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1

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

2

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper presents a detail description of the power management and distribution subsystem design for the ISUS ground demonstration program.

Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

1997-01-01

3

Cryogenic upper stage propulsion systems evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of cryogenic propulsion system evolution features that offer significant stage benefits for improving Atlas ELV international posture is discussed. Incorporation of a single RL10C engine is considered to offer the greatest cumulative benefits. Particular attention is given to a Centaur upper stage incorporating structure and avionics evolution features, as well as propulsion and fluids.

Eidson, Robert L.

1992-07-01

4

The Upper Stage Responsiveness Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the results and major findings of the Upper Stage Responsiveness Study (USRS) Phases I and II. Boeing Aerospace Company (BAC), General Dynamics (GD), and Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) conducted a ten month study effort to define (1) a new upper stage for the Titan IV\\/Solid Rocket Motor Unit (SRMU) capable of delivering 13,500 lbs of payload to

Robert E. Day Jr.; James F. Harvell

1990-01-01

5

The Upper Stage Responsiveness Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the results and major findings of the Upper Stage Responsiveness Study (USRS) Phases I and II. Boeing Aerospace Company (BAC), General Dynamics (GD), and Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) conducted a ten month study effort to define (1) a new upper stage for the Titan IV/Solid Rocket Motor Unit (SRMU) capable of delivering 13,500 lbs of payload to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and (2) a new upper stage for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) capable of delivering 20,000 lbs of payload to GEO. Additionally, the concepts defined had to meet Air Force Space Command's (AFSPACECOM) operability drivers for launch systems. The USRS concluded that a new, low-cost, launch-responsive upper stage can meet the requirements for both Titan IV and ALS in the 1997 timeframe.

Day, Robert E., Jr.; Harvell, James F.

1990-09-01

6

Upper stages for a space transportation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design features of a flexible use upper stage for the STS are described, noting that potential users must become interested if the system is to be developed. Based on the design for the low-energy Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), the system would be required to utilize the Orbiter payload bay, have reattachable separation devices, have replaceable external propellant tanks, and have standard mechanical and functional interfaces. Implementation of an open grid triangular lattice structure covered with standardized aluminum plates would allow for the system to be tailored to specific missions at standardized increments of size. The system would tilt out of the bay and deploy all necessary appendages before ascent to GEO. A small bi-propellant engine is recommended as a prototype propulsion system to meet launch and mass constraints, particularly for GEO boosts.

Harwood, O. P.

1986-08-01

7

Multipurpose upper stage "Fregat-SB" with enhanced power capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of the multipurpose upper stage "Fregat-SB" with enhanced power capacity is given in the article. The main parameters of the upper stage on different launchers and its advantages in comparison with the competitors are shown.

Asyushkin, V. A.; Ishin, S. V.

2012-12-01

8

Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

1984-12-01

9

Technical and Operations Design of the SKYLON Upper Stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SKYLON spaceplane cannot reach beyond Low Earth Orbit and therefore payloads requiring higher orbits, such as geostationary transfer orbit, will require an upper stage. A concept design for a cryogenic upper stage called the SKYLON Upper Stage (SUS) is described together with its operations. It is shown that, through the use of resonant orbits, in many cases the stage can be recovered for reuse by the SKYLON that launched it.

Hempsell, Bond, M. A.

10

Guidance and controls for an interim upper stage \\/IUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptability of the Titan Transtage (the upper stage of the Titan IIIC launch vehicle) as a low risk interim upper stage (IUS) in the Space Transportation System is examined. The object of the study is to determine whether the Titan Transtage is compatible with the Shuttle and to provide operational data for the design of a new Space Tug.

R. B. Schroer

1975-01-01

11

Design and Development of a 50K LOX/Hydrogen Upper Stage Demonstrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses design and systems integration of a 50,000 pound (222.4 kN) thrust Oxygen/Hydrogen Upper Stage Engine Demonstrator (USD) being developed by Pratt & Whitney Liquid Space Propulsion under contract for the United States Air Force Researc...

S. Peery A. Minick

1998-01-01

12

Development Status of a 50k LOX/Hydrogen Upper Stage Demonstrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses design and systems integration status of a 50, 000 pound (222.4 kN) thrust Oxygen/Hydrogen Upper Stage Engine Demonstrator (USD) being created by Pratt & Whitney Liquid Space Propulsion under contract for the United States Air Force R...

R. Long R. Grabowski A. Minick S. Peery R. Branam

1999-01-01

13

Development Status of a 50k LOX/Hydrogen Upper Stage Demonstrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses design and systems integration status a 50,000 pound (222,4 kN) thrust Oxygen/Hydrogen Upper Stage Engine Demonstrator (USD) being created by Pratt & Whitney Liquid Space Propulsion under contract for the United States Air Force Resea...

R. Grabowski J. Friant R. Long L. Lowinski E. Schmidt

2000-01-01

14

Optimization, an Important Stage of Engineering Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A number of leaders in technology education have indicated that a major difference between the technological design process and the engineering design process is analysis and optimization. The analysis stage of the engineering design process is when mathematical models and scientific principles are employed to help the designer predict design…

Kelley, Todd R.

2010-01-01

15

Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's

J. P. Geddes

1983-01-01

16

Staging and preoperative evaluation of upper gastrointestinal malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal and gastric cancers are distinct carcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract, although the distinction between them becomes less clear at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Increasingly accurate staging is possible based on newer radiographic and surgical techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), laparoscopy and thoracoscopy, laparoscopic ultrasound, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). For both cancer types, tumor classification is determined

Eddie K. Abdalla; Peter W. T. Pisters

2004-01-01

17

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element. The topics incluse: 1) What is NASA s Mission.; 2) NASA s Exploration Roadmap What is our time line.; 3) Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologie...

J. C. McArthur

2008-01-01

18

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

SciTech Connect

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Advanced Systems and Technology Organization, South Oyster Bay Road, Bethpage, New York 11714 (United States)

1998-01-15

19

Robotic Planetary Science Missions Enabled with Small NTR Engine/Stage Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound...

S. K. Borowski

1995-01-01

20

Robotic planetary science missions enabled with small NTR engine\\/stage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States

Stanley K. Borowski

1995-01-01

21

Robotic planetary science missions enabled with small NTR engine\\/stage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-niobium ‘‘ternary carbide’’ fuel (Isp ?960 seconds at ?3025 K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

Stanley K. Borowski

1995-01-01

22

Aerothermodynamics calculation of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at descent in the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering calculation method has been developed for investigation of the process of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at deorbiting and descent into the Earth's atmosphere. The results of calculation of its descent trajectory and characteristics of aerodynamic heating are presented. Within the framework of the thermodynamic approach, the authors investigated the process of pressure increase in the tanks due to heating and evaporation of the liquid phase of fuel. Stresses in the shells, the height and the energy equivalent of explosive destruction of tanks were calculated depending on the degree of their filling with remains of the components of liquid fuel.

Glazunov, A. A.; Goldin, V. D.; Zverev, V. G.; Ustinov, S. N.; Finchenko, V. S.

2013-06-01

23

Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

Adams, Alan M.

1995-06-01

24

Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's reliance on novel propulsion and avionics technology. Its two solid rocket motors, which were selected on the basis of their inherent safety for use on the Space Shuttle, have the longest burn time extant. A three-dimensional carbon/carbon nozzle throat had to be developed to sustain this long burn, as were lightweight composite wound cases and shirts, insulation, igniters, and electromechanical thrust vector control.

Geddes, J. P.

25

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification \\/ Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested

A. Rittweger; W. Beuchel; K. Eckhardt

2002-01-01

26

Upper crankshaft bearing lubrication system for two-cycle engine  

SciTech Connect

A two-cycle internal combustion engine is described including a crankcase, a cylinder extending from the crankcase, a piston mounted in the cylinder for reciprocative movement to alternatively create high and low pressure conditions in the crankcase, an induction passage for introducing a fuel-lubricant-air mixture into the crankcase and including a low pressure zone, a crankshaft having an axis which is generally vertical when the engine is in a normal operating position, upper and lower bearings rotatably supporting the crankshaft in the crankcase, a sump in the crankcase adjacent the crankshaft and in which engine fuel drains collect.

Breckenfeld, P.W.; Broughton, G.L.; Calamia, D.C.; Macier, J.E.

1986-07-15

27

ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

-A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the development planning aiming at a first launch of ESC-B in 2006.

Juhls, A.

2002-01-01

28

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used fo...

D. R. Phillips R. J. Wingate

2010-01-01

29

DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM CHEST FOR LOW PRESSURE STAGE ENGINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM CHEST FOR LOW PRESSURE STAGE ENGINE OF UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

30

Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage engine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage engine of unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

31

Engineering Analysis of the Two-Stage Trifluoride Precipitation Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An engineering analysis of two-stage trifluoride precipitation processes is developed. Precipitation kinetics are modeled using consecutive reactions to represent fluoride complexation. Material balances across the precipitators are used to model the time...

D. W. Luerkens

1984-01-01

32

Acoustic and thermal testing of the Titan\\/Centaur upper stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new version of the Centaur high-energy upper stage is being produced by General Dynamics for the USAF\\/Martin Marietta Titan launch vehicle. The Titan\\/Centaur upper stage is subject to consecutive acoustic and thermal testing in General Dynamics' Acoustic and Thermal Test Facility (ATTF). All data is acquired and processed digitally using the high-speed data acquisition system located in the ATTF.

Mark Gehringer; Chris Gibson; Ron Janes

1992-01-01

33

Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding among end-stage renal disease patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding among end-stage renal disease patients.BackgroundThe risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is increased among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients compared to the general population. However, correlates of UGIB among ESRD patients remain unknown. We conducted a cohort study of dialysis patients to ascertain risk factors for UGIB.MethodsData from the United States Renal Data System

Haimanot Wasse; Daniel L. Gillen; Adrianne M. Ball; Bryan R. Kestenbaum; Stephen L. Seliger; Donald Sherrard; Catherine O. Stehman-Breen

2003-01-01

34

Interaction between fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena in a cryogenic upper stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic cryogenic upper stage is analyzed using the FLOW-3D finite-difference program. The analysis is conducted to illustrate that coupled fluid-dynamic-thermodynamic numerical modeling is feasible with existing computational technology. A long-duration simulation of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank in a cryogenic upper stage is completed with no major computational difficulties. The numerical tank is exposed to external heating and

G. D. Grayson; J. Navickas

1993-01-01

35

Stage separation dynamic analysis of upper stage of a multistage launch vehicle using retro rockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents in brief the formulation used for the studies of lateral and longitudinal dynamics associated with separation and pull out of an ongoing functional stage from the spent stage of a multistage launch vehicle using retro rockets as jettisoning system. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed to solve the governing nonlinear differential equations of motion to obtain the

Duraisamy Jeyakumar; K. K. Biswas; Boggarapu Nageswara Rao

2005-01-01

36

Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle ext...

A. Hedayat E. F. Johnson J. Sims K. A. Holt L. J. Hastings R. H. Flachbart T. Lak

2013-01-01

37

Status and capability of the TOS and AMS upper stage family  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1986, the development of the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) is to be completed. TOS represents a new upper stage for the Space Transportation System (STS). It can place payloads in the weight range from 2,490 to 6,080 kg into Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) and deliver spacecraft to planetary and other high-energy trajectories. Aspects of design approach and reliability

R. C. White

1986-01-01

38

Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various...

C. M. Reid M. T. Kussmaul T. B. Miller

2011-01-01

39

Preliminary Analysis on the Quick Disposal of Used H-II Upper Stage by Electrodynamic Tether  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes an application of the electrodynamic tether to deorbit a spent H-II upper stage to reduce space debris. In such an application, the induced current flows through the tether wire by the tether motion that intersects the geomagnetic field, and the Lorentz force is induced in the opposite direction of tether motion, namely, the direction of the decelerating system, by the interaction between this induced current and the geomagnetic field. The concept is basically the same as that of a ProSEDS space experiment, which is proposed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. But the main difference is its orbit. The orbit of spent H-II upper stage is ellipse, although the orbit of ProSEDS is circular. So the operation and dynamics are different compared with those of ProSEDS. In this study, the performance of an H-II upper stage deorbit system by electrodynamic tether is analyzed by the mission analysis model, and the presumable dynamics of this system is also shown. The results show that this system can deorbit an H-II upper stage in a few months, but there is a possibility that the performance of deorbit will degrade if a rotation of the tether system is occurred.

Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Tsuyuki, Ryosuke; Takegahara, Haruki; Kosakai, Masaya; Nakajima, Atsushi; Yasumitsu, Ryoichiro

40

Mammalian Carnivore Coprolites from the Sopas Formation (Upper Pleistocene, Lujanian Stage), Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental tetrapod coprolites from Uruguay are described for the first time. These remains come from the Piedra Pintada locality (Artigas Department), northern Uruguay, where the Sopas Formation crops out (Upper Pleistocene, Lujanian Stage). It was possible to identify several attributes indicative of a coprolitic origin, such as anisopolar shape, extrusion marks, pointed ends, sutures, gas bubbles, and inclusions. These specimens

Mariano Verde

2003-01-01

41

First flight performance of the control system of the inertial upper stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a flight performance data analyses from the first flight of an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) with a Titan 34D booster are reported. The IUS has solid rocket motors, a monopropellant hydrazine reaction control system (RCS), and is separated from the spacecraft when the desired higher energy orbit is reached. Steering is guided by a mission sequencing function

A. K. Goodfellow; C. Vono

1983-01-01

42

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spi...

M. D. Bowles V. P. Dawson

2004-01-01

43

Design and test of a small two stage counter-rotating turbine for rocket engine application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for application in an advanced upper stage rocket engine turbopump. This engine will employ an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low flow rates result in very small airfoil diameter, height and chord. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The unconventional approach employed to meet this challenge is described, along with the detailed design process and resulting airfoil configurations. The method and results of full scale aerodynamic performance evaluation testing of both one and two stage configurations, as well as operation without the secondary stage stator are presented. The overall results of this effort illustrate that advanced aerodynamic design tools and hardware fabrication techniques have provided improved capability to produce small high performance turbines for advanced rocket engines.

Huber, F. W.; Branstrom, B. R.; Finke, A. K.; Johnson, P. D.; Rowey, R. J.; Veres, J. P.

1993-06-01

44

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage.  

PubMed

Various sites along the upper airway (UA) are prone to narrow and collapse in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep stages may eventually alter these sites. The present study was designed to determine the site(s) of UA obstruction and the influence of sleep stage on the pattern of obstruction. Twenty eight obstructive sleep apnoea patients underwent UA pressure measurements during polysomnography. Solid-state pressure sensors were located at the nasopharynx, oropharynx, tongue base, hypopharynx and oesophagus and the lower limit of UA obstruction was determined relying on the observed pressure pattern. The site of UA obstruction varied among consecutive apnoeas in all but two patients. The lower limit of UA obstruction was predominantly located at the nasoand oropharynx. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was associated with a tendency for obstruction to extend towards lower levels of the UA and nasopharyngeal occlusion was significantly less observed during REM compared to oropharyngeal obstruction. Upper airway obstruction involves more than one specific site of the upper airway in the majority of sleep apnoea patients. Obstruction at lower levels of the upper airway is more likely to be observed during rapid eye movement sleep. PMID:9426096

Boudewyns, A N; Van de Heyning, P H; De Backer, W A

1997-11-01

45

Flight test results of the inertial upper stage redundant inertial measurement unit redundancy management technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicles have been deployed once from a Titan T-34D booster and once from Space Shuttle Challenger to carry spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. Telemetry data have been analyzed showing the performance of the failure detection and isolation scheme for the redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU). On the T-34D flight, no built-in test failure events occurred and no

R. Goodstein; B. K. Tse; D. J. Winkel; C. Halliday

1984-01-01

46

Migration and winter distributions of canvasbacks staging on the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fall and winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) staging on the upper Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin (navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Pool 19) were studied during 1973-77. Sightings and recoveries obtained from 1,488 color-marked males during 1973-75 and 3,789 banded males and females during 1973-77 suggested 2 principal migration corridors: 1 extending eastward from Pools 7 and 8 to the eastern Great Lakes and southeast to the Mid-Atlantic Region and another southward from Pools 7 and 8 to the lower Mississippi Valley, Gulf Coast, and east Texas regions. These discrete populations stage concurrently on Pools 7 and 8 during the fall, but winter in different areas of the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Central flyways. Populations staging on Pool 19 were not discrete from those staging on Pools 7 and 8. A continual turnover of birds passing through these staging areas was indicated. Canvasbacks wintering in the Mississippi and Central flyways were widely dispersed among a variety of habitats, whereas canvasbacks wintering in the Atlantic Flyway were concentrated in a few traditional habitats. Canvasbacks exhibited strong fidelity to wintering areas. Distribution patterns and population attributes of canvasbacks during fall and winter may be explained by the predictability of natural foods and their ability to exploit these foods.

Serie, J. R.; Trauger, D. L.; Sharp, D. E.

1983-01-01

47

Correlation of upper Bajocian-Bathonian zones in Siberia with the stage standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suggestions to transfer the Arcticoceras ishmae Zone from the middle to the lower Bathonian and the Arctocephalites arcticus Zone from the lower Bathonian to the upper Bajocian put forward by some researchers, are critically considered. These suggestions are based on paleontological records from the Sokur quarry near Saratov. Based on paleontological data from Siberia represented in a number of regional ammonite, belemnite, and retroceram zonations, we infer that the proposed zonal subdivision of the Jurassic in the Sokur quarry to be untrue and believe the revision of the correlation of the above-mentioned zones with the stage and zonal standard to be premature because of insufficient argumentation.

