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Sample records for upper stage engine

  1. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; Shigley, John K.; Dovey, Henry N.; Roberts, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Subscale Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage/Upper Stage Engine Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I upper stage is an integral part of the Constellation Program transportation system. The upper stage provides guidance, navigation and control (GN and C) for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I vehicle. The Saturn-derived J-2X upper stage engine will provide thrust and propulsive impulse for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I launch vehicle. Additionally, the upper stage is responsible for the avionics system of the the entire Ares I. This brief presentation highlights the requirements, design, progress and production of the upper stage. Additionally, test facilities to support J-2X development are discussed and an overview of the operational and manufacturing flows are provided. Building on the heritage of the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs, the Ares I Us and USE teams are utilizing extensive lessons learned to place NASA and the US into another era of space exploration. The NASA, Boeing and PWR teams are integrated and working together to make progress designing and building the Ares I upper stage to minimize cost, technical and schedule risks.

  4. J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

  5. Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

  6. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  7. The Malemute development program. [rocket upper stage engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolster, W. J.; Hoekstra, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Malemute vehicle systems are two-stage systems based on utilizing a new high performance upper stage motor with two existing military boosters. The Malmute development program is described relative to program structure, preliminary design, vehicle subsystems, and the Malemute motor. Two vehicle systems, the Nike-Malemute and Terrier-Malemute, were developed which are capable of transporting comparatively large diameter (16 in.) 200-lb payloads to altitudes of 500 and 700 km, respectively. These vehicles provide relatively low-cost transportation with two-stage reliability and launch simplicity. Flight tests of both vehicle systems revealed their performance capabilities, with the Terrier-Malemute system involving a unique Malemute motor spin sensitivity problem. It is suggested that the vehicles can be successfully flown by lowering the burnout spin rate.

  8. Cryogenic upper stage propulsion: RL10 and derivative engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities and characteristics of the RL10 rocket engine are examined. The engine model history is presented. The RL10 derivatives are also outlined. The presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  9. Centaur upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groesbeck, W.

    An account is given of the design features of the LOX/LH2-fueled Centaur upper stage engine and fuel cryotankage, in order to serve as a basis for understanding the Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) system instituted. MECO follows the instant of spacecraft separation from the upper stage. The planetary launch program during 1966-1978 involved 23 Centaur launches and led to no upper stage reentry; LEO missions for HEAO and OAO satellite lofting in 1963-1979 involved nine Centaur launches and led to five reentries. GEO satellite launches in 1969-1986 saw 32 launches and three known reentries.

  10. Development status of the Ariane 5 upper-stage AESTUS engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Langel, G.; Zewen, H.

    1993-06-01

    The paper presents the development status of the Ariane 5 upper-stage AESTUS 28 kN engine. Particular attention is given to the architecture and function of the AESTUS engine, its performance characteristics, operational characteristics, and stability characteristics. Results are presented on the sea-level and vacuum test, stability test, and environmental test.

  11. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

  12. Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

  13. Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

  14. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Heritage to Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, THomas

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Global Exploration Strategy requires safe, reliable, robust, efficient transportation to support sustainable operations from Earth to orbit and into the far reaches of the solar system. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to provide that transportation. Guiding principles in creating the architecture represented by the Ares vehicles were the maximum use of heritage hardware and legacy knowledge, particularly Space Shuttle assets, and commonality between the Ares vehicles where possible to streamline the hardware development approach and reduce programmatic, technical, and budget risks. The J-2X exemplifies those goals. It was selected by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) as the upper stage propulsion for the Ares I Upper Stage and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). The J-2X is an evolved version ofthe historic J-2 engine that successfully powered the second stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle and the second and third stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Constellation architecture, however, requires performance greater than its predecessor. The new architecture calls for larger payloads delivered to the Moon and demands greater loss of mission reliability and numerous other requirements associated with human rating that were not applied to the original J-2. As a result, the J-2X must operate at much higher temperatures, pressures, and flow rates than the heritage J-2, making it one of the highest performing gas generator cycle engines ever built, approaching the efficiency of more complex stage combustion engines. Development is focused on early risk mitigation, component and subassembly test, and engine system test. The development plans include testing engine components, including the subscale injector, main igniter, powerpack assembly (turbopumps, gas generator and associated ducting and structural mounts), full-scale gas generator, valves, and control software with hardware

  15. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design

  16. Current systems: Upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The United States orbital transfer vehicles are presented: PAM-D (Payload Assist Module); PAM-D2; IUS (Inertial Upper Stage); and TOS (Transfer Orbit Stage). This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  17. Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachary, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

  18. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  19. A 20k payload launch vehicle fast track development concept using an RD-180 engine and a Centaur upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toelle, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

  20. A 20k Payload Launch Vehicle Fast Track Development Concept Using an RD-180 Engine and a Centaur Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toelle, Ronald (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

  1. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  2. C/C and C/SiC Nozzle Extensions - A Breakthrough to Improve Upper and Lower Stage Engines Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, T.; /Lacombe, A.; Mercier, A.; Ferrey, A.

    2002-01-01

    The need to increase the payload capacity of the current launchers drives rocket engine manufacturers to seek higher thrust level, specific impulse and thrust to weight ratio. A particularly efficient way to do this is the use of increased expansion ratio nozzle extensions for upper stage engines, and using thermostructural composite materials in order to allow higher temperature material limitations and to decrease mass. The latter is applicable to both upper and lower stage engines. Up to the mid 90s, the use of composite nozzles has been limited to solid rocket nozzles, but recent developments led to flight qualification on liquid rocket engines, on the RL10-B2 engine of the DELTA III launcher. This engine is equipped with a large extendible Carbon/Carbon Novoltex Sepcarb nozzle developed by Snecma Propulsion Solide under a contract from Pratt &Whitney San Jose. This paper describes the technological background of Snecma Propulsion Solide concerning the design and manufacturing of large size composite nozzles for liquid rocket engines. It provides an up-to-date status of the demonstrations already performed on different engines (HM7, RL10-B2 in particular) and details all the recent progress on technical and manufacturing performance. The manufacturing process has also been improved and simplified in order to allow the manufacturing of larger scale nozzles, at lower cost. Finally, this paper evidences that this technology is today mature and is ready to be implemented on existing or future liquid rocket engines being developed.

  3. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper

  4. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

  5. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  6. Upper-stage space shuttle propulsion by means of separate scramjet and rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.; Allen, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary mission study of a reusable vehicle from staging to orbit indicates payload advantages for a dual-propulsion system consisting of separate scramjet and rocket engines. In the analysis the scramjet operated continuously and the initiation of rocket operation was varied. For a stage weight of 500,000 lb the payload was 10.4 percent of stage weight or 70 percent greater than that of a comparable all-rocket-powered stage. When compared with a reusable two-state rocket vehicle having 50,000 lb payload, the use of the dual propulsion system for the second stage resulted in significant decreases in lift-off weight and empty weight, indicating possible lower hardware costs.

  7. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  8. Ares I Upper Stage Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the elements that make up the Ares I launch vehicle, with particular attention devoted to the upper stage of the vehicle. The upper stage elememnts, a lunar mission profile, and the upper stage objectives are reviewed. The work that Marshall Space Flight Center is doing is highlighted: work on the full scale welding process, the vertical milling machining, and the thermal protection system.

  9. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  10. Ares I Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

  11. Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Thomas D.; Kynard, Michael .

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, reliable, affordable upper stage engine to power the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. The J-2X engine is being developed for that purpose, epitomizing NASA's philosophy of employing legacy knowledge, heritage hardware, and commonality to carry the next generation of explorers into low-Earth orbit and out into the solar system This presentation gives top-level details on accomplishments to date and discusses forward work necessary to bring the J-2X engine to the launch pad.

  12. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  13. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  14. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  15. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

  16. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution Available)

  17. ARES I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  18. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  19. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  20. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  1. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Orbital debris from upper-stage breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on the effects of launch vehicle upper-stage breakup on the orbital debris scenario discusses an analysis of the SPOT 1 Ariane third stage, the explosive fragmentation of orbiting propellant tanks, albedo estimates for debris, Ariane-related debris in deep-space orbit, and the relationship of hypervelocity impacts to upper-stage breakups. Also discussed are the prospects for and the economics of the future removal of orbital debris, collision probabilities in GEO, current operational practices for Delta second stage breakup prevention, breakup-precluding modifications to the Ariane third stage, and the safing of the H-1 second stage after spacecraft separation.

  4. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  5. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the manufacturing of aluminum panels that will be used to form the Ares I barrel. The panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  6. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davusm Daniel J.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system.

  7. Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

  8. STS spin-stabilized upper stage study (study 2.6). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Spinning solid propellant upper stage rocket engines designed for geosynchronous satellite payloads are investigated. Factors considered include: impact of the spinning stages on the payloads; applicability to 1981-1991 NASA mission model; and cost effectiveness.

  9. Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.; Coook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    The Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), a key component of NASA's blueprint for the next generation of spacecraft to take humans back to the moon, is being designed and built by engineers at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The vehicle s design is based on the results of NASA's 2005 Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which called for development of a crew-launch system to reduce the gap between Shuttle retirement and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Initial Operating Capability, identification of key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance these reference exploration systems, and a reprioritization of near- and far-term technology investments. The Upper Stage Element (USE) of the CLV is a clean-sheet approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115' long and 216" in diameter, consisting of the following subsystems: Primary Structures (LOX Tank, LH2 Tank, Intertank, Thrust Structure, Spacecraft Payload Adaptor, Interstage, Forward and Aft Skirts), Secondary Structures (Systems Tunnel), Avionics and Software, Main Propulsion System, Reaction Control System, Thrust Vector Control, Auxiliary Power Unit, and Hydraulic Systems. The ESAS originally recommended a CEV to be launched atop a four-segment Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) CLV, utilizing an RS-25 engine-powered upper stage. However, Agency decisions to utilize fewer CLV development steps to lunar missions, reduce the overall risk for the lunar program, and provide a more balanced engine production rate requirement prompted engineers to switch to a five-segment design with a single Saturn-derived J-2X engine. This approach provides for single upper stage engine development for the CLV and an Earth Departure Stage, single Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) development for the CLV and a Cargo Launch Vehicle, and single core SSME development. While the RSRB design has

  10. Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

  11. Staging or upper stage reignition for GEO missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, François

    2002-07-01

    Geostationary orbit will remain in the near and far future one of the most frequently used for several applications including, mainly, telecommunications. For the time being the GEO satcoms are injected by intermediate, heavy or super heavy class launch vehicles, LV, using quasi standard procedures: low altitude injection on a geostationary transfer orbit, ballistic phase of at least five and a half hour, followed by an apogee manoeuvre (or boost) to reach GEO. Apogee boost is most of the time provided by the propulsive system of the satellite, if this one uses liquid propellant in an integrated system performing final injection and house-keeping for the whole life (up to 15 years) of the satellite. The current launch vehicle features generally a cryogenic (LOX/LH2) or semi-cryogenic (LOX/Kerosene) upper stage having a better Isp than the Isp of the satellite propulsive system: The possibility to provide the apogee boost by the LV upper stage seems attractive. Another possibility is to put on the top of the upper stage an other small stage, or module having the function of kick-stage, as it was done earlier when solid propellant stages were used for this apogee manoeuvre. This presentation will describe the pros and cons of this various choices for single but also dual launches in GTO/GEO, and also will address future new injection scheme, providing new transportation services to satellites featuring advanced propulsive systems such as electric, plasmic or thermo-solar thrusters, requiring other transfer orbits like MEO, GTO+ and super GTO+.

  12. ARES I Upper Stage Subsystems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.; Senick, Paul F.; Tolbert, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    From 2005 through early 2011, NASA conducted concept definition, design, and development of the Ares I launch vehicle. The Ares I was conceived to serve as a crew launch vehicle for beyond-low-Earth-orbit human space exploration missions as part of the Constellation Program Architecture. The vehicle was configured with a single shuttle-derived solid rocket booster first stage and a new liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage, propelled by a single, newly developed J-2X engine. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was to be mated to the forward end of the Ares I upper stage through an interface with fairings and a payload adapter. The vehicle design passed a Preliminary Design Review in August 2008, and was nearing the Critical Design Review when efforts were concluded as a result of the Constellation Program s cancellation. At NASA Glenn Research Center, four subsystems were developed for the Ares I upper stage. These were thrust vector control (TVC) for the J-2X, electrical power system (EPS), purge and hazardous gas (P&HG), and development flight instrumentation (DFI). The teams working each of these subsystems achieved 80 percent or greater design completion and extensive development testing. These efforts were extremely successful representing state-of-the-art technology and hardware advances necessary to achieve Ares I reliability, safety, availability, and performance requirements. This paper documents the designs, development test activity, and results.

  13. Inertial Upper Stage navigation algorithms evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joldersma, T.; Winkel, D. J.; Goodstein, R.; Simmons, E. J., Jr.

