internal rotation, hand palmar and ulnar flexion all played integral roles in producing impact racket speed. PMID:9040900

Takahashi, K; Elliott, B; Noffal, G

1996-12-01

225

Factors predicting sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries. DATA SOURCES: The online PubMed database was searched for English articles describing outcomes after the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries in humans with a publication date between 1 January 1990 and 16 February 2011. STUDY SELECTION: The following types of article were selected: (1) clinical trials describing the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries published in English; and (2) studies that reported sufficient patient information, including age, mechanism of injury, nerve injured, injury location, defect length, repair time, repair method, and repair materials. SPSS 13.0 software was used to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and to investigate the patient and intervention factors associated with outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensory function was assessed using the Mackinnon-Dellon scale and motor function was assessed using the manual muscle test. Satisfactory motor recovery was defined as grade M4 or M5, and satisfactory sensory recovery was defined as grade S3+ or S4. RESULTS: Seventy-one articles were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that repair time, repair materials, and nerve injured were independent predictors of outcome after the repair of nerve injuries (P < 0.05), and that the nerve injured was the main factor affecting the rate of good to excellent recovery. CONCLUSION: Predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up. PMID:25206870

He, Bo; Zhu, Zhaowei; Zhu, Qingtang; Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Canbin; Li, Pengliang; Zhu, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai

2014-01-01

226

Redox modulation of contractile function in respiratory and limb skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

For the last half century, scientists have studied the biological importance of free radicals in respiratory and limb muscles. We now know that muscle fibers continually produce both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and that both cascades play critical roles in contractile regulation. Under basal conditions, muscle-derived ROS and NO exert opposing effects. Low-level ROS activity is an essential part of the homeostatic milieu and is required for normal force production whereas NO derivatives function as a brake on the system, limiting force. The modulatory effects of ROS and NO are disrupted by conditions that exaggerate production including mechanical unloading, inflammatory disease, and strenuous exercise. Marked increases in ROS or NO levels cause contractile dysfunction, resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. These principles provide a foundation for ongoing research to identify the mechanisms of ROS and NO action and develop interventions that protect muscle function. PMID:16481226

Smith, Melissa A; Reid, Michael B

2006-04-28

227

Effects of immobilization on rat hind limb muscles under non-weight-bearing conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of stretched and unstretched immobilization of a hind limb on the concentration and the metabolism of proteins in the hind-limb muscles of rats was investigated. The animals were divided into three groups: (1) weight-bearing controls, (2) tail-cast-suspended, and (3) suspended, with one hind limb immobilized with the ankle in dorsiflexion (30-40 deg angle) and the other freely moving. It was found that unloading the hind limbs for 6 days by tail cast suspension caused soleus to atrophy and reduced growth of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles; unloading resulted in a higher degradation rate and lower synthesis rate in both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic stretch of the unloaded soleus not only prevented its atrophy but led to significant hypertrophy, relative to weight-bearing controls, with increases in both the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions. Immobilizing one ankle in dorsiflexion prevented the inhibition of growth in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles due to unloading.

Jaspers, Stephen R.; Fagan, Julie M.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Cook, Paul H.; Tischler, Marc E.

1988-01-01

228

An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Update on Limb Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Limb muscle dysfunction is prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it has important clinical implications, such as reduced exercise tolerance, quality of life, and even survival. Since the previous American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) statement on limb muscle dysfunction, important progress has been made on the characterization of this problem and on our understanding of its pathophysiology and clinical implications. Purpose: The purpose of this document is to update the 1999 ATS/ERS statement on limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. Methods: An interdisciplinary committee of experts from the ATS and ERS Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Clinical Problems assemblies determined that the scope of this document should be limited to limb muscles. Committee members conducted focused reviews of the literature on several topics. A librarian also performed a literature search. An ATS methodologist provided advice to the committee, ensuring that the methodological approach was consistent with ATS standards. Results: We identified important advances in our understanding of the extent and nature of the structural alterations in limb muscles in patients with COPD. Since the last update, landmark studies were published on the mechanisms of development of limb muscle dysfunction in COPD and on the treatment of this condition. We now have a better understanding of the clinical implications of limb muscle dysfunction. Although exercise training is the most potent intervention to address this condition, other therapies, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation, are emerging. Assessment of limb muscle function can identify patients who are at increased risk of poor clinical outcomes, such as exercise intolerance and premature mortality. Conclusions: Limb muscle dysfunction is a key systemic consequence of COPD. However, there are still important gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of development of this problem. Strategies for early detection and specific treatments for this condition are also needed. PMID:24787074

Maltais, François; Decramer, Marc; Casaburi, Richard; Barreiro, Esther; Burelle, Yan; Debigaré, Richard; Dekhuijzen, P. N. Richard; Franssen, Frits; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Gea, Joaquim; Gosker, Harry R.; Gosselink, Rik; Hayot, Maurice; Hussain, Sabah N. A.; Janssens, Wim; Polkey, Micheal I.; Roca, Josep; Saey, Didier; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Spruit, Martijn A.; Steiner, Michael; Taivassalo, Tanja; Troosters, Thierry; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Wagner, Peter D.

2014-01-01

229

Reconstruction of blast injuries of the hand and upper limb.  

PubMed

Over recent years, hand surgeons in the Middle East and Arabic region have particularly had to deal with an increasing number of war blast injuries to the upper extremity, in the acute, subacute and chronic phases. Many have been referred from War Zone countries such as Iraq and, more recently, Syria, where the resources to treat such complex injuries are scarce. The present article is a comprehensive review of the basic principles of management of blast injuries based on the available literature merged with the authors' personal experience of these injuries. The state of the art in treatment of blast injuries to the hand, from ammunition physics and wound ballistics to radiological investigation and, ultimately, the principles of surgical management are discussed. PMID:23357578

Bakhach, Joseph; Abu-Sitta, Ghassan; Dibo, Saad

2013-03-01

230

Upper Limb Biomechanics During the Volleyball Serve and Spike  

PubMed Central

Background: The shoulder is the third-most commonly injured body part in volleyball, with the majority of shoulder problems resulting from chronic overuse. Hypothesis: Significant kinetic differences exist among specific types of volleyball serves and spikes. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Fourteen healthy female collegiate volleyball players performed 5 successful trials of 4 skills: 2 directional spikes, an off-speed roll shot, and the float serve. Volunteers who were competent in jump serves (n, 5) performed 5 trials of that skill. A 240-Hz 3-dimensional automatic digitizing system captured each trial. Multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc paired t tests were used to compare kinetic parameters for the shoulder and elbow across all the skills (except the jump serve). A similar statistical analysis was performed for upper extremity kinematics. Results: Forces, torques, and angular velocities at the shoulder and elbow were lowest for the roll shot and second-lowest for the float serve. No differences were detected between the cross-body and straight-ahead spikes. Although there was an insufficient number of participants to statistically analyze the jump serve, the data for it appear similar to those of the cross-body and straight-ahead spikes. Shoulder abduction at the instant of ball contact was approximately 130° for all skills, which is substantially greater than that previously reported for female athletes performing tennis serves or baseball pitches. Conclusion: Because shoulder kinetics were greatest during spiking, the volleyball player with symptoms of shoulder overuse may wish to reduce the number of repetitions performed during practice. Limiting the number of jump serves may also reduce the athlete’s risk of overuse-related shoulder dysfunction. Clinical Relevance: Volleyball-specific overhead skills, such as the spike and serve, produce considerable upper extremity force and torque, which may contribute to the risk of shoulder injury. PMID:23015961

Reeser, Jonathan C.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Bolt, Becky; Ruan, Mianfang

2010-01-01

231

A neuroanatomical framework for upper limb synergies after stroke.  

PubMed

Muscle synergies describe common patterns of co- or reciprocal activation that occur during movement. After stroke, these synergies change, often in stereotypical ways. The mechanism underlying this change reflects damage to key motor pathways as a result of the stroke lesion, and the subsequent reorganization along the neuroaxis, which may be further detrimental or restorative to motor function. The time course of abnormal synergy formation seems to lag spontaneous recovery that occurs in the initial weeks after stroke. In healthy individuals, motor cortical activity, descending via the corticospinal tract (CST) is the predominant driver of voluntary behavior. When the CST is damaged after stroke, other descending pathways may be up-regulated to compensate. The contribution of these pathways may emerge as new synergies take shape at the chronic stage after stroke, as a result of plasticity along the neuroaxis. The location of the stroke lesion and properties of the secondary descending pathways and their regulation are then critical for shaping the synergies in the remaining motor behavior. A consideration of the integrity of remaining descending motor pathways may aid in the design of new rehabilitation therapies. PMID:25762917

McMorland, Angus J C; Runnalls, Keith D; Byblow, Winston D

2015-01-01

232

A Neuroanatomical Framework for Upper Limb Synergies after Stroke  

PubMed Central

Muscle synergies describe common patterns of co- or reciprocal activation that occur during movement. After stroke, these synergies change, often in stereotypical ways. The mechanism underlying this change reflects damage to key motor pathways as a result of the stroke lesion, and the subsequent reorganization along the neuroaxis, which may be further detrimental or restorative to motor function. The time course of abnormal synergy formation seems to lag spontaneous recovery that occurs in the initial weeks after stroke. In healthy individuals, motor cortical activity, descending via the corticospinal tract (CST) is the predominant driver of voluntary behavior. When the CST is damaged after stroke, other descending pathways may be up-regulated to compensate. The contribution of these pathways may emerge as new synergies take shape at the chronic stage after stroke, as a result of plasticity along the neuroaxis. The location of the stroke lesion and properties of the secondary descending pathways and their regulation are then critical for shaping the synergies in the remaining motor behavior. A consideration of the integrity of remaining descending motor pathways may aid in the design of new rehabilitation therapies.

McMorland, Angus J. C.; Runnalls, Keith D.; Byblow, Winston D.

2015-01-01

233

Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

2012-01-01

234

Reproducibility of eight lower limb muscles activity level in the course of an incremental pedaling exercise.  

PubMed

Despite the wide use of surface electromyography (EMG) recorded during dynamic exercises, the reproducibility of EMG variables has not been fully established in a course of a dynamic leg exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of eight lower limb muscles activity level during a pedaling exercise performed until exhaustion. Eight male were tested on two days held three days apart. Surface EMG was recorded from vastus lateralis, rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateral, gastrocnemius medianus and tibialis anterior during incremental exercise test. The root mean square, an index of global EMG activity, was averaged every five crank revolutions (corresponding to about 3 s at 85 rpm) throughout the tests. Despite inter-subjects variations, we showed a high reproducibility of the activity level of lower limb muscles during a progressive pedaling exercise performed until exhaustion. However, RF muscle seemed to be the less reproducible of the eight muscles investigated during incremental pedaling exercise. These results suggest that each subject adopt a personal muscle activation strategy in a course of an incremental cycling exercise but fatigue phenomenon can induce some variations in the most fatigable muscles (RF). PMID:16126412

Laplaud, David; Hug, François; Grélot, Laurent

2006-04-01

235

Cerebellar-related long latency motor response in upper limb musculature by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to identify the cerebellum-related electromyographic (EMG) response that appeared in the upper limbs musculature. Thirty times averaged transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a double-cone coil placed over the cerebellar hemisphere elicited long latency EMG responses at the bilateral extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. The peak latency of this EMG response was 70.7±12.7 ms in the ipsilateral ECR and 62.9±10.2 ms in the contralateral ECR of the TMS side. These latencies were much longer than the latency of the muscle evoked potential when we stimulated pyramidal tracts at the foramen magnum level. Cerebellar hemisphere loading by the finger target pursuit test made this EMG response faster during TMS on the ipsilateral side of the cerebellum and slower during TMS on the contralateral side of the cerebellum. Furthermore, the deeper the level of drowsiness, the slower the peak latency of this EMG response became. These results suggest that this EMG potential is a specific response of the cerebellum and brainstem reticular formation, and may be conducted from the cerebellar structure to the ECR muscle through the polysynaptic transmission of the reticulospinal tract. PMID:24113113

Hosokawa, Sachiyo; Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Sugata, Hisato; Araki, Toshihiko; Okamura, Yumiko; Hasegawa, Yuka; Shinshi, Misako; Yorifuji, Shiro

2014-04-16

236

Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion  

PubMed Central

Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements. PMID:20447251

Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

2010-01-01

237

Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.  

PubMed

With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb. PMID:24356522

Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

2014-02-15

238

Jose L. Pons c08.tex V1 -22nd November 2007 11:34 A.M. Page 259 Case Study: An Upper Limb Powered Exoskeleton 259  

E-print Network

Study: An Upper Limb Powered Exoskeleton 259 Figure 8.14 The first version of the NEUROExos 8.5 CASE STUDY: AN UPPER LIMB POWERED EXOSKELETON J. C. Perry and J. Rosen Department of Electrical Engineering generation of an upper limb powered exoskeleton. Previous generations included a 1 DoF system (elbow joint

Rosen, Jacob

239

Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

2008-03-01

240

Intrauterine Upper Limb Ischemia: An Unusual Presentation of Fetal Thrombophilia—A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Upper limb ischemia presenting in neonatal period is extremely rare. Moreover, presenting newborn with evidence of intrauterine upper limb vascular occlusion is even rarer. It needs prompt intervention to restore perfusion and avoid morbidity. We present a newborn with right upper limb brachial artery thrombosis causing ischemia that was noted at birth and appeared later to be homozygous for factor V Leiden and glycoprotein IIIa with no other identifiable risk factors. In this report, we present the case, its successful medical management, proper counseling, and review of the literature. We recommend investigating the neonates and their parents for thrombophilia mutations when they present with unusual vascular occlusion site as newborns. PMID:24223318

Abdelrazeq, Samer; Alkhateeb, Abdullatif; Saleh, Hani; Alhasan, Haitham; Khammash, Hatem

2013-01-01

241

Proprioceptive Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Dysfunction in Movement Disorders: A Clinical Perspective  

PubMed Central

Movement disorders (MDs) are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson’s disease) and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia), suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with MDs, and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using “task-intrinsic” or “augmented feedback.” This perspective article reviews the available evidence on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with MDs and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception. PMID:25505402

Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Trompetto, Carlo; Mori, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa

2014-01-01

242

Use of multiple wearable inertial sensors in upper limb motion tracking.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new human motion tracking system using two wearable inertial sensors that are placed near the wrist and elbow joints of the upper limb. Each inertial sensor consists of a tri-axial accelerometer, a tri-axial gyroscope and a tri-axial magnetometer. The turning rates of the gyroscope were utilised for localising the wrist and elbow joints on the assumption that the two upper limb segment lengths are known a priori. To determine the translation and rotation of the shoulder joint, an equality-constrained optimisation technique is adopted to find an optimal solution, incorporating measurements from the tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope. Experimental results demonstrate that this new system, compared to an optical motion tracker, has RMS position errors that are normally less than 0.01 m, and RMS angle errors that are 2.5-4.8 degrees . PMID:17251049

Zhou, Huiyu; Stone, Thomas; Hu, Huosheng; Harris, Nigel

2008-01-01

243

[Biomechanical overload of the upper limbs and energy expenditure in bricklayers activity].  

PubMed

The work explains the method we used for biomechanical overload risk assessment of upper limbs in construction industry, to make boarding with perforated bricks (preparation of mortar and building materials, construction, plastering) and shows the preliminary results obtained. The activity was observed and analysed through simulations of building site; all tasks were filmed with digital cameras; after we applied OCRA check-list to obtain values of biomechanical overload for upper limbs. We found an high risk of biomechanical overload, due to awkward postures and use of strength, for shoulders, elbows and, in particular, for wrists. This data helped us to understand why we found an high prevalence of wrist-WMSD (such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in bricklayers evaluated in health surveillance. PMID:23405584

Buratti, G; Dellera, L; Santini, M; Mosconi, G

2012-01-01

244

Isometric Arm Strength and Subjective Rating of Upper Limb Fatigue in Two-Handed Carrying Tasks  

PubMed Central

Sustained carrying could result in muscular fatigue of the upper limb. Ten male and ten female subjects were recruited for measurements of isometric arm strength before and during carrying a load for a period of 4 minutes. Two levels of load of carrying were tested for each of the male and female subjects. Exponential function based predictive equations for the isometric arm strength were established. The mean absolute deviations of these models in predicting the isometric arm strength were in the range of 3.24 to 17.34 N. Regression analyses between the subjective ratings of upper limb fatigue and force change index (FCI) for the carrying were also performed. The results indicated that the subjective rating of muscular fatigue may be estimated by multiplying the FCI with a constant. The FCI may, therefore, be adopted as an index to assess muscular fatigue for two-handed carrying tasks. PMID:25794159

Li, Kai Way; Chiu, Wen-Sheng

2015-01-01

245

Development of rehabilitation training support system for occupational therapy of upper limb motor function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a new rehabilitation training support system for upper limbs. The proposed system enables therapists to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training, to easily change the load of resistance of training and to easily develop a new training program suitable for the subjects. For this purpose we develop control algorithms of training programs in the 3D force display robot. The 3D force display robot has parallel link mechanism with three motors. The control algorithm simulating sanding training is developed for the 3D force display robot. Moreover the teaching/training function algorithm is developed. It enables the therapists to easily make training trajectory suitable for subject's condition. The effectiveness of the developed control algorithms is verified by experiments.

Morita, Yoshifumi; Hirose, Akinori; Uno, Takashi; Uchid, Masaki; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

2007-12-01

246

EMG threshold determination in eight lower limb muscles during cycling exercise: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The first aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the EMG threshold (EMG (Th)) in each of eight lower limb muscles (vastus lateralis [VL], vatus medialis [VM], rectus femoris [RF], semimembranosus [SM], biceps femoris [BF], gastrocnemius lateralis [GL] and medialis [GM], and tibialis anterior [TA]) during incremental cycling exercise. The second aim was to investigate the test-retest reproducibility of the EMG (Th) occurrence. Six sedentary male subjects (27 +/- 1 years) performed the same incremental cycling test until exhausted, (workload increments of 25 W/min starting at 100 W) twice. During the tests, the EMG Root Mean Square (RMS) response was studied in the aforementioned muscles. The EMG (Th) was detected mathematically from the RMS vs. workload relationship. All the subjects showed an EMG (Th) in the VL muscle, and the response was reliable in both tests (246 +/- 33 W and 254 +/- 33 W for the first and second test, respectively; coefficient of variation: 9.6 %, standard error of measurement: 28.9). However, few of them showed an EMG (Th) in the other muscles, especially in RF, SM or GM. When present, the EMG (Th) occurred at 75 - 80 % of the peak power output obtained during the tests. Our results suggest that EMG (Th) determination can be used as a reliable method for studying neuromuscular adjustments in the VL of untrained individuals, but not in other lower limb muscles. PMID:16767610

Hug, F; Laplaud, D; Lucia, A; Grelot, L

2006-06-01

247

Inhalation of Carbon Monoxide Reduces Skeletal Muscle Injury Following Hind Limb Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine if inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) can ameliorate skeletal muscle injury, modulate endogenous heme oxygenase-1 (HO) expression, improve indices of tissue integrity and inflammation following hind limb ischemia reperfusion(IR). Methods C57BL6 mice inhaling CO (250ppm) or room air were subjected to 1.5 hrs of ischemia followed by limb reperfusion for either 3 or 6 hours (total treatment time of 4.5 or 7.5 hrs). After the initial period of reperfusion, all mice breathed only room air until 24 hours after the onset of ischemia. Mice were sacrificed at either the end of CO treatment or at 24 hours reperfusion. Skeletal muscle was subjected to histologic and biochemical analysis. Results CO treatment for 7.5 hours protected skeletal muscle from histologic and structural evidence of skeletal muscle injury. Serum and tissue cytokines were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in mice treated with CO for 7.5 hours. Tubulin, Heme Oxygenase, and ATP levels were higher in CO treated mice. Conclusions Inhaled CO protected muscle from structural injury and energy depletion following IR. PMID:22450026

Patel, Rajendra; Albadawi, Hassan; Steudel, Wolfgang; Hashmi, Faraz F.; Kang, Jeanwan; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Watkins, Michael T.