Meledina, S. V.; Nal'Nyaeva, T. I.; Shurygin, B. N.

2009-06-01

48

A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Christopher, R. A.; Prowell, D. C.

2002-01-01

49

28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

50

Compartment C1, engine room upper level; view to starboard showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment C-1, engine room upper level; view to starboard showing main condenser, lighting control panel is at center right. Air compressor is in background at top right. (075) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

51

Dinoflagellates: Fossil Motile-Stage Tests from the Upper Cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey Coastal Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

Fred E. May

1976-01-01

52

Lessons learned from the dynamic identification\\/qualification tests on the ESC-A upper stage model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modeling approach made at the beginning of the development. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. For the low frequency domain

Andreas Rittweger; Werner Beuchel; Martin G. Andersen; Jochen Albus

2005-01-01

53

A palynological biozonation for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five palynological biozones are proposed for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, these highest-occurrence interval zones are the Osculapollis vestibulus (Ov) Biozone, the Holkopollenites propinquus (Hp) Biozone, the Holkopollenites forix (Hf) Biozone, the Complexiopollis abditus (Ca) Biozone, and the Osculapollis aequalis (Oa) Biozone. These biozones are based on an analysis of more than 400 subsurface and outcrop samples throughout the Coastal Plain Province of South Carolina, and the adjacent states of Georgia and North Carolina. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithostratigraphy and geophysical log data suggests that the lower and upper boundaries of each biozone are bounded by regional unconformities. Five new species are described, and an emendation is presented for one additional species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Christopher, R. A.; Prowell, D. C.

2010-01-01

54

Flight test results of the inertial upper stage redundant inertial measurement unit redundancy management technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) vehicles have been deployed once from a Titan T-34D booster and once from Space Shuttle Challenger to carry spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. Telemetry data have been analyzed showing the performance of the failure detection and isolation scheme for the redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU). On the T-34D flight, no built-in test failure events occurred and no failure detection thresholds were exceeded for as long as telemetry was available. On the Space Shuttle flight, considerable failure detection activity took place during which the RIMU indicated continuous proper navigation functioning until gyro maximum rates were exceeded. Adjustments to the algorithm and additional pre-flight tests should reduce the undesired activity while preserving performance on subsequent flights.

Goodstein, R.; Tse, B. K.; Winkel, D. J.; Halliday, C.

1984-01-01

55

First flight performance of the control system of the inertial upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a flight performance data analyses from the first flight of an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) with a Titan 34D booster are reported. The IUS has solid rocket motors, a monopropellant hydrazine reaction control system (RCS), and is separated from the spacecraft when the desired higher energy orbit is reached. Steering is guided by a mission sequencing function that indicates the proper reference attitude quaternions, which are compared with the navigation or current attitude quaternion to form a control error quaternion. Telemetry contact with the spacecraft and IUS failed during an initial boost phase; however, the desired orbit was achieved. Performance was as predicted, except for an increased rate of fuel consumption due to failure to include atmospheric drag in the preflight simulations of conditions in the LEO parking orbit. The effects are expected to be less with a Shuttle launch, and will in any case be offset by an overly adequate propellant supply.

Goodfellow, A. K.; Vono, C.

56

Experimental approach on the pyrotechnical shock reduction of Ariane-5 upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation of the upper stage of the Ariane 5 launcher is to be achieved by means of a Pyrotechnical Expansive Tube (PET) installed in the Vehicle Equipment Bay (VEB) structure. When the pyrotechnical device is activated, severe shock levels are transmitted to the structural components and electronic equipment located near the separation section. These shock inputs could affect the operational performances of the above mentioned components during and after separation. An experimental research project to verify that VEB equipment will not be damaged, to achieve a deeper knowledge of the nature and consequences of the event, and to improve existing theoretical models, was undertaken. A specification was identified for the equipment platform, and a campaign of technological tests were started in order to select a damping material and its layout to obtain the highest shock reduction without compromising the VEB structural integrity and stiffness.

Uribarri, I.; Tejero, P.; Rivaillon, B.; Laviron, B.

1991-10-01

57

Treatment of giant congenital melanocytic nevus of the left upper extremity with staged expanded flap.  

PubMed

Excision of a congenital giant nevus is advised due to the possibility of it degenerating into a malignant melanoma or for aesthetic concerns. Tissue expansion has emerged as the primary treatment of giant congenital nevi because it enables the body to produce extra skin with excellent texture, better colour match, less severe donor-site deformity and repeated usage of an expanding donor-site. We present a multi-staged expansion/local flap technique to treat a case of a circumferential nevus from the acromioclavicular joint and axillary area throughout the upper extremity excluding the hand. The affected skin was approximately 10% of the total body surface area. The patient underwent eight operations and a total of 11 rounds of tissue expansions (500 cc × 9 rounds, 600 cc × 1 round, 300 cc × 1 round) were completed over a 2-year period prior to the removal of the nevus. A good aesthetic and functional outcome in the left upper extremity was gained. It is recommended that the treatment of giant nevi is best if completed at preschool age after taking several factors into consideration. PMID:21795129

Liu, Yufeng; Huang, Jinlong; Wen, Ke; Liu, Ning; Wang, Jinming

2011-07-27

58

Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

59

The biostratigraphy and magnetic polarity zonation of the Pabbi Hills, northern Pakistan: An Upper Siwalik (Pinjor Stage) Upper Pliocene–Lower Pleistocene fluvial sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pabbi Hills, northern Pakistan, comprise an Upper Siwalik fluvial sequence spanning 3.2–0.5 Ma. The portion 2.2–0.9 Ma encompasses most of the Pinjor Faunal Stage (ca. 2.5–0.6 Ma) of India, and was extensively sampled for vertebrate fossil remains, with particular attention to recording spatial and vertical provenance. Detailed palaeomagnetic sampling confirms earlier investigations in the Pabbi Hills, and allows fossil

Robin Dennell; Ros Coard; Alan Turner

2006-01-01

60

Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Upper Lobe Trisegmentectomy for Early-Stage Left Apical Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resection of the left upper lobe with preservation of the lingula is the anatomic equivalent of a right upper lobectomy with preservation of the right middle lobe. Therefore, our standard operation for a small apical tumor in the left upper lobe has been an apical triseg- mentectomy. The purpose of this article is to review our experience with the procedure

Ward V. Houck; Clark B. Fuller; Robert J. McKenna

2010-01-01

61

Shuttle Program Standard Maneuver Sequences for Orbiter/Upper-Stage Separation Ssus-a, Ssus-D, and Ius.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Descriptions of standard post-ejection maneuver sequences for the deployment of IUS, SSUS-A, and SSUS-D upper stages from the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The sequences were designed to satisfy requirements for limiting the damage inflicted on the...

S. W. Wilson

1980-01-01

62

ARIANE 5 upper-stage ignition conditions improvement, and return to operation with ''Envisat'' payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARIANE 5 experienced a flight anomaly with the 10 th model mission (F 510), having placed its both satellites in a lower orbit than the planned GTO. Only one satellite (Artemis) could be retrieved due to its own propulsion systems. Arianespace, CNES and Astrium-GmbH (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) immediately set up a recovery team, combining forces for carrying deep and schedule-driven investigations, and later qualifying recovery measures. A failure in such an important program: is immediately triggering a large "post-shock" reaction from the ARIANE community implied in the relevant business and technology. The investigation fields are summarised in the following chapters, showing how failure analysis, engineering investigations and basic research have been combined in order to have a schedule and methodic efficient approach. The combination of all available European resources in space vehicle design has been implemented, involving industry, agency technical centers and research laboratories. The investigation methodology applied has been driven by the particular situation of a flight anomaly investigation, which has to take into account the reduced amount of measurement available in flight and the necessary combination with ground test data for building a strategy to reach identification of possible failure scenario. From the investigations and from extensive sensitivity characterisation test of EPS engine (AESTUS) ignition transient, stability margins have been deeply investigated and introduced in the post-anomaly upgraded stage design. The identification and implementation of recovery measures, extended as well to - potential ignition margin reduction factors even beyond the observed flight anomaly allowed to establish a robust complementary qualification status, thus allowing resuming of operational flight, starting with the valuable "Envisat" payload of European Space Agency, dedicated to earth and climate monitoring, on flight 511, the 28/02/2002, from Kourou Spaceport.

Dutheil, J. Ph.; Langel, G.

2003-08-01

63

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

1998-01-01

64

Optimization of dual-expander rocket engines in single-stage-to-orbit vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-expander rocket engines offer a trajectory adapted dual-mode operation during the ascent of a launcher, which may be of significant advantage for single-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles, when compared to conventional rocket engines with bell-type nozzles.This paper investigates a reusable single-stage earth-to-orbit vehicle with a constant payload capability of 16.5 Mg into low earth orbit, for the comparison of the dual-expander rocket

Detlef Manski; Gerald Hagemann; Hagen D. Sa?nick

1997-01-01

65

Exploring Career Stages of Midcareer and Older Engineers---When Managerial Transition Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineers in certain organizations in which technical upward movement is prematurely truncated must often move into management positions to attain continued upward career mobility. This transition is difficult for both those who make it and those who do not, and may cause good engineers to become derailed managers. On the basis of career stage theory, this study proposes an instrument

Quey-Jen Yeh

2008-01-01

66

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

Leslie E. Holland

1986-01-01

67

[Range of motion in the joints of the upper extremity at different stages of sympathetic reflex dystrophy (SRD)].  

PubMed

Sympathetic reflex dystrophy of the upper extremity is among the most serious complications of trauma injuries. The aim of this paper was to assess the effectiveness of mobilization treatment, augmented by cryogenic temperatures of post trauma SRD of the upper extremity. The material comprised 113 patients treated at the Orthopedic Outpatient Clinic of the J. Babi?ski Hospital in Breslau during the years 1987-1995. All patients underwent conservative treatment because of post trauma SRD. The effectiveness of cryo-therapy was based on pre- and post-therapy ROM examination. These results were compared to the ROM of the healthy extremity and the degree of ROM limitation was hence calculated. Limitation of ROM was found in all joints of the upper extremity regardless to the stage of the disease. The greatest limitations were found in the joints directly adjacent to the area were the disease was most pronounced. The applied therapy in these cases was found to increase ROM in all patients, with the greatest increase of ROM during stage I and II of the disease. PMID:12050870

Wrzosek, Z; Dragan, S

2001-01-01

68

Utilization of Solid-Propellant Upper Stages in STS Payload Orbital Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this report is to discuss techniques of trajectory design, maneuver execution, and stage loading that are compatible with the use of SRM's (solid rocket motors) which, once ignited, must burn to propellant depletion. It is anticipated ...

S. W. Wilson

1976-01-01

69

Evaluation of innovative rocket engines for single-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer models of rocket engines and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that were developed by the authors at DFVLR and NASA have been combined. The resulting code consists of engine mass, performance, trajectory and vehicle sizing models. The engine mass model includes equations for each subsystem and describes their dependences on various propulsion parameters. The engine performance model consists of multidimensional sets of theoretical propulsion properties and a complete thermodynamic analysis of the engine cycle. The vehicle analyses include an optimized trajectory analysis, mass estimation, and vehicle sizing. A vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, single-stage, winged, manned, fully reusable vehicle with a payload capability of 13.6 Mg (30,000 lb) to low earth orbit was selected. Hydrogen, methane, propane, and dual-fuel engines were studied with staged-combustion, gas-generator, dual bell, and the dual-expander cycles. Mixture ratio, chamber pressure, nozzle exit pressure liftoff acceleration, and dual fuel propulsive parameters were optimized.

Manski, Detlef; Martin, James A.

1988-07-01

70

Short-term morbidity of the upper limb after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection for Stage I or II breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. The goals of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are to improve axillary staging and reduce unnecessary axillary lymph node dissections (ALND), thereby reducing treatment-related upper-limb morbidity. In the current prospec- tive study, short-term upper-limb morbidity was assessed after SLNB and\\/or ALND. METHODS. The study comprised 204 patients with Stage I\\/II breast carcinoma. Mean patient age was 55.6 years (standard

Johan S. Rietman; Pieter U. Dijkstra; Jan H. B. Geertzen; Peter Baas; Jaap de Vries; Wil Dolsma; Johan W. Groothoff; Willem H. Eisma; Harald J. Hoekstra

2003-01-01

71

Pressure control of a two-stage turbocharged diesel engine using a novel nonlinear IMC approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with nonlinear multivariable output feedback control of a two-stage turbocharged diesel engine. The feedback structure of internal model control (IMC) is used in combination with a nonlinear feedforward controller based on geometric nonlinear control design methods. Input saturations as well as measured disturbances are taken into account and a severe rank deficiency is handled. This novel control

Dieter Schwarzmann; Rainer Nitsche; Jan Lunze; Andreas Schanz

2006-01-01

72

Separation dynamics of the COMET FreeFlyer and an upper stage STAR48V motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the orbital separation between a STAR-48V upperstage motor and the COMET FreeFlyer is investigated. The time from nominal STAR-48 engine burnout is to be determined such that the STAR-48 will not collide with the FreeFlyer once the separation process has been initiated. To analyze this separation, the forces acting upon both the FreeFlyer and the STAR-48 are

Kevin M. Fuller; Carter H. Myers

1993-01-01

73

The Late Stages of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: A Millimeter Survey of Upper Scorpius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to ~4 × 10-3 M Jup of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 × 10-3 to 1.0 × 10-1 M Jup. The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and H? measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30m Telescope as part of programs 066-08, 149-08, and 076-09. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Ménard, Francois; Phillips, Neil; Duchêne, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe

2012-01-01

74

THE LATE STAGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK EVOLUTION: A MILLIMETER SURVEY OF UPPER SCORPIUS  

SciTech Connect

We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Jup} of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sub Jup}. The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and H{alpha} measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars.

Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96826 (United States); Menard, Francois; Duchene, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe [CRNS-INSU/UJF-Grenoble 1, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Phillips, Neil, E-mail: gmathews@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-20

75

Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of a receiver-absorber-converter system in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage Unit  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program is directing its efforts at solving endemic national spacecraft architecture problems. The ISUS is an advanced, integrated upper stage concept that would permit payload realignment, allowing large payloads to be moved by smaller and less expensive boosters. A receiver-absorber-converter (RAC) system in the ISUS unit is designed to convert solar energy to kinetic energy in the propulsion phase or electrical energy in the power generation phase for spacecraft control and operation. In this study a three-dimensional, transient, turbulent hydrogen gas flow through the RAC system was simulated using a finite element thermal-hydraulic model. With this model, transient temperature, pressure, and flow fields in the RAC system were obtained. Numerical results of the mass flow rate distribution through hydrogen heating channels reveal that higher mass flow rates occur through those channels near either the hydrogen channels reveal that higher mass flow rates occur through those channels near either the hydrogen inlet or exit. It takes about 18.5 min for the hydrogen exhaust temperature to drop below 2,000 K. The results obtained from this work have been applied for validating and optimizing the present RAC design, as well as for performing the thermal stress analysis.

Tong, W.

1999-12-01

76

ABILITY OF CLINICAL GRADE TO PREDICT FINAL PATHOLOGIC STAGE IN UPPER URINARY TRACT TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate whether clinical grade predicts final pathologic stage in upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UTTCC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 184 consecutive patients undergoing nephrouretrectomy for UTTCC at our institution between 1986 and 2004. Their clinical, surgical, and pathological data were reviewed to determine the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of clinical biopsy grade with respect to final pathologic stage of disease. Results: In all, 119 (64.7%) patients had information available regarding the clinical grade of disease from preoperative endoscopic biopsy. The distribution of clinical grades was grade 1: 2 (1.6%), grade 2: 46 (38.7%) and grade 3 in 71 (59.7%) patients. Of the 71 patients with grade 3 disease 47 had ? pT2 disease (66% PPV). Of the 48 patients with less than grade 3 disease 35 had < pT2 disease (72% NPV). Of the 71 patients with grade 3 disease 30 had ? pT3 disease (42% PPV). Of the 48 patients with less than grade 3 disease, 44 had stage of disease. This information can be used to counsel patients before surgery and to identify patients for whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy would be most beneficial.

BROWN, GORDON A.; MATIN, SURENA F.; BUSBY, J. ERIK; DINNEY, COLIN P. N.; GROSSMAN, H. BARTON; PETTAWAY, CURTIS A.; MUNSELL, MARK F.; KAMAT, ASHISH M.

2007-01-01

77

On prediction of re-entry time of an upper stage from GTO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of objects in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is determined by a complex interplay of atmospheric drag and luni-solar gravity. These orbits are highly eccentric (eccentricity >0.7) and have large variations in velocity and perturbations during a revolution. The periodic changes in the perigee altitudes of these orbits are mainly due to the gravitational perturbations of the Sun and the Moon. The re-entry time of the objects in such orbits is sensitive to the initial conditions. The aim of this paper is to study the re-entry time of the cryogenic stage of the Indian geo-synchronous launch vehicle, GSLV-F04/CS, which has been decaying since 2 September 2007 from initial orbit with eccentricity equal to 0.706. Two parameters, initial eccentricity and ballistic coefficient, are chosen for optimal estimation. It is known that the errors are more in eccentricity for the observations based on two line elements (TLEs). These two parameters are computed with response surface method using a genetic algorithm for the selected eight different zones, based on rough linear variation of the mean apogee altitude during 200 days orbit evolution. The study shows that the GSLV-F04/CS will re-enter between 5 December 2010 and 7 January 2011. The methodology is also applied to study the re-entry of six decayed objects (cryogenic stages of GSLV and Molniya satellites). Good agreement is noticed between the actual and the predicted re-entry times. The absolute percentage error in re-entry prediction time for all the six objects is found to be less than 7%. The present methodology is being adopted at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) to predict the re-entry time of GSLV-F04/CS.