    The Inertial Upper Stage is a Space Shuttle-deployed vehicle taking payloads from low earth orbit to geosynchronous and other orbits, and incorporates a redundant inertial measurement unit containing five gyros and five accelerometers in a strapped down, skewed orientation. The gyro and accelerometer outputs are provided to redundant, on board digital computers to conduct sensor motion compensation, failure detection and isolation, and navigation in an earth-centered inertial coordinate system. Two representations of the flight software algorithms are under evaluation in preparation for the first payload-carrying flight: a FORTRAN nonreal time version for a scientific computer, and a JOVIAL version compiled for the flight computer. Results to date on nominal and off-nominal simulation runs are meeting navigation algorithm error allocations and generating correct responses to sensor error simulations for the redundancy algorithms.

  14. Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

    1984-01-01

    Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

  15. Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test

  16. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element. The topics include: 1) What is NASA s Mission?; 2) NASA s Exploration Roadmap What is our time line?; 3) Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologies Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 4) Ares I Upper Stage; 5) Upper Stage Primary Products; 6) Ares I Upper Stage Development Approach; 7) What progress have we made?; 8) Upper Stage Subsystem Highlights; 9) Structural Testing; 10) Common Bulkhead Processing; 11) Stage Installation at Stennis Space Center; 12) Boeing Producibility Team; 13) Upper Stage Low Cost Strategy; 14) Ares I and V Production at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF); 15) Merged Manufacturing Flow; and 16) Manufacturing and Assembly Weld Tools.

  17. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2013-01-01

    DuPont(tm) Vespel(R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750degF during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

  18. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2013-01-01

    DuPont (TM) Vespel (R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750 F during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

  19. Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Campbell, D. Michael; Chase, Sukhdeep; Piquero, Jorge; Fortenberry, Cindy; Li, Xiaoyi; Grob, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

  20. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  1. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2006-05-09

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  2. Integrated solar upper stage alternate receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Streckert, H.H.; Begg, L.L.; Heffernan, T.F.; Horner, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) receiver is a compact orbital transfer vehicle designed to generate thrust to boost transfer payloads from low earth orbit to Molniya or geosynchronous orbits. It can provide thrust by collecting and concentrating solar flux and heating hydrogen to {approximately} 2,500 K. Simultaneously, the ISUS receiver radiates heat into an array of thermionic converters to produce electrical power. The central component consists of a graphite body with rhenium lined internal passages. The alternate receiver relies on wrought rhenium that is rolled, machined and electron-beam welded to form a complex rhenium liner system within the graphite body. All machining operations were performed by molybdenum wire electron discharge machining. The tube forming procedure was performed to minimize the amount of cold work before annealing. Electron-beam welding was performed at a current density range of {approximately} 2 to 10 A/cm{sup 2} depending on material thickness, which melts the rhenium locally and results in a fine grained weld zone. A simplified Demonstration Test Assembly was fabricated and tested. The unit consisted of an inlet structure welded to a manifold with a simplified exhaust nozzle system and contained in a machined graphite body. The external graphite surfaces were coated with plasma sprayed rhenium for protection from graphite erosion. Testing included a hot hydrogen flow test to {approximately} 2,500 K. The main ISUS Alternate Receiver was designed and built according to the same procedures as the demonstration unit. However, the inlet and outlet plenums are more complex and are connected by 195 channels to efficiently transfer heat to the flowing hydrogen. An outlet tube containing a sonic orifice mates to the exhaust plenum.

  3. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  4. New upper stage propulsion concept for future launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabro, Max; Talbot, Christophe

    2008-07-01

    A pressure-fed system is leading to a stage easy to operate, reliable, needing no costly solutions (expander engine, boost pumps). On the other hand, many R&D programs are going on all ceramic liquid engines, engines cooled by "effusion" (DLR), Transpiration (PTAH-SOCAR from MBDA), Film or Trim (Astrium, Snecma), so very light engine may be offered on the market in the close future. Operating to relatively low pressure the specific impulse is slightly lower than a conventional one with a turbomachine (expander type or other) and the structural index lightly less interesting: a concept with the LOX tank nested inside the fuel tank with a scrolling common bulkhead appears easily usable for LOX/methane stage due to the fact that the two propellants are liquids in the same range of temperature and may lead to an interesting mass saving. Even if such an upper stage may lead to a dramatic increase of the performance of a small launch vehicle such as Vega (replacement of Z9 and AVUM), the aim of this presentation is mainly to show the interest of special tools to make the very first evaluation of the interest of a new solution. The Inner Arch developed for the CNES DLA two softwares: One dedicated to solid propulsion projects: APSOL. One dedicated to liquid propulsion projects: ELIS. A third one, PERFOL, is used to optimize the trajectory and the propulsion parameters. The paper will describe the main software used for this study and illustrate the interest of the approach.

  5. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

  6. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares 1-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

  7. The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

  8. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

  9. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  10. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  11. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  12. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  13. United States upper stages for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, A.; Woods, F.

    United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970 s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G' was ultimately developed as the centaur upper stage for use with the Titan IV launch system. In the last two decades upper stage development decisions and requirements were driven by increased payload performance demands. As we look forward to the next decade it is apparent that the situation has changed. Significant effort is underway to downsize payloads. The best mission model projections indicate that the payload performance demands have reached a maximum with current or near-term missions, and that maximum weight requirements will generally decrease in the near future. Thus the current fleet of launch systems and upper stages are expected to be able to meet all projected performance requirements through the next one to two decades. The impetus for development of a new upper stage will have to come from somewhere other than increased performance requirements. A driving need for a new upper stage is emerging from the concept and technology development work currently underway in the U.S. on the evolved expendable vehicle (EELV) and reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The key EELV upper stage requirements are cost, operability and reliability. Clearly the EELV presents a performance challenge for a single upper stage to operate with a booster family over the complete mission model payload weight and destination range. The design requirements and trade-off considerations are quite different for a stage to operate with an RLV. In this case, manned safety and payload bay packaging become significant additional considerations which must be addressed, and reusability, with or without space basing, is an option. This paper covers the

  14. Expendable solid rocket motor upper stages for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.; Jones, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A family of expendable solid rocket motor upper stages has been conceptually defined to provide the payloads for the Space Shuttle with performance capability beyond the low earth operational range of the Shuttle Orbiter. In this concept-feasibility assessment, three new solid rocket motors of fixed impulse are defined for use with payloads requiring levels of higher energy. The conceptual design of these motors is constrained to limit thrusting loads into the payloads and to conserve payload bay length. These motors are combined in various vehicle configurations with stage components derived from other programs for the performance of a broad range of upper-stage missions from spin-stabilized, single-stage transfers to three-axis stabilized, multistage insertions. Estimated payload delivery performance and combined payload mission loading configurations are provided for the upper-stage configurations.

  15. Reusable Agena study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [space shuttle Agena upper stage tug concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The shuttle Agena upper stage interim tug concept is based on a building block approach. These building block concepts are extensions of existing ascent Agena configurations. Several current improvements, have been used in developing the shuttle/Agena upper stage concepts. High-density acid is used as the Agena upper stage oxidizer. The baffled injector is used in the main engine. The DF-224 is a fourth generation computer currently in development and will be flight proven in the near future. The Agena upper stage building block concept uses the current Agena as a baseline, adds an 8.5-inch (21.6 cm) extension to the fuel tank for optimum mixture ratio, uses monomethyl hydrazine as fuel, exchanges a 150:1 nozzle extension for the existing 45:1, exchanges an Autonetics DF-224 for the existing Honeywell computer, and adds a star sensor for guidance update. These modifications to the current Agena provide a 5-foot (1.52m) diameter shuttle/Agena upper stage that will fly all Vandenberg Air Force Base missions in the reusable mode without resorting to a kick motor. The delta V velocity of the Agena is increased by use of a strap-on propellant tank option. This option provides a shuttle/Agena upper stage with the capability to place almost 3900 pounds (1769 kg) into geosynchronous orbit (24 hour period) without the aid of kick motors.

  16. Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  18. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  19. Optimization, an Important Stage of Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2010-01-01

    A number of leaders in technology education have indicated that a major difference between the technological design process and the engineering design process is analysis and optimization. The analysis stage of the engineering design process is when mathematical models and scientific principles are employed to help the designer predict design…

  20. Ariane 5 ECA's upper stage perigee reduction via passivation manoeuvre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, David-Alexis; Masson, Frédéric; Corbin, Julien; Bonnal, Christophe

    2012-10-01

    When Ariane 5 ECA development has been decided by Europe to increase Ariane 5 performance, the rule of 25 years in GTO orbit for the upper stage has been anticipated. This was 14 years ago and this rule was known to be satisfied with a perigee lower than 250 km. Even when lowering slightly Ariane 5 ECA performance, this maximum perigee altitude has been held and the whole Launch System has been developed under CNES responsibility with this GTO perigee. In the meantime, more precise calculations demonstrated that such a GTO perigee was giving for the ESCA a mean lifetime higher than 25 years. So studies are in progress inside CNES to decrease the perigee and re-enter inside the 25 years lifetime domain. This paper presents a CNES study to reduce the orbital lifetime of Ariane 5's upper stage that last in GTO after each commercial mission. Usually the aimed orbit has a perigee altitude of 250 km, an apogee altitude near to the geostationary position and an inclination between 2° and 7°. These conditions make stage's mean lifetime superior to 90 years. The CNES study is to expose the possibility to decrease this lifetime by reducing the perigee altitude of the final upper stage orbit through a passivation process optimised to produce orbit modification. It is shown that taking into account material and functional stage constraints the optimised passivation process is able to decrease the perigee by a few tenths of kilometres.

  1. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  2. Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

  3. Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Ranking upper stages in low Earth orbit for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmo, L.; Pardini, C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of ranking the upper stages in orbit in order to evaluate their potential detrimental effects on the debris environment over the long-term, and the relative advantage of having them actively de-orbited. To do so, a new ranking scheme is introduced, applicable to any object in low Earth orbit (LEO) and able to prioritize the target objects potentially most critical for the future preservation of the LEO protected region. Applying the proposed approach, it was found, for instance, that the 22 most massive upper stages abandoned in LEO, at the beginning of 2015, are on the whole equivalent to several hundred average intact objects in sun-synchronous orbit, regarding their latent detrimental effects on the debris environment over the next 200 years. Most of them could therefore be the top priority targets of any worldwide coordinated effort for active removal and the prevention of new collisional debris. The ranking scheme was also applied to other main models of rocket bodies currently in orbit, trying to identify the combinations of orbital elements and upper stage types requiring particular attention.

  5. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-15

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

  6. Overview of the Main Propulsion System for the NASA Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jason E.; Swanson, Luke A.

    2009-01-01

    A functional overview of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage is provided. In addition to a simple overview of the key MPS functions and design philosophies, major lessons learned are discussed. The intent is to provide a technical overview with enough detail to allow engineers outside of the MPS Integrated Product Team (IPT) to develop a rough understanding of MPS operations, components, design philosophy, and lessons learned.

  7. Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark

    Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

  8. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  9. Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS): An affordable large lander system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotkin, J.; Masten, D.; Powers, J.; O'Konek, N.; Kutter, B.; Stopnitzky, B.

    The Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS) offers a path to reduce costs and development time to sustainable activity beyond LEO by equipping existing large cryogenic propulsion stages with MSS VTVL propulsion and GNC to create a large, multi-thrust axis lander. Conventional lander designs have been driven by the assumption that a single, highly reliable, and efficient propulsion system should conduct the entire descent, approach, and landing. Compromises in structural, propulsion, and operational efficiency result from this assumption. System reliability and safety also suffer. The result is often an iterative series of optimizations, making every subsystem mission-unique and expensive. The XEUS multi-thrust axis lander concept uniquely addresses the programmatic and technical challenges of large-mass planetary landing by taking advantage of proven technologies and decoupling the deorbit and descent propulsion system from the landing propulsion system. Precise control of distributed, multi-thrust axis landing propulsion units mounted on the horizontal axis of a Centaur stage will ultimately enable the affordable deployment of large planetary rovers, uncrewed base infrastructure and manned planetary expeditions. The XEUS lander has been designed to offer a significantly improved mass fraction and mass to surface capability over conventional lander designs, while reducing airlock/payload to surface distances and distributing plume effects by using multiple gimbaled landing thrusters. In utilizing a proven cryogenic propulsion stage, XEUS reduces development costs required for development of new cryogenic propulsion stages and fairings and builds upon the strong heritage of successful Centaur and MSS RLV flights.