2011-01-01

248

Design of a Rotational Hydroelastic Actuator for a Powered Exoskeleton for Upper Limb Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to validate the suitability of a novel rotational hydroelastic actuator (rHEA) for use in our new rehabilitation exoskeleton for the upper limbs, the Limpact. The rHEA consists of a rotational hydraulic actuator and a custom-designed symmetric torsion spring in a series-elastic configuration. For rehabilitation therapy and impairment quantification, both compliant impedance control and stiff

Arno H. A. Stienen; Edsko E. G. Hekman; H. ter Braak; A. M. M. Aalsma; H. van der Kooij

2010-01-01

249

Upper Limb Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Literature Review to Streamline the Protocol for Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this article is to provide up-to-date information about aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic modalities and treatment of upper limb deep vein thrombosis (ULDVT). Methods: Generic terms including ULDVT, axillary-subclavian DVT, and complications of central venous catheters were searched on electronic database. We analysed original studies, review articles and evaluation studies published over the last 25 years. Results: Forty-seven

Muhammad S. Sajid; Naeem Ahmed; Mittal Desai; Daryll Baker; George Hamilton

2007-01-01

250

The development of an adaptive upper-limb stroke rehabilitation robotic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Stroke is the primary cause of adult disability. To support this large population in recovery, robotic technologies are being\\u000a developed to assist in the delivery of rehabilitation. This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic\\u000a device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task. The system uses a decision theoretic model (a partially\\u000a observable Markov decision process,

Patricia Kan; Rajibul Huq; Jesse Hoey; Robby Goetschalckx; Alex Mihailidis

2011-01-01

251

Monitoring of Upper Limb Prosthesis Activity in Trans-Radial Amputees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There has been a shift in rehabilitation medicine from conventional evaluation procedures towards more quantitative approaches.\\u000a However, up to now, a quantitative evaluation procedure for upper limb prostheses that is applicable outside of the laboratory\\u000a or clinical environment has not been established. The requirement for such a procedure arises from the findings of a number\\u000a of recent studies suggesting that

Mohammad Sobuh; Laurence Kenney; Phil Tresadern; Martin Twiste; Sibylle Thies

252

Myoelectric signals pattern recognition for intelligent functional operation of upper-limb prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative study of the classification accuracy of myoelectric signals using multilayer perceptron with back-propagation algorithm and radial-basis functions networks. The myoelectric signals considered are used to classify four upper-limb movements which are elbow bending, elbow extension, wrist pronation and wrist supination. The network structure for multilayer perceptron is a fully connected one, while the structures used

N Chaiyaratana; A M S Zalzala; D Datta

1996-01-01

253

Improvement of a neural network-based motion generator with bimanual coordination for upper limb prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to redesign a neural network used as a motion generator with bimanual coordination for upper limb prosthesis in\\u000a order to improve its learning capability. We assumed that the wearer of the prosthesis was a unilateral amputee. In our previous\\u000a work, we proposed a prosthesis control system using a neural network that learned bimanual coordination in order to implement

Eiichi Inohira; Hirokazu Yokoi

2010-01-01

254

Effects of chronic electrical stimulation on long-term denervated muscles of the rabbit hind limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the extent to which activity induced by chronic electrical stimulation could restore the mass and contractile\\u000a function of rabbit tibialis anterior (TA) muscles that had undergone atrophy as a result of prolonged denervation. Denervation\\u000a was carried out by selectively interrupting the motor nerve branches to the ankle dorsiflexors in one hind limb. Stimulators\\u000a were implanted, with electrodes on

Zoe Ashley; Stanley Salmons; Simona Boncompagni; Feliciano Protasi; Michael Russold; Hermann Lanmuller; Winfried Mayr; Hazel Sutherland; Jonathan C. Jarvis

2007-01-01

255

Reorganizing therapy: changing the clinical approach to upper limb recovery post-stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability, and as a consequence, most therapists will provide health care to patients with stroke during their professional careers. An increasing number of studies are investigating the association between upper limb recovery and changes in brain activation patterns following stroke. In this review, we explore the translational implications of this research for health professionals working in stroke recovery. We argue that in light of the most recent evidence, therapists should consider how best to take full advantage of the brain's natural ability to reorganize, when prescribing and applying interventions to those with a stroke-affected upper limb. The authors propose that stroke is a brain-based problem that needs a brain-based solution. This review addresses two topics, anticipating recovery and maximizing recovery. It proposes five practice-ready recommendations that are based on the evidence reviewed. The over-riding aim of this review and discussion is to challenge therapists to reconsider the health care they prescribe and apply to people with a stroke-affected upper limb. PMID:25327458

Hubbard, Isobel J; Carey, Leeanne M; Budd, Timothy W; Parsons, Mark W

2015-03-01

256

Comparative Study of Upper Limb Load Assessment and Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Disorders at Repetitive Task Workstations  

PubMed Central

This study explored the relationship between subjectively assessed complaints of pain in the arm, forearm and hand, and musculoskeletal load caused by repetitive tasks. Workers (n=942) were divided into 22 subgroups, according to the type of their workstations. They answered questions on perceived musculoskeletal pain of upper limbs. Basic and aggregate indices from a questionnaire on the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain were compared with an upper limb load indicator (repetitive task index, RTI) calculated with the recently developed Upper Limb Risk Assessment (ULRA). There was relatively strong correlation of RTI and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm, and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm and forearm or prevalence of pain in the arm. Frequency and intensity of pain in the arm were weakly correlated. An aggregate indicator of evaluation of MSDs, which was calculated on the basis of the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain, was to a higher degree associated with the musculoskeletal load of a task than basic evaluative parameters. Thus, such an aggregate indicator can be an alternative in comparing subjectively assessed MSDs with task-related musculoskeletal load and in establishing limit levels for that load. PMID:24975106

ROMAN-LIU, Danuta; BUGAJSKA, Joanna; TOKARSKI, Tomasz

2014-01-01

257

Treatment interventions for the paretic upper limb of stroke survivors: a critical review.  

PubMed

Despite a threefold increase in treatment interventions studies during the past 10 years, "best practice" for the rehabilitation of the paretic upper limb is still unclear. This review aims to lessen uncertainty in the management of the poststroke upper limb. Two separate searches of the scientific literature from 1966-2001 yielded 333 articles. Three referees, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, selected 68 relevant references. Cohort studies, randomized control trials, and systematic reviews were critically appraised. Mean randomized control trial quality (n = 33) was 17.1/27 (SD = 5.2, 95% CI = 15.2-19.0, range = 6-26). Mean quality of cohort studies (n = 29) was 11.8/27 (SD = 3.8, 95% CI = 10.4-13.2, range = 4-19). Quantitative syntheses were done using the Z-statistic. This systematic review indicated that sensorimotor training; motor learning training that includes the use of imagery, electrical stimulation alone, or combined with biofeedback; and engaging the client in repetitive, novel tasks can be effective in reducing motor impairment after stroke. Furthermore, careful handling, electrical stimulation, movement with elevation, strapping, and the avoidance of overhead pulleys could effectively reduce or prevent pain in the paretic upper limb. Rehabilitation specialists can use this research synthesis to guide their selection of effective treatment techniques for persons with impairments after stroke. PMID:14677218

Barreca, Susan; Wolf, Steven L; Fasoli, Susan; Bohannon, Richard

2003-12-01

258

Complex muscle vibration patterns to induce gait-like lower-limb movements: proof of concept.  

PubMed

Muscle vibrations can induce motor responses and illusions of complex movements. However, inducing gait-like cyclical movements and illusions requires the application of multiple fast alternating vibrations to lower-limb muscles. The objectives were (1) to test the feasibility of delivering complex vibrations in a time-organized manner and (2) to illustrate the possibility of inducing alternate gait-in-place-like movements using these vibrations. Patterns of vibration, produced by 12 vibrators applied bilaterally on the flexor and extensor muscle groups of the lower limbs, were based on normal gait kinematics. We tested 1 s and 2 s cycle patterns of vibration. Vibrator responses were assessed using auto- and crosscorrelations and frequency analyses based on accelerometry measurements, and compared between patterns. High auto- (>0.8) and crosscorrelation (>0.6) coefficients demonstrated a good response by the vibrators to the control signal. Vibrations induced cyclical, low-amplitude stepping-in-place movements that mimicked alternate walking movements with both legs, with 1 s and 2 s cycle durations, in one nondisabled participant and one participant with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale B spinal cord injury standing, relaxed, with body-weight support. Electromechanical vibrators can deliver complex cyclical vibrations and trigger gait-like lower-limb movements. These results warrant the application of these vibration patterns on individuals with sensorimotor impairments to test their potential in gait rehabilitation. PMID:24933722

Duclos, Cyril; Kemlin, Claire; Lazert, David; Gagnon, Dany; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Forget, Robert

2014-01-01

259

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. BME-30, NO. 1, JANUARY 1983 Upper Extremity Limb Function Discrimination  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. BME-30, NO. 1, JANUARY 1983 Upper Extremity Limb limb function probabilities. These probabilities are the sufficient statistics for the problem. This technique should be useful in generating control signals for prosthetic devices. I. INTRODUCTION I N

Willsky, Alan S.

260

Impact of early applied upper limb stimulation: The EXPLICIT-stroke programme design  

PubMed Central

Background Main claims of the literature are that functional recovery of the paretic upper limb is mainly defined within the first month post stroke and that rehabilitation services should preferably be applied intensively and in a task-oriented way within this particular time window. EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke (acronym EXPLICIT-stroke) aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of post stroke upper limb recovery. Two randomized single blinded trials form the core of the programme, investigating the effects of early modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (modified CIMT) and EMG-triggered Neuro-Muscular Stimulation (EMG-NMS) in patients with respectively a favourable or poor probability for recovery of dexterity. Methods/design 180 participants suffering from an acute, first-ever ischemic stroke will be recruited. Functional prognosis at the end of the first week post stroke is used to stratify patient into a poor prognosis group for upper limb recovery (N = 120, A2 project) and a group with a favourable prognosis (N = 60, A1 project). Both groups will be randomized to an experimental arm receiving respectively modified CIMT (favourable prognosis) or EMG-NMS (poor prognosis) for 3 weeks or to a control arm receiving usual care. Primary outcome variable will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), assessed at 1,2,3,4,5, 8, 12 and 26 weeks post stroke. To study the impact of modified CIMT or EMG-NMS on stroke recovery mechanisms i.e. neuroplasticity, compensatory movements and upper limb neuromechanics, 60 patients randomly selected from projects A1 and A2 will undergo TMS, kinematical and haptic robotic measurements within a repeated measurement design. Additionally, 30 patients from the A1 project will undergo fMRI at baseline, 5 and 26 weeks post stroke. Conclusion EXPLICIT stroke is a 5 year translational research programme which main aim is to investigate the effects of early applied intensive intervention for regaining dexterity and to explore the underlying mechanisms that are involved in regaining upper limb function after stroke. EXPLICIT-stroke will provide an answer to the key question whether therapy induced improvements are due to either a reduction of basic motor impairment by neural repair i.e. restitution of function and/or the use of behavioural compensation strategies i.e. substitution of function. EXPLICIT is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR, ., TC 1424) PMID:19091088

Kwakkel, Gert; Meskers, Carel GM; van Wegen, Erwin E; Lankhorst, Guus J; Geurts, Alexander CH; van Kuijk, Annet A; Lindeman, Eline; Visser-Meily, Anne; de Vlugt, Erwin; Arendzen, J Hans

2008-01-01

261

Design of a wrist and gripping mechanism for an upper limb prosthesis specifically for the game of golf  

E-print Network

An upper limb prosthesis used for the game of golf was designed. More specifically, the wrist and gripping mechanism was designed. The motivating factor behind his project was to improve a player's ability to make a smooth, ...

Yoder, Michael D

2009-01-01

262

Organization of the upper limb movement for piano key-depression differs between expert pianists and novice players.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the expert-novice difference in the organization of upper-limb movement for the key-depression on the piano. Kinematic and electromyographic recordings were made while experts (N = 7) and novices (N = 7) of classical-piano players performed a right hand octave keystroke to produce four different sound dynamics. The joint torque generated at the key-bottom moment (key-force torque) was also estimated. At all sound dynamics, the experts showed a larger finger attack angle, more flexed shoulder, wrist, and MP joints, more extended elbow joint, and smaller key-force torque at the MP joint than the novices. The level of co-activation in the finger flexor-extensor muscles during the period prior to the key-bottom moment was also lower for the experts. To attain the large attack angle by the experts, as the fingertip depressed the key to the bottom, their shoulder was actively flexed, the forearm was thrust forward, and the hand was rotated forward. The novices, on the other hand, actively extended their shoulder to move the forearm and hand downward to depress the key. These results confirmed a substantial difference in the key-depression movement organization between the experts and novices. These findings also suggest that experts use a synergistically organized multi-joint limb motion that allows them to minimize the biomechanical load and muscular effort to the distal muscles. The novices, on the other hand, tend to rely on a rudimentary synergy of joint motion developed through daily experience. PMID:17989970

Furuya, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

2008-03-01

263

Magnetic transcranial stimulation in healthy humans: influence on the behavior of upper limb motor units.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of motor action potentials recruitment during magnetic trans-cranial stimulation (TCS) of the brain. Coaxial needle recordings from hand and upper limb musculature, as well as surface electrodes were employed in 20 healthy controls during magnetic TCS with regular and figure-of-8 coil in different experimental protocols including: (a) simple reaction time paradigm during which TCS at subthreshold intensity for eliciting MEPs in relaxation was delivered at various intervals between the signal to move and the onset of the voluntary EMG burst; (b) suprathreshold TCS was randomly delivered while the subject was voluntarily firing at a regular rate one 'low' and/or 'high threshold' motor unit action potential (MUAP). The pre- and post-TCS MUAPs recruitment as well as their firing rates were compared; (c) recordings with two separate needles picking up individual MUAPs from the same or from two different muscles were obtained in order to test 'synchrony' of MUAP's discharge before and after TCS; (d) the influence of the time-interval separating the last discharged MUAP from TCS was evaluated. (e) differences between simultaneous surface and depth recordings were examined. The following results were obtained. (a) The same low-amplitude MUAP which is first voluntarily recruited at the onset of the EMG burst is the one initially fired by TCS in the pre-movement period. Latency shortenings and amplitude enlargement of surface MEPs were observed with faster reaction times. Such changes were coupled to the recruitment of high-threshold MUAPs being larger in amplitude and briefer in latency than the initial one. (b) When using suprathreshold TCS, MEPs followed by silent periods were found. The SP was followed by a rebound acceleration of the MUAPs firing rate compared with pre-TCS levels. Besides rebound acceleration, new MUAPs of larger amplitude than the original (= pre-stimulus) ones were recruited beyond the voluntary control. This phenomenon-together with longer SPs- was progressively more pronounced with stronger stimuli. (c) TCS was affecting the 'synchrony' of MUAPs. (d) If the latency difference between the last pre-stimulus spike and the TCS was exceeding the half-cycle of the MUAP 'natural' firing, the SP was longer in duration. (e) SPs not preceded by MEPs were clearly present in depth recordings. Surface recordings mainly reflected the behavior of high-threshold and large MUAPs. PMID:7614001

Rossini, P M; Caramia, M D; Iani, C; Desiato, M T; Sciarretta, G; Bernardi, G

1995-04-10

264

Influence of mechanical ventilation and sepsis on redox balance in diaphragm, myocardium, limb muscles, and lungs.  

PubMed

Mechanical ventilation (MV), using high tidal volumes (V(T)), causes lung (ventilator-induced lung injury [VILI]) and distant organ injury. Additionally, sepsis is characterized by increased oxidative stress. We tested whether MV is associated with enhanced oxidative stress in sepsis, the commonest underlying condition in clinical acute lung injury. Protein carbonylation and nitration, antioxidants, and inflammation (immunoblotting) were evaluated in diaphragm, gastrocnemius, soleus, myocardium, and lungs of nonseptic and septic (cecal ligation and puncture 24 hours before MV) rats undergoing MV (n = 7 per group) for 150 minutes using 3 different strategies (low V(T) [V(T) = 9 mL/kg], moderate V(T) [V(T) = 15 mL/kg], and high V(T) [V(T) = 25 mL/kg]) and in nonventilated control animals. Compared with nonventilated control animals, in septic and nonseptic rodents (1) diaphragms, limb muscles, and myocardium of high-V(T) rats exhibited a decrease in protein oxidation and nitration levels, (2) antioxidant levels followed a specific fiber-type distribution in slow- and fast-twitch muscles, (3) tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels were higher in respiratory and limb muscles, whereas no differences were observed in myocardium, and (4) in lungs, protein oxidation was increased, antioxidants were rather decreased, and TNF-? remained unmodified. In this model of VILI, oxidative stress does not occur in distant organs or skeletal muscles of rodents after several hours of MV with moderate-to-high V(T), whereas protein oxidation levels were increased in the lungs of the animals. Inflammatory events were moderately expressed in skeletal muscles and lungs of the MV rats. Concomitant sepsis did not strongly affect the MV-induced effects on muscles, myocardium, or lungs in the rodents. PMID:25168016

Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Rojas, Yeny; Martínez-Caro, Leticia; Vila-Ubach, Monica; Nin, Nicolas; Ferruelo, Antonio; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A; Barreiro, Esther

2014-12-01

265

Study of the nightside Venus upper haze from VIRTIS-M / Venus Express limb observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work studies the structure of the aerosol in the upper haze of Venus (75-95 km). According to several nightside limb observations made by VIRTIS (IR imaging spectrometer on-board the Venus Express spacecraft) a haze of particles can sometimes be seen on the planet's limb. These observations are also confirmed by the similar results, gained by SPICAV/SOIR, another experiment on the same mission, operating however in a different geometry. By using the model ARS [2], which simulates the radiative transfer in the venusian atmosphere, we were able to create the intensity profiles and to try to fit them (forward modeling) into the experimental data. As a result of these calculations, a lot of particle parameters were found out, including their size distribution, altitude distribution and number density.

Gorinov, D.; Ignatiev, N.; Zasova, L.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

2014-04-01

266

Sirenomelia: four further cases with discussion of associated upper limb defects.  

PubMed

Sirenomelia, also known as the 'mermaid malformation/syndrome', is a rare, serious congenital anomaly characterized by variable degrees of fusion of the lower limbs and associated severe malformations of the lower vertebral and genitourinary systems. In this report, we describe a series of African patients with sirenomelia. We present the clinical and radiological features of four black South African patients and illustrate some of the rarer associated abnormalities, which include asymmetrical upper limb defects, not confined to the radial ray. The clinical phenotypic overlap between caudal dysgenesis, VACTERL association and sirenomelia in our patients is highlighted, lending support to the theory that these entities may be different manifestations of a single pathogenic process. PMID:22660421

Moosa, Shahida; Lambie, Lindsay Ann; Krause, Amanda

2012-07-01

267

The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i) without brace, ii) with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter) was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately stimulated by the brace application and therefore are not able to alter the balance control strategy of the CNS, or that they play a less important role in the control of single limb balance. Further research is needed in this area with more dynamic and functional measurements, before the safe use of ankle bracing can be widely recommended. PMID:17850663

Papadopoulos, Emmanuel S; Nikolopoulos, Christos; Badekas, Athanasios; Vagenas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

2007-01-01

268

Atlas of the muscle motor points for the lower limb: implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the uniformity of the muscle motor point location for lower limb muscles in healthy subjects. Fifty-three subjects of both genders (age range: 18-50 years) were recruited. The muscle motor points were identified for the following ten muscles of the lower limb (dominant side): vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus of the hamstring muscles, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, lateral and medial gastrocnemius. The muscle motor point was identified by scanning the skin surface with a stimulation pen electrode and corresponded to the location of the skin area above the muscle in which an electrical pulse evoked a muscle twitch with the least injected current. For each investigated muscle, 0.15 ms square pulses were delivered through the pen electrode at low current amplitude (<10 mA) and frequency (2 Hz). 16 motor points were identified in the 10 investigated muscles of almost all subjects: 3 motor points for the vastus lateralis, 2 motor points for rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior, 1 motor point for the remaining muscles. An important inter-individual variability was observed for the position of the following 4 out of 16 motor points: vastus lateralis (proximal), biceps femoris (short head), semimembranosus, and medial gastrocnemius. Possible implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning different from those commonly applied for thigh and leg muscles are discussed. PMID:21796408

Botter, Alberto; Oprandi, Gianmosè; Lanfranco, Fabio; Allasia, Stefano; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

2011-10-01

269

Horner's syndrome and weakness of upper limb after epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section  

PubMed Central

Horner's syndrome is not rare during labour epidural analgesia or in pregnant patients receiving epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section as thought previously. It occurs due to blockade of sympathetic fibres supplying the eye and face area. Most of the times it is a benign and self-limiting condition; however, it may become a serious systemic manifestation. We present a case where patient had weakness of upper-limb and Horner's syndrome of same side with visual disturbances. These symptoms were transient and resolved spontaneously without any treatment. PMID:25197119

Jadon, Ashok

2014-01-01

270

Upper haze on the night side of Venus from VIRTIS-M / Venus Express limb observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Night side limb observations of Venus made by VIRTIS mapping spectrometer onboard Venus Express revealed a thermal emission scattered at the right angle by the upper haze above the cloud tops. This emission comes from the cloud tops in the spectral range of 4-5 microns and from the hot deep subcloud atmosphere and the surface in several spectral transparency windows between 1 and 2.5 mum. De Kok et al. (2011, Icarus 211, 51) first demonstrated that the spectra of this emission can be used to retrieve the density of the upper haze and estimate its particle size. In particular they obtained vertical profiles of the haze density from the spectra of the thermal emission from the cloud in the interval of 4-5 mum for 4 orbits and two narrow latitudinal bands of 20-30N and 47-50. We extend this study to other spectral windows and analyzed a wide set of measurements obtained in 2006-2009. We analyzed the vertical profiles of the scattered emission at 1.18, 1.7 and 2.3 microns to retrieve the upper haze density between 75 and 90 km with the vertical resolution of 3 km. In low latitudes the retrieved extinction at 85 km is equal to 0.001-0.003 km (-1) at wavelength 1.75 mum, and the equivalent mode 2 density equals 0.1-0.3 cm (-3) , which is generally in agreement with the results by deKok et al. (2011) and Wilquet et al. (2009, JGR 114, E00B42; 2012, Icarus 217, 875) obtained for similar conditions. The upper haze is subjected to a considerable temporal variability, which is difficult to systematize due to very non-uniform limb observation sequence. The variability can be illustrated by the altitude of the apparent limb boundary in the IR limb images: in most cases it is located at altitudes of 79-83 km, being systematically lower at higher latitudes, but sometimes extends up to 89 km. Detached layers are sometimes observed at 75-85 km.

Ignatiev, Nikolay; Drossart, Pierre; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Zasova, Ludmila; Gorinov, Dmitry

271

Upper limb reinnervation in C6 tetraplegia using a triple nerve transfer: case report.  