Mutyalarao, M.; Sharma, Ram Krishan

2011-06-01

78

Swirl injectors for oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle engines and hypergolic propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented here are two efforts concerning the application of swirl injectors to rocket engine main chamber injectors. The first study was undertaken to develop a liquid\\/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with new hypergolic propellants in conjunction with KB Sciences and China Lake. The second study focuses on gas\\/liquid swirl injectors typically used for main chamber elements in oxidizer-rich staged

Matthew R. Long

2004-01-01

79

Two-stage Fuel Direct Injection in a Diesel Fuelled HCCI Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-stage fuel direct injection (DI) has the potential to expand the operating region and control the auto- ignition timing in a Diesel fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. In this work, to investigate the dual-injection HCCI combustion, a stochastic reactor model, based on a probability density function (PDF) approach, is utilized. A new wall-impingement sub-model is incorporated into the

Haiyun Su; Sebastian Mosbach; Markus Kraft; Amit Bhave; Sanghoon Kook; Choongsik Bae

80

Engineering evaluation of the nonintegrated two-stage liquefaction process concept. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents process engineering evaluation of two alternate non-integrated two-stage liquefaction (NITSL) processes. The process concept consists of: thermal liquefaction, critical solvent deashing and catalytic hydrotreatment of SRC. The scope of work included development of design criteria using data obtained at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, and designs of two 15,000 TPD coal feed plants to

L. H. Udani; J. A. Wilusz; E. Kulak; R. R. Maddocks

1985-01-01

81

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

PubMed Central

Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected.

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

2011-01-01

82

Study on the eddy current damping of the spin dynamics of space debris from the Ariane launcher upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the topic of damping of the spin dynamics of a spatial debris orbiting around the Earth. Such debris, which can consist of parts of heavy launchers such as the Ariane rocket under consideration in this article, are impacted by torques generated by eddy currents as their conducting non-ferromagnetic body orbits through the Earth magnetosphere. Several previous works have focused on describing this induction phenomenon and have proposed analysis of empirical observations of this particular and important effect which has attracted much attention since the number of spatial debris has emerged as a problem for the future of space programs, especially in low orbits. In this paper, we present a relatively comprehensive modeling of the induction phenomenon, by means of Maxwell's equations inside the conducting and non-ferromagnetic body. Through the generalized Ohm's law, we show how one can obtain a partial differential equation with Neumann's boundary conditions problem that, once solved, e.g. through a finite elements method, yields the values of induced currents and braking torques. The case of a depleted upper stage of a heavy launcher, having a cylindrical shape and thin walls is particularly studied. We show a methodology to estimate the decay-rate of the spinning velocity, which is proven to satisfy a first-order asymptotically stable linear dynamics. Special cases consisting of typical orbit of space debris are treated.

Praly, N.; Hillion, M.; Bonnal, C.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Petit, N.

2012-07-01

83

Multi-stage selection catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in lean burn engine exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. These studies have prompted the development of schemes that use an oxidation catalyst to convert NO to NO{sub 2}, followed by a reduction catalyst to convert NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}. Multi-stage SCR offers high NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from catalysts that, separately, are not very active for reduction of NO, and alleviates the problem of selectivity between NO reduction and hydrocarbon oxidation. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-bum engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.

Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.O.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogling, E.

1998-01-26

84

Comparing late-cycle autoignition stability for single- and two-stage ignition fuels in HCCI engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of autoignition after top-dead-center (TDC) for both single- and two-stage ignition fuels have been investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The single-stage ignition fuel was iso-octane and the two-stage ignition fuel was PRF80 (80% iso-octane and 20% n-heptane). The results show that the heat-release rate and pressure-rise rate both decrease as the combustion is retarded

Magnus Sjöberg; John E. Dec

2007-01-01

85

Integrated modular engine configuration options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine concepts characterized by modular architecture, advanced technologies, and enhanced operability applicability to a wide range of missions (i.e., upper stage, space-based, transfer, lunar lander, ascent, and Mars lander propulsion systems). Two widely different propulsion system applications, a launch vehicle upper stage and a lunar lander vehicle, were developed around a common propulsion system architecture. These Integrated Modular Engine (IME) systems include propellant tanks, propellant distribution, and the rocket engines. This approach focused on automating and minimizing operations required for preparing and placing a propulsion system into operation. The versatility of the IME system architecture is described along with options to further integrate stage or vehicle functions.

Harmon, T. J.; Briley, G. L.

1993-11-01

86

Investigation of Upper-Surface-Blowing Nacelle Integration at Cruise Speeds Utilizing Powered Engine Simulators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various overwing nacelle designs were investigated on a representative four engine short haul aircraft configuration during a combined analytical and experimental program. Design conditions were M sub o = 0.7 and C sub L = 0.4. All nacelles had D shaped n...

E. T. Meleason O. D. Wells

1976-01-01

87

Designing and Evaluating a Climate Change Course for Upper-Division Engineers and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AOSS 300, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, was created to provide a mechanism for scientific exploration of the unexpected global environmental side effects of technological innovation with emphasis on issues of the atmosphere and oceans. The course is specifically designed to contribute to the desired Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) outcomes that engineering and science graduates possess "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of solutions in a global and societal context." To facilitate this new course a new suite of coupled Flash/PHP/MySQL tools have been created that allow personalization of the students' learning space and interaction with faculty. Using these tools students are challenged to actively participate in the construction of knowledge through development of on-line portfolios that influence course content. This paper reports on lessons learned in the first semester that will guide further course development.

Samson, P. J.

2002-12-01

88

Test Results of an Engineering Model 2-stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Cooling at 75 K and 130 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under contract with the Space Dynamics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center (LM-ATC) has built and tested the two-stage Engineering Model of a space flight pulse tube cryocooler, which provides simultaneous cooling at 75 K and 130 K. The cryocooler is robust and simple, consisting of a two-stage coldhead with no moving parts, driven by a linear flexure-bearing compressor and

D. Frank; J. Olson; E. Roth

2006-01-01

89

Variability of respiratory effort in relation to sleep stages in normal controls and upper airway resistance syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Investigation of the role of sleep states on the respiratory effort of controls and subjects with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) using nasal cannula\\/pressure transducer system and esophageal manometry.Patients and methods: One night's monitoring of sleep and breathing, including the determination of peak end inspiratory esophageal pressure (respiratory effort) with esophageal manometry and flow limitation with nasal cannula. Analysis

Christian Guilleminault; Dalva Poyares; Luciana Palombini; Uta Koester; Zerin Pelin; Jed Black

2001-01-01

90

How many lymph nodes are necessary to stage early and advanced adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon and upper rectum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymph-node yields in specimens resected for colorectal adenocarcinoma show considerable variations, raising the question whether the minimum lymph-node number recommended by the UICC (International Union Against Cancer) for pN0 classification represents an appropriate quality standard for specimen work-up. The number of pericolic lymph nodes recovered from 568 archival surgical colorectal carcinoma specimens located in the sigmoid or upper rectum

Sebastian Leibl; Oleksiyy Tsybrovskyy; Helmut Denk

2003-01-01

91

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Nathan Myhrvold; Peter Roopnarine

2011-01-01

92

Watershed Modelling in the Chemung and Upper Susquehanna River Basins Using the US Army Corps of Engineers Computer Package HEC-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Watershed modelling of gaged streams in the Chemung and Upper Susquehanna River Basins was attempted using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' HEC-1, Flood Hydrograph Package. The Clark method of unit hydrograph theory and the initial and constant loss rate...

J. C. Styron

1983-01-01

93

Integrated configuration effects of hypersonic upper body designs on Single Stage To Orbit non-circular bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of air breathing Single Stage To Orbit vehicles requires investigating configurations that integrate 'Tip to Tail' propulsion flowpaths, active aerodynamic control, and large propellant volumes. The selection of these configurations can vary from arrangements like a Conical Fuselage Wing Body to a Non-Circular Lifting Body. Specifically, the selection criterion relies on satisfying both the aeropropulsion requirements and the internal volume constraints needed to meet mission requirements. The focus of this paper is the relationship between aerodynamic control of the configuration and adequate propellant volume for Single Stage To Orbit vehicle mission requirements.

Cassidy, Patrick F.

1993-02-01

94

Early Stages of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines Using Linked CFD and Chemical Kinetics Computations and its Application to Natural Gas Burning Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a numerical model for the early stages of combustion in Natural Gas engines using linked CFD and detailed chemical kinetics. The importance of such a combustion device stems from the characteristics of natural gas which make it an attractive near-term olution for the automotive emissions problem.The 3-D simulation, which incorporates a chemical model, turbulence model and ignition

D. YOSSEFI; M. R. BELMONT; S. J. ASHCROFT; M. ABRAHAM; R. W. F. THURLEY; S. J. MASKELL

1997-01-01

95

Ammonites and infrazonal subdivision of the Dorsoplanites panderi zone (Volgian Stage, Upper Jurassic) of the European part of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight biohorizons, four of which were previously distinguished in Central Poland and four new (contradictionis, pommerania, kuteki, and pilicensis), were identified in the Dorsoplanites panderi zone of the Upper Jurassic Middle Volgian Substage of the European part of Russia on the basis of the succession of ammonites of the Zaraiskites genus. The peculiarities of variations of the ammonite complexes in space and time testify to the stepwise warming during the Panderi Chron and the occurrence of the significant latitudinal temperature gradient in the Middle Russian Sea. New species Zaraiskites kuteki is described.

Rogov, M. A.

2013-08-01

96

Engineering evaluation of the nonintegrated two-stage liquefaction process concept. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents process engineering evaluation of two alternate non-integrated two-stage liquefaction (NITSL) processes. The process concept consists of: thermal liquefaction, critical solvent deashing and catalytic hydrotreatment of SRC. The scope of work included development of design criteria using data obtained at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, and designs of two 15,000 TPD coal feed plants to produce distillate products from Kentucky-9 coal. The two plant designs differed from each other in terms of operating severity of thermal and catalytic reactors. The Base Case (NITSL-1) involved low severities in both reactors, and the Variant Case (NITSL-2) high severities in both reactors. Heat and material balances were prepared for each of the two cases using CHEMSHARE computer simulation programs. Each case was designed for self-sufficiency with respect to its hydrogen, fuel, steam and other utilities requirements except electric power which was purchased. Hydrogen was produced via gasification of coal and the ash concentrate recovered in the critical solvent deashing unit. Products included naphtha, middle distillate, heavy distillate and blended fuel oil (heavy distillates and NITSL Residue). Overall thermal efficiency of 68.3% was realized in the Base Case and 70.7% in the Variant Case. Total plant investment based on 1st Quarter 1983 dollars for the Base Case was estimated to be $MM 2,531.1, and for the Variant Case $MM 2,411.2. The levelized product cost expressed in mid-1983 dollars was calculated to be $6.15 and $5.88 per million Btu (HHV) for the Base Case and the Variant Case, respectively. 7 refs., 16 figs.

Udani, L.H.; Wilusz, J.A.; Kulak, E.; Maddocks, R.R.

1985-06-01

97

Brunnstrom Recovery Stage and Motricity Index for the Evaluation of Upper Extremity in Stroke: Analysis for Correlation and Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to find out first whether Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and motricity index (MI) were correlated with each other and second to observe whether the two assessment tools were sensitive to changes regarding the rehabilitation outcome. Forty-six stroke patients who were admitted to the Stroke Rehabilitation Unit at our…

Safaz, Ismail; Ylmaz, Bilge; Yasar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan

2009-01-01

98

Single-stage surgery combining nerve and tendon transfers for bilateral upper limb reconstruction in a tetraplegic patient: case report.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old tetraplegic patient had paralysis of elbow, thumb, and finger extension and thumb and finger flexion. We transferred axillary nerve branches to the triceps long and upper medial head motor branches, supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve, and brachioradialis tendon to the flexor pollicis longus and flexor superficialis of the index finger. Surgery was performed bilaterally 18 months after spinal cord injury. At 12 months after surgery, we performed bilateral distal radioulnar arthrodesis percutaneously. By 22 months postoperatively, we observed triceps strength scoring M3 bilaterally and full metacarpophalangeal joint extension scoring M4 bilaterally. The thumb span was 53 and 66 mm from the proximal index phalanx on the right and left sides, respectively. Pinch strength measured 1.5 kg on the left side and 2.0 kg on the right. Before surgery, the patient was incapable of grasping; after surgery, a useful grasp had been restored bilaterally. PMID:23751324

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

2013-06-07

99

Simulation Research on Two Stage Injection of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The16V280ZJ diesel engine is the power unit of Chinese main railway diesel locomotive. This article has established this diesel engine electron injection system's complete machine model using the GT software. Then a series of combustion cases of heavy duty D.I. diesel engine are calculated based on typical split injection modes. Simulation parameters are modified by comparison with given experimental results.

Minghai Li; Chunlin Hou; Qian Wang

2010-01-01

100

The First Stage of an Engineering Educational Program on Yatsushiro National College of Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a lecture, “Introduction to Engineering” , as a step for the first year of an engineering education program on Yatsushiro National College of Technology. The purpose of the lecture is to motivate students in terms of the variety of engineering work and how such work is related to humans' lives, and to educate students regarding the history of engineering. In this pursuit, students receive lectures in an omnibus from a plurality of teachers from a plurality of departments. This thesis introduces a characteristic and contents these lectures and their effect as measured by questionnaires filled out by students.

Iwatsubo, Kaname

101

10-year changes in upper body strength and power in elite professional rugby league players--the effect of training age, stage, and content.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to observe changes in maximal upper body strength and power across a 10-year period in professional athletes who were experienced resistance trainers. Six professional rugby league players were observed with test data reported according to 2 important training stages in their professional careers. The first stage (1996-1998) monitored the changes as the subjects strived to establish themselves as elite professionals in their sport. The remaining test data are from the latter stage (2000-2006), which is characterized by a longer competition schedule and shorter periods devoted to improving physical preparation. The changes in upper body strength, assessed by the 1 repetition maximum bench press and mean maximum power during bench press throws with various barbell resistances of 40-80 kg, were assessed by effect size (ES) and smallest worthwhile change (SWC) statistics. Large increases in strength and power of approximately 22-23% were reported across the 10-year period, however, only small changes (as determined by ES) in strength or power occurred after year 2000 till 2006. This result of only small changes in strength or power despite 6 years of intense resistance training was attributed to 3 main factors. Key among them are the possible existence of a "strength ceiling" for experienced resistance trainers, the Long-term Athlete Development model, and possibly an inappropriate volume of strength-endurance training from 2004 to 2005. The fact that an SWC in strength and power occurred in the year after the cessation of strength-endurance training suggests that training program manipulation is still an influencing factor in continuing strength and power gains in experienced resistance trainers. PMID:23358318

Baker, Daniel G

2013-02-01

102

EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDIES OF STAGED COMBUSTION USING A REACTOR ENGINEERING APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion research, long dominated by mechanical engineers, is becoming increasingly a chemical engineering application. It is therefore desirable to have a well defined reactor in which to conduct combustion chemistry studies. A two zone laboratory reactor emulating a perfectly stirred reactor + plug flow reactor (PSR + PFR) sequence has been constructed and validated for use in high temperature normal

FUHE MAO; ROBERT B. BARAT

1996-01-01

103

IFESS: a computer tool to aid structural engineers at the conceptual design stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual stage of building design is where the most important decisions are made, for example, in determining the choice of structural elements such as floors. However, decisions made at this stage, particularly those involving costs and speeds, are often based on subjective judgement, rules of thumb and familiarity. This paper reports on the development of a computer spreadsheet tool

A. Idrus; J. Newman

2003-01-01

104

Four new engine families set the stage for new Sulzer diesel  

SciTech Connect

To stay in the forefront of engine technology a company needs good R&D facilities for development work, good production facilities to rationalize the design on the cost side, and service feedback from the field to consider the clients` requirements. For New Sulzer Diesel (NSD), excellent R&D facilities are now provided by the company`s new Technology Center in Oberwinterthur, Switzerland, which was inaugurated in late October 1995. Among these new products announced over the last 14 months are the Sulzer PTA96C low-speed diesel, the two mid-range RTA48T and RTA58T engines and, most recently, the large-bore medium-speed ZA50S engine. The design and specifications of these new engines are described briefly.

Lunberger, K.

1996-01-01

105

Test Results of an Engineering Model 2-stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Cooling at 75 K and 130 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under contract with the Space Dynamics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center (LM-ATC) has built and tested the two-stage Engineering Model of a space flight pulse tube cryocooler, which provides simultaneous cooling at 75 K and 130 K. The cryocooler is robust and simple, consisting of a two-stage coldhead with no moving parts, driven by a linear flexure-bearing compressor and powered by a high-efficiency electronic controller that includes ripple suppression and vibration cancellation. A distance of up to one meter separates the coldhead and compressor. The cryocooler was designed to simultaneously provide 0.75 W of cooling at 75 K and 6 W cooling at 130 K while conductively rejecting heat at 313 K. Total system power is 125 W. Performance data is presented, showing excellent cryocooler performance.

Frank, D.; Olson, J.; Roth, E.