  10. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, President Bush gave the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a vision for Space Exploration by setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. In response to this vision, NASA started the Constellation Program, which is a new exploration launch vehicle program. The primary mission for the Constellation Program is to carry out a series of human expeditions ranging from Low Earth Orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond for the purposes of conducting human exploration of space, as specified by the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). The intent is that the information and technology developed by this program will provide the foundation for broader exploration activities as our operational experience grows. The ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) has been designated as the launch vehicle that will be developed as a "first step" to facilitate the aforementioned human expeditions. The CLV Project is broken into four major elements: First Stage, Upper Stage Engine, Upper Stage (US), and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for the design of the CLV and has the prime responsibility to design the upper stage of the vehicle. The US is the second propulsive stage of the CLV and provides CEV insertion into low Earth orbit (LEO) after separation from the First Stage of the Crew Launch Vehicle. The fully integrated Upper Stage is a mix of modified existing heritage hardware (J-2X Engine) and new development (primary structure, subsystems, and avionics). The Upper Stage assembly is a structurally stabilized cylindrical structure, which is powered by a single J-2X engine which is developed as a separate Element of the CLV. The primary structure includes the load bearing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks, a Forward Skirt, the Intertank structure, the Aft Skirt and the Thrust Structure. A Systems Tunnel, which carries fluid and

  11. NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James

    2008-01-01

    The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

  12. Trade studies on Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, J.D.; Jacox, M.G.; Kennedy, F.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program at the USAF Phillips Laboratory is directed at demonstrating a solar bimodal power and propulsion system for military applications. Trades were performed to examine the potential performance of the ISUS stage combined with the proposed LLV-3 launch vehicle. Variation in ISUS thermal power directly affects the trip time from LEO to GEO. These variations can be altered by changing average propellant temperature raising or lowering the average specific impulse. If the ISUS system is sized for the spacecraft`s electrical power requirements, this can result in long trip times for high mass satellites with low electrical power requirements. The ISUS can be sized, however, for a suitable thermal power to allow more rapid trip times with minimum impact on delivered mass. Such a system can place significantly more payload in GEO than a solid chemical stage. The mass advantages of the ISUS increase as electrical power requirements increase, rising from 46% improvement at 0 kW(e) to 179% improvement at 3 kW(e).

  13. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  14. Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, J. P.

    The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's reliance on novel propulsion and avionics technology. Its two solid rocket motors, which were selected on the basis of their inherent safety for use on the Space Shuttle, have the longest burn time extant. A three-dimensional carbon/carbon nozzle throat had to be developed to sustain this long burn, as were lightweight composite wound cases and shirts, insulation, igniters, and electromechanical thrust vector control.

  15. The Critical Technologies and Applications on Advanced Upper Stage Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Feng; Wang, Guo-hui

    2016-07-01

    Upper Stage Vehicle(USV) is a kind of independent one-stop-into-space launching vehicles. In this article, different new-conception USVs are mentioned and out of them, on basis of the possibility in future application, laser propelling USV and nuclear-thermal propelling USV are selected and discussed in technical details, especially in critical technologies and recent relative technical improvements about new propelling methods within these two kinds. Furthermore, laser propelled USV and nuclear-thermal propelled USV both seem to have important roles to play in future space exploring projects. And several possible applications of the two kinds of USVs emphasized above are carried out at the end of this piece of article.

  16. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CABLE FROM THIS ENGINE LEADS DOWN INTO THE DEEP RAVINE IN FRONT OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL. IT WAS PROBABLY USED TO DRAG MATERIALS UP TOWARD THE TERMINAL WHEN THE TERMINAL WAS BEING CONSTRUCTED, OR IN TIMES OF TRAMWAY BREAKDOWN. THE DRIVE ENGINE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TWO LONG OPERATING LEVERS FOR THE ENGINE ARE IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. AN EXTRA SPOOL OF CABLE IS ON THE GROUND TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. A WATER PIPELINE STRETCHES ACROSS THE SLOPE IN THE BACKGROUND, CARRYING WATER TO THE UPPER MINES. SEE CA-291-37 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CABLE FROM THIS ENGINE LEADS DOWN INTO THE DEEP RAVINE IN FRONT OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL. IT WAS PROBABLY USED TO DRAG MATERIALS UP TOWARD THE TERMINAL WHEN THE TERMINAL WAS BEING CONSTRUCTED, OR IN TIMES OF TRAMWAY BREAK DOWN. THE DRIVE ENGINE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TWO LONG OPERATING LEVERS FOR THE ENGINE ARE IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. AN EXTRA SPOOL OF CABLE IS ON THE GROUND TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. A WATER PIPELINE STRETCHES ACROSS THE SLOPE IN THE BACKGROUND, CARRYING WATER TO THE UPPER MINES. SEE CA-291-52 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Small upper stage - An orbit enabling hydrazine propulsion stage for the small satellite community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitan, Thane

    1992-03-01

    The small upper stage (SUS) study aimed at creating a generic, low-cost propulsion stage design capable of being integrated to different launch vehicles (LVs) and providing a mission with an orbit transfer function to a variety of different small satellite missions is presented. The preliminary SUS design was developed taking into account the SUS specification requirements. The SUS design makes it possible to provide small satellites with several orbit transfer maneuvers from a LEO parking orbit, including Hohmann transfer, circularization, plane change, and deorbit. The propulsion system design encompasses a single delta V thruster, a single hydrazine propellant tank, and a pressurized nitrogen gas storage system. It is concluded that with the SUS generic design, the software and fuel loads are tailorable to enable a variety of different missions in a cost-effective manner. The SUS will eliminate the need for a custom propulsion stage for future small satellite missions.

  20. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  1. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  2. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

  4. Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, J.B.; Cotta, R.B.; Matuszak, L.W.; Perkins, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400{percent}) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH{sub 2}/LO{sub 2}, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5{endash}10{percent}) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15{percent} lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5{percent} of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30{percent} greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5{endash}10{percent} higher stage performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Waterhammer Testing and Modeling of the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. Hunter; Holt, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Ares I rocket is the agency's first step in completing the goals of the Constellation Program, which plans to deliver a new generation of space explorers into low earth orbit for future missions to the International Space Station, the moon, and other destinations within the solar system. Ares I is a two-stage rocket topped by the Orion crew capsule and its service module. The launch vehicle's First Stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), derived from the Space Shuttle Program's four segment RSRB. The vehicle's Upper Stage, being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is propelled by a single J-2X Main Engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During active Upper Stage flight of the Ares I launch vehicle, the Upper Stage Reaction Control System (US ReCS) will perform attitude control operations for the vehicle. The US ReCS will provide three-axis attitude control capability (roll, pitch, and yaw) for the Upper Stage while the J-2X is not firing and roll control capability while the engine is firing. Because of the requirements imposed upon the system, the design must accommodate rapid pulsing of multiple thrusters simultaneously to maintain attitude control. In support of these design activities and in preparation for Critical Design Review, analytical models of the US ReCS propellant feed system have been developed using the Thermal Hydraulic Library of MSC.EASY5 v.2008, herein referred to as EASY5. EASY5 is a commercially available fluid system modeling package with significant history of modeling space propulsion systems. In Fall 2009, a series of development tests were conducted at MSFC on a cold-flow test article for the US ReCS, herein referred to as System Development Test Article (SDTA). A subset of those tests performed were aimed at examining the effects of waterhammer on a flight-representative system and to ensure that those effects could be quantified with analytical models and incorporated into

  6. Shuttle program standard maneuver sequences for orbiter/upper-stage separation SSUS-A, SSUS-D, and IUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Descriptions of standard post-ejection maneuver sequences for the deployment of IUS, SSUS-A, and SSUS-D upper stages from the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The sequences were designed to satisfy requirements for limiting the damage inflicted on the orbiter by upper-stage exhaust particles, subject to a further requirement for minimizing the impingement of orbiter thruster plumes on the deployed payload. In all cases it was assumed that the orbital maneuvering system engines would be used to apply the orbiter's major separation velocity increment.

  7. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

  8. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  9. F-1 Engine Installation to S-IC Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Engineers and technicians at the Marshall Space Flight Center were installing an F-I engine on the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage thrust structure in building 4705. The S-IC (first) stage used five F-1 engines that produced a total thrust of 7,500,000 pounds as each engine produced 1,500,000 pounds of thrust. The S-IC stage lifted the Saturn V vehicle and Apollo spacecraft from the launch pad.

  10. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overall description of the avionics and software functions of the Ares I Upper Stage Crew Launch Vehicle. The contents include: 1) IUA Team - Development Approach Roadmap; 2) Ares I US Avionics and Software Development Approach; 3) NDT Responsibilities; 4) Ares I Upper Stage Avionics Locations; 5) Ares I Overall Avionics & Software Functions; 6) Block Diagram Version of Avionics Architecture; 7) Instrument Unit Avionics Preliminary Design; and 8) Upper Stage Avionics External Interfaces.

  11. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Charles L.; Blue, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Building on the heritage of the Saturn and Space Shuttle Programs for the Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT and E) of avionics and software for NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the Ares I Upper Stage Element is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. The Upper Stage Element's Avionics Subsystem is actively proceeding toward its objective of delivering a flight-certified Upper Stage Avionics System for the Ares I CLV.

  12. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing and Analytical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for solar thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.

  13. ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhls, A.

    2002-01-01

    -A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the

  14. Laboratory experiment on boundaries of upper stage plane bed regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrostlík, Štěpán; Matoušek, Václav

    2016-04-01

    Results are discussed of laboratory experiments on criteria determining the transition between the regime of dunes and the upper stage plane bed (UPB) regime and the transition between the UPB regime and the regime of wavy flow. The experiments were carried for 3 fractions of plastic material and two fractions of glass beads in a broad range of flow conditions (different discharges of water and solids and longitudinal bed slopes) in a tilting flume. The experiments reveal that, contrary to expectations, a constant value of the Shields parameter is not an appropriate criterion for the transition between the dune regime and the UPB regime. Furthermore, the transition appears to be insensitive to the total discharge of solids and water. Instead, the criterion seems to be well represented by a constant value of the average transport concentration of sediment (the ratio of volumetric discharge of solids and volumetric discharge of mixture). The experimental results exhibit a very tight correlation between the transport concentration and the longitudinal bed slope. Hence, a constant value of the bed slope can be considered an appropriate criterion for the transition. The transition between the UPB regime and the wavy regime (significant waves develop but they are not always standing waves) is found at a constant value of Froude number, which is in agreement with literature, although it is found at a higher value than the literature usually suggests (Fr = 1.2 instead of 1.0). Hence, the transition occurs in the super-critical flow but it is not necessarily associated with the critical flow.

  15. Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

    1975-01-01

    Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

  16. Upper crankshaft bearing lubrication system for two-cycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenfeld, P.W.; Broughton, G.L.; Calamia, D.C.; Macier, J.E.

    1986-07-15

    A two-cycle internal combustion engine is described including a crankcase, a cylinder extending from the crankcase, a piston mounted in the cylinder for reciprocative movement to alternatively create high and low pressure conditions in the crankcase, an induction passage for introducing a fuel-lubricant-air mixture into the crankcase and including a low pressure zone, a crankshaft having an axis which is generally vertical when the engine is in a normal operating position, upper and lower bearings rotatably supporting the crankshaft in the crankcase, a sump in the crankcase adjacent the crankshaft and in which engine fuel drains collect.

  17. IUS/SPINSIM - INERTIAL UPPER STAGE SPIN STAGE SIX DEGREE OF FREEDOM SIMULATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    IUS/SPINSIM was written to evaluate a proposed spinning third stage for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Jupiter Mission. The third stage of the IUS was not to have altitude control during the solid motor burn for this mission. IUS was to be spun up about its principle thrust axis in the desired attitude prior to ignition of its solid motor. IUS/SPINSIM can also be used to evaluate the performance of other spinning stages that utilize a fixed burn motor. IUS/SPINSIM is a Six-Degree-of-Freedom simulation for exo-atmospheric flight of an IUS. It assumes the stage is released in orbit at or near its desired inertial attitude, and is spinning slowly. The code models three phases: a coast phase in which further spin-up may occur, a burn stage during which a solid rocket motor (SRM) burn injects the space craft into a transfer trajectory, and a final coast phase. IUS/SPINSIM takes into account the effects of the following: a reaction control system (RCS) spinning the vehicle; SRM thrust buildup, decay, and misalignment; changing mass, center of gravity, principle moments of inertia, cross products of inertia, time derivatives of inertia; jet damping moments; and an oblate gravity model. Numerical integration of the equations of motion using a Runge-Kutta fourth order integrator and small step sizes is used to track the vehicle's position, velocity, attitude and spin rates. Instead of using Euler angles or the Direction Cosine Matrix, Quarternions are used to model the attitude and spinning of the vehicle. This eliminates the renormalization difficulties associated with either of the other methods. Program input is taken from a file, and output is to a print file and a data file suitable for use in plotting. The IUS/SPINSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 9track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This

  18. Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

  19. Effect of gimbal friction modelling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

  20. Effect of Gimbal friction modeling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper-stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

  1. Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  2. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion system concepts. SSME upper stage use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeland, Eric; Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The main objective was to determine viable methods for starting the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in an altitude environment and restarting it in an orbit environment with minimum changes in utilization of the engine system or hardware. The study concluded that the use of the SSME in an upper stage is feasible with minimal changes to the engine systems. The altitude start case requires only a change in the valve sequencing during start and reorificing of the ASI lines. Inlet pressures can be moderately low at 40 psia for the LOX and 32 psia for the H2. The orbital restart case adds the need to recirculate propellant and thermal control paint (to keep the turbomachinery inlets cold to minimize the tank pressures needed), and the need to heat two small components (to maintain acceptable mixture ratios during the early part of the start). These actions allow start anytime after approximately 120 minutes. Earlier starts (approximately one hour) are also possible but would require additional component heating for mixture ratio control during the early portion of the start sequence.