PubMed

Restoration of elbow extension, grasp, key pinch, and release are major goals in low-level tetraplegia. Traditionally, these functions are achieved using tendon transfers. In this case these goals were achieved using nerve transfers. We present a 21-year-old man with a C6 level of tetraplegia. The left upper limb was treated 6 months after injury with a triple nerve transfer. A teres minor nerve branch to long head of triceps nerve branch, brachialis nerve branch to anterior interosseous nerve, and supinator nerve branch to posterior interosseous nerve transfer were used successfully to reconstruct elbow extension, key pinch, grasp, and release simultaneously. PMID:25063391

van Zyl, Natasha; Hahn, Jodie B; Cooper, Catherine A; Weymouth, Michael D; Flood, Stephen J; Galea, Mary P

2014-09-01

272

Reliability and sensitivity of a simple isometric posterior lower limb muscle test in professional football players.  

PubMed

This study aimed (1) to determine the reliability of a simple and quick test to assess isometric posterior lower limb muscle force in professional football players and (2) verify its sensitivity to detect reductions in force following a competitive match. Twenty-nine professional football players performed a 3-s maximal isometric contraction of the posterior lower limb muscles for both legs with players lying supine. Both legs were tested using a knee angle of 90° and 30° measured on a force plate. Players were tested twice with one week between sessions to verify reliability. Sensitivity was tested following a full competitive football match. The test showed high reliability for dominant leg at 90° (CV = 4.3%, ICC = 0.95, ES = 0.15), non-dominant leg at 90° (CV = 5.4%, ICC = 0.95, ES = 0.14), and non-dominant leg at 30° (CV = 4.8%, ICC = 0.93, ES = 0.30) and good reliability for dominant leg at 30° (CV = 6.3%, ICC = 0.86, ES = 0.05). The measure was sensitive enough to detect reductions in force for dominant leg at 90° (P = 0.0006, ES > 1), non-dominant leg at 90° (P = 0.0142, ES = 1), and non-dominant leg at 30° (P = 0.0064, ES > 1) and for dominant leg at 30° (P = 0.0016, ES > 1). In conclusion, the present test represents a useful and practical field tool to determine the magnitude of match-induced fatigue of the posterior lower limb muscles and potentially to track their recovery. PMID:25845799

McCall, Alan; Nedelec, Mathieu; Carling, Christopher; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

2015-06-01

273

Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players  

PubMed Central

Background Studies involving chronic creatine supplementation in elite soccer players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players (n?=?14 males) during pre-season training. Findings This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Brazilian professional elite soccer players participated in this study. During the pre-season (7 weeks), all the subjects underwent a standardized physical and specific soccer training. Prior to and after either creatine monohydrate or placebo supplementation, the lower-limb muscle power was measured by countermovement jump performance. The Jumping performance was compared between groups at baseline (p?=?0.99). After the intervention, jumping performance was lower in the placebo group (percent change?=?- 0.7%; ES?=?- 0.3) than in the creatine group (percent change?=?+ 2.4%; ES?=?+ 0.1), but it did not reach statistical significance (p?=?0.23 for time x group interaction). Fisher’s exact test revealed that the proportion of subjects that experienced a reduction in jumping performance was significantly greater in the placebo group than in the creatine group (5 and 1, respectively; p?=?0.05) after the training. The magnitude-based inferences demonstrated that placebo resulted in a possible negative effect (50%) in jumping performance, whereas creatine supplementation led to a very likely trivial effect (96%) in jumping performance in the creatine group. Conclusions Creatine monohydrate supplementation prevented the decrement in lower-limb muscle power in elite soccer players during a pre-season progressive training. PMID:24991195

2014-01-01

274

Muscle architecture and out-force potential of the thoracic limb in the Eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus).  

PubMed

Moles have modified thoracic limbs with hypertrophied pectoral girdle muscles that allow them to apply remarkably high lateral out-forces during the power stroke when burrowing. To further understand the high force capabilities of mole forelimbs, architectural properties of the thoracic limb muscles were quantified in the Eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus). Architectural properties measured included muscle mass, moment arm, belly length, fascicle length, and pennation angle, and these were used to provide estimates of maximum isometric force, joint torque, and power. Measurements of muscle moment arms and limb lever lengths were additionally used to analyze the out-force contributions of the major pectoral girdle muscles. Most muscles have relatively long fascicles and little-to-no pennation. The humeral abductor/rotators as a functional group are massive and are capable of relatively high force, power, and joint torque. Of this group, the bipennate m. teres major is the most massive and has the capacity to produce the highest force and joint torque to abduct and axially rotate the humerus. In general, the distal limb muscles are relatively small, but have the capacity for high force and mechanical work by fascicle shortening. The muscle architectural properties of the elbow extensors (e.g., m. triceps brachii) and carpal flexors (e.g., m. palmaris longus) are consistent with the function of these muscles to augment lateral out-force application. The humeral abductor/rotators m. latissimus dorsi, m. teres major, m. pectoralis, and m. subscapularis are calculated to contribute 13.9 N to out-force during the power stroke, and this force is applied in a 'frontal' plane causing abduction of the humerus about the sternoclavicular joint. Moles have several specializations of their digging apparatus that greatly enhance the application of out-force, and these morphological features suggest convergence on limb form and burrowing function between New and Old World moles. PMID:23907929

Rose, Jacob A; Sandefur, Mark; Huskey, Steve; Demler, Jennifer L; Butcher, Michael T

2013-11-01

275

Upper limb amputees can be induced to experience a rubber hand as their own  

PubMed Central

We describe how upper limb amputees can be made to experience a rubber hand as part of their own body. This was accomplished by applying synchronous touches to the stump, which was out of view, and to the index finger of a rubber hand, placed in full view (26 cm medial to the stump). This elicited an illusion of sensing touch on the artificial hand, rather than on the stump and a feeling of ownership of the rubber hand developed. This effect was supported by quantitative subjective reports in the form of questionnaires, behavioural data in the form of misreaching in a pointing task when asked to localize the position of the touch, and physiological evidence obtained by skin conductance responses when threatening the hand prosthesis. Our findings outline a simple method for transferring tactile sensations from the stump to a prosthetic limb by tricking the brain, thereby making an important contribution to the field of neuroprosthetics where a major goal is to develop artificial limbs that feel like a real parts of the body. PMID:19074189

Rosén, Birgitta; Stockselius, Anita; Ragnö, Christina; Köhler, Peter; Lundborg, Göran

2008-01-01

276

Multimodality imaging of peripheral neuropathies of the upper limb and brachial plexus.  

PubMed

The peripheral nerves of the upper limb are affected by a number of entrapment and compression neuropathies. These discrete syndromes involve the brachial plexus as well as the musculocutaneous, axillary, suprascapular, ulnar, radial, and median nerves. Clinical examination and electrophysiologic studies are the traditional mainstay of diagnostic work-up; however, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide spatial information regarding the affected nerve and its surroundings, often assisting in narrowing the differential diagnosis and guiding treatment. Imaging is particularly valuable in complex cases with discrepant nerve function test results. Familiarity with the clinical features of various peripheral neuropathies of the upper extremity, the relevant anatomy, and the most common sites and causes of nerve entrapment assists in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20833856

Linda, Dorota Dominika; Harish, Srinivasan; Stewart, Brian G; Finlay, Karen; Parasu, Naveen; Rebello, Ryan Paul

2010-09-01

277

Upper limb disability in Norwegian workers with hand-arm vibration syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a well-known disease among workers using hand-held vibrating tools. These patients experience major symptoms from their upper limbs. However, there are few studies on disability in this patient group. In this study we wanted to describe the disability of HAVS patients. Methods All HAVS patients diagnosed at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, Norway in a five-year period were invited. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire was sent by mail. Clinical data were extracted from their hospital journals. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed. Results Thirty-eight patients were recruited. Mean DASH score was 41.2, while the mean of a normal population is 10. Ability to perform tasks related to work and everyday life was affected in these patients. We found a significant association between the DASH score, hand grip strength and tendinitis, also after adjustment for age and smoking in pack-years. Conclusion HAVS patients demonstrate a high level of upper limb disability as assessed by the DASH score. Ability to perform tasks related to work and everyday life was affected. We found a significant association between the DASH score, hand grip strength and tendinitis. This should be focused upon in future research. PMID:24517340

2014-01-01

278

Design of a rotational hydroelastic actuator for a powered exoskeleton for upper limb rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to validate the suitability of a novel rotational hydroelastic actuator (rHEA) for use in our new rehabilitation exoskeleton for the upper limbs, the Limpact. The rHEA consists of a rotational hydraulic actuator and a custom-designed symmetric torsion spring in a series-elastic configuration. For rehabilitation therapy and impairment quantification, both compliant impedance control and stiff admittance control modes are possible. In the validation experiments, the torque bandwidth of the rHEA was limited to 18 Hz for a desired 20 N m reference signal (multisine, constant spectrum) due the transport delays in the long flexible tubes between the valve and cylinder. These transport delays also required changes to existing theoretical models to better fit the models on the measured frequency response functions. The (theoretical) measurable torque resolution was better than 0.01 N m and the (validated) delivered torque resolution below 1 N m. After the validation experiments, further iterative improvements resulted in a spring design capable of a maximum output torque of 50 N m with an intrinsic stiffness of 150 N . m/rad and a slightly higher bandwidth. With the design locked, the maximum measurable isometric torque is 100 N m. In conclusion, the rHEA is suitable for upper limb rehabilitation therapy as it matches the desired performance. PMID:19362903

Stienenw, Arno H A; Hekman, Edsko E G; ter Braak, Huub; Aalsma, Arthur M M; van der Helm, Frans C T; van der Kooij, Herman

2010-03-01

279

Inadvertent recovery in communication deficits following the upper limb mirror therapy in stroke: A case report.  

PubMed

Broca's aphasia is the most challenging communication deficit in stroke. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a key region of the mirror-neuron system, gets lesioned in Broca's aphasia. Mirror therapy (MT), a form of action-observation, may trigger the mirror neurons. The aim of this study was to report a case of poststroke subject with Broca's aphasia, who exhibited an inadvertent and significant improvement in speech after MT for the paretic upper limb. The 20-month old stroke patient underwent MT through goal-directed tasks. He received a total absence of spontaneous speech, writing, and naming. After 45 sessions of task-based MT for the upper limb, he showed tremendous recovery in expressive communication. He had fluent and comprehensive communication; however, with a low pitch and minor pronunciation errors. He showed a substantial change (from 18/100 to 79/100) on the Communicative Effective Index, particularly, on items such as expressing emotions, one-to-one conversation, naming, and spontaneous conversation. PMID:25440208

Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta

2014-10-01

280

Wearable kinesthetic system for capturing and classifying upper limb gesture in post-stroke rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Monitoring body kinematics has fundamental relevance in several biological and technical disciplines. In particular the possibility to exactly know the posture may furnish a main aid in rehabilitation topics. In the present work an innovative and unobtrusive garment able to detect the posture and the movement of the upper limb has been introduced, with particular care to its application in post stroke rehabilitation field by describing the integration of the prototype in a healthcare service. Methods This paper deals with the design, the development and implementation of a sensing garment, from the characterization of innovative comfortable and diffuse sensors we used to the methodologies employed to gather information on the posture and movement which derive from the entire garments. Several new algorithms devoted to the signal acquisition, the treatment and posture and gesture reconstruction are introduced and tested. Results Data obtained by means of the sensing garment are analyzed and compared with the ones recorded using a traditional movement tracking system. Conclusion The main results treated in this work are summarized and remarked. The system was compared with a commercial movement tracking system (a set of electrogoniometers) and it performed the same accuracy in detecting upper limb postures and movements. PMID:15743530

Tognetti, Alessandro; Lorussi, Federico; Bartalesi, Raphael; Quaglini, Silvana; Tesconi, Mario; Zupone, Giuseppe; De Rossi, Danilo

2005-01-01

281

Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block in upper limb surgery: outcomes and patient satisfaction.  

PubMed

We examined the outcomes and levels of patient satisfaction in 202 consecutive cases of ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SBPB) in upper limb surgery performed between September 2007 and March 2010. All blocks were performed by orthopaedic surgeons using ultrasound visualisation with a high-frequency linear probe. The probe was placed in the coronal-oblique plane in the supraclavicular fossa, and the puncture was 'in-plane' from lateral to medial. Most of the blocks were performed with 0.75% ropivacaine/1% lidocaine (1:1), with or without adrenaline in 1:200 000 dilution. In 201 patients (99.5%) the brachial plexus block permitted surgery without conversion to general anaesthesia. The mean procedure time for block was 3.9 min (2 to 12), the mean waiting time for surgery was 34.1 min (10 to 64), the mean surgical time was 75.2 min (6 to 232), and the mean duration of post-anaesthetic analgesia was 437 min (171 to 992). A total of 20 patients (10%) developed a transient Horner's syndrome. No nerve injury, pneumothorax, arterial puncture or systemic anaesthetic toxicity were recorded. Most patients (96.7%) were satisfied with ultrasound-guided SBPB. This study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided SBPB for orthopaedic surgery on the upper limb. PMID:24891581

Gamo, K; Kuriyama, K; Higuchi, H; Uesugi, A; Nakase, T; Hamada, M; Kawai, H

2014-06-01

282

Relationship between upper and lower limb conduit artery vasodilator function in humans  

PubMed Central

Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a strong predictor of future cardiovascular disease and is believed to represent a “barometer” of systemic endothelial health. Although a recent study [Padilla et al. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 235: 1287–1291, 2010] in pigs confirmed a strong correlation between brachial and femoral artery endothelial function, it is unclear to what extent brachial artery FMD represents a systemic index of endothelial function in humans. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from our laboratory to evaluate relationships between the upper (i.e., brachial artery) vs. lower limb (superficial femoral n = 75; popliteal artery n = 32) endothelium-dependent FMD and endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-mediated dilation in young, healthy individuals. We also examined the relationship between FMD assessed in both brachial arteries (n = 42). There was no correlation between brachial and superficial femoral artery FMD (r2 = 0.008; P = 0.46) or between brachial and popliteal artery FMD (r2 = 0.003; P = 0.78). However, a correlation was observed in FMD between both brachial arteries (r2 = 0.34; P < 0.001). Brachial and superficial femoral artery GTN were modestly correlated (r2 = 0.13; P = 0.007), but brachial and popliteal artery GTN responses were not (r2 = 0.08; P = 0.11). Collectively, these data indicate that conduit artery vasodilator function in the upper limbs (of healthy humans) is not predictive of that in the lower limbs, whereas measurement of FMD in one arm appears to be predictive of FMD in the other. These data do not support the hypothesis that brachial artery FMD in healthy humans represents a systemic index of endothelial function. PMID:21512151

Rowley, Nicola; Padilla, Jaume; Simmons, Grant H.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Whyte, Greg; Cable, N. Timothy; Green, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

283

Activity of lower limb muscles during treadmill running at different velocities  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The present study aimed to determine changes in muscle activity while moving on a treadmill at various speeds. [Subjects] The activities of the left vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, hip adductors, lateral head of gastrocnemius, medial head gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior of 10 healthy male university students were analyzed. [Methods] University students walked, jogged, and ran for 10 minutes each in random order, and then myogenic potentials were measured 10 minutes later for 30 seconds. The flexion angle of the lower limb upon initial contact, mid stance, and toe off were measured. [Results] The average walking, jogging, and running speeds were 3.6 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 10.4 ± 1.3?km/h, respectively. The average electromyographic activities of the vastus medial, tibialis anterior, medial head of gastrocnemius, and lateral head of gastrocnemius significantly differed. All muscles were more active during jogging and running than walking. Only the soleus was more active during running than walking, and the activities of the hip adductors and vastus lateralis did not significantly differ. [Conclusion] Velocity is faster and the angles of the lower limbs and ground reaction force (GRF) are larger during running than walking. The vastus medialis and soleus worked more easily according to the angle of the knee joint, whereas the tibialis anterior worked more easily at faster velocities and the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius worked more easily with an increased GRF. PMID:25729166

Tsuji, Keiichi; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Oba, Kaori; Ueki, Tsutomu; Fujihashi, Yuichiro

2015-01-01

284

Effect of recovery mode following hind-limb suspension on soleus muscle composition in the rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different recovery modes from hind-limb suspension-induced hypodynamia on whole body and muscle (soleus) growth as well as soleus composition and size changes of different fiber types within this same muscle. Following 28 days of tail-suspension, rats were returned to their cages and sedentarily recovered (HS), or were exercised by running on a treadmill 5 days/wk, at progressively increasing workloads (HR) for one month. Sedentary and running control groups of animals (CS, CR) were also evaluated for comparative purposes. The exercise program, which was identical for CR and HR groups, had no effect on body wt., soleus wt., soleus muscle composition or fiber size in CR rats. Atrophied soleus muscle and reduced soleus wt./body wt. ratio (both 60% of control) had returned to control values by day 7 of recovery in both suspended groups despite the fact that whole body wt. gain was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) in HR as compared to HS rats. Atrophied soleus Type I fiber mean cross-sectional area in both HR and HS groups demonstrated similar and significant (p less than 0.01) increases during recovery. Increases in Type IIa and IIc fiber area during this same period were significant only in the HR group. While the percentage area of muscle composed of Type I fibers increased in both hypodynamic groups during recovery, the reduction in area percentage of muscle made up of Type IIa fibers was again only significant in the HR group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

McNulty, A. L.; Otto, A. J.; Kasper, C. E.; Thomas, D. P.

1992-01-01

285

Kinetics of the upper limb during table tennis topspin forehands in advanced and intermediate players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of mechanical energy generation and transfer in the upper limb in generating the racket speed during table tennis topspin forehands. Nine advanced and eight intermediate table tennis players performed the forehand stroke at maximum effort against light and heavy backspin balls. Five high-speed video cameras operating at 200 fps were used to record the motions of the upper body of the players. The joint forces and torques of the racket arm were determined with inverse dynamics, and the amount of mechanical energy generated and transferred in the arm was determined. The shoulder internal rotation torque exerted by advanced players was significantly larger than that exerted by the intermediate players. Owing to a larger shoulder internal rotation torque, the advanced players transferred mechanical energy from the trunk of the body to the upper arm at a higher rate than the intermediate players could. Regression of the racket speed at ball impact on the energy transfer to the upper arm suggests that increase in the energy transfer may be an important factor for enabling intermediate players to generate a higher racket speed at impact in topspin forehands. PMID:22303787

Iino, Yoichi; Kojima, Takeji

2011-11-01

286

Comparison in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage among four limb muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following maximal eccentric exercise would\\u000a be smaller for the knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) compared with the elbow flexors (EF) and extensors (EE). A total of\\u000a 17 sedentary men performed five sets of six maximal isokinetic (90° s?1) eccentric contractions of EF (range of motion, ROM: 90°–0°,

Trevor C. Chen; Kun-Yi Lin; Hsin-Lian Chen; Ming-Ju Lin; Kazunori Nosaka

2011-01-01

287

The Effect of Practice on Learning and Transferring Goal Directed Isometric Contractions across Ipsilateral Upper and Lower Limbs  

E-print Network

the task better due to the formation of a stronger muscle synergy (or stronger internal model) to perform the contractions with accuracy. The lower limb, on the other hand may have formed a weaker internal model due to the greater interference from...

Kaur, Navneet

2010-07-14

288

Suppression of the N1 auditory evoked potential for sounds generated by the upper and lower limbs.  