2006-04-01

106

Comparison of NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products with constraints from high quality and density of raingauge networks in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEXRAD's Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) product replaced the Stage III product started in October 2003 at the West Gulf River Forecast Center (WGRFC) where includes most of the Texas and New Mexico. The MPE is an integrated product of rain gauge, NEXRAD, and satellite (GOES) precipitation estimates. The main objective of MPE is to reduce both areal-mean bias error and local bias error. The overall improved quality of MPE over Stage 3 is evident at the WGRFC. However, so far, there is no quantitative evaluation in a relative long period (one year or more) of a large area. In this study, high quality and density of 50 raingauge networks (6 minutes temporal resolution) in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas are used to evaluate both the Stage III (years 2001 and 2002) and MPE (year 2004) products. In this study, we propose two types of comparison (1) directly compare collocated radar cell and gauge of all rainfall events and (2) only compare collocated radar cell and gauge of homogeneous/uniform rainfall events. To find uniform rainfall events, 6-mintutes raingauge rainfall were used to calculate the correlation coefficient (CC) and coefficient of variation (CV) of a hour among one central gauge and its surrounding gauges (>= 4). For a particular rainfall hour, when CV is < 0.5 and CC is > 0.5, or CV is <0.1, the rainfall event of this hour is thus selected as a uniform or homogeneous rainfall event. Our preliminary results of CC from all rainfall events and homogeneous rainfall events for year 2004 (MPE) are 0.79 and 0.96, respectively. This indicates an overall good quality of MPE product in comparison with raingauge rainfall, especially for the homogeneous rainfall events. Work is in progress.

Xie, H.; Wang, X.

2006-05-01

107

Opportunity of Deliberation on Mental Attitude for One?s Life, Necessary for Engineering Students and Engineers at Earlier Stage of One?s Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Opportunity to deliberate mental attitude for one?s life, is necessary for engineering students and engineers at earlier stage of one?s life, in order to have more solid value and purpose of one?slife in unsteady and diverse era. In order to realize the above demands, the effective training system is proposed, in which two opportunities are effectively combined just as follows ; 1) opportunity to deliberate and to confirm both value and purpose of one?s life, at about 20 years old, when one?s basic personality is formed, and 2) opportunity to deliberate and to contemplate one?slife, at about 40 years old, when one reaches a half of one?s life. In order to improve the effect of the training system, not only 1) ‘Memo System?, to deepen one?s deliberation of life through making clear a latent part of a phenomenon, but also 2) ‘Assent-Dissent Discussion?, that creates a new concept through ‘Sublation-Aufheben? of disagreement opinions between different fields, are very effective. Furthermore, opportunity of experience to social contribution at one?sown risk, together with this training system, will bring more practicable ability and will to the students and engineers.

Shimada, Wataru

108

An exhaust manifold pressure estimator for a two-stage turbocharged Diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaust manifold pressure is a crucial variable for turbocharged Diesel engines, affecting the torque production and the emissions through variations in the EGR mass flow and in the residual mass fraction in the cylinder. This variable is therefore considered very relevant for closed-loop EGR and turbocharger control. However, in production applications, the cost of the pressure sensor and the

Fabio Chiara; Marcello Canova; Yue-Yun Wang

2011-01-01

109

A knowledge-based engineering tool to estimate cost and weight of composite aerospace structures at the conceptual stage of the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to address issues related to the development of a knowledge-based engineering system for estimating manufacturing cost and weight of a composite structure at the conceptual stage of a design. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The system has been developed in the CATIA V5 knowledge environment and is applied to structures made of composite materials. At the conceptual stage

Jin-Woo Choi; Don Kelly; John Raju

2007-01-01

110

A cost-benefit analysis on the deletion of the inertial upper stage factory acceptance testing versus a decrease in mission reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the benefits attributable to deleting the factory acceptance testing for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) space booster and the possible impacts on mission reliability. A review of the literature revealed limited research on the advantages or disadvantages of performing acceptance testing on commercial programs. However, a review of DoD policy recognized the advantages of cost and time savings when developmental and operational tests are combined. An analysis was performed on the anomalies that occurred during the acceptance testing for the vehicles involved in this study to determine whether all hardware defects would be detected by a later phase of testing. The research suggested that only two chance failures would be undetected by flight testing resulting in a decrease in reliability of .03 percent and a savings of $646,500 per IUS vehicle if acceptance testing was eliminated. The study concluded that current reliability could be maintained by additional flight testing but further research was necessary before a modification to the program could be implemented.

Horn, Michael H.

1991-09-01

111

Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Haddix, T. M.; Holte, L. D.; Wilson, R. H.; Bartron, M. L.; Kalie, J. A.; DeHaan, P. W.; Ardren, W. R.; Holm, R. J.; Jaeger, M. E.

2012-01-01

112

Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

1992-07-01

113

Diesel engine smoke reduction by controlling early thermal cracking process and activation later stage combustion  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation, extensive soot reduction was attempted with two parallel approaches: blending of oxygenated fuel and generation of strong turbulence during the combustion process. In the early stage of usual diesel combustion, the droplets in the spray are thermally cracked to low boiling point components as C2 to C5 due to the shortage of oxygen, and these components result in the formation of soot. To control the thermal cracking process, the addition of oxygenated additives to the fuel was attempted. As a result, remarkable soot reduction was obtained by adding small amounts of oxygen to the fuel. To generate strong turbulence, a small chamber connected to the main combustion chamber was added and small amount of fuel were injected into the chamber, resulting in significant soot reduction. Additionally, a clearly apparent NO{sub x}reduction was obtained by the mixing control.

Murayama, T. [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering Coll., Sapporo (Japan); Chikahisa, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Fujiwara, Y. [Hokkaido Inst. of Tech., Sapporo (Japan)

1998-07-01

114

New insights into induction of early-stage neovascularization in an improved tissue-engineered model of psoriasis.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that putrescine induces a psoriatic phenotype in tissue-engineered skin. The initial aim of this study was to further develop this in vitro model by introducing endothelial cells to mimic the increased vascularization found in psoriasis. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, which did not express CD34 or CD31 in 2D culture, were added to de-epidermised acellular human dermis and cultured for 4 weeks. For induction of a psoriatic phenotype, putrescine was added during this period. We report that after 4 weeks of culture, and particularly when exposed to putrescine, this model showed expression of vertically organised clusters of CD31 positive cells in the dermis in the absence of any exogenous endothelial cells. Further investigation in 2D cell cultures showed an indirect effect of putrescine on normal keratinocytes causing them to produce soluble factors that increased expression of CD133, CD34 and CD31 in cultured human dermal fibroblasts, previously negative for these antigens. This study reports a new and improved model of psoriasis for in vitro studies and offers a new insight into early stage neovascularization, which is of relevance not only to psoriasis, but to tissue engineering and wound healing in general. PMID:20718049

Krajewska, Emilia; Lewis, Claire; Staton, Carolyn; MacGowan, Alice; MacNeil, Sheila

2010-08-17

115

Integrated Modular Engine technology needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Modular Engine (IME) system conceptual design has been developed for meeting the upper stage propulsion requirements. This design was used to identify key technical areas for further development and demonstration. A number of factors are favorable for introducing advanced technologies: new materials are available, controls and health monitoring are vastly more capable, and new fabrication methods are coming

Timothy J. Harmon; Gary Briley; Ron Pauckert; John Vilja

1993-01-01

116

Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parchaso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

2012-01-01

117

Combustion engineering two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow coal-gasification process-development-unit program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program was conducted to design, construct and operate a two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow, low-Btu coal-gasification process-development unit (PDU) having a capacity of 5 tons\\/h of coal. The program was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. The objectives of the program were: (1) to demonstrate the capability and suitability of

S. L. Darling; R. W. Koucky; M. C. Tanca

1983-01-01

118

Combustion Engineering two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow coal-gasification-process development-unit program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program was conducted to design, construct and operate a two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow, low-Btu coal-gasification-process development unit (PDU) having a capacity of 5 tons\\/h of coal. The program was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. The objectives of the program were: (1) to demonstrate the capability and suitability of

S. L. Darling; R. W. Koucky; M. C. Tanca

1983-01-01

119

Icehouse, cool-water carbonate ramps: the case of the Upper Pliocene Capodarso Fm (Sicily): role of trace fossils in the reconstruction of growth stages of prograding wedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach, based on the use of trace fossils combined with analysis of physical and biogenic structures, identification\\u000a of key surfaces, and reconstruction of stratigraphic architecture, proved to be of critical value in defining the depositional\\u000a environments, elucidating the dynamics of progradation, and characterizing the various systems tracts of Upper Pliocene progradational\\u000a wedges (Capodarso area, Sicily) generated by cool-water

Francesco Massari; Assunta D’Alessandro

2010-01-01

120

Upper Extremity Prosthetics Research. Human Tracking. Sensory Motor Control. Research on Criteria and Measures of Value in Engineering Design. Underwater Research Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Upper Extremity Prosthetics Research: Experimental investigation of the Heidelberg Pneumatic Arm; Experimental investigatiion of the Northwestern attitudinally controlled elbow; Experimental investigation of the French electric hand; Exploration...

J. Lyman

1967-01-01

121

Interaction between Gastric and Upper Small Intestinal Hormones in the Regulation of Hunger and Satiety: Ghrelin and Cholecystokinin Take the Central Stage  

PubMed Central

Several peptides are produced and released from endocrine cells scattered within the gastric oxyntic and the small intestinal mucosa. These peptide hormones are crucially involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions and food intake by conveying their information to central regulatory sites located in the brainstem as well as in the forebrain, such as hypothalamic nuclei. So far, ghrelin is the only known hormone that is peripherally produced in gastric X/A-like cells and centrally acting to stimulate food intake, whereas the suppression of feeding seems to be much more redundantly controlled by a number of gut peptides. Cholecystokinin produced in the duodenum is a well established anorexigenic hormone that interacts with ghrelin to modulate food intake indicating a regulatory network located at the first site of contact with nutrients in the stomach and upper small intestine. In addition, a number of peptides including leptin, urocortin 2, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 interact synergistically with CCK to potentiate its satiety signaling effect. New developments have led to the identification of additional peptides in X/A-like cells either derived from the pro-ghrelin gene by alternative splicing and posttranslational processing (obestatin) or a distinct gene (nucleobindin2/nesfatin-1) which have been investigated for their influence on food intake.

Stengel, Andreas; Tache, Yvette

2013-01-01

122

Magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and stable isotope stratigraphy of an Upper Miocene drill core from the Salé Briqueterie (northwestern Morocco): A high-resolution chronology for the Messinian stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a high-resolution stable isotope, carbonate, magnetostratigraphic, and biostratigraphic record from a 175-m drill core from the Salé Briqueterie, which is part of the Bou Regreg section in northwestern Morocco. The Salé drill core spans the interval from paleomagnetic Chron C4n partim to C3r (earliest Gilbert), which represents the time leading up to and including the isolation and desiccation of the Mediterranean (i.e., the Messinian salinity crisis). During Chrons C3An and C3Ar (6.935 to 5.894 Ma) the isotope and carbonate signals display quasi-periodic variations with estimated periods of 40 and 100 kyr, respectively. We interpret the 40-kyr ?18O variations as reflecting changes in global ice volume caused by obliquity-induced changes (41 kyr) in solar insolation in polar regions. The 100-kyr carbonate variations probably represent long-term modulation of the amplitude of the precessional cycle (˜21 kyr), which is not resolved by our sampling frequency. The cyclic nature of the oxygen isotope signal permits us to extend the isotope nomenclature of Shackleton et al. (1994a) from stage TG24 in Chron C3r (earliest Gilbert) to stage C3Ar.?18O.18 at the base of Chron C3Ar (6.935 Ma). A major change in paleoceanographic conditions is recorded across the Tortonian/Messinian boundary, which we correlate to Chron C3Bn at 7.04 Ma. Benthic foraminiferal ?18O values increased by an average of 0.4‰ in two steps at 7.17 Ma and 6.8 Ma and ?13C values decreased by 0.7-0.8‰ between 7.1 and 6.8 Ma, representing the late Miocene carbon shift. The first step in ?18O values coincides with an inferred reversal in deep water circulation through the Rifian Corridor, and the second correlates with the base of the Tripoli Formation and onset of "crisis conditions" in the Mediterranean. We suggest that the increase in ?18O values represents, at least in part, an increase in global ice volume that lowered sea level and contributed to the establishment of a negative water budget in the Mediterranean. Average ?18O values remained high throughout most of Chrons C3Ar and C3An, reaching maximum ?18O values during isotope stages TG20 and 22 in Chron C3r (earliest Gilbert). The glacio-eustatic falls associated with these events may have resulted in the complete isolation of the Mediterranean from the world ocean (Shackleton et al., 1994a). Following stage TG12 in the Salé record, there exists a trend toward progressively lower ?18O values that may represent a series of marine transgressions that eventually reflooded the Mediterranean and ended the Salinity Crisis.

Hodell, David A.; Benson, Richard H.; Kent, Dennis V.; Boersma, Anne; Rakic-El Bied, Kruna

1994-12-01

123

Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved Stirling engine, having an expansion piston and a compression piston sliding into respective cylinders and defining an upper side and a lower side therein, a heater and a cooler on the upper side of the cylinders, and a regenerator in communication between the heater and cooler, comprising: a piston rod integral with each piston and

C. M. Bartolini; V. Naso; F. Suraci

1988-01-01

124

Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems. 16 refs.

Foster, R.W.; Escher, W.J.D.; Robinson, J.W.

1989-01-01

125

Creating an Inquiry-based Engineering Learning Environment for Upper Elementary Students Through Successful K-16 Service Learning Partnerships: The Happy Hollow Elementary School Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the cultivation and growth of one successful engineering service learning partnership and how these types of K-16 relationships may influence interest, motivation, and learning in the fields of engineering, science, mathematics, technology, and education. Recommendations for sustaining long term relationships are offered and the mutually beneficial academic and professional benefits of this type of educational methodology are

Joy Garton Krueger; Sherry Anderson; Mick Lyle; John Nyenhuis

2005-01-01

126

Sanso-methan(center dot)nenryo rich preburner no nensho tokusei. (Combustion characteristics of the LO(sub 2)/GCH(sub 4) fuel-rich preburners for staged combustion cycle rocket engines).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies are in progress aiming at developing a first-stage engine for a space transporting airframe that uses hydrocarbon fuel which is more advantageous than liquid hydrogen in terms of spacific impulse, cost, and handling. This paper describes a combust...

F. Ono H. Tamura H. Sakamoto M. Sasaki

1991-01-01

127

NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report Number 37. Factors Motivating and Impending Information-Seeking by Early Career-Stage U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists - Results of an Initial Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected results from an investigation that focused on the factors motivating and impeding information-seeking by early career-stage (i.e., new) U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are reported. Undertaken as a Phase 1 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospa...

E. W. Morrison T. E. Pinelli

1996-01-01

128

Surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Upper tract urothelial cell carcinoma accounts for 5% of all urothelial tumors. Compared to lower urinary tract tumors, upper tract urothelial carcinoma is diagnosed more frequently at advanced stages. Open radical nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard treatment option for upper tract tumors. However, with the advancement of minimally invasive techniques and the benefits of these procedures regarding perioperative morbidity, cosmesis, and earlier convalescence, these options have shown promise in managing the patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Despite the perioperative advantages, concerns exist on the oncological safety after minimally invasive surgery. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

Bird, Vincent G.; Kanagarajah, Prashanth

2011-01-01

129

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

DOEpatents

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

1984-01-01

130

Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

Theil, Elvira

1997-01-01

131

Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

Theil, Elvira

1997-01-01

132

Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with increasing pubertal Tanner stage in males but remained stable during puberty in females. Design: Upper airway dynamic function during sleep was measured over the course of puberty. Participants: Normal subjects of Tanner stages 1 to 5. Measurements: During sleep, maximal inspiratory airflow was measured while varying the level of nasal pressure. The slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship (SPF) was measured. Results: The SPF correlated with age and Tanner stage. However, the relationship with Tanner stage became nonsignificant when the correlation due to the mutual association with age was removed. Females had a lower SPF than males. Conclusions: In both sexes, the upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with age rather than degree of pubertal development. Thus, changes in sex hormones are unlikely to be a primary modulator of upper airway function during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Although further studies of upper airway structural changes during puberty are needed, we speculate that the changes in upper airway function with age are due to the depressant effect of age on ventilatory drive, leading to a decrease in upper airway neuromotor tone. Citation: Bandla P; Huang J; Karamessinis L; Kelly A; Pepe M; Samuel J; Brooks L; Mason TA; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):534-541.

Bandla, Preetam; Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie; Kelly, Andrea; Pepe, Michelle; Samuel, John; Brooks, Lee; Mason, Thornton. A.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

2008-01-01

133

Advantages of using the Ate A 20 kN high performance storable propellant engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper tries with simple examples to point out the benefits of a turbopump fed storable engine/stage for low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous transfer orbit/geosynchronous Earth orbit (GTO/GEO) missions. A comparison is made between pump/pressure fed storable, cryogenic, and solid stages. A table is also presented with mass benefits based on Ariane 5, Titan 4, H-II and a 'spaceplane' performance in LEO orbit. Volvo has studied such a turbopumpfed storable engine/stage called ATE (Advanced Technology Engine) with other European companies. The thrust of this engine is 20 kN and the ISP is 345 s. Volvos contribution has been on the engine system level as well as on design of the turbopump and nozzle. Typical applications for the ATE and similar engines (XLR-132) for an Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OPM, OTV) or for long duration scientific missions with large propulsion needs. For Europe, the ATE is also a possible choice for a new upper stage for the Ariane 5. If the ATE is used for LEO to GEO missions instead of pressurefed engine, the payload gain would be about 800 kg for both the Ariane 5 and Titan IV class. There is also a 20% returned mass increase for using the ATE for the scientific mission of returning a sample from a comet. The second part in this paper highlights the design of the ATE engine.