  3. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  4. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agency-wide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  5. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Reaction Control System (ReCS) Cold Flow Development Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervan, Melanie; Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Sivak, Amy; Morris, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Ares I launch vehicle, consisting of a five segment solid rocket booster first stage and a liquid bi-propellant J2-X engine Upper Stage, is the vehicle that s been chosen to launch the Orion Crew Module, which will return humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. After First Stage booster separation, the Reaction Control System (ReCS), a monopropellant hydrazine system, will provide the Upper Stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. This paper provides an overview of the system level development testing that has taken place on the Ares I launch vehicle Upper Stage ReCS. The ReCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) was built as a flight representative water flow test article whose primary test objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate the integrate system performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Water is the industry standard for cold flow testing of hydrazine systems, because the densities are very close and the speeds of sound are well characterized. The completion of this development level test program was considered necessary to support the ReCS Critical Design Review. This paper will address the design approach taken in building the test article, the objectives of the test program, types of testing completed, general results, the ability of the program to meet the test objectives, and lessons learned

  6. Next generation: Unmanned launch vehicles and upper stages: The needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The focus is on common vehicle elements, higher mission success, and lower transportation cost with respect to the common needs of the Department of Defense, NASA, and U.S. Industry. The following are presented in viewgraph form: (1) perspectives on mission costs and failures; (2) the recurring costs of the Delta 7925, Atlas/Centar, Titan 3, and Titan 4; (3) U.S. launches from 1957-1987 of Vanguard, Jupiter, Thor/Delta, Juno, Atlas, Scout, Redstone, Saturn, Titan, and the Space Transportation System; and (4) subsystem sources of failure. The following topics are also briefly presented: (1) engine costs; (2) a summary of flight experience; (3) recommendations for next generation space transportation; (4) low cost engine demonstration; and (5) the next generation commercial expendable launch vehicle (ELV) needs estimate.

  7. Ares I Upper Stage Pressure Tests in Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry 1/2% model is undergoing pressure measurements inside the wind tunnel testing facility at MSFC. (Highest resolution available)

  8. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

  9. Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage engine of unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM CHEST FOR LOW PRESSURE STAGE ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM CHEST FOR LOW PRESSURE STAGE ENGINE OF UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  11. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. D.; Otto, J. M.; Cody, J. C.; Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Gautney, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cryogenic propellant is an essential element in future space exploration programs. Therefore, NASA and its industrial partners are committed to an advanced development/technology program that will broaden the experience base for the entire cryogenic fluid management community. Furthermore, the high cost of microgravity experiments has motivated NASA to establish government/aerospace industry teams to aggressively explore combinations of ground testing and analytical modeling to the greatest extent possible, thereby benefitting both industry and government entities. One such team consisting of ManTech SRS, Inc., Edwards Air Force Base, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was formed to pursue a technology project designed to demonstrate technology readiness for an SRS liquid hydrogen (LH2) in-space propellant management concept. The subject testing was cooperatively performed June 21-30, 2000, through a partially reimbursable Space Act Agreement between SRS, MSFC, and the Air Force Research Laboratory. The joint statement of work used to guide the technical activity is presented in appendix A. The key elements of the SRS concept consisted of an LH2 storage and supply system that used all of the vented H2 for solar engine thrusting, accommodated pressure control without a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), and minimized or eliminated the need for a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD). The strategy was to balance the LH2 storage tank pressure control requirements with the engine thrusting requirements to selectively provide either liquid or vapor H2 at a controlled rate to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity environment of space operations. The overall test objective was to verify that the proposed concept could enable simultaneous control of LH2 tank pressure and feed system flow to the thruster without necessitating a TVS and a capillary LAD. The primary program objectives were designed to demonstrate technology readiness of the SRS concept

  12. Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton

  13. Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

    2003-01-01

    Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

  14. Preburner of Staged Combustion Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    A regeneratively cooled LOX/hydrogen staged combustion assembly system with a 400:1 expansion area ratio nozzle utilizing an 89,000 Newton (20,000 pound) thrust regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and 175:1 tubular nozzle was analyzed, assembled, and tested. The components for this assembly include two spark/torch oxygen-hydrogen igniters, two servo-controlled LOX valves, a preburner injector, a preburner combustor, a main propellant injector, a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber, a regeneratively cooled tubular nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 175:1, an uncooled heavy-wall steel nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 400:1, and interconnecting ducting. The analytical effort was performed to optimize the thermal and structural characteristics of each of the new components and the ducting, and to reverify the capabilities of the previously fabricated components. The testing effort provided a demonstration of the preburner/combustor chamber operation, chamber combustion efficiency and stability, and chamber and nozzle heat transfer.

  15. Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  16. NASA Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA s Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115 long and 216" in diameter. While the Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system.

  17. Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

  18. Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchett, Bradley T.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

  19. Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the ARES I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

    2010-09-01

    This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items(SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and / or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage(US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

  20. Robotic Planetary Science Missions Enabled with Small NTR Engine/Stage Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-01-01

    The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a

  1. Robotic planetary science missions enabled with small NTR engine/stage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-10-01

    The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a

  2. Utilization of solid-propellant upper stages in STS payload orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to discuss techniques of trajectory design, maneuver execution, and stage loading that are compatible with the use of SRM's (solid rocket motors) which, once ignited, must burn to propellant depletion. It is anticipated that some shuttle payloads will use non-IUS (interim upper stage) solid propellant kick stages; therefore this subject is also pertinent to shuttle flights other than those involving the use of the IUS. The SRM utilization techniques can be divided into two major categories: (1) those in which the stage performance is adjusted to match the velocity increment magnitude requirements of a preselected trajectory, and (2) those in which the trajectory is designed to match the velocity increment magnitude capability of the stage(s).

  3. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design.

  4. Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

  5. Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification / Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittweger, A.; Beuchel, W.; Eckhardt, K.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested to validate the mathematical model of the launcher. Additionally, transfer functions were measured for Pogo investigations. Validated mathematical launcher models are the basis to predict the launcher global responses in the low frequency domain with sufficient confidence. The predicted global axial and lateral responses for selected sections at the stage represent the flight loads for these sections. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. The verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro shock) a stage separation test was performed. All the equipment was qualified separately for its dynamic (sine, random and shock excitation) and thermal environment to proof its structural and functional integrity. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine-vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electrodynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 150 Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experiences which were made - the comparison

  6. Design and test of a small two stage counter-rotating turbine for rocket engine application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, F. W.; Branstrom, B. R.; Finke, A. K.; Johnson, P. D.; Rowey, R. J.; Veres, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for application in an advanced upper stage rocket engine turbopump. This engine will employ an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low flow rates result in very small airfoil diameter, height and chord. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The unconventional approach employed to meet this challenge is described, along with the detailed design process and resulting airfoil configurations. The method and results of full scale aerodynamic performance evaluation testing of both one and two stage configurations, as well as operation without the secondary stage stator are presented. The overall results of this effort illustrate that advanced aerodynamic design tools and hardware fabrication techniques have provided improved capability to produce small high performance turbines for advanced rocket engines.

  7. Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2009-01-01

    In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

  8. Infusing Training into the Documentation and Culture of Ares I Upper Stage Design and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2009-01-01

    In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 2) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can grow their own training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, and 3) possibilities for interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff.

  9. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  10. Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

  11. Characterization of the 2012-044C Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, J.; Horstman, M.; Papanyan, V.

    2013-01-01

    On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to use specialized radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

  12. Characterization of the 2012-044c Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, Joseph; Papanyan, Valen

    2013-01-01

    On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to request radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

  13. Upper stage in-flight retargeting to enhance geosynchronous satellite operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Otto W. K.

    1990-01-01

    Real time utilization of propellant reserves that are not needed is available with the implementation of the in-flight retargeting capability for the Centaur Upper Stage. Application to a performance critical, geosynchronous mission is discussed. The operational duration of the satellite may be increased by selectively choosing the appropriate final orbit injection conditions. During ascent Centaur evaluates the amount of propellant excess available and adjusts the final orbit target to consume the excess. Typical satellite mission requirements are introduced to illustrate the mission analysis process to determine the pre-flight nominal target and the in-flight retarget function.

  14. Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

  15. A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Benefits of the integrated solar upper stage (ISUS) to commercial space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, John; Miles, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar thermal system that provides both propulsion and electric power. Using hydrogen as the propellant, ISUS can provide average specific impulses between 750 and 800 seconds. Once in final orbit, the stage uses thermionic diodes to produce electricity for the satellite payload throughout its operating lifetime. Because of its high specific impulse, ISUS can increase the total mass delivered to GEO by any launch vehicle by up to 250%. ISUS can provide benefits to commercial system in lower orbits as well. These orbits are particularly demanding on battery system because of the short orbit periods and the resulting number of battery cycles. Thermal storage in the ISUS receiver can accommodate these cycles without increasing system mass. ISUS also provide more efficient propulsion for station keeping and for separation of satellites when multiple satellites are launched for a single launch vehicle.

  17. Lifetime Estimation of the Upper Stage of GSAT-14 in Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Jeyakodi David, Jim Fletcher; Sharma, Ram Krishan

    2014-01-01

    The combination of atmospheric drag and lunar and solar perturbations in addition to Earth's oblateness influences the orbital lifetime of an upper stage in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). These high eccentric orbits undergo fluctuations in both perturbations and velocity and are very sensitive to the initial conditions. The main objective of this paper is to predict the reentry time of the upper stage of the Indian geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle, GSLV-D5, which inserted the satellite GSAT-14 into a GTO on January 05, 2014, with mean perigee and apogee altitudes of 170 km and 35975 km. Four intervals of near linear variation of the mean apogee altitude observed were used in predicting the orbital lifetime. For these four intervals, optimal values of the initial osculating eccentricity and ballistic coefficient for matching the mean apogee altitudes were estimated with the response surface methodology using a genetic algorithm. It was found that the orbital lifetime from these four time spans was between 144 and 148 days. PMID:27437491

  18. Lifetime Estimation of the Upper Stage of GSAT-14 in Geostationary Transfer Orbit.

    PubMed

    Jeyakodi David, Jim Fletcher; Sharma, Ram Krishan

    2014-01-01

    The combination of atmospheric drag and lunar and solar perturbations in addition to Earth's oblateness influences the orbital lifetime of an upper stage in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). These high eccentric orbits undergo fluctuations in both perturbations and velocity and are very sensitive to the initial conditions. The main objective of this paper is to predict the reentry time of the upper stage of the Indian geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle, GSLV-D5, which inserted the satellite GSAT-14 into a GTO on January 05, 2014, with mean perigee and apogee altitudes of 170 km and 35975 km. Four intervals of near linear variation of the mean apogee altitude observed were used in predicting the orbital lifetime. For these four intervals, optimal values of the initial osculating eccentricity and ballistic coefficient for matching the mean apogee altitudes were estimated with the response surface methodology using a genetic algorithm. It was found that the orbital lifetime from these four time spans was between 144 and 148 days. PMID:27437491

  19. Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Bland, Robert J.

    2009-12-15

    An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

  20. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  1. Dinoflagellates: Fossil motile-stage tests from the upper cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

  2. Composite engines for application to a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendot, J. G.; Brown, P. N.; Piercy, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    Seven composite engines were designed for application to a reusable single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The engine designs were variations of the supercharged ejector ramjet engine. The resulting performance, weight, and drawings of each engine form a data base for establishing a potential of this class of composite engine to various missions, including the single-stage-to-orbit application. The impact of advanced technology in the design of the critical fan turbine was established.

  3. Installation of the F-1 Engine to the Saturn V S-IC Stage for Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center install the F-1 engines on the S-IC stage thrust structure at the S-IC static test stand. Engines are installed on the stage after it has been placed in the test stand. This image shows a close-up of an F-1 engine. Five F-1 engines, each weighing 10 tons, gave the booster a total thrust of 7,500,000 pounds, roughly equivalent to 160 million horsepower.

  4. Art concept of Magellan spacecraft and inertial upper stage (IUS) deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Magellan spacecraft mounted on inertial upper stage drifts above Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, after its deployment during mission STS-30 in this artist concept. Solar panels are deployed and in OV-104's open payload bay (PLB) the airborne support equipment (ASE) is visible. Both spacecraft are orbiting the Earth. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit when it is closest to the surface. Using an advanced instrument called a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it will map more than 90 per cent of the surface with resolution ten times better than the best from prior spacecraft. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta Aerospace is developing the spacecraft and Hughes Aircraft Company, the advanced imaging radar.

  5. Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

  6. Flight test results of the inertial upper stage redundant inertial measurement unit redundancy management technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, R.; Tse, B. K.; Winkel, D. J.; Halliday, C.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicles have been deployed once from a Titan T-34D booster and once from Space Shuttle Challenger to carry spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. Telemetry data have been analyzed showing the performance of the failure detection and isolation scheme for the redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU). On the T-34D flight, no built-in test failure events occurred and no failure detection thresholds were exceeded for as long as telemetry was available. On the Space Shuttle flight, considerable failure detection activity took place during which the RIMU indicated continuous proper navigation functioning until gyro maximum rates were exceeded. Adjustments to the algorithm and additional pre-flight tests should reduce the undesired activity while preserving performance on subsequent flights.