PubMed

Sensory attenuation is typically observed for self-generated compared to externally generated action effects. In the present study we investigated whether auditory sensory suppression is modulated as a function of sounds being generated by the upper or lower limbs. We report sensory attenuation, as reflected in a reduced auditory N1 component, which was comparable for sounds generated by the lower and the upper limbs. Increasing temporal delays between actions and sounds did not modulate suppression of the N1 component, but did have an effect on the latency of the N1 component. In contrast, for the P2 component sensory suppression was only observed for sounds generated by the hands and presented at short latencies. These findings provide new insight into the functional and neural dynamics of sensory suppression and suggest the existence of comparable agency mechanisms for both the upper and the lower limbs. PMID:25019590

van Elk, Michiel; Salomon, Roy; Kannape, Oliver; Blanke, Olaf

2014-10-01

289

Relation among the Gross Motor Function, Manual Performance and Upper Limb Functional Measures in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of this study was to describe hand function in relation with gross motor function and subtype of spastic cerebral palsy and to investigate the relationships among gross motor function, bimanual performance, unimanual capacity and upper limb functional measures in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Materials and Methods We collected upper extremity data of 140 children with spastic CP. The Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess gross motor function, Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) for bimanual performance, and Modified House Functional Classification (MHC) for the best capacity of each hand. Upper limb functions were evaluated by using the Upper Limb Physician's Rating Scale and Upper Extremity Rating Scale. Results There was a good correlation between GMFCS and MACS in children with bilateral CP, but the correlation was not strong in children with unilateral CP. No significant difference between GMFCS and MACS was found in children with bilateral CP, but children with unilateral CP scored higher on GMFCS than on MACS. A strong correlation was observed between MACS and MHC in children with bilateral CP, but not in children with unilateral CP. The upper limb functional measures in each hand were highly related with MACS and MHC in bilateral CP, but not in unilateral CP. Conclusion Gross motor function, bimanual performance and the best capacity of each hand are closely related with each other in children with bilateral CP, but not in children with unilateral CP. PMID:23364990

Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong Wook; Park, Jin Hee; Park, Doug Ho

2013-01-01

290

Test-retest reliability and responsiveness of a French Canadian Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI-FC).  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) is a self-report questionnaire assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions resulting from an upper limb musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). A French Canadian version of the ULFI (ULFI-FC) has recently demonstrated good internal consistency, and convergent validity, as well as clinical applicability in a rehabilitation context where clinicians have important time constraints. This study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the ULFI-FC. Methods: In order to study the ULFI-FC's responsiveness, 60 participants completed the ULFI-FC and a French Canadian version of the DASH (DASH-FC) twice at an interval of two to six weeks, based on the evolution of their upper limb MSD. Half of the sample also completed the ULFI-FC three days after the second assessment for the test-retest reliability analysis. Results: The ULFI-FC demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC?=?0.92-0.97) and good internal responsiveness (Cohen's d?=?0.49-0.62; standardized responsive means?=?0.60-0.88). External responsiveness was further supported by moderate correlations of change scores with the DASH-FC (r?=?0.42-0.64). Conclusions: Study findings support the use of the ULFI-FC in rehabilitation as an outcome measure to monitor activity limitations and participation restrictions among French-speaking patients presenting with upper limb MSD. Implications for Rehabilitation The ULFI-FC is a reliable and valid tool with good responsiveness to change for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions in adults presenting with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. This tool can thus be useful in clinical and research settings. By exploring meaningful activities that are affected by patients' upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, the tool's Patient Specific Index is particularly relevant for clinicians adhering to a patient-centered approach. PMID:25104216

Hamasaki, Tokiko; Demers, Louise; Filiatrault, Johanne

2014-08-01

291

Function and position determine relative proportions of different fiber types in limb muscles of the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscles can be classified as flexors or extensors according to their function, and as dorsal or ventral according to their position. The latter classification evokes their embryological origin from muscle masses initially divided during limb development, and muscles sharing a given position do not necessarily perform the same function. Here, we compare the relative proportions of different fiber types among six limb muscles in the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes. Individual fibers were classified as slow oxidative (SO), fast glycolytic (FG) or fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) based on mitochondrial content; muscles were classified according to position and function. Mixed linear models considering one or both effects were compared using likelihood ratio tests. Variation in the proportion of FG and FOG fibers is mainly explained by function (flexor muscles have on average lower proportions of FG and higher proportions of FOG fibers), while variation in SO fibers is better explained by position (they are less abundant in ventral muscles than in those developed from a dorsal muscle mass). Our results clarify the roles of position and function in determining the relative proportions of the various muscle fibers and provide evidence that these factors may differentially affect distinct fiber types. PMID:25456976

Pereira, Anieli G; Abdala, Virginia; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

2015-02-01

292

Unilateral lower limb muscle fatigue induces bilateral effects on undisturbed stance and muscle EMG activities.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of an unilateral ankle muscle fatigue onto independent postural control parameters including the trajectories of the estimated resultant CoP (CoPres) and his components: the centre of gravity (CG) and CoP-CG trajectories. Nine healthy men realized series of 10 toe-lift immediately followed by 10 knee flexions until exhaustion with one (Ex) leg. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions, postural sway measures of each leg, and muscular activities of the ankle muscles were recorded before and immediately after the fatiguing exercise. As expected, the latter induced a decrease in maximal voluntary peak force associated with a greater variability of the relative contribution of each leg on the CoPres, enhanced all postural parameters of the non-exercised leg. A significant decreased of the tibialis anterior EMG activity for the Ex leg and an increased one for the NoEx leg. Finally, following unilateral fatigue, the body sway destabilisation seemed to occur only along the medio-lateral (ML) axis. The enhanced and greater variability of the variance along ML axis might be explained by the recourse at the loading-unloading strategy choice and suggests a central attempt to compensate for pain sensation. PMID:19879160

Berger, L L; Regueme, S C; Forestier, N

2010-10-01

293

EOS Microwave Limb Sounder observations of upper stratospheric BrO: Implications for total bromine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes new total stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry) abundance estimates inferred from the first global observations of upper stratospheric BrO, made by the EOS Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite. Our `best estimate' of total upper stratospheric bromine loading (based on JPL-2002 kinetics with the addition of a BrONO2 + O reaction) is 18.6 +/- 5.5 pptv, for the period September 2004 to August 2005, from 55° S to 55° N. This implies a contribution of 3.0 +/- 5.5 pptv from sources other than long lived CH3Br and halons. The possibility of such other sources has been raised by balloon, aircraft and satellite observations of BrO in the lower and middle stratosphere. These upper stratospheric observations provide new information to help resolve the current uncertainty in stratospheric bromine loading. The abundance of bromine, particularly in the lower stratosphere, is a significant factor in the budget of stratospheric O3.

Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Kovalenko, Laurie J.; Salawitch, Ross J.; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Read, William G.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Waters, Joe W.

2006-10-01

294

Condensation of Plasmid DNA Enhances Mitochondrial Association in Skeletal Muscle Following Hydrodynamic Limb Vein Injection  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial gene therapy and diagnosis have the potential to provide substantial medical benefits. However, the utility of this approach has not yet been realized because the technology available for mitochondrial gene delivery continues to be a bottleneck. We previously reported on mitochondrial gene delivery in skeletal muscle using hydrodynamic limb vein (HLV) injection. HLV injection, a useful method for nuclear transgene expression, involves the rapid injection of a large volume of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA). Moreover, the use of a condensed form of pDNA enhances the nuclear transgene expression by the HLV injection. The purpose of this study was to compare naked pDNA and condensed pDNA for mitochondrial association in skeletal muscle, when used in conjunction with HLV injection. PCR analysis showed that the use of condensed pDNA rather than naked pDNA resulted in a more effective mitochondrial association with pDNA, suggesting that the physicochemical state of pDNA plays a key role. Moreover, no mitochondrial toxicities in skeletal muscle following the HLV injection of condensed pDNA were confirmed, as evidenced by cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings have the potential to contribute to the development for in vivo mitochondrial gene delivery system. PMID:25195732

Yasuzaki, Yukari; Yamada, Yuma; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

2014-01-01

295

Efficacy of a Modified Bier's Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Bone Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Intravenous regional block, called the Bier's block, refers to an analgesic technique applied for soft tissue surgeries and closed bone manipulations of the limbs. There are a number of complications in traditional method of block, including pain in tourniquet site, immediate return of pain after tourniquet deflation, wound hemostasis and some others. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes and complications of our new method of blockage. Patients and Methods: In this experimental study, twenty-five patients undergoing hand surgery were prospectively studied. Induced anesthesia was a modification of the Bier's block with two concurrent changes including insertion of the intravenous cannula at the antecubital region rather than distal and the proximal anesthetic direction by an elastic band wrapped tightly around the proximal forearm distal to the cannulation site. The pain relief was measured by the verbal descriptive scale at intervals after block, during the operation, after deflation of the tourniquet and one hour after the operation. Results: This study showed the presence of analgesia at surgical and tourniquet sites during the operation in 96% of patients, as well as considerable pain relief at surgical site during one hour after deflation of the tourniquet. Conclusions: The study indicated advantages of this modified Bier's block compared to the traditional one including ability to perform surgery on upper limb bones and considerable pain relief at surgical and tourniquet sites during the operation until one hour thereafter. PMID:25789235

Jafarian, Aliakbar; Hassani, Valiollah; Jesmi, Fatemeh; Ramezani, Koosha; Javaheri, Fereydoun; Shariatzadeh, Hooman

2015-01-01

296

The contribution of upper limb and total body movement to adolescents' energy expenditure whilst playing Nintendo Wii.  

PubMed

Little research documents the contribution of upper limb and total body movement to energy expenditure (EE) during active video gaming. To address this, EE, heart rate (HR), and, upper limb and total body movement were assessed in 11- to 17-year-old adolescents whilst playing three active (Nintendo Wii) and one sedentary (XBOX 360) video games. Non-dominant upper limb activity, EE and HR were significantly greater during Wii Sports boxing [mean 267.2 (SD 115.8) J kg(-1) min(-1); 136.7 (24.5) beats min(-1)] than tennis or bowling (P < or = 0.044). For all active games hip activity best predicted EE (R (2) > or = 0.53), with two-measure models of HR and single-site activity data, and multi-site activity data, similarly explaining the variance in EE (R (2) > or = 0.64). The physiological cost of upper-body orientated active video games increased when movement of both upper limbs was encouraged. Improvements in EE explanatory power provide support for multi-site activity monitoring during unique, non-ambulatory activities. PMID:18607619

Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth

2008-11-01

297

The use of manual edema mobilization for the reduction of persistent edema in the upper limb.  

PubMed

Management of persistent edema with the common treatment methods reported in the literature is not always successful. Manual edema mobilization (MEM) is a relatively new treatment regimen derived from established European and Australian lymphedema reduction regimens. It includes the use of exercises, light skin-tractioning massage techniques following the lymphatic pathways, and the use of low-compression garments. The typical patient who may benefit from the use of MEM has a presumed healthy lymphatic system, is an active participant, and performs some of the techniques independently between therapy sessions. This case report describes the use of MEM on a patient with multiple trauma, which resulted in a significant reduction--78%--of the persistent edema in the affected upper limb. A theoretic rationale is offered for each MEM technique. PMID:11762730

Howard, S B; Krishnagiri, S

2001-01-01

298

Upper limb joint space modeling of stroke induced synergies using isolated and voluntary arm perturbations.  

PubMed

Among other diminished motor capabilities, survivors of a stroke often exhibit joint synergies. These synergies are stereotypically characterized by involuntary joint co-activation. With respect to the upper limbs, such synergies diminish coordination in reaching, pointing, and other daily tasks. The primary goal of this research is to model synergy and quantify it in a comprehensive and mathematically tractable form. A motion capture system was used to measure joint rotations from stroke survivors and control subjects. These data showed that joint synergies are nonunique and asymmetric. The model also provided a way to calculate joint combinations that result in maximum and minimum synergy. Beyond providing a more complete view of synergies, this approach could facilitate new ways to evaluate and treat stroke survivors. In particular, this approach may have applications in diagnostic and treatment algorithms for use in rehabilitation robots. PMID:23912501

Simkins, Matt; Al-Refai, Aimen H; Rosen, Jacob

2014-05-01

299

Perceived discomfort functions based on joint moment for various joint motion directions of the upper limb.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to formulate the relationship between the perceived discomfort and the joint moment ratio for twelve joint motion directions of the upper limb by considering the between-subject variability, and to investigate the effect of joint motion direction. Three approximation models (i.e., linear, exponential, and logistic function models) were compared in terms of the accuracy of predicting the perceived discomfort, and the logistic function was selected because its average error was lowest. The concept of L-R fuzzy number was used to consider the individual variability of perceived discomfort, and a simplified distribution of perceived discomfort was represented. Cluster analysis showed that the twelve discomfort functions formed two clusters: one for elbow flexion and a second for the remaining joint motions. The data show that elbow flexion is more sensitive than other joint motions to increases in the joint moment ratio. PMID:23684117

Chihara, Takanori; Izumi, Taiki; Seo, Akihiko

2014-03-01

300

Tracing the pathways of the upper limb of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the eastern subpolar gyre (ESG) in the North Atlantic have been widely linked to the climate and climate variability of Great Britain and northwestern Europe. The source of the ESG waters, and its heat, has long been identified as surface subtropical waters that flow into the subpolar gyre as part of the upper limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Recent studies, however, have cast doubt on that identification. Here we use synthetic floats launched in a high-resolution ocean general circulation model to identify the supply waters to the ESG and to determine the influence of those pathways on SSTs in that climatically important region. The synthetic floats reveal two pathways: a dominant subsurface subtropical to subpolar pathway and a less traveled surface pathway carrying recirculated waters eastward from the western subpolar gyre. The former pathway supplies anomalously warm water to the region; the latter pathway supplies anomalously cool water.

Burkholder, Kristin C.; Lozier, M. Susan

2014-06-01

301

Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke.  

PubMed

This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6?weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients' group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0-66 points), Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0-60 pts) and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion) and clinical (4.6?±?4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2?±?2.1 decrease in MA) parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement) and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space). These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved interjoint coordination of elbow and shoulder joints. PMID:22681653

Frisoli, Antonio; Procopio, Caterina; Chisari, Carmelo; Creatini, Ilaria; Bonfiglio, Luca; Bergamasco, Massimo; Rossi, Bruno; Carboncini, Maria Chiara

2012-01-01

302

Occupational therapists' perceptions of requirements for competent upper limb hypertonicity practice.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Hypertonicity practice is challenging due to the high degree of variability in presentation within and among clients. There is limited high-level evidence supporting interventions in practice. This study gathered therapists' views on requirements for competent practice. This information could be used to improve training in this area of practice to benefit clients. Methods: A pragmatic qualitative design was used. Five therapists who had undergone specialised training in hypertonicity practice were interviewed. Qualitative description was used to analyse data. Results: Therapists discussed (1) complexity, (2) time and energy and (3) requirements for competent practice as important aspects of hypertonicity practice. The first two themes illustrate the intensive nature of hypertonicity practice. The third theme encompasses the knowledge, skills, clinical actions and decision-making therapists require for competent practice. Conclusion: Participants perceived that there is a dynamic relationship between knowledge and skills. They also believed that competent hypertonicity practice requires a client-centred approach and individualisation of interventions. Future training needs to focus on the development of therapists' clinical reasoning, which was required to individualise interventions and promote positive client outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation Training in upper limb hypertonicity management in a clinical setting can assist therapists to understand the factors contributing to the complexity of this practice area. Training in a clinical setting is required to allow development of the range of skills needed for competent practice as it provides consistent exposure to clients over time. Practicing in a client-centred manner and making individualised intervention decisions should be emphasized as an overarching framework for developing relevant knowledge and skills in this area of practice. Future research needs to focus on identifying training techniques that will promote therapists' competence in decision making when working in upper limb hypertonicity practice. PMID:25323398

Colclough, Sarah; Copley, Jodie; Turpin, Merrill; Justins, Emma; De Monte, Rachel

2014-10-17

303

Intraobserver reliability of the modified Tardieu scale in the upper limb of children with hemiplegia.  

PubMed

This study investigated the reliability of the modified Tardieu scale in the assessment of biceps spasticity in the upper limbs of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Ten children, with hemiplegic CP participated in the study: six males (mean age 9 years, SD 4 years) and four females (mean age 12 years, SD 3 years). Blinded, duplicate measures of dynamic elbow extension were performed on the hemiplegic arm at time 0 and 7 days later, using the three angular velocities described in the Tardieu scale (V1, slow; V2, speed of gravity; V3, as fast as possible). The resulting elbow joint angles were defined as R1, the angle of catch following a fast velocity stretch at either V2 or V3; and R2, the passive range of movement achieved following a slow velocity stretch at V1. Both elbow joint angle and movement angular velocity were measured by three-dimensional kinematics. Median error in measured elbow joint angle within one session ranged from 3 to 5 degrees. Between sessions median absolute differences in measured elbow joint angle ranged from 4 to 13 degrees, with measurement errors of up to 25 to 30 degrees in some participants at the fastest velocity (V3). The therapist was able to apply three significantly different angular velocities as required for the Tardieu scale (p<0.001). However, the ranges of the three angular velocities overlapped, with fast velocities for some participants being equivalent to slow velocities for other participants. Three out of 10 participants had an intersessional difference in their R2-R1 score of more than 20 degrees. From this study, we concluded that the R2-R1 value determined from the modified Tardieu scale may be of limited value in assessing biceps spasticity the upper limbs in children with hemiplegic CP. PMID:15077704

Mackey, Anna H; Walt, Sharon E; Lobb, Glenis; Stott, N Susan

2004-04-01

304

Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke  

PubMed Central

This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6?weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points), Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts) and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion) and clinical (4.6?±?4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2?±?2.1 decrease in MA) parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement) and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space). These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved interjoint coordination of elbow and shoulder joints. PMID:22681653

2012-01-01

305

An augmented reality system for upper-limb post-stroke motor rehabilitation: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To determine the clinical feasibility of a system based on augmented reality for upper-limb (UL) motor rehabilitation of stroke participants. Method: A physiotherapist instructed the participants to accomplish tasks in augmented reality environment, where they could see themselves and their surroundings, as in a mirror. Two case studies were conducted. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. The first study evaluated the UL motor function using Fugl-Meyer scale. Data were compared using non-parametric sign tests and effect size. The second study used the gain of motion range of shoulder flexion and abduction assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry. Results: At a significance level of 5%, Fugl-Meyer scores suggested a trend for greater UL motor improvement in the augmented reality group than in the other. Moreover, effect size value 0.86 suggested high practical significance for UL motor rehabilitation using the augmented reality system. Conclusion: System provided promising results for UL motor rehabilitation, since enhancements have been observed in the shoulder range of motion and speed. Implications for Rehabilitation Gain of range of motion of flexion and abduction of the shoulder of post-stroke patients can be achieved through an augmented reality system containing exercises to promote the mental practice. NeuroR system provides a mental practice method combined with visual feedback for motor rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients, giving the illusion of injured upper-limb (UL) movements while the affected UL is resting. Its application is feasible and safe. This system can be used to improve UL rehabilitation, an additional treatment past the traditional period of the stroke patient hospitalization and rehabilitation. PMID:25367103

Assis, Gilda Aparecida de; Corrêa, Ana Grasielle Dionísio; Martins, Maria Bernardete Rodrigues; Pedrozo, Wendel Goes; Lopes, Roseli de Deus

2014-11-01

306

Early influence of auditory stimuli on upper-limb movements in young human infants: an overview  

PubMed Central

Given that the auditory system is rather well developed at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, it is likely that couplings between acoustics and motor activity can be integrated as early as at the beginning of postnatal life. The aim of the present mini-review was to summarize and discuss studies on early auditory-motor integration, focusing particularly on upper-limb movements (one of the most crucial means to interact with the environment) in association with auditory stimuli, to develop further understanding of their significance with regard to early infant development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between various infant behaviors (e.g., sucking, visual fixation, head turning) and auditory stimuli, and established that human infants can be observed displaying couplings between action and environmental sensory stimulation already from just after birth, clearly indicating a propensity for intentional behavior. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated the associations between upper-limb movements and different auditory stimuli in newborns and young infants, infants born at risk for developmental disorders/delays in particular. Findings from studies of early auditory-motor interaction support that the developing integration of sensory and motor systems is a fundamental part of the process guiding the development of goal-directed action in infancy, of great importance for continued motor, perceptual, and cognitive development. At-risk infants (e.g., those born preterm) may display increasing central auditory processing disorders, negatively affecting early sensory-motor integration, and resulting in long-term consequences on gesturing, language development, and social communication. Consequently, there is a need for more studies on such implications. PMID:25278927

Ferronato, Priscilla A. M.; Domellöf, Erik; Rönnqvist, Louise

2014-01-01

307

Course review: the 4th Bob Huffstadt upper and lower limb flap dissection course.  

PubMed

The Bob Huffstadt course is a 2-day upper and lower limb flap dissection course held in Groningen, the Netherlands. The course is in English, with an international faculty of senior consultants from the Netherlands, Belgium, and United Kingdom. Faculty to participant ratio is 2:1, with 2 participants at each dissection table. The course is aimed at trainees in plastic surgery of all levels, and a comprehensive DVD is provided before the course, which demonstrates dissection of 35 flaps, ensuring those with little experience to have an understanding before dissection.This course offered a comprehensive overview with plenty of practical application. The course can greatly develop operative and theoretical knowledge, while also demonstrating a commitment for those wishing to pursue a career in plastic surgery. Longer courses are available; however, the 2-day course can already provide an excellent introduction for junior trainees. There are few flap courses in the United Kingdom and senior trainees may have difficulty acquiring a place as they book up well in advance. With reductions in operating time, trainees may welcome further experience and development of techniques in the dissection room.Most of both days were spent in the dissection room, raising flaps and receiving teaching from the faculty. Dissections included Foucher, Moberg, Becker, radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, and fibula flaps. Dissection specimens were fresh-frozen preparation, and 9 upper limb flaps were raised on the first day and 5 lower limb flaps on the second day. The faculty provided live demonstrations of perforator dissection, use of the hand-held Doppler, and tips and tricks. The last 2 hours of each day were spent with 2 lectures, including topics from the history of flaps and developments to challenging cases and reconstructive options.The course fee was 1000 euros, including a 5-course dinner, lunch on both days, and a drinks reception on the final evening. I would recommend this course unreservedly to trainees new to flaps, or those with greater experience. The course was supportive, friendly, and provided an excellent basis to develop reconstructive skills. There is a world-class faculty who can improve the knowledge and techniques of any trainee in attendance. PMID:24135639

Dunne, Jonathan A

2014-12-01

308

Feasibility and efficacy of upper limb robotic rehabilitation in a1 sub-acute cervical spinal cord injury population2  

E-print Network

Feasibility and efficacy of upper limb robotic rehabilitation in a1 sub-acute cervical spinal cord Institute, Toronto10 3. GF Strong Rehabilitation Centre, Vancouver11 4. Division of Physical Medicine, Switzerland) in a sub-acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) population.5 Setting: Two Canadian inpatient

Popovic, Milos R.

309

Development of a Physics-Based Target Shooting Game to Train Amputee Users of Multijoint Upper Limb Prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

For upper limb amputees, learning the control of myoelectric prostheses is difficult and challenging. Introduction of newer prostheses with multiple degrees of freedom controlled by various neural commands will make such training even more difficult. To produce smooth and human-like movements, the user must learn to produce multiple neural commands with precise amplitude and timing. To aid in training of

Rahman Davoodi; Gerald E. Loeb

2012-01-01

310

Structural Design of an Escort Type Rehabilitation Robot for Post-Stroke Therapies of Upper-Limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a structural design technique for rehabilitation robot intended for upper-limb post-stroke therapy. First, a novel approach to a rehabilitation robot is proposed and the features of the robot are explained. Second, the direct kinematics and the inverse kinematics of the proposed robot structure are derived. Finally, a mechanical design procedure is explained that achieves a compromise between

Kiyoshi Nagai; Yoshimasa Kojima; Shinya Yonemoto; Takashi Okubo; R. C. V. Loureiro; W. S. Harwin

2007-01-01

311

Emergence of virtual reality as a tool for upper limb rehabilitation: incorporation of motor control and motor learning principles.  