Palmnas, Ulf; Hanneback, Thomas

134

Engineering Support Services for the DOE/GRI Coal-Gasification Research Program. Evaluation of the Data Base for Single-Stage Gasification of Peat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kellogg has reviewed the data base generated by IGT in the 6 inch PDU for the single stage fluidized bed gasification of peat. Kellogg's central finding is that the existing data base should be expanded by further testing in the PDU, after necessary modif...

L. E. Bostwick D. A. Hubbard K. V. Shah L. T. Do

1982-01-01

135

A transient model of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RL10A-3-3A rocket engines have served as the main propulsion system for Centaur upper stage vehicles since the early 1980's. This hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine continues to play a major role in the American launch industry. The Space Propulsion Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center has created a computer model of the RL10 engine, based on detailed component analyses and available test data. This RL10 engine model can predict the performance of the engine over a wide range of operating conditions. The model may also be used to predict the effects of any proposed design changes and anticipated failure scenarios. In this paper, the results of the component analyses are discussed. Simulation results from the new system model are compared with engine test and flight data, including the start and shut-down transient characteristics.

Binder, Michael P.

1995-06-01

136

Collaborative Stage  

Cancer.gov

Required SEER Site-Specific Factors for Collaborative Stage - This tool highlights the site-specific factors (SSF) required for staging, obsolete SSF’s, clinically significant SSFs, as well as those not required.

137

Stage design  

DOEpatents

A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

Shacter, J.

1975-12-01

138

Cooling the GIFTS FPA: Summary and Analysis of Engineering Test Results Performed at SDL Using the Lockheed Martin Two-stage Cryocooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), in partnership with NASA Langley Research Center is building the Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) instrument. This instrument will advance the current weather forecasting capability by studying the motion of water vapor in the atmosphere. The GIFTS focal plane assemblies (FPAs) must operate below 60 K to work properly. The spectrometer of the instrument which includes aft optics and an interferometer must operate below 150K. These two temperature zones will be cooled by a 2-stage pulse tube refrigerator built by Lockheed Martin. Prior to integration into the instrument, SDL performed extensive testing of the cyrocooler coupled to an ammonia loop heat pipe. This testing was done at SDL to characterize and validate the thermal and mechanical performance of the cryocooler. The thermal performance of the cryocooler as well as mechanical vibration characteristics observed during testing will be presented. This paper will discuss the challenges of designing, building, and integrating a cryocooler into a cryogenic instrument with very sensitive components, such as an interferometer, that can be adversely affected by mechanical vibrations in the system.

Jensen, Scott M.; Hansen, Glen; Nast, Ted; Roth, Eric

2006-04-01

139

[Compression neuropathy of upper limbs in miners].  

PubMed

The authors analyzed prevalence of individual types of upper limb compression neuropathy in miners of coal and iron-ore mines. Medical examination covered main mining occupations exposed to suchhazards as local vibration, cooling microclimate, functional overstrain. Some types of compression neuropathies appeared to depend on duration of exposure to the hazards and on the occupation hands disease stage. PMID:16898248

Rodin, S I; Matveeva, O V

2006-01-01

140

Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract represents only 5% of all urothelial cancers. The 5-year cancer-specific survival in the United States is roughly 75% with grade and stage being the most powerful predictors of survival. Nephroureterectomy with excision of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice and bladder cuff en bloc remains the gold standard treatment of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, while endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches are rapidly evolving as reasonable alternatives of care depending on grade and stage of disease. Several controversies remain in their management, including a selection of endoscopic versus laparoscopic approaches, management strategies on the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the value of chemotherapy in upper tract disease. Aims of this paper are to critically review the management of such tumors, including endoscopic management, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and management of the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the emerging role of chemotherapy in their treatment.

Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Koukourakis, Michael; Pistevou-Gobaki, Kiriaki; Papaloukas, Christos; Kostakopoulos, Athanasios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

2009-01-01

141

FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665, INTERIOR. UPPER LEVEL. CONCRETE WALLS. INL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665, INTERIOR. UPPER LEVEL. CONCRETE WALLS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

142

TryEngineering: Engineered Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that engages students in engineering practices as they design, construct, and test a musical instrument that will repeat a pattern of three sounds. Students first examine the construction and operation of the recorder, then work in groups to build instruments from common household items. The driving question of the lesson: How do engineers design musical instruments that will reliably produce notes, tones, and patterns of sound? Editor's Note: A recorder is a type of open-ended column wind instrument. Recorders are easier to study than the better-known transverse flute: they are cheaper to acquire and the dynamics are far less complex. This lesson is appropriate for the upper elementary grades, but can also be adapted for older students by introducing concepts of standing waves and fundamental frequency. See Related Materials for content support in teaching the physics of music. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

143

Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved Stirling engine, having an expansion piston and a compression piston sliding into respective cylinders and defining an upper side and a lower side therein, a heater and a cooler on the upper side of the cylinders, and a regenerator in communication between the heater and cooler, comprising: a piston rod integral with each piston and moving coaxially to the cylinder axis; a bottom on the lower side of each cylinder for forming respective lower chambers, the rods being slidingly and sealingly engaged through the bottoms; labyrinth dynamic seals formed on the expansion piston, for allowing a seepage of fluid from the upper to the lower side of the cylinder. By means of absorption by the fluid in the lower side of the cylinder, of the heat transferred by conduction from the walls of the cylinder and the expansion piston, a lower Stirling cycle is established in the lower chambers, which produces a double-action effect with heat recovery and work production.

Bartolini, C.M.; Naso, V.; Suraci, F.

1988-08-02

144

Upper and lower integrals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The function \\/(~) whose upper and lower integrals are considered is taken~ to be an arbitrary single-valued real function defined at every point of a given interval (a, b). To shorten the discussion the interval is supposed finite. The def'm~ion of the upper and lower integrals is by means of pencils of auxiliary functions such as are used in

Margaret D. Kennedy; S. Pollard

1935-01-01

145

Using Upper Limits of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The widespread use of molecular markers to estimate parentage makes possible a new index of the opportunity for sexual selection. After demonstrating the need for a new measure, I develop one based on the upper limit on sexual selection. I describe what sets the upper limit for each sex by showing how maximum fecundity increases with number of mates,

PATRICK D. LORCH

2005-01-01

146

Seal mechanism for a Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seal mechanism for a Stirling engine of the type having a displacer piston and a power piston slidably disposed inside a cylinder, the displacer piston having an upper ring groove and a lower ring groove and the power piston having one or more ring grooves, is described comprising: an upper displacer piston ring which is mounted in the upper

K. Kawajiri; M. Fujiwara; T. Nomaguchi; K. Tsuchino; Y. Kazumoto

1988-01-01

147

Nodal staging  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lymph node metastases are a poor prognostic indicator in many tumours and therefore accurate identification during staging is important prior to commencing treatment. The presence of lymph node metastases can significantly alter patient management and therefore accurate diagnosis of the presence and extent of nodal disease can help optimise patient management. In this review, the radiologic features that aid in the differentiation of malignant and benign lymph nodes are discussed. The keys to successful interpretation on cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging of nodal metastases are highlighted. The clinical role of positron emission tomography-CT imaging for nodal staging is discussed and emerging imaging techniques that may further improve nodal staging accuracy are surveyed.

Koh, Dow-Mu

2009-01-01

148

Binary Stage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fluid amplifier is utilized in a computing system. The pure fluid binary counting stage comprises a pair of pure fluid amplifiers coupled together through a delay and energy storage system such that one of the fluid through a delay and energy storage ...

R. E. Bowles

1965-01-01

149

Staging tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metaphorically, tourists can be considered to enact a range of performances on distinct stages. Their enactions are distinguished according to various factors, including their competence, reflexivity, the extent to which they are directed and regulated, or participate in group or solo performances. Providing examples from research carried out at the Taj Mahal in India, particular attention is directed to the

Tim Edensor

2000-01-01

150

Left upper lobectomy.  

PubMed

This is a 32-year-old woman with a left peripheral lung lesion about 3 cm in diameter found by physical examination. Lung cancer of the left upper lobe is suspected in preoperative diagnosis. PMID:24040545

Zhao, Jungang; Ren, Kaiming; Tang, Jun

2013-08-01

151

Upper respiratory infections.  

PubMed

Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

Grief, Samuel N

2013-07-12

152

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6.89 kPa (1psi) band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Complete destratification of the liquid and ullage was achieved at these fill levels. The axial jet was effective in providing tank pressure control within the same pressure control band at the 90% fill level. However, at the 50% level, the system reached a point at which it was unable to extract enough energy to keep up with the heat leak into the tank. Due to a hardware problem, the recirculation pump operated well below the axial jet design flow rate. Therefore, it is likely that the performance of the axial jet would have improved had the pump operated at the proper flow rate. A CFD model is being used to determine if the desired axial jet performance would be achieved if a higher pump flow rate were available. Testing conducted thus far has demonstrated that both TVS concepts can be effective in destratifying a propellant tank, rejecting stored heat energy, and thus, controlling tank pressure.

Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

153

Next Generation: Unmanned Launch Vehicles and Upper Stages: The Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focus is on common vehicle elements, higher mission success, and lower transportation cost with respect to the common needs of the Department of Defense, NASA, and U.S. Industry. The following are presented in viewgraph form: (1) perspectives on missi...

C. R. Gunn

1991-01-01

154

Competitive and Cooperative Inventory Policies in a Two-Stage Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a two-stage serial supply chain with stationary stochastic demand and fixed transportation times. Inventory holding costs are charged at each stage, and each stage may incur a consumer backorder penalty cost, e.g. the upper stage (the supplier) may dislike backorders at the lower stage (the retailer). We consider two games. In both, the stages independently choose base stock

Gérard P. Cachon; Paul H. Zipkin

1999-01-01

155

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a life threatening condition in children. Common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding\\u000a in children include variceal hemorrhage (most commonly extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction in our settings) and mucosal\\u000a lesions (gastric erosions and ulcers secondary to drug intake). While most gastrointestinal bleeding may not be life threatening,\\u000a it is necessary to determine the source, degree and possible

Vidyut Bhatia; Rakesh Lodha

2011-01-01

156

Diagnostics and prognostics for stage separation failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering assessment of the stage separa- tion fault is reported for two-stage, vertically stacked space vehicle. The analysis combines explicit modeling of the fault evolution failure with analytical estimations based on simplifie physics-of-failuremodels. The followingsequence of events is analyzed: (i) structural dynamics of the nozzle extensionduringthe impact; (ii) yieldingand burningthrough the damaged nozzle under the plume loading during engine

Dmitry G. Luchinsky; Vasyl Hafiychu; Vadim Smelyanskiy; John M. Hanson; Ashley D. Hill; Mary Werkheiser

2011-01-01

157

Safety Aspects of Prepackaged Liquid Propellant Stages for Strategic Missiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews the salient safety-relevant design and operational aspects of past and current small, prepackaged, storable liquid propellant missile stages such as Bullpup, Lance, Minuteman II Propulsion System Rocket Engine, and Peacekeeper Stage IV....

C. J. Meisl L. P. Combs

1984-01-01

158

Engine construction  

SciTech Connect

An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured to the cylinder head and the side of the piston opposite from the connecting rod, the motion producing member having a heat treated high temperature extended shape memory position and a low temperature low energy compressed position, the Nitinol member being of hollow tubular form and having pressure and return hoses connected thereto for supplying and removing cooling fluid into and from the Nitinol member, an electrical heating device connected to the Nitinol member, whereby the Nitinol member is easily compressed with relatively little force from the extended shape memory position to the compressed position when cooling fluid is supplied thereto to reduce the temperature of the Nitinol member to or below the lower limit of the transformation temperature range and the Nitinol member is automatically extended with relatively great force from the compressed position to the shape memory position when heated by the heating device to or above the upper limit of the transformation temperature range.

Dillon, C.L.

1984-03-06

159

VATS left upper lobectomy  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old female patient was admitted due to multiple ground-glass nodules in the left upper lobe, which was found on her health screening 20 days ago. Preoperative examinations showed no obvious abnormality. Also, no distant metastasis was found during the preoperative examinations, and her heart and lung functions could tolerate the lobectomy. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed multiple ground-glass nodules on the left lung, which were considered to be early malignant lesions; In addition, no remarkably swollen lymph node was visible in the mediastinum. Therefore, VATS left upper lobectomy was performed, and intraoperative frozen section confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.

Qian, Liqiang; Wang, Jun

2013-01-01

160

VATS left upper lobectomy.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old female patient was admitted due to multiple ground-glass nodules in the left upper lobe, which was found on her health screening 20 days ago. Preoperative examinations showed no obvious abnormality. Also, no distant metastasis was found during the preoperative examinations, and her heart and lung functions could tolerate the lobectomy. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed multiple ground-glass nodules on the left lung, which were considered to be early malignant lesions; In addition, no remarkably swollen lymph node was visible in the mediastinum. Therefore, VATS left upper lobectomy was performed, and intraoperative frozen section confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. PMID:24040546

Zhao, Xiaojing; Qian, Liqiang; Wang, Jun

2013-08-01

161

Equilibrium-Staged Separations: A Bibliography (1991)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a bibliographic listing of published journal papers concerned with distillation and other equilibrium-staged separation processes during 1991. The references are taken from the 40 most important chemical engineering journals. This paper provides an update to the literature as provided in a previous bibliographic paper (1). A complete bibliography of the chemical engineering literature for 1991 has also

Martyn S. Ray

1993-01-01

162

Performance of Stirling Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed five kinds of high- and low-temperature differential Stirling engines and their engine performance was investigated experimentally. In order to determine the parameters that affect engine performance, experimental results were discussed and compared with results calculated using analytical methods. We show an arranging method for the experimental results, and consider the performance of general Stirling engines. After using the arranging method with nondimensional numbers obtained by a dimensional analysis, a prediction method, which is used at the early design stage, is formulated. One of the nondimensional numbers in this prediction method is calculated based on engine specifications, including the properties of the working gas. The prediction method can predict engine speed, output power, the effect of working gas and operating conditions.

Iwamoto, Shoichi; Hirata, Koichi; Toda, Fujio

163

V160 Stirling engine program update  

SciTech Connect

Development efforts being made toward the preproduction stage of the V160 Stirling engine are examined. The history of continued reliability encompassing all engine models is reviewed, and efforts towards engine manufacturing and cost reduction are addressed. A preview is given of the initial product line based on the V160 engine and substantiated through testing of the offered configurations.

Johansson, L.; Torstensson, B.; Williams, T. Y.; Houtman, W.H.; Monahan, R.

1988-01-01

164

Nuclear engine system simulation (NESS) program update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second phase of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis code has been completed. The standalone, versatile Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code provides an accurate, detailed assessment of engine system operating performance, weight, and sizes. The critical information is required to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. This recent

Christine M. Scheil; Dennis G. Pelaccio; Lyman J. Petrosky

1993-01-01

165

Let the Volgian stage stay in the Jurassic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 the Volgian Stage was divided into the Jurassic and Cretaceous units, removed from the Geological Time Scale, and substituted by the Tithonian Stage according to the guidelines of the Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Committee of the Russian Federation (ISC RF). Consequently, the Upper Volgian Substage including three zones (five subzones) was placed into the Berriasian Stage (the Cretaceous) proceeding from

V. A. Zakharov; M. A. Rogov

2008-01-01

166

Imaging Earth's upper mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

New images of the three-dimensional structure of Earth's upper mantle revealed by large-scale processing of global seismic data are beginning to change our understanding of convection in the planet. The processing techniques combine data from hundreds of seismograms to distinguish weak features from the background noise. These procedures are termed ``stacking'' and are similar in many respects to reflection seismic

Peter M. Shearer

1993-01-01

167

Upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes principles of rehabilitation, according to the ‘international classification of functioning’ model, for people who either required upper limb amputation or have a congenital absence. It also provides a description of current clinical practice at one of the largest prosthetic service providers in the UK.The aim is to provide an overview for any health professional who may work

Sachin Watve; Greg Dodd; Ruth MacDonald; Elizabeth R. Stoppard

2011-01-01

168

Upper marine riser package  

Microsoft Academic Search

An upper marine riser package, operable from a relatively moveable structure, such as on a floating vessel which is subject to movement by wave action and the like, and adapted to be connected and lowered through a confined opening such as a rotary table in the vessel and supportable on a diverter housing on the vessel is described comprising: a

J. S. Lim; D. L. Jones

1987-01-01

169

Upper Grades Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five activities suitable for upper grades but adaptable for lower grades. Activities focus on character shapes, "use" command (Atari Pilot), foreign language programing (Pilot), LOGO aestheometry (creating curved shapes through the intersection of successively drawn straight lines), and stock market transactions using a spreadsheet. (JN)

Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

1984-01-01

170

Engineering TV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing Engineering TV, an innovative online video program by engineers for engineers. Twice a week, each 5-8 minute episode shows cutting-edge technology in action and looks behind the scenes as today's engineers shape tomorrow's breakthroughs.