  7. Experimental approach on the pyrotechnical shock reduction of Ariane-5 upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribarri, I.; Tejero, P.; Rivaillon, B.; Laviron, B.

    1991-10-01

    The separation of the upper stage of the Ariane 5 launcher is to be achieved by means of a Pyrotechnical Expansive Tube (PET) installed in the Vehicle Equipment Bay (VEB) structure. When the pyrotechnical device is activated, severe shock levels are transmitted to the structural components and electronic equipment located near the separation section. These shock inputs could affect the operational performances of the above mentioned components during and after separation. An experimental research project to verify that VEB equipment will not be damaged, to achieve a deeper knowledge of the nature and consequences of the event, and to improve existing theoretical models, was undertaken. A specification was identified for the equipment platform, and a campaign of technological tests were started in order to select a damping material and its layout to obtain the highest shock reduction without compromising the VEB structural integrity and stiffness.

  8. A palynological biozonation for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Five palynological biozones are proposed for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, these highest-occurrence interval zones are the Osculapollis vestibulus (Ov) Biozone, the Holkopollenites propinquus (Hp) Biozone, the Holkopollenites forix (Hf) Biozone, the Complexiopollis abditus (Ca) Biozone, and the Osculapollis aequalis (Oa) Biozone. These biozones are based on an analysis of more than 400 subsurface and outcrop samples throughout the Coastal Plain Province of South Carolina, and the adjacent states of Georgia and North Carolina. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithostratigraphy and geophysical log data suggests that the lower and upper boundaries of each biozone are bounded by regional unconformities. Five new species are described, and an emendation is presented for one additional species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  10. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

  11. Active Space Debris Removal using European Modified Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Equipped with Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Ali S.; Emanuelli, Matteo; Raval, Siddharth; Turconi, Andrea; Becker, Cristoph

    2013-08-01

    During the past few years, several research programs have assessed the current state and future evolution of the Low Earth Orbit region. These studies indicate that space debris density could reach a critical level such that there will be a continuous increase in the number of debris objects, primarily driven by debris-debris collision activity known as the Kessler effect. This cascade effect can be even more significant when intact objects as dismissed rocket bodies are involved in the collision. The majority of the studies until now have highlighted the urgency for active debris removal in the next years. An Active Debris Removal System (ADRS) is a system capable of approaching the debris object through a close-range rendezvous, establishing physical connection, stabilizing its attitude and finally de-orbiting the debris object using a type of propulsion system in a controlled manoeuvre. In its previous work, this group showed that a modified Fregat (Soyuz FG's 4th stage) or Breeze-M upper stage (Proton-M) launched from Plesetsk (Russian Federation) and equipped with an electro-dynamic tether (EDT) system can be used, after an opportune inclination's change, to de-orbit a Kosmos-3M second stage rocket body while also delivering an acceptable payload to orbit. In this paper, we continue our work on the aforementioned concept, presented at the 2012 Beijing Space Sustainability Conference, by comparing its performance to ADR missions using only chemical propulsion from the upper stage for the far approach and the de-orbiting phase. We will also update the EDT model used in our previous work and highlight some of the methods for creating physical contact with the object. Moreover, we will assess this concept also with European launch vehicles (Vega and Soyuz 2-1A) to remove space debris from space. In addition, the paper will cover some economic aspects, like the cost for the launches' operator in term of payload mass' loss at the launch. The entire debris removal

  12. Modeling and Simulation of the ARES UPPER STAGE Transportation, Lifting, Stacking and Mating Operations Within the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kromis, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the modeling and simulation of the Ares Upper Stage Transportation, lifting, stacking, and mating operations within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An aerial view of KSC Launch Shuttle Complex, two views of the Delmia process control layout, and an upper stage move subroutine and breakdown are shown. An overhead image of the VAB and the turning basin along with the Pegasus barge at the turning basin are also shown. This viewgraph presentation also shows the actual design and the removal of the mid-section spring tensioners, the removal of the AFT rear and forward tensioners tie downs, and removing the AFT hold down post and mount. US leaving the Pegasus Barge, the upper stage arriving at transfer aisle, upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle, and an overhead view of upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle are depicted. Five views of the actual connection of the cabling to the upper stage aft lifting hardware are shown. The upper stage transporter forward connector, two views of the rotation horizontal to vertical, the disconnection of the rear bolt ring cabling, the lowering of the upper stage to the inspection stand, disconnection of the rear bolt ring from the upper stage, the lifting of the upper stage and inspection of AFT fange, and the transfer of upper stage in an integrated stack are shown. Six views of the mating of the upper stage to the first stage are depicted. The preparation, inspection, and removal of the forward dome are shown. The upper stage mated on the integrated stack and crawler is also shown. This presentation concludes with A Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) utilizing male and female models for assessing risk factors to the upper extremities of human beings in an actual physical environment.

  13. Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otte, Neil E.; Lyles, Garry; Reuter, James L.; Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. The technical personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo-era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. The Ares Projects Office, resident at Marshall, is managing the design and development of America's new space fleet, including the Ares I, which will loft the Orion crew capsule for its first test flight in the 2013 timeframe, as well as the heavy-lift Ares V, which will round out the capability to leave low-Earth orbit once again, when it delivers the Altair lunar lander to orbit late next decade. This paper provides information about the approach to integrating the Ares I stack and designing the upper stage in house, using unique facilities and an expert workforce to revitalize the nation

  14. Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

  15. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

  16. Seal Joint Analysis and Design for the Ares-I Upper Stage LOX Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The sealing capability of the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank-to-sump joint is assessed by analyzing the deflections of the joint components. Analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models and the ABAQUS commercial finite element software. For the pressure loads and feedline interface loads, the analyses employ a mixed factor of safety approach to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirements. Naflex pressure-assisted seals are considered first because they have been used successfully in similar seal joints in the Space Shuttle External Tank. For the baseline sump seal joint configuration with a Naflex seal, the predicted joint opening greatly exceeds the seal design specification. Three redesign options of the joint that maintain the use of a Naflex seal are studied. The joint openings for the redesigned seal joints show improvement over the baseline configuration; however, these joint openings still exceed the seal design specification. RACO pressure-assisted seals are considered next because they are known to also be used on the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the joint opening allowable is much larger than the specification for the Naflex seals. The finite element models for the RACO seal analyses are created by modifying the models that were used for the Naflex seal analyses. The analyses show that the RACO seal may provide sufficient sealing capability for the sump seal joint. The results provide reasonable data to recommend the design change and plan a testing program to determine the capability of RACO seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank sump seal joint.

  17. Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. CONCLUSION: Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT. PMID:25320538

  18. Status of NASA aircraft engine emission reduction and upper atmosphere measurement programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced emission reduction techniques for five existing aircraft gas turbine engines are evaluated. Progress made toward meeting the 1979 EPA standards in rig tests of combustors for the five engines is reported. Results of fundamental combustion studies suggest the possibility of a new generation of jet engine combustor technology that would reduce oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions far below levels currently demonstrated in the engine-related programs. The Global Air Sampling Program (GAS) is now in full operation and is providing data on constituent measurements of ozone and other minor upper-atmosphere species related to aircraft emissions.

  19. Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high

  20. Genomic Biomarkers for the Prediction of Stage and Prognosis of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sfakianos, John P.; Zabor, Emily C.; Bochner, Bernard H.; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Solit, David B.; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Iyer, Gopa; Scott, Sasinya N.; Shah, Ronak; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Lee, Byron; Desai, Neil B.; Ren, Qinghu; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Dalbagni, Guido; Bajorin, Dean F.; Reuter, Victor E.; Berger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Genomic characterization of radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) specimens in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) may allow for thoughtful integration of systemic and targeted therapies. We sought to determine if genomic alterations in UTUC are associated with adverse pathologic and clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods Next-generation exon capture sequencing of 300 cancer-associated genes was performed in 83 patients with UTUC. Genomic alterations were assessed individually and also grouped into core signal transduction pathways or canonical cell functions for association with clinicopathologic outcomes. Binary outcomes, including grade (high vs. low), T stage (pTa/T1/T2 vs. pT3/T4), and organ-confined status (≤pT2 and N0/Nx vs. >pT2 or N+) were assessed with Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Associations between alterations and survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. Results Of the 24 most commonly altered genes within 9 pathways, TP53/MDM2 alterations and FGFR3 mutations were the only two alterations uniformly associated with high-grade, advanced stage, non-organ-confined disease, recurrence-free survival, and cancer-specific survival. TP53/MDM2 alterations were associated with adverse clinicopathologic outcomes whereas FGFR3 mutations were associated with favorable outcomes. We created a risk score using TP53/MDM2 and FGFR3 status that was able to discriminate between adverse pathologic and clinical outcomes, including in the subset of patients with high-grade disease. The study is limited by small numbers and lack of validation. Conclusions Our data indicate that specific genomic alterations in RNU specimens correlate with tumor grade, stage, and cancer-specific survival outcomes. PMID:26778714

  1. 28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

  3. Installation of the F-1 Engine to the Saturn V S-IC Stage for Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center install the F-1 engines on the S-IC stage thrust structure at the S-IC static test stand. Engines are installed on the stage after it has been placed in the test stand. Five F-1 engines, each weighing 10 tons, gave the booster a total thrust of 7,500,000 pounds, roughly equivalent to 160 million horsepower.

  4. KAP@FREGAT - A Carrier for New Technology In -Orbit Demonstration using FREGAT Upper Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, C.; Pfeuffer, H.; Pont, G.; Smirnow, A.; Ishin, S.

    2008-08-01

    The success of the Kayser-Threde test satellite MAQSAT-B2 on Ariane L521 in February 2005 (2nd Ariane 5 ECA qualification flight) and its instrument platform equipped with experiments, sensors and an autonomous telemetry system has led to the development of a new autonomous experiment platform called KAP. KAP stands for Kayser-Threde Auxiliary Platform carrier and is a direct spin-off product out of Kayser-Threde Ariane 5 post projects and experience. The main idea is to use the available remaining payload capacity of the launcher to provide a flexible and low- cost test facility for scientific experiments and In-Orbit Demonstration of new technologies remaining attached to the launcher upper stage. KAP is a fully autonomous kit providing the complete necessary infrastructure (power, data acquisition and telemetry) to minimize constraints and interactions with the launch vehicle, increasing significantly the possibility for regular flight opportunities. Two different mission scenarios are foreseen. One with KAP only working during the launch phase itself, referred to as Short Mission (SM), the other as Medium Mission (MM), to be switched on after upper stage passivation for up to 7 days in orbit. Different accommodations for KAP are foreseen in order to ease its integration on various launchers including Ariane 5, SOYUZ and Vega. KAP can either be mounted on an additional load-carrying raising cylinder located underneath the launcher payload adaptor (MFD type), or integrated on a platform for auxiliary payloads (ASAP-5 type). The technical concept for both mechanical and electrical subsystems for space segment and ground support equipment is mainly based on existing and space qualified technologies from the successful MAQSAT-B2 project and Kayser-Threde's sounding rocket programme TEXUS/MAXUS. In particular, the data acquisition and telemetry unit as back bone of the KAP experimental payload infrastructure, is a direct adaptation from these programmes to the

  5. Operations analysis (study 2.1). Contingency analysis. [of failure modes anticipated during space shuttle upper stage planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Future operational concepts for the space transportation system were studied in terms of space shuttle upper stage failure contingencies possible during deployment, retrieval, or space servicing of automated satellite programs. Problems anticipated during mission planning were isolated using a modified 'fault tree' technique, normally used in safety analyses. A comprehensive space servicing hazard analysis is presented which classifies possible failure modes under the catagories of catastrophic collision, failure to rendezvous and dock, servicing failure, and failure to undock. The failure contingencies defined are to be taken into account during design of the upper stage.

  6. Performance of the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility During Altitude Firing Tests of the Delta 3 Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Dickens, Kevin W.; Skaff, Tony F.; Cmar, Mark D.; VanMeter, Matthew J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station was reactivated in order to conduct flight simulation ground tests of the Delta 3 cryogenic upper stage. The tests were a cooperative effort between The Boeing Company, Pratt and Whitney, and NASA. They included demonstration of tanking and detanking of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and helium pressurant gas as well as 12 engine firings simulating first, second, and third burns at altitude conditions. A key to the success of these tests was the performance of the primary facility systems and their interfaces with the vehicle. These systems included the structural support of the vehicle, propellant supplies, data acquisition, facility control systems, and the altitude exhaust system. While the facility connections to the vehicle umbilical panel simulated the performance of the launch pad systems, additional purge and electrical connections were also required which were unique to ground testing of the vehicle. The altitude exhaust system permitted an approximate simulation of the boost-phase pressure profile by rapidly pumping the test chamber from 13 psia to 0.5 psia as well as maintaining altitude conditions during extended steady-state firings. The performance of the steam driven ejector exhaust system has been correlated with variations in cooling water temperature during these tests. This correlation and comparisons to limited data available from Centaur tests conducted in the facility from 1969-1971 provided insight into optimizing the operation of the exhaust system for future tests. Overall, the facility proved to be robust and flexible for vehicle space simulation engine firings and enabled all test objectives to be successfully completed within the planned schedule.