PubMed

The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality-based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback-based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. PMID:25212522

Levin, Mindy F; Weiss, Patrice L; Keshner, Emily A

2015-03-01

312

The effectiveness of occupational therapy and physiotherapy in multiple sclerosis patients with ataxia of the upper limb and trunk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy intervention in reducing impairment and disability due to upper limb and trunk ataxia in chronic multiple sclerosis (MS).Design: The change in performance scores of two patient groups - an inpatient group who received two weeks' therapy intervention and an outpatient 'control' group awaiting a similar admission -

L. Jones; Y. Lewis; J. Harrison; CM Wiles

1996-01-01

313

Stable Human-Robot Interaction Control for Upper-limb Rehabilitation Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins  

E-print Network

1990s [3]. Isolated robot control theories with systematic stability anal- ysis have already beenStable Human-Robot Interaction Control for Upper-limb Rehabilitation Robotics Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins Abstract-- Research on rehabilitation robotics has been rising

Collins, Steven H.

314

Classification of surface electromyographic signals for control of upper limb virtual prosthesis using time-domain features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a training system in the field of rehabilitation has always been a challenge for scientists. Surface electromyographical signals are widely used as input signals for upper limb prosthetic devices. The great mental effort of patients fitted with myoelectric prostheses during the training stage, can be reduced by using a simulator of such device. This paper presents an

S. Herle; Paula Raica; G. Lazea; R. Robotin; C. Marcu; L. Tamas

2008-01-01

315

Electroencephalographic Changes of Brain Oscillatory Activity After Upper Limb Somatic Sensation Training in a Patient With Somatosensory Deficit After Stroke.  

PubMed

The development of an innovative functional assessment procedure based on the combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and robot-assisted upper limb devices may provide new insights into the dynamics of cortical reorganization promoted by rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in event-related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) in alpha and beta bands in a patient with pure sensory stroke who underwent a specific rehabilitation program for somatic sensation recovery. A 49-year-old, right-handed woman (time since stroke, 12 months) with severe upper limb somatic sensation deficits was tested using validated clinical scales and a standardized video-EEG system combined with the Bi-Manu-Track robot-assisted arm trainer protocol. The patient underwent a 3-month home-based rehabilitation program for promoting upper limb recovery (1 hour a day for 5 days a week). She was tested before treatment, at 1-month, and at 3-month during treatment. Results showed progressive recovery of upper limb function over time. These effects were associated with specific changes in the modulation of alpha and beta event-related synchronization/desynchronization. This unique study provides new perspectives for the assessment of functional deficits and changes in cortical activity promoted by rehabilitation in poststroke patients. PMID:25185438

Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Formaggio, Emanuela; Geroin, Christian; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Waldner, Andreas; Manganotti, Paolo; Smania, Nicola

2014-09-01

316

Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

Cowart, Jim

1979-01-01

317

side and 2 gill rakers on the upper limb of the sec-ond gill arch on the blind side, it is referred to A.  

E-print Network

side and 2 gill rakers on the upper limb of the sec- ond gill arch on the blind side, it is referred to A. stomias. The other two anomalous specimens also had 2 gill rakers on the upper limbs of the second gill arch of the blind side and were also recorded as A. stomias. Discussion From this study

318

Dynamic biomechanical model for assessing and monitoring robot-assisted upper-limb therapy.  

PubMed

This article describes the design, validation, and application of a dynamic biomechanical model that assesses and monitors trajectory, position, orientation, force, and torque generated by upper-limb (UL) movement during robot-assisted therapy. The model consists of two links that represent the upper arm and forearm, with 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) for the shoulder and elbow joints. The model is a useful tool for enhancing the functionality of poststroke robot-assisted UL therapy. The individualized inertial segment parameters were based on anthropometric measurements. The model performed inverse dynamic analysis of UL movements to calculate reaction forces and moments acting about the 3-DOF shoulder and 2-DOF elbow joints. Real-time fused biofeedback of a 6-DOF force sensor and three-dimensional (3-D) pose sensors supported the model validation and application. The force sensor was mounted between the robot manipulator and the subject's wrist, while the 3-D pose sensors were fixed at specific positions on the subject's UL segments. The model input and output parameters were stored in the subject's database, which is part of the rehabilitation information system. We assigned 20 nondisabled subjects three different therapy exercises to test and validate the biomechanical model. We found that when the biomechanical model is taught an exercise, it can accurately predict a subject's actual UL joint angles and torques and confirm that the exercise is isolating the desired movement. PMID:17551857

Abdullah, Hussein A; Tarry, Cole; Datta, Rahul; Mittal, Gauri S; Abderrahim, Mohamed

2007-01-01

319

The distribution of occupations in two populations with upper limb pain.  

PubMed

Occupations of two geographically distinct populations of patients with upper limb pain were examined. Relative risks for being in an occupation were calculated for subjects with epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and pain syndromes in one population and nonspecific occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) in the other. Population A subjects (806 female, 154 male Auckland clinic referrals) with epicondylitis and carpal tunnel syndrome had higher rates of manual occupations compared with the Auckland employed population, consistent with previous research. Both Population A and Population B subjects (1,188 female, 499 male national notifications to the Department of Labour) with pain syndrome or nonspecific OOS had increased rates of clerical occupations. Relative risks ranged from 2.24 (95% CI 1.69,2.97) to 3.92 (3.50 ,4.40). Word processor operators, data-entry operators, and mail sorters were overrepresented in both populations. An unexplained association between nonspecific upper arm pain and being in some clerical occupations requires further research. PMID:11513070

Dryson, E W; Walls, C B

2001-01-01

320

Budget impact analysis of botulinum toxin A therapy for upper limb spasticity in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is an effective treatment for patients with upper limb spasticity (ULS), which is a debilitating feature of upper motor neuron lesions. BoNT-A preparations available in the UK are associated with different costs. Methods We developed a budget impact model to assess the effect of changing market shares of different BoNT-A formulations – abobotulinumtoxinA, onabotulinumtoxinA, and incobotulinumtoxinA – and best supportive care, from the UK payer perspective, over a 5-year time horizon. Epidemiological and resource use data were derived from published literature and clinical expert opinion. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to determine parameters most influential on budget impact. Results Base-case assumptions showed that an increased uptake of abobotulinumtoxinA resulted in a 5-year savings of £6,283,829. Treatment with BoNT-A costs less than best supportive care per patient per year, although treating a patient with onabotulinumtoxinA (£20,861) and incobotulinumtoxinA (£20,717) cost more per patient annually than with abobotulinumtoxinA (£19,800). Sensitivity analyses showed that the most influential parameters on budget were percentage of cerebral palsy and stroke patients developing ULS, and the prevalence of stroke. Conclusion Study findings suggest that increased use of abobotulinumtoxinA for ULS in the UK could potentially reduce total ULS cost for the health system and society. PMID:25878510

Abogunrin, Seye; Hortobagyi, Linda; Remak, Edit; Dinet, Jerome; Gabriel, Sylvie; Bakheit, Abdel Magid O

2015-01-01

321

Contribution of Pain to Inspiratory Muscle Dysfunction after Upper Abdominal Surgery A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper abdominal surgery causes respiratory muscle dysfunction. Multiple factors have been implicated in the occurrence of such dysfunction; however, the role of pain remains unclear. To eluci- date the role of pain, we studied 50 patients undergoing elective upper abdominal surgery in a randomized, controlled investiga- tion. Inspiratory and expiratory muscle function were assessed through sniff mouth pressure (Psniff) and

THEODOROS VASSILAKOPOULOS; ZAFIRIA MASTORA; PARASKEVI KATSAOUNOU; GEORGE DOUKAS; SERAFIM KLIMOPOULOS; CHARIS ROUSSOS; SPYROS ZAKYNTHINOS

322

Surface electromyographic activities of upper body muscles during high-intensity cycle ergometry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate upper body muscle activity during a 30 s Wingate test. Eighteen physically active participants performed a Wingate test while muscle activity was recorded from the brachioradialis (BR), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB) and upper trapezius (UT). Measurements were obtained at rest, during a function maximal contraction (FMC) and during the 30 s Wingate test, whilst participants were positioned in a seated position on the cycle ergometer. All muscles were significantly active for the duration of the test. When normalized as a %FMC no differences in activity were found between muscles. Across the 30 s, power output was found to significantly decrease, whereas no changes were found in upper body muscle activity. All muscles investigated were active during the Wingate test and therefore confirmed previous findings that the upper body significantly contributes to power profiles obtained during high intensity cycle ergometry in addition to its role in stabilizing the body. PMID:24650333

McCormick, Marie Clare; Watson, Hugh; Simpson, Alan; Kilgore, Lon; Baker, Julien S

2014-01-01

323

Gravitoinertial force level affects the appreciation of limb position during muscle vibration.  

PubMed

Illusory motion and displacement of the restrained forearm can be elicited by vibrating the biceps brachii or triceps brachii muscle. We measured the influence of gravitoinertial force level on these perceptual responses to vibration during parabolic flight maneuvers where normal (1G) and high force (1.8G) background levels alternated with microgravity (0G). Subjects indicated the apparent forearm position of the vibrated arm with the other forearm and also made verbal reports. Biceps brachii vibration induced illusory extension of the forearm and triceps brachii, illusory flexion; these apparent motions and displacements were highly G force-dependent being enhanced at 1.8G and diminished at 0G relative to normal 1G force level. These alterations are discussed in terms of vestibulo-spinal and propriospinal influences on alpha-gamma motoneuronal control of muscle tone and the varying requirements for postural load support in different force backgrounds. Their implications for the control and appreciation of limb movements during exposure to different G force levels are also described. PMID:1450908

Lackner, J R; DiZio, P

1992-10-01

324

Dynamic analysis of the upper limb during activities of daily living: comparison of methodologies.  

PubMed

Often researchers use kinematics and kinetics to evaluate the effect of limb pathology. The net forces and moments that cause motion depend on kinematics, body segment parameters and the external loads applied. This study aimed to evaluate the discrepancies caused by different methods and assumptions of kinetic analysis. Dynamic analysis was performed on 12 subjects with no known pathology while performing 12 activities of daily living. The recursive Newton-Euler method, along with two robotic models containing 7 and 14 degrees of freedom representing the upper limb, was used to calculate the net forces and moments across the shoulder. The data were calculated using different body segment parameter values from the literature and, in order to concentrate on the effects of kinematics only, these results were presented as both a percentage of the body weight and a novel technique using constant body segment parameter. The greatest net forces and moments on the glenohumeral joint were observed for lifting a 2-kg shopping bag task (forces: 60 ± 8 N and moments: 18 ± 2 N m) and the lowest was observed for drinking (forces: 40 ± 8 N and moments: 6 ± 1 N m). Overall, the results from different techniques (recursive Newton-Euler vs robotic 14 degrees of freedom) were similar, while the 7-DoF model showed less agreement. The use of different body segment parameter values resulted in a maximum increase of 25% in the glenohumeral moment. Following normalisation of the body segment parameter, dynamic parameters were found to have less variation. In order to focus on the effect of variation in movement in dynamic study, it is therefore necessary to normalise the body segment parameter. PMID:24006042

Masjedi, Milad; Duffell, Lynsey D

2013-12-01

325

Toward Electrocorticographic Control of a Dexterous Upper Limb Prosthesis: Building Brain-Machine Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most exciting and compelling areas of research and development is building brain machine interfaces (BMIs) for controlling prosthetic limbs. Prosthetic limb technology is advancing rapidly, and the modular prosthetic limb (MPL) of the Johns Hopkins University\\/ Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU\\/APL) permits actuation with 17 degrees of freedom in 26 articulating joints. There are many signals from the

Matthew Fifer; Soumyadipta Acharya; Heather Benz; Mohsen Mollazadeh; Nathan Crone; Nitish Thakor

2012-01-01

326

The Effects of Abdominal Hollowing in Lower-limb PNF Pattern Training on the Activation of Contralateral Muscles.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of abdominal hollowing during lower-limb proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on the activation of contralateral muscles. [Subjects] Twenty male college students without symptoms or signs of muscular or nervous disease participated in this experiment after signing a consent form. [Methods] All the subjects were measured with electromyography (EMG) in a muscle activation test before and after abdominal hollowing. In the PNF program, the lower-limb pattern of PNF training, was maintained for 5 seconds, followed by a 2-minute break. This was repeated three times. The resting time between sets was 30 minutes. Surface EMG (Keypoint, Medtronic Inc., USA) was used for the measurements, and the highest value of three measurements was used in the analysis. [Result] The results revealed a significant change in the muscular activation of the opposite-side lower limbs. The muscular activations of the vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and gastrocnemius were increased significantly after the abdominal hollowing. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that abdominal hollowing in PNF pattern training can be effective at promoting muscular activation of the contralateral muscles. To promote muscular activation of the opposite side in lower-limb PNF pattern training, abdominal hollowing should be considered to improve the effect of PNF pattern training. PMID:24259788

Yoo, Byungho; Park, Hankyu; Heo, Kwangjin; Lee, Joongsook; Lee, Jaeseok; Oh, Taeyoung; Han, Dongwook

2013-10-01

327

Upper limb progressive resistance training and stretching exercises following surgery for early breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether an exercise program, commencing 4-6 weeks post-operatively, reduces upper limb impairments in women treated for early breast cancer. Women (n = 160) were randomized to either an 8-week exercise program (n = 81) or to a control group (n = 79) following stratification for axillary surgery. The exercise program comprised a weekly session and home program of passive stretching and progressive resistance training for shoulder muscles. The control group attended fortnightly assessments but no exercises were provided. The primary outcome was self-reported arm symptoms derived from the EORTC breast cancer-specific questionnaire (BR23), scored out of 100 with a low score indicative of fewer symptoms. The secondary outcomes included physical measures of shoulder range of motion, strength, and swelling (i.e., lymphedema). Women were assessed immediately following the intervention and at 6 months post-intervention. The change in symptoms from baseline was not significantly different between groups immediately following the intervention or at 6 m post-intervention. The between group difference immediately following the intervention was 4 (95% CI -1 to 9) and 6 months post-intervention was 4 (-2 to 10). However, the change in range of motion for flexion and abduction was significantly greater in the exercise group immediately following the intervention, as was change in shoulder abductor strength. In conclusion, a supervised exercise program provided some, albeit small, additional benefit at 6 months post-intervention to women who had been provided with written information and reminders to use their arm. Both the groups reported few impairments including swelling immediately following the intervention and 6 months post-intervention. Notably, resistance training in the post-operative period did not precipitate lymphedema. PMID:22286332

Kilbreath, Sharon L; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Beith, Jane M; Ward, Leigh C; Lee, MiJoung; Simpson, Judy M; Hansen, Ross

2012-06-01

328

Postoperative Development of Bone Mineral Density and Muscle Strength in the Lower Limb After Cemented and Uncemented Total Hip Replacement  

PubMed Central

Background : Numerous studies have shown reduction of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) after hip replacement. The effect on the whole limb, however, is still unexplored. This study’s objective was to analyse the postoperative development of BMD and muscle strength of the limb after total hip replacement (THR) and to determine links between these parameters. Methods : 55 patients, who underwent THR, were included. Depending on therapeutic indication, either an uncemented stem (Group A, n=30) or a cemented stem (Group B, n=25) has been implanted. In the limbs, the measurement of BMD using DEXA and the maximum isometric muscle strength, detected by a leg press, were undertaken preoperatively and after 3, 6 and 12 months. Results : A total of 12 patients (Group A: n = 6, Group B: n = 6) were excluded due to reasons which were not relevant to the study. So, the results refer to the data of 43 patients. In Group A (uncemented, n = 24), a significant decrease of BMD on the operated extremity was seen after 3, 6 and 12 months compared with preoperative values. Isometric muscle strength on the affected extremity increased significantly after 6 and 12 months. In Group B (cemented, n = 19), with a lower baseline compared to group A, an increase in BMD of the affected limb was seen postoperatively. This rise was significant after 12 months. With regard to the isometric muscle strength, a significant increase could be observed in this group after 6 and 12 months. Conclusion : Analogous to postoperative reduction of periprosthetic bone density, a decrease of the entire limb BMD on the operated leg occurred after implantation of uncemented hip stems. In contrast, an increase in BMD was recorded for cemented stems. Regardless of the type of anchoring, a substantial increase in muscular strength could be observed postoperatively in both groups. PMID:25246993

Lindner, Tobias; Krüger, Christine; Kasch, Cornelius; Finze, Susanne; Steens, Wolfram; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Skripitz, Ralf

2014-01-01

329

The upper extremity of the professional tennis player: muscle volumes, fiber-type distribution and muscle strength.  

PubMed

The effects of professional tennis participation on dominant and non-dominant upper extremity muscle volumes, and on fiber types of triceps brachii (lateral head) and vastus lateralis muscles were assessed in 15 professional tennis players. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, n=8) examination and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, n=7) were used to assess muscle volumes and lean body mass. Muscle fiber-type distribution assessed by biopsy sampling was similar in both triceps brachii (2/3 were type 2 and 1/3 type 1 fibers). The VL was composed of 1/3 of type 2 and 2/3 of type 1 fibers. The dominant had 12-15% higher lean mass (DXA/MRI) than the non-dominant (P<0.05). Type 1, 2a and 2x muscle fibers of the dominant were hypertrophied compared with the non-dominant by 20%, 22% and 34% (all P<0.01), respectively. The deltoid, triceps brachii, arm flexors and forearm superficial flexor muscles of the dominant were hypertrophied (MRI) compared with the non-dominant by 11-15%. These muscles represented a similar fraction of the whole muscle volume in both upper extremities. Dominant muscle volume was correlated with 1RM on the one-arm cable triceps pushdown exercise (r=0.84, P<0.05). Peak power during vertical jump correlated with VL muscle fibers's cross-sectional area (r=0.82-0.95, P<0.05). PMID:19602193

Sanchís-Moysi, J; Idoate, F; Olmedillas, H; Guadalupe-Grau, A; Alayón, S; Carreras, A; Dorado, C; Calbet, J A L

2010-06-01

330

Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of upper and lower limb motion during gait of post-stroke patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the alterations of arm and leg movements of patients during stroke gait. Joint angles of upper and lower limbs and spatiotemporal variables were evaluated in two groups: hemiparetic group (HG, 14 hemiparetic men, 53 ± 10 years) and control group (CG, 7 able-bodied men, 50 ± 4 years). The statistical analysis was based on the following comparisons (P ? 0.05): 1) right versus left sides of CG; 2) affected (AF) versus unaffected (UF) sides of HG; 3) CG versus both the affected and unaffected sides of HG, and 4) an intracycle comparison of the kinematic continuous angular variables between HG and CG. This study showed that the affected upper limb motion in stroke gait was characterized by a decreased range of motion of the glenohumeral (HG: 6.3 ± 4.5, CG: 20.1 ± 8.2) and elbow joints (AF: 8.4 ± 4.4, UF: 15.6 ± 7.6) on the sagittal plane and elbow joint flexion throughout the cycle (AF: 68.2 ± 0.4, CG: 46.8 ± 2.7). The glenohumeral joint presented a higher abduction angle (AF: 14.2 ± 1.6, CG: 11.5 ± 4.0) and a lower external rotation throughout the cycle (AF: 4.6 ± 1.2, CG: 22.0 ± 3.0). The lower limbs showed typical alterations of the stroke gait patterns. Thus, the changes in upper and lower limb motion of stroke gait were identified. The description of upper limb motion in stroke gait is new and complements gait analysis. PMID:22473324

Carmo, A.A.; Kleiner, A.F.R.; Lobo da Costa, P.H.; Barros, R.M.L.

2012-01-01

331

Comparative architectural properties of limb muscles in Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae and their relevance to divergent use of asymmetrical gaits in extant Crocodylia.  

PubMed

Crocodiles and their kin (Crocodylidae) use asymmetrical (bounding and galloping) gaits when moving rapidly. Despite being morphologically and ecologically similar, it seems alligators and their kin (Alligatoridae) do not. To investigate a possible anatomical basis for this apparent major difference in locomotor capabilities, we measured relative masses and internal architecture (fascicle lengths and physiological cross-sectional areas) of muscles of the pectoral and pelvic limbs of 40 individuals from six representative species of Crocodylidae and Alligatoridae. We found that, relative to body mass, Crocodylidae have significantly longer muscle fascicles (increased working range), particularly in the pectoral limb, and generally smaller muscle physiological cross-sectional areas (decreased force-exerting capability) than Alligatoridae. We therefore hypothesise that the ability of some crocodylians to use asymmetrical gaits may be limited more by the ability to make large, rapid limb motions (especially in the pectoral limb) than the ability to exert large limb forces. Furthermore, analysis of scaling patterns in muscle properties shows that limb anatomy in the two clades becomes more divergent during ontogeny. Limb muscle masses, fascicle lengths and physiological cross-sectional areas scale with significantly larger coefficients in Crocodylidae than Alligatoridae. This combination of factors suggests that inter-clade disparity in maximal limb power is highest in adult animals. Therefore, despite their apparent morphological similarities, both mean values and scaling patterns suggest that considerable diversity exists in the locomotor apparatus of extant Crocodylia. PMID:25418112

Allen, Vivian; Molnar, Julia; Parker, William; Pollard, Andrea; Nolan, Grant; Hutchinson, John R

2014-12-01

332

Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.6±4.4°) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis. PMID:25008019

Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

2014-10-01

333

Eccentric exercise affects the upper limbs more than the lower limbs in position sense and reaction angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the effect of eccentric exercise on position sense and reaction angle of the elbow and knee flexors. Twelve males underwent two eccentric exercise sessions involving a randomized crossover design. In the first session participants used their elbow flexors and in the other session their knee flexors. Muscle damage indices, position sense, and joint reaction angle

Vassilis Paschalis; Michalis G. Nikolaidis; Anastasios A. Theodorou; Giannis Giakas; Athanasios Z. Jamurtas; Yiannis Koutedakis

2010-01-01

334

Location specificity of plantar cutaneous reflexes involving lower limb muscles in humans.  