2010-04-14

171

Shakespeare's Staging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California at Berkeley's English Department has undertaken the enormous task of presenting "a survey of current information, opinions and visuals about...the original nature of Shakespearean performance during his lifetime, and of its development through four centuries thereafter." Visitors can click on "Performance Galleries" at the top of the homepage to be taken to ten albums of over 900 images. Some of the topics of the albums that you can link to are "Productions from the Sixteenth through the Twentieth Century", "Productions in Britain 1960-1998", and "Unusual Representations of Shakespeare Performances". The albums contain items such as playbills, photos and drawings of performances, and photos of the rebuilt Globe Theatre. On the far left side of the homepage, visitors can click on "Videos" to view a documentary series about Elizabethan life, as well as excerpts of performances staged by the Shakespeare Program of UC Berkeley at Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. The videos can be viewed by "Latest", "Most Viewed", "Highest Rated", and "Featured". Visitors interested in other websites that explore Shakespeare performance will want to click on "Relevant Websites" on the far left side of the homepage, to access a link that has 27 Shakespeare performance related websites.

172

Value Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines value engineering, shows why it is necessary, and emphasizes the engineer's responsibility for using engineering disciplines in the design of a product. Recognizing that value engineering is a duty of the professional engineer, the paper stresses application of value engineering to attain Armed Services goals, and reduce costs while speeding up delivery of the weapon system. Many

A. Zappacosta

1962-01-01

173

4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

174

Overview of Transonic to Hypersonic Stage Separation Tool Development for Multi-Stage-to-Orbit Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of research efforts at NASA in support of the stage separation and ascent aerothermodynamics research program is presented. The objective of this work is to develop a synergistic suite of experimental, computational, and engineering tools and ...

K. J. Murphy P. G. Bunning B. N. Pamadi W. I. Scallion K. M. Jones

2004-01-01

175

Ceramic Materials in Piston Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Properties of ceramic materials and suitability of ceramic components for diesel and spark-ignition engines are discussed and the present stage of preparedness and the feasibility of ceramic technology are evaluated in this literature review. Ceramic mate...

M. Kytoe N. O. Nylund

1986-01-01

176

Optical engine initiation: multiple compartment applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern day propulsion systems are used in aerospace applications for different purposes. The aerospace industry typically requires propulsion systems to operate in a rocket mode in order to drive large boost vehicles. The defense industry generally requires propulsion systems to operate in an air-breathing mode in order to drive missiles. A mixed system could use an air-breathing first stage and a rocket-mode upper stage for space access. Thus, propulsion systems can be used for high mass payloads and where the payload is dominated by the fuel/oxidizer mass being used by the propulsion system. The pulse detonation wave engine (PDWE) uses an alternative type of detonation cycle to achieve the same propulsion results. The primary component of the PDWE is the combustion chamber (or detonation tube). The PDWE represents an attractive propulsion source since its engine cycle is thermodynamically closest to that of a constant volume reaction. This characteristic leads to the inference that a maximum of the potential energy of the PDWE is put into thrust and not into flow work. Consequently, the volume must be increased. The technical community has increasingly adopted the alternative choice of increasing total volume by designing the engine to include a set of banks of smaller combustion chambers. This technique increases the complexity of the ignition subsystem because the inter-chamber timing must be considered. Current approaches to igniting the PDWE have involved separate shock or blast wave initiators and chemical additives designed to enhance detonatibility. An optical ignition subsystem generates a series of optical pulses, where the optical pulses ignite the fuel/oxidizer mixture such that the chambers detonate in a desired order. The detonation system also has an optical transport subsystem for transporting the optical pulses from the optical ignition subsystem to the chambers. The use of optical ignition and transport provides a non-toxic, small, lightweight, precisely controlled detonation system.

Hunt, Jeffrey H.

2009-05-01

177

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

178

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

179

Environmental mitigation and the Upper Yazoo Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Engineer District, Vicksburg (CELMK), evaluated an array of flood control alternatives, which included up to 167 water control structures, 52 confined disposal facilities, and 47 borrow pits as part of a major flood control effort known as the Upper Yazoo Projects (UYP). Many of these project features are capable of ponding water and thus can be managed to mitigate for aquatic, terrestrial, waterfowl, and wetland resource losses expected to occur as a result of the UYP. The benefits to be derived will depend upon the land uses and management of the ponded areas. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station developed procedures to quantify the cost and habitat benefits of the many management options for these sites. The mitigation strategy was derived by optimizing various combinations of land acquisition, reforestation, land-use change, and site hydrology so that the least-cost mitigation plan could be selected.

Dardeau, E. A.; Fischenich, J. C.

1995-02-01

180

VATS right upper lobectomy.  

PubMed

Standard thoracotomy has been considered as the classic approach and only choice for the diagnosis and treatment of certain thoracic diseases especially in patients with peripheral lung cancer. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is a new minimally invasive thoracic surgery through small incisions in the intercostal muscle of chest wall by using modern camera technology, high-tech equipment and surgical instrument. Consequently, VATS has become the preferred main method for peripheral lung cancer in the last two decades. The aim of the present paper is to describe and discuss the operative techniques of VATS for right upper lobectomy (RUL). PMID:24040558

Kang, Gan-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Yang; Xie, Song-Ping; Huang, Jie

2013-08-01

181

Upper GI foreign body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The efficacy of flexible endoscopy by a single endoscopist in the therapy of foreign body ingestion was assessed at an adult\\u000a urban emergency hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifty-one adult patients with upper GI foreign body ingestion treated at Detroit Receiving Hospital from 1988 to 2004 were\\u000a identified. Endoscopic and hospital medical records were reviewed to evaluate etiology, treatment, and outcomes for these\\u000a patients.

W. C. Conway; C. Sugawa; H. Ono; C. E. Lucas

2007-01-01

182

Upper extremity golf injuries.  

PubMed

Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury. PMID:24032581

Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

2013-01-01

183

Hydrogen powered car: Two-stage modelling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a research work on intelligent two-stage modelling system to estimate a hydrogen internal combustion engine performances including: engine torque and oxides of nitrogen emissions. In the created models, the ignition timing is chosen as a local input, while the engine speed, throttle position, injection duration, injection end angle and lambda are chosen as global inputs. While previous

Tien Ho; Vishy Karri

2011-01-01

184

Engineering Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing Education (TIME Center), examines the various careers available to engineers. Engineers work in many fields including design and development, testing, production, and maintenance. This page contains links to many engineering related websites such as A SightseerâÂÂs Guide to Engineering, Cyberchase Online, NASAâÂÂs Education Website, and Discover Engineering.

2011-10-11

185

Structure of divided combustion chamber for diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structure is described defining a divided combustion chamber of a diesel engine consisting of: an upper ceramic member having a substantially hemispherical head and a lower ceramic member having an injection port, the lower ceramic member meeting with the upper ceramic member at an interface to form the divided combustion chamber therein, the upper ceramic member including at least

T. Morita; Wakasa; Y. Ogawa; T. Ogasawara

1986-01-01

186

AJ26 Rocket Engine Test  

NASA Video Gallery

Engineers at NASA’s John C. Stennis Space Center conducts the second in a series of verification tests on an Aerojet AJ26 engine that will power the first stage of the Orbital Sciences Corporation’s Taurus® II space launch vehicle. The 55-second test directly supports NASA's partnerships to enable commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station.

Paul Foerman

2010-12-17

187

EUV engineering test stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is an EUV laboratory lithography tool. The purpose of the ETS is to demonstrate EUV full-field imaging and provide data required to support production-tool development. The ETS is configured to separate the imaging system and stages from the illumination system. Environmental conditions can be controlled independently in the two modules to maximize EUV throughput and

Daniel A. Tichenor; Glenn D. Kubiak; William C. Replogle; Leonard E. Klebanoff; John B. Wronosky; Layton C. Hale; Henry N. Chapman; John S. Taylor; James A. Folta; Claude Montcalm; Russell M. Hudyma; Kenneth A. Goldberg; Patrick P. Naulleau

2000-01-01

188

Analysis of the second stage of the STAR 28 mm two-stage light gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering model of the second stage operation of the 28 mm two-stage light gas gun at the Shock Technology and Applied Research (STAR) facility of Sandia National Laboratories has been developed. It describes the piston motion and loading of the accelerated reservoir (AR) and the coupled projectile motion. The model was developed to better assess the safety of the

Donald B. Longcope

1995-01-01

189

Upper airway radiographs in infants with upper airway insufficiency.  

PubMed Central

Upper airway measurements in nine infants considered to be at risk of upper airway insufficiency, six of whom presented after an apnoeic episode, were compared with measurements taken in two age groups of healthy infants. Paired, inspiratory and expiratory, lateral upper airway radiographs were obtained while the infants were awake and breathing quietly. The radiographs of all nine infants demonstrated narrowing in the oropharyngeal portion of the airway during inspiration and in six infants there was ballooning of the upper airway during expiration. Seven of the nine infants subsequently experienced recurrent apnoeic episodes which required vigorous stimulation to restore breathing. Experience suggests that respiratory phase timed radiographs are a useful adjunct to the evaluation of infants who are suspected of having upper airway dysfunction. They provide information regarding both the dimensions and compliance of the upper airway as well as the site of any restriction. Images

Tonkin, S L; Davis, S L; Gunn, T R

1994-01-01

190

Multiwall Thermal Protection System Engineering Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of the metallic multiwall concept in thermal protection of hypersonic winged spacecraft is investigated. Examples of different thermal loads on the Advanced Space Transportation System upper and lower stages are given. The main requirements for relate...

H. Grallert K. Keller

1990-01-01

191

Upper mesosphere temperature changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle of July 2000 an extremely strong solar proton event happened (named "Bastille II"), which caused a major polar cap absorption due to the strong increase of D-region electron density by high energy particle precipitation resulting from a major coronal mass ejection on the sun. The concurrent ionospheric disturbances led to enhanced electric fields, which caused an increase of the ion drift and the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere and possibly in the upper meso-sphere as well. Through the enhanced ion drag increases of temperature are usu-ally re-sulting. We tried to recognize this in observations of Polar mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) with the SOUSY Svalbard Radar and of incoherent scatter with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. We find two inde-pendent observations, which indicate a potential temperature increase of the upper mesopause region due to ion and neutral heating: (1) During the strongest D-region electron density enhancement we recognized a dis-appearance of PMSE above 86 km lasting over a fraction of a day. This could be ex-plained by disappearance (melting) of ice particles due to heating (2) We also recognized that the incoherent scatter spectrum above the PMSE region was wider than estimates deduced from temperature profile models. This can be ex-plained by a temperature enhancement. We also estimated the heating rate from the incoherent scatter electron density and the electric field measured with the ESR. The neutral heating rate of a few Kelvin per day, which was deduced with conventional assumptions, however, cannot fully explain the tem-perature increases needed to understand the observations (1) and (2). Other possibilities, such as composition changes, are considered.

Roettger, J.; Fukao, S.

192

Engineering sustainable engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is one of the global grand challenges of the 21st century. In order for future generations to enjoy a satisfactory quality of life, the current generation must find ways to meet humanity's needs for energy, shelter, food and water in ways that are environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. Engineers must be trained to design systems and technologies that have

M. L. Sattler; K. Alavi; V. C. P. Chen; S. P. Mattingly; K. J. Rogers; Y. P. Weatherton; B. Afotey; M. Rani

2010-01-01

193

Competitive and Cooperative Inventory Policies in a Two-Stage Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

stage may incur a consumer backorder penalty cost, e.g. the upper stage (the supplier) may dislike backorders at the lower stage (the retailer). We consider two games. In both, the stages independently choose base stock policies to minimize their costs. The games differ in how the firms track their inventory levels (in one, the firms are committed to tracking echelon

Gerard P. CachonPaul; H. Zipkin

1999-01-01

194

Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

None

2010-01-14

195

Esthetic enhancements in upper blepharoplasty.  

PubMed

Traditional upper blepharoplasty typically involves resection of excess upper eyelid skin and muscle with or without fat excision. Well-established concepts in periorbital aging have been challenged by newer morphologic and histologic studies that have characterized the changes that occur in the various periorbital soft tissue components. Several modified or adjunctive techniques have recently emerged to improve esthetic outcomes in upper blepharoplasty. The authors review surgical technique in detail: nasal fat repositioning, orbicularis oculi preservation, increasing lateral upper eyelid fullness, lacrimal gland resuspension, internal brow elevation, and glabellar myectomy, along with complications and aftercare involved with procedures. PMID:23186764

Lee, Judy W; Baker, Shan R

2013-01-01

196

Stirling engines  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

Reader, G.T.; Hooper

1983-01-01

197

Roles of upper-level processes in tropical cyclogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have focused mostly on the impact of lower-level vorticity growth and other lower-level processes on tropical cyclogenesis (TCG). In this study, the importance of upper-level processes in TCG is studied in terms of the minimum sea-level pressure (MSLP) changes with two cases exhibiting different warm-core heights and vorticity structures due to their developments in the respective weak- and strong-sheared environment. Results show that the upper-level warming could account for more than 75% the MSLP changes in both cases. Widespread deep convection during the early TCG stage tends to warm the upper troposphere and induce meso-?-scale surface pressure falls. Upper-level flow and vertical wind shear (VWS) will suppress the formation of a warm core due to the presence of weak inertial stability, whereas the development of upper-level divergent outflows favors its formation. Results also show that TCG is triggered when the upper-level warming amplitude and depth increase as a result of weak or significantly reduced ventilation and VWS aloft. Results suggest that both the upper- and low-level processes be considered in the understanding and prediction of TCG.

Zhang, Da-Lin; Zhu, Lin

2012-09-01

198

Upper marine riser package  

SciTech Connect

An upper marine riser package, operable from a relatively moveable structure, such as on a floating vessel which is subject to movement by wave action and the like, and adapted to be connected and lowered through a confined opening such as a rotary table in the vessel and supportable on a diverter housing on the vessel is described comprising: a diverter for diverting drilling fluid and gas from a subsea, well, a tilting means connected to the diverter to allow tilting movement between the diverter, diverter housing, vessel and the remainder of the package, a slip joint with riser tensioning means forming part thereof connected to the tilting means to compensate for vertical movement between the well and the vessel. The slip joint comprises an inner barrel and an outer barrel. The inner barrel being sized to telescope within the outer barrel and further including means supporting the inner barrel with respect to the diverter housing, and cylinder assemblies connected to the support means and to the outer barrel and subject to the fluid pressure within the cylinder assemblies to compensate for vertical motion of the vessel. A rotation bearing is connected to part of the slip joint to allow rotational movement between the well and the part. The package is connectable to a string of risers and lowered through the confined opening and the diverter housing and to a source of air and fluid under pressure for operating the package.

Lim, J.S.; Jones, D.L.

1987-12-15

199

Parametric design study of a 20 kN high performance storable propellant pump-fed engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in propulsion system performance are necessary to meet the projected requirements of the future European spacecraft launches and the orbit transfers in the 1990s. The availability of new heavy launchers, like Ariane 4 and 5, will enable large spacecraft to be used in the future space scenario. The orbital manoeuvring of these spacecraft will require substantial propulsion. The baseline L5 upper stage of Ariane 5 and the former Hermes spaceplane, features 20 kN pressure-fed propulsion system. Significant performance gain and mass reductions like lower launch mass or larger payloads would be achieved if a high-pressure pump-fed engine will be used. An in-house program has been initiated with the objectives to conduct trade-off studies and design efforts necessary to define a high performance storable propellant pump-fed engine in the 20 kN thrust class. The design objective is to have a highly reliable, high performance engine (specific impulse above 340 s) of compact size, capable of long operation (1 h) and several starts and stops (200 during its 20 h life time). This paper presents the results of the initial engine definition study which includes engine cycle evaluation and selection, engine/system integration, engine trade-off studies, detail turbopump configuration study and component arrangement.

Palmnäs, U.; Sundén, R.

200

Diffusion tensor MRI of early upper motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative system disorder affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. Despite supportive electro- physiological investigations, the involvement of the upper motor neuron is often difficult to assess at an early stage of disease. Diffusion tensor MRI provides an estimate of the orientation of fibre bundles in white matter on the basis of

Miriam Sach; Gerhard Winkler; Volkmar Glauche; Joachim Liepert; Bernhard Heimbach; Martin A. Koch; Christian Buchel; Cornelius Weiller

2004-01-01

201

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. FLASH EVAPORATORS ARE PLACED ON UPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. FLASH EVAPORATORS ARE PLACED ON UPPER LEVEL OF EAST SIDE OF BUILDING. WALLS WILL BE FORMED AROUND THEM. WORKING RESERVOIR BEYOND. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. EXHAUST AIR STACK IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2579. Unknown Photographer, 6/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

202

Student self-assessment in upper level engineering courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faculty cannot ensure that educational program objectives and course learning objectives are being met unless both students and faculty become involved in the process of assessment and evaluation. In two senior-level courses, the authors are addressing these issues through course learning models that directly involve students via reflection, discussion, empowerment and ownership in the course. The relevance of the learning

Diane T. Rover; P. David Fisher

1998-01-01

203

Improved Outer Seal for First Stage Turbine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an outer air seal for the first stage turbine of an engine having the seal segments made of a high strength base material with a highly oxidation-corrosion resistant abradable alloy layer bonded to the surface. Another em...