  7. Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry; Otte, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    transportation system for missions to the International Space Station in the next decade and to explore the Moon and establish an outpost around the 2020 timeframe.4 Based on this extensive study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle configuration and the heavy-lift Ares V cargo launch vehicle (fig 1). This paper will give an overview of NASA's approach to integrating the Ares I vehicle stack using capabilities and assets that are resident in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, working in partnership with other NASA Centers and the U.S. aerospace industry. It also will provide top-level details on the progress of the in-house design of the Ares I vehicle's upper stage element.

  8. The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Henderson, C.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Shen, S.; Cao, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base-Changhsingian Stage is defined at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Clarkina wangi within the lineage from C. longicuspidata to C. wangi at a point 88 cm above the base of the Changxing Limestone in the lower part of Bed 4 (base of 4a-2) at Meishan D section, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, South China. This level is consistent with the first appearance of Changhsingian index fusulinid Palaeofusulina sinensis and tapashanitid ammonoids. The speciation event from Clarkina longicuspidata to C. wangi occurs just above the flooding surface of the second parasequence in the Changxing Limestone. In addition, the boundary interval is clearly recognizable by the depletion of isotopic carbon ratios and the normal polarity zone appearing above the Late Wuchiapingian reversed polarity zone. Section C, about 300 m to the west of Section D, exposes more of the upper Longtan Formation. It clearly shows the transitional nature of deposition across the Longtan/Changxing formational boundary, and thus is described as a supplementary reference section.

  9. Thunderstorms and upper troposphere chemistry during the early stages of the 2006 North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Lee, J.; Hodzic, A.; Pfister, G.; Skamarock, W. C.; Worden, J.; Wong, J.; Noone, D.

    2012-11-01

    To study the meteorology and chemistry that is associated with the early stages of the North American Monsoon, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied for the first time at high resolution (4 km grid spacing, allowing for explicit representation of convection) over a large region (continental US and northern Mexico) for a multi-week (15 July to 7 August 2006) integration. Evaluation of model results shows that WRF-Chem reasonably represents the large-scale meteorology and strong convective storms, but tends to overestimate weak convection. In the upper troposphere, the WRF-Chem model predicts ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) to within 10-20% of aircraft and sonde measurements. Comparison of UT O3 and CO frequency distributions between WRF-Chem and satellite data indicates that WRF-Chem is lofting CO too frequently from the boundary layer (BL). This excessive lofting should also cause biases in the WRF-Chem ozone frequency distribution; however it agrees well with satellite data suggesting that either the chemical production of O3 in the model is overpredicted or there is too much stratosphere to troposphere transport in the model. Analysis of different geographic regions (West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Central Plains, Midwest, and Gulf Coast) reveals that much of the convective transport occurs in the Rocky Mountains, while much of the UT ozone chemical production occurs over the Gulf Coast and Midwest regions where both CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are abundant in the upper troposphere and promote the production of peroxy radicals. In all regions most of the ozone chemical production occurs within 24 h of the air being lofted from the boundary layer. In addition, analysis of the anticyclone and adjacent air indicates that ozone mixing ratios within the anticyclone region associated with the North American Monsoon and just outside the anticyclone are similar. Increases of O3 within the anticyclone are

  10. Thunderstorms and upper troposphere chemistry during the early stages of the 2006 North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Lee, J.; Hodzic, A.; Pfister, G.; Skamarock, W. C.; Worden, J.; Wong, J.; Noone, D.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied at 4 km horizontal grid spacing to study the meteorology and chemistry over the continental US and Northern Mexico region for the 15 July to 7 August 2006 period, which coincides with the early stages of the North American Monsoon. Evaluation of model results shows that WRF-Chem reasonably represents the large-scale meteorology and strong convective storms, but tends to overestimate weak convection. In the upper troposphere, the WRF-Chem model predicts ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) to within 10-20% of aircraft and sonde measurements. However, the frequency distribution from satellite data indicates that WRF-Chem is lofting too much CO from the boundary layer (BL). Because ozone mixing ratios agree well with these same satellite data, it suggests that chemical production of O3 in the model is overpredicted and compensates for the excess convective lofting of BL air. Analysis of different geographic regions (West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Central Plains, Midwest, and Gulf Coast) reveals that much of the convective transport occurs in the Rocky Mountains, while much of the UT ozone chemical production occurs over the Gulf Coast and Midwest regions where both CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are abundant in the upper troposphere and promote the production of peroxy radicals. In all regions most of the ozone chemical production occurs within 24 h of the air being lofted from the boundary layer. In addition, analysis of the anticyclone and adjacent air indicates that ozone mixing ratios within the anticyclone region associated with the North American Monsoon and just outside the anticyclone are similar. Increases of O3 within the anticyclone are strongly coincident with entrainment of stratospheric air into the anticyclone, but also are from in situ O3 chemical production. In situ O3 production is up to 17% greater within the anticyclone than just outside the

  11. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Jan W. A.; Schreurs, Wendy M. J.; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Vogel, Wouter V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. Methods FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. Results The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly. PMID:27556809

  12. The biomechanics of upper extremity kinematic and kinetic modeling: applications to rehabilitation engineering.

    PubMed

    Slavens, Brooke A; Harris, Gerald F

    2008-01-01

    Human motion analysis has evolved from the lower extremity to the upper extremity. Rehabilitation engineering is reliant upon three-dimensional biome-chanical models for a thorough understanding of upper body motions and forces in order to improve treatment methods, rehabilitation strategies and to prevent injury. Due to the complex nature of upper body movements, a standard biomechanical model does not exist. This paper reviews several kinematic and kinetic rehabilitation engineering models from the literature. These models may capture a single joint; multijoints such as the shoulder, elbow and wrist; or a combination of joints and an ambulatory aid, which serves as the extension of the upper arm. With advances in software and hardware, new models continuously arise due to the clinical questions at hand. When designing a biomechanical upper extremity model, several key components must be determined. These include deciding on the anatomic segments of the model, the number of markers and placement on bony landmarks, the definition of joint coordinate systems, and the description of the joint motions. It is critical to apply the proper model to further our understanding of pathologic populations. PMID:19740069

  13. Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid

  14. Multiple output power supply circuit for an ion engine with shared upper inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardwell, Jr., Gilbert I. (Inventor); Phelps, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A power supply circuit for an ion engine suitable for a spacecraft is coupled to a bus having a bus input and a bus return. The power supply circuit has a first primary winding of a first transformer. An upper inverter circuit is coupled to the bus input and the first primary winding. The power supply circuit further includes a first lower inverter circuit coupled to the bus return and the first primary winding. The second primary winding of a second transformer is coupled to the upper inverter circuit. A second lower inverter circuit is coupled to the bus return and the second primary winding.

  15. Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale hybrid upper surface blown flap model having four engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carros, R. J.; Boissevain, A. G.; Aoyagi, K.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented from an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of large-scale wind tunnel aircraft model that utilized a hybrid-upper surface blown flap to augment lift. The hybrid concept of this investigation used a portion of the turbofan exhaust air for blowing over the trailing edge flap to provide boundary layer control. The model, tested in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel, had a 27.5 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 8 and 4 turbofan engines mounted on the upper surface of the wing. The lift of the model was augmented by turbofan exhaust impingement on the wind upper-surface and flap system. Results were obtained for three flap deflections, for some variation of engine nozzle configuration and for jet thrust coefficients from 0 to 3.0. Six-component longitudinal and lateral data are presented with four engine operation and with the critical engine out. In addition, a limited number of cross-plots of the data are presented. All of the tests were made with a downwash rake installed instead of a horizontal tail. Some of these downwash data are also presented.

  17. Lessons learned from the dynamic identification/qualification tests on the ESC-A upper stage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittweger, Andreas; Beuchel, Werner; Andersen, Martin G.; Albus, Jochen

    2005-12-01

    The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modeling approach made at the beginning of the development. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. For the low frequency domain the verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro-shock) a stage separation test was performed. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electro-dynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 100÷150Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach of how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experience accomplished.

  18. Initial staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. What is the place of bronchoscopy and upper GI endoscopy?

    PubMed

    Page, Cyril; Lucas-Gourdet, Emily; Biet-Hornstein, Aurélie; Strunski, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    To determine the place of bronchoscopy and upper GI endoscopy in the initial staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A 10-year retrospective study was conducted on a series of 838 patients. As part of initial staging of the tumor, all patients were examined by neck and chest CT scan, 487 patients were examined by bronchoscopy and 588 patients were examined by upper GI endoscopy. Esophageal cancer was detected in 4.25 % of cases and lung cancer in 6.35 % of cases. Chest CT scan was statistically superior to bronchoscopy to detect second lung cancers (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, oral cancers (p = 0.009) and multiple (synchronous) HNSCC (p = 0.009) were associated with the presence of a second lung cancer. Systematic bronchoscopy (performed by a pulmonologist) might not to be indicated for initial staging of HNSCC, particularly in the presence of normal chest CT scan. In case of abnormal Chest CT scan, patients should be referred to a pulmonologist. However, as oral cancers and multiple (synchronous) HNSCCs were statistically associated with the presence of a second lung cancer in this study, bronchoscopy might be indicated in these cases in order to detect rare small proximal bronchic lesions which might be invisible on chest CT scan in these patients at risk. More, systematic upper GI endoscopy (performed by a gastroenterologist) for initial staging of HNSCC might also not to be indicated in a majority of cases. PMID:24682611

  19. Rocketdyne - J-2 Saturn V 2nd and 3rd Stage Engine. Chapter 2, Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The J-2 engine was unique in many respects. Technology was not nearly as well-developed in oxygen/hydrogen engines at the start of the J-2 project. As a result, it experienced a number of "teething" problems. It was used in two stages on the Saturn V vehicle in the Apollo Program, as well as on the later Skylab and Apollo/Soyuz programs. In the Apollo Program, it was used on the S-II stage, which was the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle. There were five J-2 engines at the back end of the S-II Stage. In the S-IV-B stage, it was a single engine, but that single engine had to restart. The Apollo mission called for the entire vehicle to reach orbital velocity in low Earth orbit after the first firing of the Saturn-IV-B stage and, subsequently, to fire a second time to go on to the moon. The engine had to be man-rated (worthy of transporting humans). It had to have a high thrust rate and performance associated with oxygen/hydrogen engines, although there were some compromises there. It had to gimbal for thrust vector control. It was an open-cycle gas generator engine delivering up to 230,000 pounds of thrust.

  20. Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2014-01-01

    An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were

  1. Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit Via Shuttle_Centaur G Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2015-01-01

    An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982 to 1986 joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-United States Air Force (USAF) Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37 deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57 deg inclined orbit: 9,545 versus 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a 1 hr window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer versus 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three versus two burn transfer (12 vs. 1-1/4 hr), but could be

  2. Engine tests on a cooled gas turbine stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, H. J.

    1985-09-01

    A new cooling system was designed for the 45 MW gas turbine type 8. Extensive tests were carried out in a new power station to verify the reliability of the cooled components. Wall temperatures were measured using thermocouples, thermal paints and pyrometers. Cooling air temperature, pressure and mass flow measurements allowed a detailed analysis of the first stage under operating conditions. The results and comparisons with design calculations are presented. The applicability and accuracy of the three measuring techniques are discussed.

  3. Upper Ovetian trilobites from Spain and their implications for the palaeobiogeography and correlation of the Cambrian Stage 3 in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liñán, Eladio; Gámez Vintaned, José Antonio; Pillola, Gian Luigi; Gozalo, Rodolfo

    2016-06-01

    The upper part of the La Herrería Formation in Los Barrios de Luna (León Province, N Spain) has been revised from a palaeontological and biostratigraphical point of view. Two stratigraphic sections have been studied including their trilobite and ichnofossils contents. The ichnofossil assemblages have a high diversity of species characterising the Cruziana ichnofacies, suggesting a shallow sublittoral environment for the upper part of the La Herrería Formation. The trilobites species recognised are Lunagraulos antiquus, Dolerolenus formosus, Dolerolenus longioculatus, Lunolenus lunae, Metadoxides richterorum, Metadoxides armatus and Sardaspis? sp. from the upper Ovetian (lower Cambrian Stage 3 under discussion by the ISCS). The new trilobite assemblages make possible a good correlation between the lower Cambrian formations of North Spain, Sardinia, South China and Siberia. Analysis of the palaeobiogeographical meaning of all trilobite genera that have been identified in the upper Ovetian of Spain shows a strong connection between the northern peri-Gondwana margin and west Gondwana, with a low latitude distribution for the Spanish trilobites at this time.

  4. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  5. The Upper Bound on Solar Power Conversion Efficiency Through Photonic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yunlu; Munday, Jeremy

    The power conversion efficiency is a key parameter by which different photovoltaic devices are compared. The maximum value can be calculated under steady-state conditions where the photon flux absorbed by the device equals the outgoing flux of particles (also known as the principle of detailed balance). The photonic engineering of a solar cell offers a new alternative for boosting efficiency. We show that, for an ideally photonic engineered solar cell, its efficiency is subject to an upper bound dictated by a generalized form of detailed balance equation where nano-concentration is taken into account. Results under realistic operating conditions and recent experimental studies will also be discussed. Authors acknowledge the University of Maryland for startup funds to initiate this project and support by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1335857.