PubMed

It is known that cutaneous reflexes in human hand muscles show strong location-specificity dependent on the digit stimulated. We hypothesized that in lower leg muscles the cutaneous reflex following tactile sensation of the plantar surface of the foot is also organized in a location-specific manner. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis. Middle latency reflexes (approximately 70-110 ms, MLR) following non-noxious electrical stimulation to different locations on the plantar foot were recorded from 16 neurologically intact volunteers (15 males, 1 female). Electrical stimulation was given to the fore-medial (f-M), fore-lateral (f-L) and heel (HL) regions of the plantar surface of the right foot while the subjects performed isometric dorsiflexion (tibialis anterior, TA), plantarflexion (soleus, Sol and medial gastrocnemius, MG), eversion (peroneus longus, PL) and knee extension (vastus lateralis, VL) while sitting and standing. In the Sol and MG, an excitatory response was observed following HL stimulation, which was switched to an inhibitory response following f-M or f-L stimulation (P < 0.001). A reciprocal pattern in contrast to Sol was observed in the TA. In the PL, MLR exhibited significant excitation following both f-L and HL stimulation, which, however, was switched to an inhibitory response following f-M stimulation (P < 0.001). Moderate inhibition of the MLR was seen in the VL for all stimulated positions. Systematic stimulation along the lateral side of the plantar foot demonstrated that the reflex reversal occurred around the middle of the plantar foot in the Sol and TA. In all muscles tested, the slope of the regression line between the magnitude of the MLR and background electromyographic activity significantly decreased during standing compared with sitting except for the PL following f-L simulation. These results suggest that reflex effects from cutaneous nerves in the plantar foot onto the motoneurons innervating the lower leg muscles are organized in a highly topographic manner in humans. The organization of these reflexes may play an important role in the alteration of limb loading and/or ground contact in response to tactile sensation of the plantar foot while sitting and standing. PMID:16847613

Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

2006-11-01

335

The role of ventral and preventral organs as attachment sites for segmental limb muscles in Onychophora  

PubMed Central

Background The so-called ventral organs are amongst the most enigmatic structures in Onychophora (velvet worms). They were described as segmental, ectodermal thickenings in the onychophoran embryo, but the same term has also been applied to mid-ventral, cuticular structures in adults, although the relationship between the embryonic and adult ventral organs is controversial. In the embryo, these structures have been regarded as anlagen of segmental ganglia, but recent studies suggest that they are not associated with neural development. Hence, their function remains obscure. Moreover, their relationship to the anteriorly located preventral organs, described from several onychophoran species, is also unclear. To clarify these issues, we studied the anatomy and development of the ventral and preventral organs in several species of Onychophora. Results Our anatomical data, based on histology, and light, confocal and scanning electron microscopy in five species of Peripatidae and three species of Peripatopsidae, revealed that the ventral and preventral organs are present in all species studied. These structures are covered externally with cuticle that forms an internal, longitudinal, apodeme-like ridge. Moreover, phalloidin-rhodamine labelling for f-actin revealed that the anterior and posterior limb depressor muscles in each trunk and the slime papilla segment attach to the preventral and ventral organs, respectively. During embryonic development, the ventral and preventral organs arise as large segmental, paired ectodermal thickenings that decrease in size and are subdivided into the smaller, anterior anlagen of the preventral organs and the larger, posterior anlagen of the ventral organs, both of which persist as paired, medially-fused structures in adults. Our expression data of the genes Delta and Notch from embryos of Euperipatoides rowelli revealed that these genes are expressed in two, paired domains in each body segment, corresponding in number, position and size with the anlagen of the ventral and preventral organs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ventral and preventral organs are a common feature of onychophorans that serve as attachment sites for segmental limb depressor muscles. The origin of these structures can be traced back in the embryo as latero-ventral segmental, ectodermal thickenings, previously suggested to be associated with the development of the nervous system. PMID:24308783

2013-01-01

336

Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

2007-11-01

337

Direct kinematic modeling of the upper limb during trunk-assisted reaching.  

PubMed

The study proposes a rigid-body biomechanical model of the trunk and whole upper limb including scapula and the test of this model with a kinematic method using a six-dimensional (6-D) electromagnetic motion capture (mocap) device. Large unconstrained natural trunk-assisted reaching movements were recorded in 7 healthy subjects. The 3-D positions of anatomical landmarks were measured and then compared to their estimation given by the biomechanical chain fed with joint angles (the direct kinematics). Thus, the prediction errors was attributed to the different joints and to the different simplifications introduced in the model. Large (approx. 4 cm) end-point prediction errors at the level of the hand were reduced (to approx. 2 cm) if translations of the scapula were taken into account. As a whole, the 6-D mocap seems to give accurate results, except for prono-supination. The direct kinematic model could be used as a virtual mannequin for other applications, such as computer animation or clinical and ergonomical evaluations. PMID:21844617

Hanneton, Sylvain; Dedobbeler, Svetlana; Hoellinger, Thomas; Roby-Brami, Agnes

2011-08-01

338

The Effects of Aging on Visuomotor Coordination and Proprioceptive Function in the Upper Limb  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Sensorimotor processing, including motor performance, is altered during the process of normal aging. Previous studies have investigated tasks requiring complex visuomotor coordination and active joint reposition tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in upper limb tasks, such as visuomotor coordination and proprioceptive acuity. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 20 healthy elderly subjects and 20 healthy young subjects. We evaluated a tracking task for visuomotor function and a joint reposition test for integrity of proprioceptive sense in both hands of the elderly subjects, and compared the results with those of the healthy young subjects. [Results] The accuracy index scores for the tracking task were significantly lower in both the dominant and non-dominant hands of the elderly subjects than those of the young group. In addition, the reposition error score in the joint reposition test was significantly higher in the elderly group than in the young group. [Conclusion] Sensorimotor functions of both the dominant and non-dominant hands showed a decline in the elderly group. This finding suggests that sensorimotor function deteriorates with advancing age. PMID:24259817

Lee, Na Kyung; Kwon, Yong Hyun; Son, Sung Min; Nam, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jin Sang

2013-01-01

339

Autobiographical Memory and Psychological Distress in a Sample of Upper-Limb Amputees  

PubMed Central

Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a) examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b) compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness) of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c) tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories–an amputation-related memory and a recent memory–and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions. PMID:24924483

Luchetti, Martina; Montebarocci, Ornella; Rossi, Nicolino; Cutti, Andrea G.; Sutin, Angelina R.

2014-01-01

340

Characteristics of upper limb muscular strength in male wheelchair tennis players  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60°/sec. As a result, extension strength (ES) was significantly higher than flexion strength (FS) (P< 0.001), and IR in both sides and BR in ES were maintained within normal range whereas BR in FS was lower than normal range in shoulder joint. In elbow joint FS was significantly higher than ES (P< 0.05), and IR and BR were lower than normal range. Consequently, the different tendency in IR between shoulder and elbow joints and lower IR and BR in elbow joints could be the characteristics in male wheelchair tennis players. It is suggested that flexor strengthening program in nondominant shoulder joint, extensor strengthening program in both elbow joint, and flexor strengthening program in non-dominant elbow joint should be introduced for male wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24278887

Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun

2013-01-01

341

Upper limb reconstruction with reverse flaps: a review of 52 patients with emphasis on flap selection.  

PubMed

Reverse flaps lend themselves to transposition from proximal to distal locations in the extremities. This series comprised 18 radial forearm flaps, 17 digital artery flaps, 13 posterior interosseous flaps, 3 lateral arm flaps, 2 dorsal digital flaps, and 1 dorsal metacarpal flap, all of which were utilized in a reverse pattern. The radial forearm flap was mainly chosen for defects involving part of the palm and the palmar aspect of the first web space. The posterior interosseous flap was more commonly utilized for resurfacing the dorsum, dorsal aspect of the first web space, and especially the hypothenar aspect of the hand. The lateral arm flap was used to reconstruct antecubital fossa and proximal forearm defects. All posterior interosseous and lateral arm donor areas were closed primarily. Sensate digital artery flaps yielded 5 mm on average static two-point discrimination in 6 to 18 months of follow-up. Functional and cosmetic results concerning the recipient and donor areas were found to be satisfactory. It was concluded that reverse flaps are versatile tools in the coverage of all kind of defects in the upper limb and should be thought of in the first place. PMID:9339281

Kostako?lu, N; Keçik, A

1997-10-01

342

Contributions of upper limb rotations to racket velocity in table tennis backhands against topspin and backspin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the contributions of racket arm joint rotations to the racket tip velocity at ball impact in table tennis topspin backhands against topspin and backspin using the method of Sprigings et al. (1994). Two cine cameras were used to determine three-dimensional motions of the racket arm and racket, and the contributions of the rotations for 11 male advanced table tennis players. The racket upward velocity at impact was significantly higher in the backhand against backspin than against topspin, while the forward velocity was not significantly different between the two types of backhands. The negative contribution of elbow extension to the upward velocity was significantly less against backspin than against topspin. The contribution of wrist dorsiflexion to the upward velocity was significantly greater against backspin than against topspin. The magnitudes of the angular velocities of elbow extension and wrist dorsiflexion at impact were both similar between the two types of backhands. Our results suggest that the differences in contributions of elbow extension and wrist dorsiflexion to the upward velocity were associated with the difference in upper limb configuration rather than in magnitudes of their angular velocities. PMID:17934947

Iino, Yoichi; Mori, Teruaki; Kojima, Takeji

2008-02-01

343

Customized device for pediatric upper limb rehabilitation in obstetric brachial palsy.  

PubMed

A 12-yr-old child, with a history of gestational Erb-Duchenne palsy and, later, musculoskeletal injuries in the left arm caused by a car accident, inspired the design of a customized exoskeleton-like device. Such piece, intended for rehabilitation, has one degree of freedom because the exercise routine involves elbow flexion-extension, which was indicated for the damaged muscular group. The device has two functioning modes, passive and assisted, in which the patient can trigger the movement by a biceps contraction, thus promoting the active role of the user in the rehabilitation process. The results were evaluated in terms of qualitative measures of the biceps and the triceps performed by the medical staff and by a questionnaire related to functional activities of the upper limb. A significant improvement in the arm movement and elbow angle was observed after 3 mos of assisted therapy, complementary to conventional exercises. In conclusion, a simple and low-cost device was designed and tested to complement the rehabilitation process of a pediatric patient with physical impairment. PMID:24561320

López, Natalia M; de Diego, Nicolás; Hernández, Rafael; Pérez, Elisa; Ensinck, Gustavo; Valentinuzzi, Max E

2014-03-01

344

High-density surface EMG maps from upper-arm and forearm muscles  

PubMed Central

Background sEMG signal has been widely used in different applications in kinesiology and rehabilitation as well as in the control of human-machine interfaces. In general, the signals are recorded with bipolar electrodes located in different muscles. However, such configuration may disregard some aspects of the spatial distribution of the potentials like location of innervation zones and the manifestation of inhomogineties in the control of the muscular fibers. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of motor unit action potentials has recently been assessed with activation maps obtained from High Density EMG signals (HD-EMG), these lasts recorded with arrays of closely spaced electrodes. The main objective of this work is to analyze patterns in the activation maps, associating them with four movement directions at the elbow joint and with different strengths of those tasks. Although the activation pattern can be assessed with bipolar electrodes, HD-EMG maps could enable the extraction of features that depend on the spatial distribution of the potentials and on the load-sharing between muscles, in order to have a better differentiation between tasks and effort levels. Methods An experimental protocol consisting of isometric contractions at three levels of effort during flexion, extension, supination and pronation at the elbow joint was designed and HD-EMG signals were recorded with 2D electrode arrays on different upper-limb muscles. Techniques for the identification and interpolation of artifacts are explained, as well as a method for the segmentation of the activation areas. In addition, variables related to the intensity and spatial distribution of the maps were obtained, as well as variables associated to signal power of traditional single bipolar recordings. Finally, statistical tests were applied in order to assess differences between information extracted from single bipolar signals or from HD-EMG maps and to analyze differences due to type of task and effort level. Results Significant differences were observed between EMG signal power obtained from single bipolar configuration and HD-EMG and better results regarding the identification of tasks and effort levels were obtained with the latter. Additionally, average maps for a population of 12 subjects were obtained and differences in the co-activation pattern of muscles were found not only from variables related to the intensity of the maps but also to their spatial distribution. Conclusions Intensity and spatial distribution of HD-EMG maps could be useful in applications where the identification of movement intention and its strength is needed, for example in robotic-aided therapies or for devices like powered- prostheses or orthoses. Finally, additional data transformations or other features are necessary in order to improve the performance of tasks identification. PMID:23216679

2012-01-01

345

Alterations in mitochondrial function, hydrogen peroxide release and oxidative damage in mouse hind-limb skeletal muscle during aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial function, hydrogen peroxide generation and oxidative damage were measured in hind-limb skeletal muscle from young (6–8 month) and old (27–29 month) wildtype and heterozygous Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) knockout mice (Sod2+\\/?). The reduction in MnSOD activity in the Sod2+\\/? mice makes these mice a good model to examine the implications of life-long elevated endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress on mitochondrial function.

Abdellah Mansouri; Florian L. Muller; Yuhong Liu; Rainer Ng; John Faulkner; Michelle Hamilton; Arlan Richardson; Ting-Ting Huang; Charles J. Epstein; Holly Van Remmen

2006-01-01

346

Repeated prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise: effects on insulin sensitivity and limb muscle adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on insulin sensitivity and the limb muscle adaptive response. Seven male subjects (weight, 90.2 ± 3.2 kg; age, 35 ± 3 years) completed a 32-day unsupported crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies pulling sleighs. The subjects were studied before and 3 to 4 days after the crossing of

Joern W. Helge; Kristian Overgaard; Rasmus Damsgaard; Karsten Sørensen; Jesper L. Andersen; Stig E. U. Dyrskog; Kjeld Hermansen; Bengt Saltin; Jørgen F. P. Wojtaszewski

2006-01-01

347

On the use of information theory for detecting upper limb motor dysfunction: An application to Parkinson’s disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, decreased striatal dopamine levels, and consequent extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions. Several potential early diagnostic markers of PD have been proposed. Since they have not been validated in presymptomatic PD, the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease is based on subjective clinical assessment of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this study, we investigated interjoint coordination synergies in the upper limb of healthy and parkinsonian subjects during the performance of unconstrained linear-periodic movements in a horizontal plane using the mutual information (MI). We found that the MI is a sensitive metric in detecting upper limb motor dysfunction, thus suggesting that this method might be applicable to quantitatively evaluating the effects of the antiparkinsonian medication and to monitor the disease progression.

de Oliveira, M. Elias; Menegaldo, L. L.; Lucarelli, P.; Andrade, B. L. B.; Büchler, P.

2011-11-01

348

Reliability of the Southampton examination schedule for the diagnosis of upper limb disorders in the general population  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the reliability of this schedule in the general population. Methods: Ninety seven adults of working age reporting recent neck or upper limb symptoms were invited to attend for clinical examination consisting of inspection and palpation of the upper limbs, measurement of active and passive ranges of motion, and clinical provocation tests. A doctor and a trained research nurse examined each patient separately, in random order and blinded to each other's findings. Results: Between observer repeatability of the schedule was generally good, with a median ? coefficient of 0.66 (range 0.21 to 0.93) for each of the specific diagnoses considered. Conclusion: As expected, the repeatability of tests is poorer in the general population than in the hospital clinic, but the Southampton examination schedule is sufficiently reproducible for epidemiological research in the general population. PMID:12429544

Walker-Bone, K; Byng, P; Linaker, C; Reading, I; Coggon, D; Palmer, K; Cooper, C

2002-01-01

349

Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and CO observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global satellite observations of ozone and carbon monoxide from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the EOS Aura spacecraft are discussed with emphasis on those observations in the 215-100 hPa region (the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). The precision, resolution and accuracy of the data produced by the MLS ``version 2.2'' processing algorithms are discussed and quantified. O3 accuracy is

N. J. Livesey; M. J. Filipiak; L. Froidevaux; W. G. Read; A. Lambert; M. L. Santee; J. H. Jiang; H. C. Pumphrey; J. W. Waters; R. E. Cofield; D. T. Cuddy; W. H. Daffer; B. J. Drouin; R. A. Fuller; R. F. Jarnot; Y. B. Jiang; B. W. Knosp; Q. B. Li; V. S. Perun; M. J. Schwartz; W. V. Snyder; P. C. Stek; R. P. Thurstans; P. A. Wagner; M. Avery; E. V. Browell; J.-P. Cammas; L. E. Christensen; G. S. Diskin; R.-S. Gao; H.-J. Jost; M. Loewenstein; J. D. Lopez; P. Nedelec; G. B. Osterman; G. W. Sachse; C. R. Webster

2008-01-01

350

Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and CO observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global satellite observations of ozone and carbon monoxide from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the EOS Aura spacecraft are discussed with emphasis on those observations in the 215–100 hPa region (the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). The precision, resolution and accuracy of the data produced by the MLS “version 2.2” processing algorithms are discussed and quantified. O3 accuracy is

N. J. Livesey; M. J. Filipiak; L. Froidevaux; W. G. Read; A. Lambert; M. L. Santee; J. H. Jiang; H. C. Pumphrey; J. W. Waters; R. E. Cofield; D. T. Cuddy; W. H. Daffer; B. J. Drouin; R. A. Fuller; R. F. Jarnot; Y. B. Jiang; B. W. Knosp; Q. B. Li; V. S. Perun; M. J. Schwartz; W. V. Snyder; P. C. Stek; R. P. Thurstans; P. A. Wagner; M. Avery; E. V. Browell; J.-P. Cammas; L. E. Christensen; G. S. Diskin; R.-S. Gao; H.-J. Jost; M. Loewenstein; J. D. Lopez; P. Nedelec; G. B. Osterman; G. W. Sachse; C. R. Webster

2008-01-01

351

Upper limb children action-observation training (UP-CAT): a randomised controlled trial in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Rehabilitation for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) aimed to improve function of the impaired upper limb (UL)\\u000a uses a wide range of intervention programs. A new rehabilitative approach, called Action-Observation Therapy, based on the\\u000a recent discovery of mirror neurons, has been used in adult stroke but not in children. The purpose of the present study is\\u000a to design a

Giuseppina Sgandurra; Adriano Ferrari; Giuseppe Cossu; Andrea Guzzetta; Laura Biagi; Michela Tosetti; Leonardo Fogassi; Giovanni Cioni

2011-01-01

352

Effectiveness of botulinum toxin A for upper and lower limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: a summary of evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy has gained wide acceptance in the management of spasticity in cerebral palsy (CP).\\u000a Clinical experience from numerous case reports and series, retrospective and prospective open label cohort studies, and randomized\\u000a controlled trials (RCT) has grown over the past 10 years. Several independent systematic reviews on the role of BoNT-A for\\u000a upper and lower limb spasticity

Marissa Barlaan Lukban; Raymond L. Rosales; Dirk Dressler

2009-01-01

353

Design and control of an upper limb rehabilitation support device for disabled people using a pneumatic cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a device to support rehabilitation of a patient's upper limb motion. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The device has five degrees of freedom by virtue of its link mechanism. It consists of Joints 1-5. Apparatus for use in so-called welfare applications, such as this device, must be safe, flexible, and

Koichi Kirihara; Norihiko Saga; Naoki Saito

2010-01-01

354

Continuous theta-burst stimulation combined with occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Ten patients with history of stroke and upper limb hemiparesis (age 62.0 ± 11.1 years, time since stroke 95.7 ± 70.2 months, mean ± SD) were studied. Each patient received 13 sessions, each comprising 160 s of cTBS applied to the skull on the area of the non-lesional hemisphere (using a 70-mm figure-8 coil, three pulse bursts at 50 Hz, repeated every 200 ms, i.e., 5 Hz, with total stimulation of 2,400 pulses), followed by intensive OT (comprising 120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training) during 15-day hospitalization. The motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) on the days of admission and discharge. All patients completed the 15-day protocol without any adverse effects. Treatment significantly increased the FMA score (from 46.6 ± 8.7 to 51.6 ± 8.2 points, p < 0.01) and shortened the log performance time of WMFT (from 2.5 ± 1.1 to 2.2 ± 1.2 s, p < 0.01). The 15-day protocol of cTBS combined with intensive OT is a safe and potentially useful therapeutic modality for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. PMID:24696408

Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Kondo, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masato; Sageshima, Masashi; Mitani, Sugao; Abo, Masahiro