A. F. Corey

1974-01-01

204

A Formal Semantics for Multilevel Staged Configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-level staged configuration (MLSC) of feature di- agrams has been proposed as a means to facilitate con- figuration in software product line engineering. Based on the observation that configuration often is a lengthy under- taking with many participants, MLSC splits it up into dif- ferent levels that can be assigned to different stakeholders. This makes configuration more scalable to realistic

Andreas Classen; Arnaud Hubaux; Patrick Heymans

2009-01-01

205

The control system for the X-33 linear aerospike engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear aerospike engine is being developed for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) applications. The primary advantages of a linear aerospike engine over a conventional bell nozzle engine include altitude compensation, which provides enhanced performance, and lower vehicle weight resulting from the integration of the engine into the vehicle structure. A feature of this integration is the ability to provide thrust vector control

J. E. Jackson; E. Espenschied; J. Klop

1998-01-01

206

AC 2007-189: ENGINEERING LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS - AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF TEACHING THE INTRODUCTORY ENGINEERING COURSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In an effort to introduce more realism and familiarity with the current manufacturing and testing equipment at an early stage of students’ engineering education, the introductorylevel engineering course offered by Albany State University’s transfer engineering program with Georgia Institute of Technology was transformed from a 3 hour lecture only to a 2 hour lecture and a 3 hour laboratory

Atin Sinha

2007-01-01

207

Adaptive hybrid system for automatic sleep staging.  

PubMed

We present a new adaptive system for automated sleep staging. The proposed system relies on each subject's own data for self-training. Conventional automatic sleep staging algorithms are either rule based, which typically fail to accurately model the complex nature of sleep signals, or numerical methods that use multi-patient training schemes, which suffer from inaccuracies caused by inherent inter-patient variability. The proposed system employs two stages. The first stage is a rule based reasoning engine that can be tuned conservatively to decrease or eliminate false positives, generating just enough samples to train the second stage, which is comprised of a neural network classifier. Results show that this hybrid approach provides an adaptive training scheme that performs more accurately compared to one of the popular commercially available systems. PMID:19162989

Hassaan, Amr A; Morsy, Ahmed A

2008-01-01

208

Cellular engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular engineering applies the principles and methods of engineering to the problems of cell and molecular biology of both\\u000a a basic and applied nature. As biomedical engineering has shifted from the organ and tissue level to the cellular and sub-cellular\\u000a level, cellular engineering has emerged as a new area. A cornerstone of much of this activity is cell culture technology,

Robert M. Nerem

1991-01-01

209

Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics.  

PubMed

One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented. PMID:23278223

Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian

2013-01-01

210

Turbopump design studies for the 20 KN ATE engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of a turbopump fed storable propellant engine/stage called the Advanced Technology Engine, ATE are presented. These studies have been performed under contracts from both the Swedish Space Agency and ESA. The engine thrust requirement is 20 kN and the specific impulse is 345 s. The paper focuses on turbopump design and component performance for the ATE engine application, starting from engine system aspects, such as mission, reliability and reusability requirements. The requirements regarding high chamber pressure and low propellant mass flows means that special attention has to be paid to the turbopump design. Layouts for two different engine cycle turbopumps are presented, the Gas Generator and Stage Combustion cycles. Component design data and performance estimates are presented for the Stage Combustion cycle, preferred by ESA based on engine cycle trade-off studies. The development of a Stage Combustion cycle turbopump can be achieved in 8 years with in total about 150 engine tests.

Hanneback, T.; Palmnas, U.

1992-08-01

211

A cable driven upper arm exoskeleton for upper extremity rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional robotic rehabilitation devices for upper extremity are bulky, heavy or lack the ability to provide joint level rehabilitation. Some designs address these issues by replacing rigid links of the exoskeletons with light weight cables. However these designs are controlled in position mode instead of force control which is desirable for rehabilitation. In this paper, a 5 degree-of-freedom cable-driven upper

Ying Mao; Sunil K. Agrawal

2011-01-01

212

Statistical Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A good resource for problems in statistics in engineering. Contains some applets, and good textual examples related to engineering. Some topics include Monte Carlo method, Central Limit Theorem, Risk, Logistic Regression, Generalized Linear Models, and Confidence. Overall, this is a well presented and good site for anyone interested in engineering or mathematics.

Annis, Charles

2008-12-30

213

40 CFR 92.912 - Staged-assembly exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption Provisions § 92.912 Staged-assembly...

2012-07-01

214

Maser and laser engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book is intended to be a textbook for an upper division one-semester electrical engineering course. Students are expected to have had some undegraduate course work in modern physics and in electromagnetic field theory. General aspects regarding devices based on quantum electronics are considered along with gas masers, solid masers, gas lasers, solid lasers, semiconductor lasers, liquid lasers, modulation techniques for lasers, and opto-electrical demodulators and energy convertors. Attention is given to quantum electric harmonic generators, Raman lasers, optical parametric interactions, holograms, optical terms, crystallographic terms, band theory, Schroedinger formulation and Dirac formation, and the quantum number of electrons in a hydrogen atom.

Ishii, T.K.

1980-01-01

215

A compact, high-performance cryogenic stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design concept and performance for a compact, high performance cryogenic upper stage. The design concept, developed during the Compact LOX Feed System Study, involves a toroidal liquid oxygen tank for both high-thrust and low-thrust STS launched OTV's. Study results show that a 17,000 lbm payload having a 38.5 ft maximum length can be delivered by the

D. A. Fester; J. W. Robinson; B. A. Bicknell

1986-01-01

216

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. The system uses precipitation and flow data, collected in real-time, along with forecasted flow from the National Weather Service to model and optimize reservoir operations and forecast downstream flows and stages, providing communities accurate and timely information to aid their flood-fighting. This involves integrating several simulation modeling programs, including HEC-HMS to forecast flows, HEC-ResSim to model reservoir operations and HEC-RAS to compute forecasted stage hydrographs. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. The effectiveness of this tool and Corps reservoirs are examined.

Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

2008-12-01

217

Engineered liver for transplantation.  

PubMed

Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for end stage liver failure and the shortage of donor organs severely limits the number of patients receiving transplants. Liver tissue engineering aims to address the donor liver shortage by creating functional tissue constructs to replace a damaged or failing liver. Despite decades of work, various bottoms-up, synthetic biomaterials approaches have failed to produce a functional construct suitable for transplantation. Recently, a new strategy has emerged using whole organ scaffolds as a vehicle for tissue engineering. This technique involves preparation of these organ scaffolds via perfusion decellularization with the resulting scaffold retaining the circulatory network of the native organ. This important phenomenon allows for the construct to be repopulated with cells and to be connected to the blood torrent upon transplantation. This opinion paper presents the current advances and discusses the challenges of creating fully functional transplantable liver grafts with this whole liver engineering approach. PMID:23791465

Uygun, Basak E; Yarmush, Martin L

2013-06-20

218

Palaeoanisotropy in the upper mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

CARTER1 has reviewed advances in understanding the steady-state flow of rocks with particular reference to the behaviour and anisotropic alignment of rocks in the upper mantle. Some form of high-temperature creep is clearly responsible for the distribution of continents and their first-order structures2. The difficulty is specifying the exact mechanism and the possible anisotropic alignments. Appropriate upper mantle temperatures and

Stuart Crampin

1977-01-01

219

Selected upper Cretaceous and Paleocene reservoirs in Hanna basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central Hanna basin offers multiple hydrocarbon targets in the Mesaverde Group (Campanian Stage), Lewis, Medicine Bow, and Ferris formations (Upper Campanian, Maestrichtian, and Danian Stages). Reservoirs within these formations are found in siltstone, sandstone, coal, an lignitic facies. Permeability is associated with intergranular porosity, microporosity in clays, cleating in coal and lignite, and fracture fields which may be independent

Ronald W. Pritchett

1984-01-01

220

Vulcain engine tests prove reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the oxygen/hydrogen Vulcain first-stage engine for the Ariane 5 involves more than 30 European companies and $1.19-billion. These companies are using existing technology to produce a low-cost system with high thrust and reliability. This article describes ground test of this engine, and provides a comparison of the Vulcain's capabilities with the capabilities of other systems. A list of key Vulcain team members is also given.

Covault, Craig

1994-04-01

221

Maximum work from isothermal chemical engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper bounds are derived for the work that can be extracted from simple isothermal chemical converters (chemical engines) that operate from a finite chemical potential reservoir. The incremental gains that stem from adding an arbitrary number of engines is derived. Results are analogous to those for heat engines fed by a finite heat capacity reservoir. Systems of practical interest include chemical reactions, electrochemical cells, and solid-state converters. The effectiveness of introducing more engines to utilize unexploited chemical potential is expressed in terms of the specific relation between mass transfer and chemical potential difference, often referred to as the device's current-voltage curve.

Gordon, J. M.

1993-01-01

222

Lubrication system for a vertical shaft engine  

SciTech Connect

A lubrication system is described for a vertical shaft engine comprising a crank case having an upper and a lower wall, a vertical crank shaft, a vertical balancing shaft, upper and lower bosses formed in the upper and lower walls for rotatably supporting the shafts, an oil pump housed in the lower wall, and an oil feeding passage for feeding lubricating oil from the pump to any part desired to be lubricated in the engine. The improvement comprises: the pump having a drive shaft housed under the balancing shaft, the lower end of the balancing shaft housed in one of the lower losses, the balancing shaft being rotatably supported by an antifriction bearing; and the antifriction bearing being held in an upper part of the one lower boss.

Hashigaki, Y.; Umeda, T.

1987-05-12

223

How Is Osteosarcoma Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... are the survival rates for osteosarcoma? How is osteosarcoma staged? Staging is the process of finding out ... the best course of treatment. Localized versus metastatic osteosarcoma Localized osteosarcoma A localized osteosarcoma is seen only ...

224

Prognosis following Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common, high risk emergency disorders in the western world. Almost nothing has been reported on longer term prognosis following upper GI bleeding. The aim of this study was to establish mortality up to three years following hospital admission with upper GI bleeding and its relationship with aetiology, co-morbidities and socio-demographic factors. Methods Systematic record linkage of hospital inpatient and mortality data for 14 212 people in Wales, UK, hospitalised with upper GI bleeding between 1999 and 2004 with three year follow-up to 2007. The main outcome measures were mortality rates, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative survival. Results Mortality at three years was 36.7% overall, based on 5215 fatalities. It was highest for upper GI malignancy (95% died within three years) and varices (52%). Compared with the general population, mortality was increased 27-fold during the first month after admission. It fell to 4.3 by month four, but remained significantly elevated during every month throughout the three years following admission. The most important independent prognostic predictors of mortality at three years were older age (mortality increased 53 fold for people aged 85 years and over compared with those under 40 years); oesophageal and gastric/duodenal malignancy (48 and 32 respectively) and gastric varices aetiologies (2.8) when compared with other bleeds; non-upper GI malignancy, liver disease and renal failure co-morbidities (15, 7.9 and 3.9); social deprivation (29% increase for quintile V vs I); incident bleeds as an inpatient (31% vs admitted with bleeding) and male patients (25% vs female). Conclusion Our study shows a high late as well as early mortality for upper GI bleeding, with very poor longer term prognosis following bleeding due to malignancies and varices. Aetiologies with the worst prognosis were often associated with high levels of social deprivation.

Roberts, Stephen E.; Button, Lori A.; Williams, John G.

2012-01-01

225

Plunging cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

A Stirling engine is described comprising, in combination, cylinders having tops and open lower ends, tanks containing hot and cold fluid, with a means plunging the cylinders out of phase into the hot and cold fluid. There is at least one connecting tube providing a passage between the upper portions of the cylinders. A working gas provided in the upper portion of the cylinders and the connecting tube.

Tailer, P.L.; West, J.H.

1987-06-30

226

Portable engine  

SciTech Connect

A portable engine is described comprising: a crankcase; an engine cylinder disposed within the crankcase; a cylinder cover for the engine cylinder; a fan connected with the engine cylinder; a fan cover fixed to a front surface of the crankcase to cover the fan and direct a blown stream of air toward the engine cylinder, the fan cover being disposed adjacent the cylinder cover and forming a step therebetween; a partition plate formed integrally with the crankcase to cover the step formed between the fan cover and the cylinder cover; and an ignition coil for the engine cylinder fixed to the partition plate. The fan cover is provided with an opening located at a position corresponding to a position where the ignition coil is disposed, and a cover plate removably fitted to the fan cover to cover the opening.

Ebinuma, T.; Kato, H.; Sakurai, M.

1988-05-17

227

Invisible Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

Ohashi, Hideo

228

Engineer Girl!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Operated by the National Academy of Engineering, Engineer Girl is a Web site that increases awareness of the opportunities that exist in this profession for women and girls. There is a lot of material covered on the site that will give anyone a good understanding of what engineering is and why it is important. Information about the many different disciplines within engineering are explained in such a way as to spark interest in girls. Tips that will help girls orient their education toward engineering are also included, like what classes to take, how to prepare for college, and how to get scholarships. Some links to other useful Internet resources are scattered around the site, as well as some interesting facts about women and engineering.

2001-01-01

229

44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

230

Oxide Coatings in Aero-Turbine Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxide coatings used for various components in the hot section of aero-turbine engines experience temperature gradients at various stages during their flight cycle. One gradient exists during steady-state, due to the combination of the combustion environme...

A. G. Evans J. W. Hutchinson

2008-01-01

231

40 CFR 89.915 - Staged-assembly exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Staged-assembly exemption. 89.915 Section 89.915 Protection of Environment...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions § 89.915 Staged-assembly exemption. You may ask us to provide a...

2012-07-01

232

Petrology of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Border Series crystallized downwards from the roof of the Skaergaard magma chamber. It met with the Layered Series that crystallized upwards from the floor in the Sandwich Horizon that contains the last and most evolved rocks of the intrusion. Previous investigations of the Upper Border Series (Naslund, 1984) have shown that the compositional trends of plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene largely mirror those of the Layered Series. At the same time it was argued that the crystallization sequence in Upper Border Series differed from the Layered Series in that apatite precipitated before magnetite that, in turn, appeared before Ca-rich pyroxene. From the existing data the magma from which the Upper Border Series crystallized was inferred to be enriched in SiO2, K2O, P2O5 and H2O relative to the magma in the lower parts of the intrusion. This has lead to the conception that the Upper Border Series crystallized from a chemically different magma. Here we present new petrography, mineralogy and bulk compositions for samples collected in three profiles through the Upper Border Series (Kilen, Hammerpas and Brødretoppen transects). Although euhedral apatite is present throughout most of the Upper Border Series, we interpret a marked increase in modal apatite late in the crystallization sequence as marking its first appearance on the liquidus at the crystallization front. The plagioclase An% at this level in the Upper Border Series is ˜40 and is identical with plagioclase An% at the level of apatite-in in the Layered Series. Similarly, we find that the plagioclase An% at the onset of FeTi-oxide and sulphide precipitation in the Upper Border Series (52 and 47, respectively) and Layered Series are alike. Finally, we interpret abundant augite in Upper Border Series rocks before magnetite-in as a cumulus phase. We therefore conclude that the crystallization sequences of the two series are identical. The new bulk rock data reveal that the Upper Border Series and the Layered Series are similar in the early stages of differentiation until after FeTi-oxides appear as primocrysts. In the more evolved rocks the Upper Border Series is gradually enriched in SiO2, K2O and incompatible trace elements relative to the Layered Series as shown by Naslund (1984). This is expressed by abundant interstitial granophyre pockets between the cumulus crystals in the Upper Border Series. However, we find that it is possible to explain the Upper Border Series as a mixture of cumulus minerals and reasonable liquid estimates. Thus the Upper Border Series appears to trap a higher fraction of residual liquid than is the case in the Layered Series. We conclude that the Upper Border Series crystallized from the same liquid as the Layered Series and mainly differs in a high amount of trapped liquid. This implies that the Skaergaard chamber had only one convecting magma body. References: Naslund, H.R.; Petrology of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion, Journal of Petrology, Vol. 25, Part 1, pp 185-212, 1984

Salmonsen, L.; Tegner, C.; Jakobsen, J. K.

2009-12-01

233

History of staged combustion cycle development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for ever greater delivered specific impulse led to an interest in very high chamber pressure operation, and with it, exploration of the staged combustion cycle as a means to extract the most energy possible from the chemical reactants. A major effort was supported by the Air Force with possible application to engines in the 1-2 million pound thrust class which used storable liquid propellants. These programs advanced the art by demonstrating the use of supercritical N2O4 as a coolant and introducing the photo etched platelet technique for manufacturing both injector and thrust chamber hardware. NASA initiated advanced engine design studies which identified the promise of high-pressure staged combustion and then accomplished subscale staged combustion testing at 2500 psia to demonstrate the feasibility of the combustion system. The Air Force also initiated efforts on high discharge pressure hydrogen pumps and on a high chamber pressure H2/O2 staged combustion engine concept which established the turbomachinery and cycle groundwork for the SSME.

Bumb, Anu; Hawk, Clark W.

1993-06-01

234

Information engineering  

SciTech Connect

The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

Hunt, D.N.

1997-02-01

235

Biological Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, presented by MIT and made available online via the university's Open Courseware site, presents a series of materials on biological engineering. Topics include introduction to biological engineering design, systems microbiology, computation for biological engineers and molecular principles of biomaterials. Materials are at both the undergraduate and graduate school levels. OpenCourseWare is free educational material online. Video lectures, assignments and exams are included. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

2011-05-13

236

Engine combustion chamber structure  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combustion chamber structure comprising an upper wall surface which is shaped like a pent-roof and into which an intake passage opens, a piston having on a head portion thereof a bulged portion conforming to the upper wall surface in shape, a first bowl portion which is formed substantially at the center of the bulged portion and which is substantially semispherical in shape, a pair of second bowl portions which respectively extend on opposite sides of the first bowl portion to the corresponding ends of the bulged portion of the piston along the edge of the bulged portion and are in communication with the first bowl portion, a swirl generating means which is adapted to generate a swirl of intake air in the combustion chamber when the engine load is light, and a spark plug disposed to substantially face the center of the first bowl portion from the upper wall surface; the swirl generating means being adapted to generate the swirl of intake air in a tangential direction in the combustion chamber; and the diameter of the first bowl portion being larger than the width of the second bowl portion.