  6. Large Scale Testing of a Foam/Multilayer Insulation Thermal Control System (TCS) for Cryogenic Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Leon; Martin, James

    1998-01-01

    The development of high energy cryogenic upper stages is essential for the efficient delivery of large payloads to various destinations envisioned in future programs. A key element in such upper stages is cryogenic fluid management (CFM) advanced development/technology. Due to the cost of and limited opportunities for orbital experiments, ground testing must be employed to the fullest extent possible. Therefore, a system level test bed termed the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is representative in size and shape (3 meter diameter by 3 meter long with a volume of 18 cubic meters) of a fully integrated space transportation vehicle liquid hydrogen propellant tank has been established. To date, upper stage studies have often baselined the foam/multilayer insulation (FMLI) combination concept; however, hardware experience with the concept is minimal and was therefore selected for the MHTB. The foam element (isofoam SS-1 171 with an average thickness of 3.5 centimeters) is designed to protect against ground hold/ascent flight environments, and allows for the use of a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required with MLI in cryogenic applications. The MLI (45 layers of Double Aluminized Mylar with Dacron spacers) provides protection in the vacuum environment of space and is designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Several unique features were incorporated in the MLI concept and included: variable density MLI (reduces weight and radiation losses by changing the layer density), larger but fewer DAM perforations for venting during ascent to orbit (reduces radiation losses), and roll wrap installation of the MLI with a commercially established process to lower assembly man-hours and reduce seam heat leak. Thermal performance testing of the MHTB TCS was conducted during three test series conducted between September 1995 and May 1996. Results for the ground hold portion of the tests were as expected

  7. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints. PMID:26849879

  8. The dynamics of a gas-dust cloud expansion in the upper atmosphere at a shutdown of solid-propellant rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaishvili, S. Sh.; Platov, Yu. V.; Chernouss, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    The velocity of spherical gas-dust cloud expansion in the situation when the stages of solid-propellant rocket separate in the upper atmosphere have been determined. The measured velocity vary from 2.5 to 7.5 km/s. The dispersed component accelerates at the front of a shock that develops at engine-thrust shutdown. The model calculations of the gas-dust cloud luminosity intensity qualitatively coincide with the photometric profiles of object images. Such formations can vary from almost homogeneous ball-shaped clouds to rather thin spherical shells depending on the gas-dust cloud mass and the matter distribution within this cloud.

  9. Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

    2010-01-01

    NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

  10. Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a

  11. Shotgun injury to the arm: a staged protocol for upper limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Nikica, Darabos; Marijan, Cesarec; Denis, Grgurovic; Zeljko, Rutic; Anela, Darabos; Egol, Kenneth

    2010-03-01

    Low-energy shotgun fractures involving the arm are complex injuries. Previously published reports have emphasized various problems associated with these injuries. This case report describes a low-energy shotgun wound managed by a staged treatment protocol involving: (1) a spanning external fixator and immediate soft tissue management, followed by (2) osteosynthesis and autogenous bone grafting and (3) epineural suturing of injured radial nerve, with a successful outcome. Although adequate debridement of the fracture and soft tissue wound is the key to open fracture management, some difference of opinion exists with regard to the timing of bone reconstruction and grafting. In severe type III open fractures, or in wounds that are marginal, it may be best to delay cancellous bone grafting until soft tissue has stabilized following acute trauma when the risk of infection has been minimized. If early coverage of vital structures is not possible, local or remote flap coverage may be necessary. PMID:20358713

  12. F-1 engines of Apollo/Saturn V first stage leave trail of flame after liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The five F-1 engines of the Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle's first (S-IC) stage leaves a trail of flame in the sky after liftoff. The launch of the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission occurred on April 4, 1968. These views of the Apollo 6 launch were taken from a chase plane.

  13. Separation dynamics of the COMET FreeFlyer and an upper stage STAR-48V motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Kevin M.; Myers, Carter H.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, the orbital separation between a STAR-48V upperstage motor and the COMET FreeFlyer is investigated. The time from nominal STAR-48 engine burnout is to be determined such that the STAR-48 will not collide with the FreeFlyer once the separation process has been initiated. To analyze this separation, the forces acting upon both the FreeFlyer and the STAR-48 are described in a body fixed coordinate system. These coordinates are then transformed into an Euler coordinate system and then further transformed into a relative inertial coordinate system. From this analysis and some basic assumptions about the Star-48/FreeFlyer vehicle, it can be concluded that the STAR-48 will not collide with the Free Flyer if the separation occurs at 120 seconds after nominal burnout of the STAR-48. In fact, the separation delay could be a shorter period of time, but it is recommended that this separation delay be as long as possible for risk mitigation. This delay is currently designed to be 120 seconds and the analysis presented in this report shows that this time is acceptable.

  14. An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

  15. Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

  16. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg (Abraham); Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 seconds - a 100% increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's AES program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the "Lead Fuel" option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary DDT&E plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by GRC, DOE and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 klbf thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a "common" fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 klbf "criticality-limited" engine produces approximately 157 megawatts of thermal power (MWt) and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by LANL at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 MWt and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35 inch (approximately 89 cm) long FE, the SNRE's larger diameter core contains approximately 300 more FEs needed to produce an additional 210 MWt of power. To reduce the cost of the FTD mission, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered to reduce the LH2 propellant loading, the stage size and complexity. Use of existing and

  17. Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

  18. Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, D.; Rothermel, J.; Griffin, L.; Thornton, R.; Forbes, J.; Skelley, S.; Huber, F.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the motivation for the study, the numerical method used, the numerical simulations of the vaneless diffuser and vaned diffuser. It also reviews the conclusions from the study

  19. Advanced Development Program for a 625 lbf thrust engine for Ares First Stage Roll Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Matt; Chenevert, Blake; Brewster, Gerry; Frei, Tom; Bullard, Brad; Fuller, Ray

    2009-01-01

    NASA's new Ares Launch Vehicle will require twelve thrusters to provide roll control of the vehicle during the first stage firing. All twelve roll control thrusters will be located at the inter-stage segment that separates the solid rocket booster first stage from the second stage. NASA selected a mono propellant hydrazine solution and as a result awarded Aerojet-General a contract in 2007 for an advanced development program for an MR-80- series 625 Ibf vacuum thrust monopropellant hydrazine thruster. This thruster has heritage dating back to the 1976 Viking Landers and most recently for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory. Prior to the Ares application, the MR-80-series thrusters had been equipped with throttle valves and not typically operated in pulse mode. The primary objective of the advanced development program was to increase the technology readiness level and retire major technical risks for the future flight qualification test program. Aerojet built on their heritage MR-80 rocket engine designs to achieve the design and performance requirements. Significant improvements to cost and lead-time were achieved by applying Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) principles. AerojetGeneral has completed Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews, followed by two successful rocket engine development test programs. The test programs included qualification random vibration and firing lite that significantly exceed the flight qualification requirements. This paper discusses the advanced development program and the demonstrated capability of the MR-80C engine. Y;

  20. First Saturn V S-IC Stage Five F-1 Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    This photograph depicts a dramatic view of the first test firing of all five F-1 engines for the Saturn V S-IC stage at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The testing lasted a full duration of 6.5 seconds. It also marked the first test performed in the new S-IC static test stand and the first test using the new control blockhouse. The S-IC stage is the first stage, or booster, of a 364-foot long rocket that ultimately took astronauts to the Moon. Operating at maximum power, all five of the engines produced 7,500,000 pounds of thrust. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the up position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. When the Saturn V S-IC first stage was placed upright in the stand , the five F-1 engine nozzles pointed downward on a 1,900 ton, water-cooled deflector. To prevent melting damage, water was sprayed through small holes in the deflector at the rate 320,000 gallons per minute.

  1. Multi-stage selective catalytic reduction of NOx in lean burn engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1997-12-31

    Many studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. Some effort has been devoted to separating the oxidative and reductive functions of the catalyst in a multi-stage system. This method works fine for systems that require hydrocarbon addition. The hydrocarbon has to be injected between the NO oxidation catalyst and the NO{sub 2} reduction catalyst; otherwise, the first-stage oxidation catalyst will also oxidize the hydrocarbon and decrease its effectiveness as a reductant. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is appropriate for diesel engine exhausts since they contain insufficient hydrocarbons for SCR, and the hydrocarbons can be added at the desired location. For lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts, the hydrocarbons already present in the exhausts will make it necessary to find an oxidation catalyst that can oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} but not oxidize the hydrocarbon. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. Plasma oxidation has several advantages over catalytic oxidation. Plasma-assisted catalysis can work well for both diesel engine and lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts. This is because the plasma can oxidize NO in the presence of hydrocarbons without degrading the effectiveness of the hydrocarbon as a reductant for SCR. In the plasma, the hydrocarbon enhances the oxidation of NO, minimizes the electrical energy requirement, and prevents the oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This paper discusses the use of multi-stage systems for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is compared to the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme.

  2. Rocketdyne - F-1 Saturn V First Stage Engine. Chapter 1, Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggs, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Before I go into the history of F-1, I want to discuss the F-1 engine s role in putting man on the moon. The F-1 engine was used in a cluster of five on the first stage, and that was the only power during the first stage. It took the Apollo launch vehicle, which was 363 feet tall and weighed six million pounds, and threw it downrange fifty miles, threw it up to forty miles of altitude, at Mach 7. It took two and one-half minutes to do that and, in the process, burned four and one-half million pounds of propellant, a pretty sizable task. (See Slide 2, Appendix C) My history goes back to the same year I started working at Rocketdyne. That s where the F-1 had its beginning, back early in 1957. In 1957, there was no space program. Rocketdyne was busy working overtime and extra days designing, developing, and producing rocket engines for weapons of mass destruction, not for scientific reasons. The Air Force contracted Rocketdyne to study how to make a rocket engine that had a million pounds of thrust. The highest thing going at the time had 150,000 pounds of thrust. Rocketdyne s thought was the new engine might be needed for a ballistic missile, not that it was going to go on a moon shot.

  3. Lean-rich axial stage combustion in a can-annular gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Laster, Walter R.; Szedlacsek, Peter

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus and method for lean/rich combustion in a gas turbine engine (10), which includes a combustor (12), a transition (14) and a combustor extender (16) that is positioned between the combustor (12) and the transition (14) to connect the combustor (12) to the transition (14). Openings (18) are formed along an outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16). The gas turbine (10) also includes a fuel manifold (28) to extend along the outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16), with fuel nozzles (30) to align with the respective openings (18). A method (200) for axial stage combustion in the gas turbine engine (10) is also presented.

  4. Free-flight wind-tunnel investigation of a four-engine sweptwing upper-surface blown transport configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlett, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic stability and control characteristics of a four-engine turbofan transport model having an upper-surface blown jet flap were investigated by means of the free-flight technique in the Langley full-scale tunnel. The flight characteristics of the model were investigated through a range of lift coefficients from 3 to 8 with all four engines operating and with one outboard engine not operating. Static characteristics were investigated by conventional power-on force tests over the flight-test angle-of-attack range and through the stall.

  5. Free-flight wind tunnel investigation of a four-engine sweptwing upper-surface blown transport configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlett, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    The dynamic stability characteristics of a four-engine turbofan transport model having an upper-surface blown-jet flap have been investigated by means of the free-flight technique in the Langley full-scale tunnel. The flight characteristics of the model were investigated through a range of lift coefficients from 3 to 8 with all four engines operating and with one outboard engine not operating. Static characteristics were investigated by conventional power-on force tests over the flight-test angle-of-attack range and through the stall.

  6. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  7. Analytical study of thermal barrier coated first-stage blades in an F100 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andress, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    Heat transfer and stress analyses were performed on two sections of a thermal barrier coated (TBC) F100 1st-stage turbine blade. Results of the analyses indicate that the TBC on the leading edges of both sections experience the highest elastic strain ranges and these occur during transient engine operation. Further study is recommended to determine the effects of plastic deformation (creep) and creep-fatigue interaction on coating life.

  8. Investigation of low NOx staged combustor concept in high-speed civil transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee; Bittker, David A.; Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    Levels of exhaust emissions due to high temperatures in the main combustor of high-speed civil transport (HSCT) engines during supersonic cruise are predicted. These predictions are based on a new combustor design approach: a rich burn/quick quench/lean burn combustor. A two-stage stirred reactor model is used to calculate the combustion efficiency and exhaust emissions of this novel combustor. A propane-air chemical kinetics model is used to simulate the fuel-rich combustion of jet fuel. Predicted engine exhaust emissions are compared with available experimental test data. The effect of HSCT engine operating conditions on the levels of exhaust emissions is also presented. The work described in this paper is a part of the NASA Lewis Research Center High-Speed Civil Transport Low NO(x) Combustor program.