2014-12-01

355

Verification of the Correlation between Cognitive Function and Lower Limb Muscle Strength for the Community-dwelling Elderly.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lower limb muscle strength of the community-dwelling elderly, with or without cognitive decline, using isometric knee extension strength (IKES) and the 30-second chair stand test (CS-30). [Subjects] A total of 306 community-dwelling elderly participated in this study. Assessment items were the CS-30, IKES, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Trail-Making Test Part A (TMT-A). [Methods] Participants were divided into three groups according to their MMSE score: cognitive impairment (MMSE ? 24), cognitive decline (MMSE 25 to 27), and normal (MMSE ? 28). We compared IKES and CS-30 among the three groups. [Results] IKES was not significantly different among the three groups. However, the CS-30 was significantly different among the three groups. Upon further analysis the CS-30 score of each group, when adjusted for age and TMT-A, did not indicate a significant difference. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the lower limb muscle strength of the elderly does not differ with cognitive decline. Moreover, we suggest that when using the CS-30 score as an indicator of lower limb muscle strength attentional function should be taken into account. PMID:25540482

Ohsugi, Hironori; Murata, Shin; Kubo, Atsuko; Hachiya, Mizuki; Hirao, Aya; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Kamijou, Kenji

2014-12-01

356

Verification of the Correlation between Cognitive Function and Lower Limb Muscle Strength for the Community-dwelling Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lower limb muscle strength of the community-dwelling elderly, with or without cognitive decline, using isometric knee extension strength (IKES) and the 30-second chair stand test (CS-30). [Subjects] A total of 306 community-dwelling elderly participated in this study. Assessment items were the CS-30, IKES, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Trail-Making Test Part A (TMT-A). [Methods] Participants were divided into three groups according to their MMSE score: cognitive impairment (MMSE ? 24), cognitive decline (MMSE 25 to 27), and normal (MMSE ? 28). We compared IKES and CS-30 among the three groups. [Results] IKES was not significantly different among the three groups. However, the CS-30 was significantly different among the three groups. Upon further analysis the CS-30 score of each group, when adjusted for age and TMT-A, did not indicate a significant difference. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the lower limb muscle strength of the elderly does not differ with cognitive decline. Moreover, we suggest that when using the CS-30 score as an indicator of lower limb muscle strength attentional function should be taken into account. PMID:25540482

Ohsugi, Hironori; Murata, Shin; Kubo, Atsuko; Hachiya, Mizuki; Hirao, Aya; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Kamijou, Kenji

2014-01-01

357

Correlation between the lengths of the upper limb and cubital tunnel: potential use in patients with proximal ulnar nerve entrapment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  We hypothesized that a correlation may exist between the length of the upper limb and the length of the cubital tunnel, which\\u000a transmits the ulnar nerve from the arm to the forearm. If true, this association might aid in predicting individuals at greater\\u000a risk of developing ulnar nerve compression at this site.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A total of 46 cadaveric upper

R. Shane Tubbs; Marios Loukas; Nihal Apaydin; Tiffany D. Cossey; Bulent Yalçin; Mohammadali M. Shoja; Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

2010-01-01

358

Effect of Ankle-foot Orthosis on Lower Limb Muscle Activities and Static Balance of Stroke Patients Authors’ Names  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined the effects of an ankle-foot orthosis worn during balance training on lower limb muscle activity and static balance of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were twenty-five inpatients receiving physical therapy for chronic stroke. [Methods] The chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: thirteen patients were assigned to the ankle-foot orthosis group, while the remaining twelve patients wore only their shoes. Each group performed balance training for 20 minutes, twice per day, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks. The lower limb muscle activities of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, and the stability index were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. [Results] Comparison of the groups indicated a significant difference in the muscle activity of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior and the stability index of the eyes-open standing position. After the intervention, the ankle-foot orthosis group evidenced a significant difference in the muscle activities of the paralyzed side tibialis anterior and paralyzed side medial gastrocnemius as well as the stability index of the eyes-open standing position, eyes-closed standing position, eyes-open standing position on a sponge, and eyes-closed standing position on a sponge. The group that only wore their shoes showed significant differences in the stability indexes of eyes-open standing and eyes-open standing on a sponge. [Conclusion] Using the ankle-foot orthosis was effective during the initial training of lower limb muscle activities and the static balance training of chronic stroke patients. However, it was not effective for a variety of dynamic situations. PMID:24648626

Lee, Youngmin; Her, Jin Gang; Choi, Youngeun; Kim, Heesoo

2014-01-01

359

Selected questions on biomechanical exposures for surveillance of upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective Questionnaires for assessment of biomechanical exposure are frequently used in surveillance programs, though few studies have evaluated which key questions are needed. We sought to reduce the number of variables on a surveillance questionnaire by identifying which variables best summarized biomechanical exposure in a survey of the French working population. Methods We used data from the 2002–2003 French experimental network of Upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UWMSD), performed on 2685 subjects in which 37 variables assessing biomechanical exposures were available (divided into four ordinal categories, according to the task frequency or duration). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with orthogonal rotation was performed on these variables. Variables closely associated with factors issued from PCA were retained, except those highly correlated to another variable (rho>0.70). In order to study the relevance of the final list of variables, correlations between a score based on retained variables (PCA score) and the exposure score suggested by the SALTSA group were calculated. The associations between the PCA score and the prevalence of UWMSD were also studied. In a final step, we added back to the list a few variables not retained by PCA, because of their established recognition as risk factors. Results According to the results of the PCA, seven interpretable factors were identified: posture exposures, repetitiveness, handling of heavy loads, distal biomechanical exposures, computer use, forklift operator specific task, and recovery time. Twenty variables strongly correlated with the factors obtained from PCA were retained. The PCA score was strongly correlated both with the SALTSA score and with UWMSD prevalence (p<0.0001). In the final step, six variables were reintegrated. Conclusion Twenty-six variables out of 37 were efficiently selected according to their ability to summarize major biomechanical constraints in a working population, with an approach combining statistical analyses and existing knowledge. PMID:17476519

Descatha, Alexis; Roquelaure, Yves; Evanoff, Bradley; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean François; Mariot, Camille; Ha, Catherine; Imbernon, Ellen; Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette

2007-01-01

360

Effects of upper limb robot-assisted therapy on motor recovery in subacute stroke patients  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose There is little evidence available on the use of robot-assisted therapy in subacute stroke patients. A randomized controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the short-time efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy compared to usual physical therapy performed in the early phase after stroke onset. Methods Fifty-three subacute stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled 30?±?7 days after the acute event and randomized into two groups, both exposed to standard therapy. Additional 30 sessions of robot-assisted therapy were provided to the Experimental Group. Additional 30 sessions of usual therapy were provided to the Control Group. The following impairment evaluations were performed at the beginning (T0), after 15 sessions (T1), and at the end of the treatment (T2): Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FM), Modified Ashworth Scale-Shoulder (MAS-S), Modified Ashworth Scale-Elbow (MAS-E), Total Passive Range of Motion-Shoulder/Elbow (pROM), and Motricity Index (MI). Results Evidence of significant improvements in MAS-S (p?=?0.004), MAS-E (p?=?0.018) and pROM (p?upper limb rehabilitation treatment can contribute to increasing motor recovery in subacute stroke patients. Focusing on the early phase of stroke recovery has a high potential impact in clinical practice. PMID:24946799

2014-01-01

361

Therapists’ Perceptions of Social Media and Video Game Technologies in Upper Limb Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians’ perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. Objective The objective of our study was to explore therapists’ perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these technologies in rehabilitation. Methods We conducted two focus groups comprised of ten occupational therapists/physiotherapists who provide neurorehabilitation to individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke or cerebral palsy. Data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework to interpret emerging themes. Results Therapists were using technology in a limited capacity. They identified barriers to using social media and gaming technology with their clients, including a lack of age appropriateness, privacy issues with social media, limited transfer of training, and a lack of accessibility of current systems. Therapists also questioned their role in the context of technology-based interventions. The opportunity for social interaction was perceived as a major benefit of integrated gaming and social media. Conclusions This study reveals the complexities associated with adopting new technologies in clinical practice, including the need to consider both client and clinician factors. Despite reporting several challenges with applying gaming and social media technology with clinical populations, therapists identified opportunities for increased social interactions and were willing to help shape the development of an upper limb training system that could more readily meet the needs of clients with hemiplegia. By considering the needs of both therapists and clients, technology developers may increase the likelihood that clinicians will adopt innovative technologies. PMID:25759148

Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, HF Machiel

2015-01-01

362

Long term effect of low frequency chronic electrical stimulation on the fast hind limb muscles of dystrophic mice.  

PubMed Central

Low frequency chronic electrical stimulation can have a beneficial effect on dystrophic muscles. The present study was undertaken to assess the long term effect of such stimulation on the fast hind limb muscles of dystrophic mice. The relationship between the changes induced by stimulation and the initial condition of the dystrophic muscles, as well as other factors which might contribute to this relationship, were examined. The stimulation induced an increase in the force output of weak dystrophic muscles and a speeding of their time course of contraction and relaxation, as well as an increase in their fatigue resistance. In relatively strong dystrophic muscles, the stimulation induced similar changes in contractile speed and fatigue characteristics, but it led to a slight decrease in force output. Our results suggest that the stimulation promotes the growth and differentiation of the small regenerating fibres known to be present in the diseased muscles and, in addition, induces an increase in the mitochondrial content of the muscle fibres. Our results indicate that these effects are not permanent. PMID:2614433

Dangain, J; Vrbova, G

1989-01-01

363

Kinematic MRI study of upper-airway biomechanics using electrical muscle stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new and powerful method to study the movement and function of upper airway muscles. Our method is to use direct electrical stimulation of individual upper airway muscles, while performing state of the art high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have adapted a paralyzed isolated UA cat model so that positive or negative static pressure in the UA can be controlled at specific levels while electrical muscle stimulation is applied during MRI. With these techniques we can assess the effect of muscle stimulation on airway cross-sectional area compliance and soft tissue motion. We are reporting the preliminary results and MRI techniques which have enabled us to examine changes in airway dimensions which result form electrical stimulation of specific upper airway dilator muscles. The results of this study will be relevant to the development of new clinical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea by providing new information as to exactly how upper airway muscles function to dilate the upper airway and the strength of stimulation required to prevent the airway obstruction when overall muscle tone may not be sufficient to maintain regular breathing.

Brennick, Michael J.; Margulies, Susan S.; Ford, John C.; Gefter, Warren B.; Pack, Allan I.

1997-05-01

364

Sequential muscle activity and its functional role in the upper extremity and trunk during overarm throwing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximal-to-distal segmental sequence has been identified in many sports activities, including baseball pitching and ball kicking. However, proximal-to-distal sequential muscle activity has not been identified. The aims of this study were to establish whether sequential muscle activity does occur and, if it does, to determine its functional role. We recorded surface electromyograms (EMGs) for 17 muscles from the upper

Masaya Hirashima; Hiroshi Kadota; Shizuka Sakurai; Katzutoshi Kudo; Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki

2002-01-01

365

Functional Outcomes of Intramuscular Botulinum Toxin Type A and Occupational Therapy in the Upper Limbs of Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wallen M, O’Flaherty SJ, Waugh MC. Functional outcomes of intramuscular botulinum toxin type A and occupational therapy in the upper limbs of children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

Margaret Wallen; Stephen J. O’Flaherty; Mary-Clare A. Waugh

2007-01-01

366

Neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity of upper extremity muscles in hemiparetic stroke.  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess the mechanical changes associated with spasticity in elbow muscles of chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors and to compare these changes with those recorded in the ankle muscles of a similar cohort. We first characterized elbow dynamic stiffness by applying pseudorandom binary positional perturbations to the joints at different initial angles, over the entire range of motion, with subjects relaxed. We separated this stiffness into intrinsic and reflex components using a novel parallel cascade system identification technique. In addition, for controls, we studied the nonparetic limbs of stroke survivors and limbs of age-matched healthy subjects as primary and secondary controls. We found that both reflex and intrinsic stiffnesses were significantly larger in the stroke than in the nonparetic elbow muscles, and the differences increased as the elbow was extended. Reflex stiffness increased monotonically with the elbow angle in both paretic and nonparetic sides. In contrast, the modulation of intrinsic stiffness with elbow position was different in nonparetic limbs; intrinsic stiffness decreased sharply from full- to mid-flexion in both sides, then it increased continuously with the elbow extension in the paretic side. It remained invariant in the nonparetic side. Surprisingly, reflex stiffness was larger in the nonparetic than in the normal control arm, yet intrinsic stiffness was smaller in the nonparetic arm. Finally, we compare the angular dependence of paretic elbow and ankle muscles and show that the modulation of reflex stiffness with position was strikingly different. PMID:17537910

Mirbagheri, M M; Settle, K; Harvey, R; Rymer, W Z

2007-08-01

367

Robot-assisted movement training compared with conventional therapy techniques for the rehabilitation of upper-limb motor function after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lum PS, Burgar CG, Shor PC, Majmundar M, Van der Loos M. Robot-assisted movement training compared with conventional therapy techniques for the rehabilitation of upper-limb motor function after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:952-9. Objective: To compare the effects of robot-assisted movement training with conventional techniques for the rehabilitation of upper-limb motor function after stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial, 6-month

Peter S. Lum; Charles G. Burgar; Peggy C. Shor; Matra Majmundar; Machiel Van der Loos

2002-01-01

368

A Multi-Class Proportional Myocontrol Algorithm for Upper Limb Prosthesis Control: Validation in Real-Life Scenarios on Amputees.  

PubMed

Functional replacement of upper limbs by means of dexterous prosthetic devices remains a technological challenge. While the mechanical design of prosthetic hands have advanced rapidly, the human-machine interfacing and the control strategies needed for the activation of multiple degrees of freedom are not reliable enough for restoring hand function successfully. Machine learning methods capable of inferring the user intent from EMG signals generated by the activation of the remnant muscles are regarded as a promising solution to this problem. However, the lack of robustness of the current methods impedes their routine clinical application. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm for controlling multiple degrees of freedom sequentially, inherently proportionally and with high robustness, allowing a good level of prosthetic hand function. The control algorithm is based on the spatial linear combinations of amplitude-related EMG signal features. The weighting coefficients in this combination are derived from the optimization criterion of the common spatial patterns filters which allow for maximal discriminability between movements. An important component of the study is the validation of the method which was performed on both ablebodied and amputee subjects who used physical prostheses with customized sockets and performed three standardized functional tests mimicking daily-life activities of varying difficulty. Moreover, the new method was compared in the same conditions with one clinical/industrial and one academic state-of-the-art methods. The novel algorithm outperformed significantly the state-of-the-art techniques in both subject groups for tests that required the activation of more than one degree of freedom. Because of the evaluation in real time control on both able-bodied subjects and final users (amputees) wearing physical prostheses, the results obtained allow for the direct extrapolation of the benefits of the proposed method for the end users. In conclusion, the method proposed and validated in real-life use scenarios, allows the practical usability of multifunctional hand prostheses in an intuitive way, with significant advantages with respect to previous systems. PMID:25296406

Amsuess, Sebastian; Gobel, Peter; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

2014-10-01

369

Upper limb performance and the structuring of joint movement in teenagers with cerebral palsy: the reciprocal role of task demands and action capabilities.  

PubMed

Individuals with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate reduced performance in upper limb tasks compared to typically developing (TD) peers. We examined whether task conditions modify differences between teenagers with and without CP during a reciprocal aiming task. Twenty teenagers (nine CP and 11 TD) moved a pointer between two targets as fast as possible without missing a target. Task conditions were manipulated by changing the targets' size, by modifying the inertial properties of the pointer and by varying the upper limb used to perform the task (preferred/non-affected and non-preferred/affected upper limbs). While compared to TD peers, CP teenagers exhibited lower performance (longer movement times). Such differences were attenuated when the task was performed with the preferred upper limb and when accuracy requirements were less stringent. CP teenagers were not differentially affected by the pointer inertia manipulation. Task conditions not only affected performance but also joint kinematics. CP teenagers revealed less movement at the elbow and more movement at the shoulder when performing the task with their less skilled upper limb. However, both CP and TD teenagers demonstrated a larger contribution of trunk movement when facing more challenging task conditions. The overall pattern of results indicated that the joint kinematics employed by individuals with unilateral CP constituted adaptive responses to task requirements. Thus, the explanation of the effects of unilateral CP on upper limb behavior needs to go beyond a context-indifferent manifestation of the brain injury to include the interaction between task demands and action capabilities. PMID:25579662

Figueiredo, Priscilla Rezende Pereira; Silva, Paula Lanna; Avelar, Bruna Silva; da Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

2015-04-01

370

Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke.  

PubMed

The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. PMID:25206611

Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

2013-11-01

371

Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke  

PubMed Central

The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. PMID:25206611

Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S.; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

2013-01-01

372

Influence of scapular position on the pressure pain threshold of the upper trapezius muscle region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A position of scapula depression will maintain the upper trapezius muscle region in a lengthened position, causing excessive strain. This strain could lead to peripheral nociceptive nerves sensitization in the affected area, changing the pressure pain threshold (PPT). Thus, people with a faulty alignment of scapular depression may have lower PPT levels in the upper trapezius region when compared to

Daniel Camara Azevedo; Tatiana de Lima Pires; Fernanda de Souza Andrade; Mary Kate McDonnell

2008-01-01

373

The influence of wheelchair propulsion technique on upper extremity muscle demand: A simulation study  

E-print Network

The influence of wheelchair propulsion technique on upper extremity muscle demand: A simulation with wheelchair propulsion. Recent studies have identified cadence, contact angle and peak force as important factors for reduc- ing upper extremity demand during propulsion. However, studies often make comparisons

374

It has been estimated that during locomotion in the cat, muscle afferents in a single limb would produce as many as  

E-print Network

It has been estimated that during locomotion in the cat, muscle afferents in a single limb would-evoked fictive locomotion, stimulation of Journal of Physiology (1999), 521.3, pp.691--703 691 Depression of muscle and cutaneous afferent-evoked monosynaptic field potentials during fictive locomotion in the cat M

Manitoba, University of

375

Virtual reality for the rehabilitation of the upper limb motor function after stroke: a prospective controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence has demonstrated the efficacy of Virtual Reality (VR) for stroke rehabilitation nonetheless its benefits and limitations in large population of patients have not yet been studied. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of non-immersive VR treatment for the restoration of the upper limb motor function and its impact on the activities of daily living capacities in post-stroke patients. Methods A pragmatic clinical trial was conducted among post-stroke patients admitted to our rehabilitation hospital. We enrolled 376 subjects who had a motor arm subscore on the Italian version of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (It-NIHSS) between 1 and 3 and without severe neuropsychological impairments interfering with recovery. Patients were allocated to two treatments groups, receiving combined VR and upper limb conventional (ULC) therapy or ULC therapy alone. The treatment programs consisted of 2 hours of daily therapy, delivered 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity (F-M UE) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scales. Results Both treatments significantly improved F-M UE and FIM scores, but the improvement obtained with VR rehabilitation was significantly greater than that achieved with ULC therapy alone. The estimated effect size of the minimal difference between groups in F-M UE and FIM scores was 2.5 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001) pts and 3.2 ± 1.2 (P = 0.007) pts, respectively. Conclusions VR rehabilitation in post-stroke patients seems more effective than conventional interventions in restoring upper limb motor impairments and motor related functional abilities. Trial registration Italian Ministry of Health IRCCS Research Programme 2590412 PMID:23914733

2013-01-01

376

The Effects of Active Scapular Protraction on the Muscle Activation and Function of the Upper Extremity  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adjusting the scapula into its ideal position through active scapular protraction on the muscle activation and function of the upper extremity. [Subjects] Twenty female college students aged 19–21 without any physical or functional disability were the subjects of this study. They had no history of injury to their upper extremities or hands. [Methods] After the initial measurements the experimental group was asked to perform active scapular protraction; then, their grip strength and muscle activation were measured again. Every action was maintained for 5 seconds and repeated 3 times. The mean values of the measurements were analyzed. A resting of 1 minute was given between each action. [Results] The results revealed a significant change in the experimental group’s grip strength after active scapular protraction had been performed. The surrounding muscles of the scapula, such as the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus, showed significant changes in muscle activation after active scapular protraction. The muscles of the upper extremity also showed significant changes after active scapular protraction. [Conclusion] The adjustment of scapula into its ideal position through active scapular protraction increased the activations of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint and improved the function of the upper extremity. PMID:24764642

Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Joongsook; Lee, Bomjin; Jeon, Sora; Han, Bobae; Han, Dongwook

2014-01-01

377

Effects of two workstation positions for below-knee assembly work on upper extremity muscle activity  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study was performed to determine which set of below-knee working conditions minimizes upper extremity muscle activity and which of upward- or downward-direction workstations poses the greater risk of upper extremity disorder. [Subjects] The study population consisted of 15 young male workers. [Methods] EMG activities of the right anterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and lower trapezius muscles were measured in two below-knee assembly workstation positions. [Results] The anterior deltoid and biceps brachii muscle activities of Position 1 were significantly higher than those of Position 2. The lower trapezius muscle activity of Position 2 was significantly higher than that of Position 1. [Conclusion] Upward-direction workstations appear to pose a greater risk of upper extremity disorder than downward-direction workstations in below-knee assembly work. PMID:25642024

Shin, Seung-je; Yoo, Won-gyu

2015-01-01

378

The development of an adaptive upper-limb stroke rehabilitation robotic system  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is the primary cause of adult disability. To support this large population in recovery, robotic technologies are being developed to assist in the delivery of rehabilitation. This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task. The system uses a decision theoretic model (a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP) as its primary engine for decision making. The POMDP allows the system to automatically modify exercise parameters to account for the specific needs and abilities of different individuals, and to use these parameters to take appropriate decisions about stroke rehabilitation exercises. Methods The performance of the system was evaluated by comparing the decisions made by the system with those of a human therapist. A single patient participant was paired up with a therapist participant for the duration of the study, for a total of six sessions. Each session was an hour long and occurred three times a week for two weeks. During each session, three steps were followed: (A) after the system made a decision, the therapist either agreed or disagreed with the decision made; (B) the researcher had the device execute the decision made by the therapist; (C) the patient then performed the reaching exercise. These parts were repeated in the order of A-B-C until the end of the session. Qualitative and quantitative question were asked at the end of each session and at the completion of the study for both participants. Results Overall, the therapist agreed with the system decisions approximately 65% of the time. In general, the therapist thought the system decisions were believable and could envision this system being used in both a clinical and home setting. The patient was satisfied with the system and would use this system as his/her primary method of rehabilitation. Conclusions The data collected in this study can only be used to provide insight into the performance of the system since the sample size was limited. The next stage for this project is to test the system with a larger sample size to obtain significant results. PMID:21679457

2011-01-01

379

Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.  