  9. Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

  10. Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

  11. Dual-stage growth factor release within 3D protein-engineered hydrogel niches promotes adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Teasley, Eric S.; Heilshorn, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered biomimetic microenvironments from hydrogels are an emerging strategy to achieve lineage-specific differentiation in vitro. In addition to recapitulating critical matrix cues found in the native three-dimensional (3D) niche, the hydrogel can also be designed to deliver soluble factors that are present within the native inductive microenvironment. We demonstrate a versatile materials approach for the dual-stage delivery of multiple soluble factors within a 3D hydrogel to induce adipogenesis. We use a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) embedded with alginate microgels to deliver two pro-adipogenic soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) with two distinct delivery profiles. We show that dual-stage delivery of FGF-1 and BMP-4 to human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) significantly increases lipid accumulation compared with the simultaneous delivery of both growth factors together. Furthermore, dual-stage growth factor delivery within a 3D hydrogel resulted in substantially more lipid accumulation compared to identical delivery profiles in 2D cultures. Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest that dual-stage release of FGF-1 and BMP-4 within 3D microenvironments can promote the in vitro development of mature adipocytes. PMID:25309741

  12. A multi-stage, multi-response Bayesian methodology for surrogate modeling in engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, David A.

    To design products, designers often need models of the system behavior as a function of a set of input (or design) variables; these models allow designers to learn about the influence of different design variables on the system's performance. In practice, however, system models are either unavailable or expensive to evaluate and thus unsuited for systematic use in preliminary design. Creation of surrogate models, or metamodels, of system behavior is a common approach that has been proposed to circumvent these problems. In this work in engineering design based on computer experiments with multiple performance criteria, we propose the creation of multi-response metamodels to model several metrics of system behavior jointly, instead of modeling each individually. In particular, we develop the Multi-stage, Multi-Response Bayesian Surrogate Models (MMRBSM) methodology, a flexible, multi-stage framework that allows for modeling the correlation among different response variables for their simultaneous prediction, while also enabling the integration of different sources of information about the response values into a single, global model of the system's responses. In this thesis, the mathematical formulation of MMRBSM metamodels is developed, including the required multi-stage, multi-response covariance functions and multi-response adaptive sampling techniques. The proposed metamodeling framework is tested, first with commonly-used, analytical test functions and then in the engineering design of an electronic device based on multiple performance metrics. Results indicate that the proposed MMRBSM outperforms individual metamodels, though the relative performance depends on the sample size, the sampling method and the true correlation among the observed response values. Results also indicate that the proposed multi-stage formulation enables the incorporation of expert knowledge into the multi-response metamodels, leading to order-of-magnitude improvements in the predictive

  13. Assessment of a multi-stage underwater vehicle concept using a fossil-fuel Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Stirling Engine because of its inherent closed-cycle operation can be readily modified to work in an airless environment even if the primary source of energy is a fossil fuel. Thus, Stirling engines are well suited for use in the underwater environment and have been operated successfully in manned military submarines since the early 1980s. In recent years fossil fueled Stirling systems have been also proposed for use in small unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). However, in this case the need to carry an onboard oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design difficulties. These are identified in the paper. However, if the oxidant supply to the engine is provided by the membrane extraction of dissolved oxygen from seawater and/or disposable fuel/oxidant pods are used then the UUV Stirling system becomes more attractive. If this latter concept is extended to include multi-stage vehicles then it can be shown that fossil fueled Stirlings could also be put to effective use in long range-long endurance underwater vehicular operations.

  14. Experience of curing serious obstruction of advanced-stage upper digestive tract tumor using laser under endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Man-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Feng-Qiu; Kong, De-Jia; Tang, Li-Bin

    1998-11-01

    The patients who suffer from upper digestive tract tumor, such as cancer of esophagus, cancer of cardia, all have serious obstruction and fail to get nutrition and can not bear the strike of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In order to reduce the obstruction symptom and suffering of the patients and to prolong their life time, since 1989, our hospital used the laser to cure the upper digestive tract tumor 11 cases with serious obstruction and got remarkable curative effect.

  15. Wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale upper surface blown-flap model having four engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, K.; Falarski, M. D.; Koenig, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale subsonic jet transport model with an upper surface blown flap system. The model had a 25 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 7.28 and four turbofan engines. The lift of the flap system was augmented by turning the turbofan exhaust over the Coanda surface. Results were obtained for several flap deflections with several wing leading-edge configurations at jet momentum coefficients from 0 to 4.0. Three-component longitudinal data are presented with four engines operating. In addition, longitudinal and lateral data are presented with an engine out. The maximum lift and stall angle of the four engine model were lower than those obtained with a two engine model that was previously investigated. The addition of the outboard nacelles had an adverse effect on these values. Efforts to improve these values were successful. A maximum lift of 8.8 at an angle-of-attack of 27 deg was obtained with a jet thrust coefficient of 2 for the landing flap configuration.

  16. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  17. Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

  18. Performance Testing of the Engineering Model Astro-H 3-stage ADR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese Astro-H mission will include the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument provided by NASA/GSFC. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon microcalorimeters operated at 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR), which is configured to use either a 1.3 K superfluid helium tank or a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cryocooler as a heat sink. At present, the engineering model SXS, including the detectors and ADR, has been performance tested at GSFC and integrated with the EM dewar in Japan. The flight model SXS is currently being fabricated. This paper presents test results of the EM ADR and changes that will be implemented in the flight version.

  19. The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.

  20. Space Shuttle guidance for multiple main engine failures during first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponaugle, Steven J.; Fernandes, Stanley T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents contingency abort guidance schemes recently developed for multiple Space Shuttle main engine failures during the first two minutes of flight (first stage). The ascent and entry guidance schemes greatly improve the possibility of the crew and/or the Orbiter surviving a first stage contingency abort. Both guidance schemes were required to meet certain structural and controllability constraints. In addition, the systems were designed with the flexibility to allow for seasonal variations in the atmosphere and wind. The ascent scheme guides the vehicle to a desirable, lofted state at solid rocket booster burnout while reducing the structural loads on the vehicle. After Orbiter separation from the solid rockets and the external tank, the entry scheme guides the Orbiter through one of two possible entries. If the proper altitude/range/velocity conditions have been met, a return-to-launch-site 'Split-S' maneuver may be attempted. Otherwise, a down-range abort to an equilibrium glide and subsequent crew bailout is performed.

  1. Fine particle and organic vapor emissions from staged tests of an in-use aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presto, Albert A.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Ranjan, Manish; Reeder, Aaron J.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Miracolo, Marissa A.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-07-01

    Staged tests were conducted to measure the particle and vapor emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135T Stratotanker airframe at different engine loads. Exhaust was sampled using a rake inlet installed 1-m downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft and a dilution sampler and portable smog chamber were used to investigate the particulate matter (PM) emissions. Total fine PM mass emissions were highest at low (4%) and high (85%) load and lower at intermediate loads (7% and 30%). PM mass emissions at 4% load are dominated by organics, while at 85% load elemental carbon is dominant. Quantifying the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions is complicated by substantial filter sampling artifacts. Partitioning experiments reveal that the majority of the POA is semivolatile; for example, the POA emission factor changed by a factor of two when the background organic aerosol concentration was increased from 0.7 to 4 μg m -3. Therefore, one cannot define a single non-volatile PM emission factor for aircraft exhaust. The gas- and particle-phase organic emissions were comprehensively characterized by analyzing canister, sorbent and filter samples with gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Vapor-phase organic emissions are highest at 4% load and decrease with increasing load. Low-volatility organics (less volatile than a C 12n-alkane) contributed 10-20% of the total organic emissions. The low-volatility organic emissions contain signatures of unburned fuel and aircraft lubricating oil but are dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of presumably branched and cyclic alkanes. Emissions at all loads contain more low-volatility organic vapors than POA; thus secondary organic aerosol formation in the aging plume will likely exceed POA emissions.

  2. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  3. Investigation of upper-surface-blowing nacelle integration at cruise speeds utilizing powered engine simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meleason, E. T.; Wells, O. D.

    1976-01-01

    Various overwing nacelle designs were investigated on a representative four engine short haul aircraft configuration during a combined analytical and experimental program. Design conditions were M sub o = 0.7 and C sub L = 0.4. All nacelles had D shaped nozzle exits and included a streamline contoured design, a low boattail angle reference configuration, and a high boattail angle powered lift design. Testing was done with the design four engine airplane configuration as well as with only inboard nacelles installed. Turbopowered engine simulators were used to provide realistic representation of nacelle flows. Performance trends are compared for the various nacelle designs. In addition, comparisons are presented between analytical and experimental pressure distributions and between flow through and powered simulator results.

  4. Designing and Evaluating a Climate Change Course for Upper-Division Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    AOSS 300, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, was created to provide a mechanism for scientific exploration of the unexpected global environmental side effects of technological innovation with emphasis on issues of the atmosphere and oceans. The course is specifically designed to contribute to the desired Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) outcomes that engineering and science graduates possess "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of solutions in a global and societal context." To facilitate this new course a new suite of coupled Flash/PHP/MySQL tools have been created that allow personalization of the students' learning space and interaction with faculty. Using these tools students are challenged to actively participate in the construction of knowledge through development of on-line portfolios that influence course content. This paper reports on lessons learned in the first semester that will guide further course development.

  5. Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

  6. Brunnstrom Recovery Stage and Motricity Index for the Evaluation of Upper Extremity in Stroke: Analysis for Correlation and Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safaz, Ismail; Ylmaz, Bilge; Yasar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out first whether Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and motricity index (MI) were correlated with each other and second to observe whether the two assessment tools were sensitive to changes regarding the rehabilitation outcome. Forty-six stroke patients who were admitted to the Stroke Rehabilitation Unit at our…

  7. A Technique of Two-Stage Clustering Applied to Environmental and Civil Engineering and Related Methods of Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, S.; Nakayama, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method of two-stage clustering of literature based on citation frequency is applied to 5,065 articles from 57 journals in environmental and civil engineering. Results of related methods of citation analysis (hierarchical graph, clustering of journals, multidimensional scaling) applied to same set of articles are compared. Ten references are…

  8. The theory and a technique for an efficiency enhancing two stage bottoming cycle for piston/cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Zeh, D.

    1995-12-31

    While there is now much interest in electric vehicles or various hybrids, the most benefit may result from a revolutionary modification and efficiency improvement of the conventional internal combustion Otto cycle engine, by recovering a large portion of the availability that exists at the end of the power stroke. This paper will describe the theory and a potentially practical method for achieving a 50% improvement in power output and fuel efficiency. While the topping cycle will remain the internal combustion piston/cylinder engine, a two stage bottom cycle will be used. The first bottom stage is a single process consisting of a turbine installed in the exhaust stream to extract power from the excess pressure that exists when the engine exhaust valve opens. The second bottom stage is a complete external combustion gas turbine cycle consisting of a compressor, exhaust gas to compressed air heat exchanger and a turbine. Such a two stage bottoming cycle can be practical and may increase the power output by about 50%. This means that a car that achieves 30 mpg without a bottoming cycle can achieve 45 mpg with this bottoming cycle. Alternatively if the performance of cars can be improved to 66 mpg by means of decreasing the power requirements with smaller size and frontal area, better aerodynamics, lower rolling resistance tires and better transmission and drive trains, this vehicle can be extended to 100 mpg with this combined cycle engine.

  9. A prognostic model based on pretreatment platelet lymphocyte ratio for stage IE/IIE upper aerodigestive tract extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-feng; Chang, Bo-yang; Chen, Xiao-qin; Liu, Pan-pan; Wuxiao, Zhi-jun; Wang, Zhi-hui; Li, Su; Jiang, Wen-qi; Xia, Zhong-jun

    2014-12-01

    Patients with stage IE/IIE natural killer T (NK/T) cell lymphomas have discrepant survival outcome. This study aims to establish a prognostic model based on the pretreatment platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) specifically for localized extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma to guide the therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 252 patients with early-stage upper aerodigestive tract NK/T cell lymphoma. The 5-year overall survival rate in 252 patients was 67.1%. Prognostic factors for survival were female (P = 0.025; relative risk, 0.51; 95% CI 0.28-0.92), older age (P = 0.000; relative risk, 3.34; 95% CI 1.94-5.75), stage II(P = 0.020; relative risk, 1.79; 95% CI 1.10-2.91), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = 0.009; relative risk, 2.00; 95% CI 1.19-3.35), and PLR (P = 0.020; relative risk, 1.77; 95% CI 1.10-2.87). Based on these five parameters, we identified three different risk groups: group 1(106 cases, 43.4%), no or one adverse factor; group 2(85 cases, 34.8%), two factors; group 3(53 cases, 21.7%), three to five factors. Five-year overall survival was 83.3% for group 1, 62.2% for group 2, and 43.1% for group 3 (P = 0.000). Compared with International Prognostic Index and Korean Prognostic Index, the new model has a better prognostic discrimination for the patients of stage IE/IIE upper aerodigestive tract NK/T cell lymphoma. The PLR-based prognosis model is useful to stratify patients with localized extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma into different risk groups and guide the treatment modalities selection. PMID:25377661

  10. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests. [Upper Surface Blowing for YC-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive-lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.