PubMed

This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - [Formula: see text]O2peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-[Formula: see text]O2peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), [Formula: see text]O2 at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and [Formula: see text]O2 at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

2015-04-01

380

Lingual Muscle Activity Across Sleep–Wake States in Rats with Surgically Altered Upper Airway  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients have increased upper airway muscle activity, including such lingual muscles as the genioglossus (GG), geniohyoid (GH), and hyoglossus (HG). This adaptation partially protects their upper airway against obstructions. Rodents are used to study the central neural control of sleep and breathing but they do not naturally exhibit OSA. We investigated whether, in chronically instrumented, behaving rats, disconnecting the GH and HG muscles from the hyoid (H) apparatus would result in a compensatory increase of other upper airway muscle activity (electromyogram, EMG) and/or other signs of upper airway instability. We first determined that, in intact rats, lingual (GG and intrinsic) muscles maintained stable activity levels when quantified based on 2?h-long recordings conducted on days 6 through 22 after instrumentation. We then studied five rats in which the tendons connecting the GH and HG muscles to the H apparatus were experimentally severed. When quantified across all recording days, lingual EMG during slow-wave sleep (SWS) was modestly but significantly increased in rats with surgically altered upper airway [8.6?±?0.7% (SE) vs. 6.1?±?0.7% of the mean during wakefulness; p?=?0.012]. Respiratory modulation of lingual EMG occurred mainly during SWS and was similarly infrequent in both groups, and the incidence of sighs and central apneas also was similar. Thus, a weakened action of selected lingual muscles did not produce sleep-disordered breathing but resulted in a relatively elevated activity in other lingual muscles during SWS. These results encourage more extensive surgical manipulations with the aim to obtain a rodent model with collapsible upper airway. PMID:24803913

Rukhadze, Irma; Kalter, Julie; Stettner, Georg M.; Kubin, Leszek

2014-01-01

381

Normalization of surface EMG amplitude from the upper trapezius muscle in ergonomic studies — A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude from the upper trapezius muscle is widely used as a measure of shoulder-neck load in ergonomic studies. A variety of methods for normalizing EMG amplitude from the upper trapezius (EMGamput) have been presented in the literature. This impedes meta-analyses of, for instance, upper trapezius load in relation to development of shoulder-neck disorders. The review offers a

S. E. Mathiassen; J. Winkel; G. M. Hägg

1995-01-01

382

A novel mission concept for upper air water vapour observations: active limb sounding with a constellation of retroreflectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topic for the Alpbach summer school 2010 was "Missions for Understanding Climate Change''. Early career scientists and engineers from many countries formed working groups to devise new space missions to tackle this challenging subject. Following the summer school, one mission concept was chosen for further development at a subsequent workshop in Obergurgl, which is described in this paper. At the core of the mission chosen for further study was a novel active limb-sounding instrument, used as part of a multi-instrument measurement approach to observing upper air water vapour. The concept combines a LiDAR in nadir-viewing mode with a LiDAR in limb sounding by occultation geometry, designed to operate as a multiple discrete wavelength, very long path system for intergrated path differential absorption measurements. This is achieved using a monostatic transmitter-receiver spacecraft flown in formation with multiple spaceborne retroreflectors. Looking through the limb of the atmosphere, this system will sample the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere and above at high vertical resolution, with a long integration path allowing detection of the low concentrations of water vapour at this height. A secondary payload of a medium resolution multispectral radiometer allows wide-swath cloud and aerosol imaging. Active limb sounding has not yet been attempted in space, and this novel concept presents significant challenges, including the performance of the lasers in space, the tracking and locking procedure between the main spacecraft and the retroreflectors, and the design of the telescopes to achieve a high enough signal-to-noise ratio for the high precision measurements. These issues are addressed in this preliminary feasibility study, which shows promising results.

Clifford, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Weitnauer, C.; Topham, R.; Romano, P.; Lohrey, S.; Kox, S.; Krings, T.; Krejci, D.; Kern, K.; Huesing, J.; Esen, B.; Deconinck, F.; Carton, J. G.; Aulinas, J.

2011-12-01

383

Neck proprioceptors contribute to the modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity to the lower limbs of humans.  

PubMed

Several different strategies have now been used to demonstrate that the vestibular system can modulate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans and thereby contribute to the regulation of blood pressure during changes in posture. However, it remains to be determined how the brain differentiates between head-only movements that do not require changes in vasomotor tone in the lower limbs from body movements that do require vasomotor changes. We tested the hypothesis that neck movements modulate MSNA in the lower limbs of humans. MSNA was recorded in 10 supine young adult subjects, at rest, during sinusoidal stretching of neck muscles (100 cycles, 35° peak to peak at 0.37 ± 0.02 Hz) and during a ramp-and-hold (17.5° for 54 ± 9 s) static neck muscle stretch, while their heads were held fixed in space. Cross-correlation analysis revealed cyclical modulation of MSNA during sinusoidal neck muscle stretch (modulation index 45.4 ± 5.3 %), which was significantly less than the cardiac modulation of MSNA at rest (78.7 ± 4.2 %). Interestingly, cardiac modulation decreased significantly during sinusoidal neck displacement (63.0 ± 9.3 %). By contrast, there was no significant difference in MSNA activity during static ramp-and-hold displacements of the neck to the right or left compared with that with the head and neck aligned. These data suggest that dynamic, but not static, neck movements can modulate MSNA, presumably via projections of muscle spindle afferents to the vestibular nuclei, and may thus contribute to the regulation of blood pressure during orthostatic challenges. PMID:24691758

Bolton, P S; Hammam, E; Macefield, V G

2014-07-01

384

Effects of the Racket Polar Moment of Inertia on Dominant Upper Limb Joint Moments during Tennis Serve  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players. PMID:25117871

Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël

2014-01-01

385

High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers. PMID:24527440

Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L.

2014-01-01

386

Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.  

PubMed

We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. The (NONEX)V(O)(2mus) at each work rate was not significantly increased. In contrast, (NONEX)FBF was significantly increased at 120 W (p < 0.05) and 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. These results suggest that the O(2) supply to the non-exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise. PMID:20204819

Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito

2010-01-01

387

Contraction-based variations in upper limb EMG-force models under isometric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a previously developed model, which maps joint kinematic data and estimated muscle activation levels to net elbow joint torque, is trained with 4 groups of datasets in order to improve force estimation accuracy and gain insight into muscle behaviour. The training datasets are defined such that surface electromyogram (EMG) and force data are grouped within individual trials,

Katherine Mountjoy; Evelyn Morin; Keyvan Hashtrudi-Zaad

2009-01-01

388

Dissociating effect of upper limb non-use and overuse on space and body representations.  

PubMed

Accurate and updated representations of the space where the body acts, i.e. the peripersonal space (PPS), and the location and dimension of body parts (body representation, BR) are essential to perform actions. Because both PPS and BR are involved in motor execution and display the same plastic proprieties after the use of a tool to reach far objects, it has been suggested that they overlap in a unique representation of the body in a space devoted to action. Here we determined whether manipulating actions in space, without modifying body metrics, i.e. through immobilization, induces a dissociation of the plastic properties of PPS and BR. In 39 healthy subjects we evaluated PPS and BR for the non-used right limb and the overused left limb before and after 10h of right arm immobilization. We observed that non-use reduces PPS representation around the immobilized arm, without affecting the metric representation (i.e. perceived length) of that limb. In contrast, overuse modulates the metric representation of the free arm, leaving PPS unchanged around that limb. These results suggest that the plasticity in PPS and BR depends on different mechanisms; while PPS representation is shaped as a function of the dimension of the acting space, metric characteristics of BR are forged on a complex interplay between visual and sensorimotor information related to the body. This behavioral dissociation between PPS and BR defines a new scenario for the role of action in shaping space and body representations. PMID:25462198

Bassolino, Michela; Finisguerra, Alessandra; Canzoneri, Elisa; Serino, Andrea; Pozzo, Thierry

2015-04-01

389

Accidental contact burns of the upper limb in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The denervated limb of the child with obstetrical brachial plexus injury is theoretically at risk of contact burns. A prospective study was designed to document the incidence and clinical presentation of these burn injuries in a series of 127 birth palsy cases. The study group included 90 Erb's and 37 total plexus palsy cases. Accidental burns occurred in 11% of

M. M. Al-Qattan

1999-01-01

390

Longitudinal sliding of the median nerve during movements of the upper limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incidental finding during recordings from the median nerve was that the nerve trunk slides longitudinally in its bed when the limb is moved. The amount of movement has been measured in 19 subjects. The observations are discussed with reference to the pathology of entrapment neuropathies and it is suggested that, where longitudinal movement of a peripheral nerve is restricted,

D L McLellan; M Swash

1976-01-01

391

The Design and Control of a Low-Power, Upper-Limb Prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) offer a unique approach to address power consumption issues that currently limit the design of prosthetic limbs. CMGs generate large output torques while requiring less power than conventional actuators. This advance is possible because CMGs conserve angular momentum without increasing the kinetic energy of the system, providing high-agility, low-power movements. We have designed a novel, three

A. M. Jarc; A. B. Kimes; M. E. Pearson; M. A. Peck

2006-01-01

392

Alterations in inorganic phosphate in mouse hindlimb muscles during limb disuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle disuse induces a wide array of structural, biochemical, and neural adaptations in skeletal muscle, which can affect its function. We recently demonstrated in patients with an orthopedic injury that cast immobilization alters the resting Pi content of skeletal muscle, which may contribute to loss of specific force. The goal of this study was to determine the direct effect of

Neeti Pathare; Krista Vandenborne; Min Liu; Jennifer E. Stevens; Ye Li; Tiffany N. Frimel; Glenn A. Walter

2008-01-01

393

bioLights: Light emitting wear for visualizing lower-limb muscle activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of muscle activity by electrophysiological techniques is commonly used to analyze biomechanics. Although the simultaneous and intuitive understanding of both muscle activity and body motion is important in various fields, it is difficult to realize. This paper proposes a novel technique for visualizing physiological signals related to muscle activity by means of surface electromyography. We developed a wearable light-emitting

Naoto Igarashi; Kenji Suzuki; Hiroaki Kawamoto; Yoshiyuki Sankai

2010-01-01

394

Proposal of Method for Control of Muscle Activation Level for Limbs during Motion and Application of this Method in Strength Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increase in the number of elderly people in our society, the need for equipments that ensure activities of daily living and that can be used in strength training for reducing the need for nursing care is increasing. In this paper, we propose a method for controlling the level of muscle activation for a particular muscle group without EMG sensors; the force exerted by the tips of the limbs during motion is used to control the level of muscle activation. The method is based on a musculoskeletal model for limbs called functionally different effective muscles of three antagonistic pairs of six muscles in 2D space. Hill's equation is incorporated in the method to consider force-velocity characteristics of muscles. EMG measurement results for two muscles under isokinetic contraction in the lower limbs of a subject show that difference between the achieved activation level and the desired activation level is less than the error of the output force distribution. Moreover, the control method is applied to strength training. A manipulator that can facilitate the isokinetic contraction with more than the desired activation level for a specific muscle group is developed.

Komada, Satoshi; Murakami, Yosuke; Hirai, Junji

395

Development of the arterial pattern in the upper limb of staged human embryos: normal development and anatomic variations  

PubMed Central

A total of 112 human embryos (224 upper limbs) between stages 12 and 23 of development were examined. It was observed that formation of the arterial system in the upper limb takes place as a dual process. An initial capillary plexus appears from the dorsal aorta during stage 12 and develops at the same rate as the limb. At stage 13, the capillary plexus begins a maturation process involving the enlargement and differentiation of selected parts. This remodelling process starts in the aorta and continues in a proximal to distal sequence. By stage 15 the differentiation has reached the subclavian and axillary arteries, by stage 17 it has reached the brachial artery as far as the elbow, by stage 18 it has reached the forearm arteries except for the distal part of the radial, and finally by stage 21 the whole arterial pattern is present in its definitive morphology. This differentiation process parallels the development of the skeletal system chronologically. A number of arterial variations were observed, and classified as follows: superficial brachial (7.7%), accessory brachial (0.6%), brachioradial (14%), superficial brachioulnar (4.7%), superficial brachioulnoradial (0.7%), palmar pattern of the median (18.7%) and superficial brachiomedian (0.7%) arteries. They were observed in embryos belonging to stages 17–23 and were not related to a specific stage of development. Statistical comparison with the rates of variations reported in adults did not show significant differences. It is suggested that the variations arise through the persistence, enlargement and differentiation of parts of the initial network which would normally remain as capillaries or even regress. PMID:11693301

RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; BURTON, G. J.; DEU, J.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

2001-01-01

396

The association of subjective stress, urinary catecholamine concentrations and PC game room use and musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs in young male Koreans.  

PubMed

The use of PCs can cause health problems, including musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limbs. This study was performed to investigate whether using PCs in PC game rooms may induce MSDs of the upper limbs. 284 young male Koreans were included. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to gather information about game room use, perceived subjective stress, and the symptoms related to MSDs. Urinary concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine were measured in spot urine. The symptom prevalence of MSDs of the upper limbs increased according to the increase of the duration of game room use. The intensity of perceived subjective stress showed a significant dose-response relationship with the frequency of MSDs symptoms in neck and shoulder areas. However, the urinary level of catecholamines was not significantly correlated with the symptom prevalence of MSDs in the upper limbs. These findings suggest that using PCs in game rooms produce physical stress on the upper limbs, strong enough to induce MSDs. PMID:12808332

Kang, Jong-Won; Kim, Heon; Cho, Soo-Hun; Lee, Myung-Koo; Kim, Yong-Dae; Nan, Hong-Mei; Lee, Chul-Ho

2003-06-01

397

Optimization of Muscle Activity for Task-Level Goals Predicts Complex Changes in Limb Forces across Biomechanical Contexts  

PubMed Central

Optimality principles have been proposed as a general framework for understanding motor control in animals and humans largely based on their ability to predict general features movement in idealized motor tasks. However, generalizing these concepts past proof-of-principle to understand the neuromechanical transformation from task-level control to detailed execution-level muscle activity and forces during behaviorally-relevant motor tasks has proved difficult. In an unrestrained balance task in cats, we demonstrate that achieving task-level constraints center of mass forces and moments while minimizing control effort predicts detailed patterns of muscle activity and ground reaction forces in an anatomically-realistic musculoskeletal model. Whereas optimization is typically used to resolve redundancy at a single level of the motor hierarchy, we simultaneously resolved redundancy across both muscles and limbs and directly compared predictions to experimental measures across multiple perturbation directions that elicit different intra- and interlimb coordination patterns. Further, although some candidate task-level variables and cost functions generated indistinguishable predictions in a single biomechanical context, we identified a common optimization framework that could predict up to 48 experimental conditions per animal (n?=?3) across both perturbation directions and different biomechanical contexts created by altering animals' postural configuration. Predictions were further improved by imposing experimentally-derived muscle synergy constraints, suggesting additional task variables or costs that may be relevant to the neural control of balance. These results suggested that reduced-dimension neural control mechanisms such as muscle synergies can achieve similar kinetics to the optimal solution, but with increased control effort (?2×) compared to individual muscle control. Our results are consistent with the idea that hierarchical, task-level neural control mechanisms previously associated with voluntary tasks may also be used in automatic brainstem-mediated pathways for balance. PMID:22511857

McKay, J. Lucas; Ting, Lena H.

2012-01-01

398

Retrieval of HCN Concentrations from Cassini/VIMS Limb Observations of the Titan's Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been retrieved from Cassini/VIMS limb observations in the region from 600 to 1100 km of the Titan's atmosphere by analyzing the 3 ?m emission. HCN concentrations show a very good correlation with solar zenith angles, for different latitudes and local times. This would indicate that HCN is in (or close to) photochemical equilibrium in the sounded region.

Adriani, A.; Dinelli, B. M.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Funke, B.; Coradini, A.

2011-10-01

399

Toward electrocorticographic control of a dexterous upper limb prosthesis: building brain-machine interfaces.  

PubMed

One of the most exciting and compelling areas of research and development is building brain machine interfaces (BMIs) for controlling prosthetic limbs. Prosthetic limb technology is advancing rapidly, and the modular prosthetic limb (MPL) of the Johns Hopkins University/ Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) permits actuation with 17 degrees of freedom in 26 articulating joints. There are many signals from the brain that can be leveraged, including the spiking rates of neurons in the cortex, electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals from the surface of the cortex, and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp. Unlike microelectrodes that record spikes, ECoG does not penetrate the cortex and has a higher spatial specificity, signal-to-noise ratio, and bandwidth than EEG signals. We have implemented an ECoG-based system for controlling the MPL in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Epilepsy Monitoring Unit, where patients are implanted with ECoG electrode grids for clinical seizure mapping and asked to perform various recorded finger or grasp movements. We have shown that low-frequency local motor potentials (LMPs) and ECoG power in the high gamma frequency (70,150 Hz) range correlate well with grasping parameters, and they stand out as good candidate features for closed-loop control of the MPL. PMID:22344950

Fifer, Matthew S; Acharya, Soumyadipta; Benz, Heather L; Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Crone, Nathan E; Thakor, Nitish V

2012-01-01

400

The anatomical arrangement of muscle and tendon enhances limb versatility and locomotor performance  

PubMed Central

The arrangement of muscles and tendons has been studied in detail by anatomists, surgeons and biomechanists for over a century, and the energetics and mechanics of muscle contraction for almost as long. Investigation of how muscles function during locomotion and the relative length change in muscle fibres and the associated elastic tendon has, however, been more challenging. In recent years, novel in vivo measurement methods such as ultrasound and sonomicrometry have contributed to our understanding of the dynamics of the muscle tendon unit during locomotion. Here, we examine both published and new data to explore how muscles are arranged to deliver the wide repertoire of locomotor function and the trade-offs between performance and economy that result. PMID:21502125

Wilson, Alan; Lichtwark, Glen

2011-01-01

401

Muscle activity determined by cosine tuning with a nontrivial preferred direction during isometric force exertion by lower limb.  

PubMed

We investigated how the CNS selects a unique muscle activation pattern under a redundant situation resulting from the existence of bi-articular muscles. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from eight lower limb muscles while 11 subjects were exerting isometric knee and hip joint torque simultaneously (T(k) and T(h), respectively. Extension torque was defined as positive). The knee joint was kept at either 90 or 60 degrees. Various combinations of torque were imposed on both joints by pulling a cable attached to an ankle brace with approximately three levels of isometric force in 16 directions. The distribution of the data in the three-dimensional plot (muscle activation level quantified by the root mean squared value of EMG vs. T(k) and T(h)) demonstrates that the muscle activation level M can be approximated by a single model as M = left flooraT(k) + bT(h) right floor where left floorx right floor = max (x,0) and a and b are constants. The percentage of variance explained by this model averaged over all muscles was 82.3 +/- 14.0% (mean +/- SD), indicating that the degree of fit of the data to the plane was high. This model suggests that the CNS uses a cosine tuning function on the torque plane (T(k), T(h)) to recruit muscles. Interestingly, the muscle's preferred direction (PD) defined as the direction where it is maximally active on the torque plane deviated from its own mechanical pulling direction (MD). This deviation was apparent in the mono-articular knee extensor (MD = 0 degrees , whereas PD = 14.1 +/- 3.7 degrees for vastus lateralis) and in the mono-articular hip extensor (MD = 90 degrees, whereas PD = 53.4 +/- 6.4 degrees for gluteus maximus). Such misalignment between MD and PD indicates that the mono-articular muscle's activation level depends on the torque of the joint that it does not span. Practical implications of this observation for the motor control studies were discussed. We also demonstrated that the observed shift from the MD to the PD is plausible in the configuration of our musculo-skeletal system and that the experimental results are likely to be explained by the CNS process to minimize the variability of the endpoint force vector under the existence of signal-dependent noise. PMID:15647398

Nozaki, Daichi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

2005-05-01

402

Finger Muscle Attachments for an OpenSim Upper-Extremity Model.  

PubMed

We determined muscle attachment points for the index, middle, ring and little fingers in an OpenSim upper-extremity model. Attachment points were selected to match both experimentally measured locations and mechanical function (moment arms). Although experimental measurements of finger muscle attachments have been made, models differ from specimens in many respects such as bone segment ratio, joint kinematics and coordinate system. Likewise, moment arms are not available for all intrinsic finger muscles. Therefore, it was necessary to scale and translate muscle attachments from one experimental or model environment to another while preserving mechanical function. We used a two-step process. First, we estimated muscle function by calculating moment arms for all intrinsic and extrinsic muscles using the partial velocity method. Second, optimization using Simulated Annealing and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms found muscle-tendon paths that minimized root mean square (RMS) differences between experimental and modeled moment arms. The partial velo