Tanaka, H.

1988-09-13

237

Engine tribology  

SciTech Connect

Engine tribology continues to be an area of much interest and research, mostly due to the recognition of its impact on performance, efficiency, emissions, durability, and noise. This paper covers virtually all key tribological components of engines, including bearings, pistons, and skirts, piston rings, and valvetrains. Topics include: Engine Friction Modeling; FLARE: An Integrated Software Package for Friction and Lubrication Analysis of Automotive Engines- Part I: Overview and Applications; Lubrication Analysis of Piston Skirts; and Simulation of Secondary Dynamics of Articulated and Conventional Piston Assemblies.

Not Available

1992-01-01

238

Internal combustion engine cylinder liner coatings  

SciTech Connect

In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder liner mounted in a cylinder block, the improvement is described comprising a first coating of a wear and seizure resistance material applied to the inside surface of a prescribed upper portion of the cylinder liner, and a second coating of a surface treating agent composed principally of manganous phosphate applied to the remaining inside surface of the cylinder liner. The first coating is more wear and seizure resistant than the second coating at higher temperatures to which the upper portion of the cylinder liner is subjected during engine operation than is the other portion.

Yoshimitsu, T.

1987-11-17

239

Upper atmosphere research at INPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper atmosphere research at INPE is mainly concerned with the chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere, upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and the middle thermosphere. Experimental work includes lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol, measurements of stratospheric ozone by Dobson spectrophotometers and by balloon and rocket borne sondes, lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium, and photometric observations of O, O2, OH, and Na emissions, including interferometric measurements of the OI6300 emission for the purpose of determining thermospheric winds and temperature. The airglow observations also include measurements of a number of emissions produced by the precipitation of energetic neutral particles generated by charge exchange in the ring current. Some recent results of INPE's upper atmosphere program are presented.

Clemesha, B. R.

1984-09-01

240

Educating engineers for environmentally sensitive practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the question: "How can we educate undergraduate engineering students for environmentally sensitive practice?" In particular, the thesis explores possibilities for affective (attitude-related) learning goals for environmental education in engineering education. The thesis includes a case study in which an engineering hydrology course was altered to include more information about fish, and an assessment was done to determine whether the students who had used the altered curriculum showed greater awareness of the life-context of hydrology than those who had used the original curriculum. The case study is supported by preparatory research into (a) the expectations articulated by professional engineering associations about environmentally sensitive engineering practice; (b) the factors and players influencing environmental education in engineering education; (c) the literature regarding affective learning goals in environmental education, as it relates to engineering education; and (d) acceptable scholarly standards for evaluation of engineering courses and programs. The thesis findings reveal that expectations of environmentally sensitive engineering practice are high, but the response of the engineering education community is still in the early stages of development. Engineering education research has little overlap with environmental education research; because of the focus in engineering education on "knowledge" goals, the role of affective learning has thus far been neglected as a research area in environmental education in engineering education. The contribution of this civil engineering doctoral thesis on the subject of engineering education is its attempt to bring together ideas and practices from engineering education and the field of educational research in general. Because the doctoral work was based in an engineering school, supervised by engineering professors, and framed as an action research project, it stimulated discussion and learning about environmental education in engineering education, and catalysed movement by engineering professors toward better understanding of the impact of their environmental teaching.

Hyde, Rosamund Anne

241

Process of Raising Awareness about Engineering Ethics and Course Methodology Suitable for It  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is both necessary and very significant to provide young corporate engineers and university students with opportunity to learn engineering ethics systematically. We have discussed that the awareness about engineering ethics will be brought up through the following four stages : (1) seed-stage, where no one knows the concept of engineering ethics, (2) awareness-stage, where people have some knowledge of engineering ethics, (3) instruction-stage, where people learn systematically engineering ethics, and (4) fixing-stage, where engineering-ethical consciousness has taken root. These above stages should be taken into consideration to make a curriculum of engineering ethics education. This paper also describes a few issues. For example, the degree of raising awareness cannot be evaluated so accurately through scores of fragmentary examinations.

Abe, Takao

242

Structure of divided combustion chamber for diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structure is described defining a divided combustion chamber of a Diesel engine, comprising: an upper ceramic member having a substantially hemispherical head with a substantially hemispherical inner and outer surface and a lower ceramic member with an inner and an outer surface and having an injection port. The lower ceramic member cooperates with the upper ceramic member to form

T. Morita; A. Wakasa; Y. Ogawa; T. Ogasawara

1987-01-01

243

Staged Repository Development Programmes  

SciTech Connect

Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the probability of program success, including a redefinition of what success means. The key objective is to come to broad agreement on a program approach that will result in a suitable repository, performing better than required, with the flexibility to adapt to experience and be prepared to change or even reverse direction if conditions merit. The step-wise and transparent approach is intended to foster implementer and regulator behavior that earns the trust and confidence of the many diverse stakeholders and the public by proceeding in a manner that makes it clear that the program is striving to meet their needs and fully address their concerns.

Isaacs, T

2003-10-01

244

A Mechanism for Upper Airway Stability during Slow Wave Sleep  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The severity of obstructive sleep apnea is diminished (sometimes markedly) during slow wave sleep (SWS). We sought to understand why SWS stabilizes the upper airway. Increased single motor unit (SMU) activity of the major upper airway dilating muscle (genioglossus) should improve upper airway stability. Therefore, we hypothesized that genioglossus SMUs would increase their activity during SWS in comparison with Stage N2 sleep. Design: The activity of genioglossus SMUs was studied on both sides of the transition between Stage N2 sleep and SWS. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Twenty-nine subjects (age 38 ± 13 yr, 17 males) were studied. Intervention: SWS. Measurement and Results: Subjects slept overnight with fine-wire electrodes in their genioglossus muscles and with full polysomnographic and end tidal carbon dioxide monitors. Fifteen inspiratory phasic (IP) and 11 inspiratory tonic (IT) units were identified from seven subjects and these units exhibited significantly increased inspiratory discharge frequencies during SWS compared with Stage N2 sleep. The peak discharge frequency of the inspiratory units (IP and IT) was 22.7 ± 4.1 Hz in SWS versus 20.3 ± 4.5 Hz in Stage N2 (P < 0.001). The IP units also fired for a longer duration (expressed as a percentage of inspiratory time) during SWS (104.6 ± 39.5 %TI) versus Stage N2 sleep (82.6 ± 39.5 %TI, P < 0.001). The IT units fired faster during expiration in SWS (14.2 ± 1.8 Hz) versus Stage N2 sleep (12.6 ± 3.1 Hz, P = 0.035). There was minimal recruitment or derecruitment of units between SWS and Stage N2 sleep. Conclusion: Increased genioglossus SMU activity likely makes the airway more stable and resistant to collapse throughout the respiratory cycle during SWS. Citation: McSharry DG; Saboisky JP; DeYoung P; Matteis P; Jordan AS; Trinder J; Smales E; Hess L; Guo M; Malhotra A. A mechanism for upper airway stability during slow wave sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(4):555-563.

McSharry, David G.; Saboisky, Julian P.; DeYoung, Pam; Matteis, Paul; Jordan, Amy S.; Trinder, John; Smales, Erik; Hess, Lauren; Guo, Mengshuang; Malhotra, Atul

2013-01-01

245

Algorithm Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithm Engineering is concerned with the design, analysis, implementation, tun- ing, debugging and experimental evaluation of computer programs for solving algorithmic problems. It provides methodologies and tools for developing and engineering efficient al- gorithmic codes and aims at integrating and reinforcing traditional theoretical approaches for the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures.

Camil Demetrescu; Irene FinocchiGiuseppe; F. Italianok

246

Engineering emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore various definitions and characteristics of emergence, how we might recognise and measure emergence, and how we might engineer emergent systems. We discuss the TUNA (Theory Underpinning Nanotech Assemblers) project, which is investigating emergent engineering in the context of molecular nanotechnology, and use the TUNA case study to explore an architecture suitable for emergent complex systems

Susan Stepney; Fiona A. C. Polack; Heather R. Turner

2006-01-01

247

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)|

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

248

Holistic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors discuss how to prepare high-quality engineers who are better equipped to serve in the changing global marketplace, and suggest educators in pursuing the holistic concept of the "unity of knowledge" that will yield a definition of engineering more fitting for the times ahead. The unity of knowledge is fundamentally…

Grasso, Domenico; Martinelli, David

2007-01-01

249

Corrosion Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

White, Charles V.

250

Electrochemical Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to…

Alkire, Richard C.

1983-01-01

251

Corrosion engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy,

Fontana

1986-01-01

252

Implications of engine deterioration for fuel usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an assumed aircraft’s mission profile (consisting of several flight stages), using a bespoke computer simulation, the consequences of engine deterioration upon the weight of the fuel that has to be carried and consumed are predicted. This will help in making wiser management decisions (such as whether to remove an aero-engine from the aircraft for maintenance or to continue using

M. Naeem; R. Singh; D. Probert

1998-01-01

253

Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced near term (1990's) space-based Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine (OTVE) system was designed, and the technologies applicable to its construction, maintenance, and operations were developed under Tasks A through F of the Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program. Task A was a reporting task. In Task B, promising OTV turbomachinery technologies were explored: two stage partial admission turbines, high

N. B. Gustafson; T. J. Harmon

1993-01-01

254

THE ENGINEERING OF GENE REGULATORY NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The rapid accumulation of genetic information and advancement of experimental techniques have opened a new frontier in biomedical engineering. With the availability of well-characterized components from natural gene networks, the stage has been set for the engineering of artificial gene regulatory networks with sophisticated computational and functional capabilities. In these efforts, the ability to construct, analyze, and interpret

Mads Kærn; William J. Blake; J. J. Collins

2003-01-01

255

NASA Tests Rocket Engine for Commercial Vehicle  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi conducted a successful test firing Wednesday of the liquid-fuel AJ26 engine that will power the first stage of Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Taurus II space launch vehicle. Orbital and its engine supplier, Aerojet, test-fired the engine on Stennis' E-1 test stand. The test directly supports NASA's partnerships to enable commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station.

Jim Wilson

2010-11-10

256

Reliability Estimation Methods for Liquid Rocket Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliability estimation using the dispersive, binominal distribution method has been traditionally used to certify the reliability of liquid rocket engines, but its estimation sometimes disagreed with the failure rates of flight engines. In order to take better results, the reliability growth model and the failure distribution method are applied to estimate the reliability of LE-7A engines, which have propelled the first stage of H-2A launch vehicles.

Hirata, Kunio; Masuya, Goro; Kamijo, Kenjiro

257

Staged laser plasma accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present current results on staged electron acceleration in the LOASIS program at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal is to experimentally demonstrate laser driven electron acceleration in two stages, where each stage is driven by a separate laser pulse. This technology could provide the key to built compact laser driven accelerators which could potentially reach up to TeV in electron energy.

Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Shaw, Brian; Gonsalves, Antony; Nakamura, Kei; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.; Benedetti, Carlo; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

2012-12-01

258

Oscillation of Venus' upper atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the variability of Venus' upper atmosphere. We report discovery of a large (~ +\\/-30-50%) 9-day period density oscillation, derived from radar tracking of the Magellan spacecraft from 15 Sept 92 - 24 May 93. The densities correspond to 164-184 km altitude, 11°N latitude, and cover all local times. The wave is presumed to propagate upward from

J. M. Forbes; A. Konopliv

2007-01-01

259

Oscillation of Venus' upper atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the variability of Venus' upper atmosphere. We report discovery of a large (? ±30–50%) 9-day period density oscillation, derived from radar tracking of the Magellan spacecraft from 15 Sept 92 – 24 May 93. The densities correspond to 164–184 km altitude, 11°N latitude, and cover all local times. The wave is presumed to propagate upward from

J. M. Forbes; A. Konopliv

2007-01-01

260

Upper mantle transition region: Eclogite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper mantle transition region is usually considered to be peridotite which undergoes a series of phase changes involving spinel and post-spinel assemblages. There are difficulties associated with attempts to explain the 220, 400 and 670 km discontinuities in terms of phase changes in a peridotitic mantle. Moreover, in a differentiated earth there should be large quantities of eclogite in

Don L. Anderson

1979-01-01

261

Dust in the Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DURING October 1971 we observed a large influx of dust into the upper atmosphere at heights above 30 km. The magnitude of this influx appears to be considerably greater than anything previously reported. At the time of writing (January 1972) dust is still being observed.

Clemesha, B. R.; Nakamura, Y.

1972-06-01

262

UPPER-ATMOSPHERE HELIUM IONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental measurement of the ion concentration in the upper ; ionosphere is examined in light of a suggestion that helium is an important ; constituent of the high atmosphere. An isothermal region of helium ions at l600 ; deg K is found above approximately 1200 km. Consideration of the loss mechanism ; for helium ions by ion-atom interchange with

W. B. Hanson

1962-01-01

263

Internal combustion engine control system for use with turbo-charged engine, and method  

SciTech Connect

To permit operation of engines, particularly turbo-charged engines, at the maximum power level just short of causing engine knocking, and preventing engine knocking, temperatures in the engine are sensed and, if an excessive temperature signal is detected, for example excessive engine temperature, exhaust gas temperature, turbo-charged air, or turbo charger temperature, a fuel supply system, for example a fuel injection system, is controlled to enrich the mixture, for example by multiplying the fuel injection time by a factor as commanded by an additional control stage which stores in a memory, such as a rom engine operating characteristic curves. In addition, spark retardation by a retarding angle (Alpha 1) can be commanded, the spark retardation in combination with enriching of the fuel-air mixture being less than without such enrichment, thus permitting operation of the engine at appropriate power and efficiency level without noticeably increasing fuel consumption in the course of continued operation of the engine.

Denz, H.; Stumm, H.; Zechnall, M.

1983-06-28

264

Five Stages of Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which shows the stages that molecules go through as they move from the turbulent stage of viscous flow, transition into laminar flow, and then transition again into molecular flow. You may pause this animation between stages. Objective: Identify the five stages of flow. This simulation is from Module 98 of the Vacuum Technology and Gas Control Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). You can find this animation under the section "Vacuum Technology & Gas Controls." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

2012-11-20

265

Engineering your electrical engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectation and reality of engineering as a profession is described in this paper. As a new graduate professionals logically expect the first job to be working on a design project with new technology and actually designing a product or system all of the time. The reality is a bit different. They find that they need input from other engineers;

C. Jankowski

2006-01-01

266

Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

1987-12-01

267

Application of fuzzy theory to value engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently considerations regarding Target Costing and Cost Management have been focussed on Value Engineering (VE). In the stage of the Function Evaluation, one of the most significant stages of the VE job plan, either the absolute evaluation by amount of money or the relative evaluation by rating is employed, to evaluate the function of items and to determine the priority

Shin'ya Nagasawa

1997-01-01

268

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),

JEAN-LOUP BASCANDS; Joost P. Schanstra

2005-01-01

269

Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

2007-11-01

270

Single Stage Rocket Performance: Prediction and Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explicit three-dimensional, finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver with finile-rate H2\\/air combustion kinetics has been developed and calibrated to accurately and efficiently compute installed engine performance for complete single-stage-rocket (SSR) configurations. The Navier-Stokes formulation directly couples the global fluid dynamic, species continuity and transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation resulting in increased solution robustness and accuracy. Comparisons of predicted and

THOMAS P. GIELDA; T. Mark Walter; RAMESH K. AGARWAL

1994-01-01

271

Diesel Engine Idling Test  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

2006-02-01

272

Genetic engineering in biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this book is to encourage the use of genetic engineering for economic development. The report covers: (1) Precedents of genetic engineering; (2) a brief description of the technology, including the transfer of DNA in bacteria (vectors, E. coli and B. subtilis hosts, stages, and technical problems), practical examples of techniques used and their products (interferon; growth hormone; insulin; treatment of blood cells, Talasemia, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; and more nutritious soya), transfer to higher organisms, and cellular fusion; (3) biological risks and precautions; (4) possible applications (production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, alcohol, chemicals, enzymes, peptides, viral antigens, monoclonal antibodies, genes, proteins, and insecticides; metal extraction; nitrogen fixation; biodegradation; and new varieties of plants and animals; and (5) international activities.

Bedate, C.A.; Morales, J.C.; Lopez, E.H.

1981-09-01

273

Development and Testing of a 6-Cylinder HCCI Engine for Distributed Generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical approach for converting a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine into HCCI mode. The paper describes all stages of the process, starting with a preliminary analysis that determined that the engine can be operated by preheating the intake air with a heat exchanger that recovers energy from the exhaust gases. This heat exchanger plays a dual role, since it is also used for starting the engine. For start-up, the heat exchanger is preheated with a natural gas burner. The engine is therefore started in HCCI mode, avoiding the need to handle the potentially difficult transition from SI or diesel mode to HCCI. The fueling system was modified by replacing the natural gas carburetor with a liquid petroleum gas (LPG) carburetor. This modification sets an upper limit for the equivalence ratio at {phi} {approx} 0.4, which is ideal for HCCI operation and guarantees that the engine will not fail due to knock. Equivalence ratio can be reduced below 0.4 for low load operation with an electronic control valve. Intake boosting has been a challenge, as commercially available turbochargers are not a good match for the engine, due to the low HCCI exhaust temperature. Commercial introduction of HCCI engines for stationary power will therefore require the development of turbochargers designed specifically for this mode of operation. Considering that no appropriate off-the-shelf turbocharger for HCCI engines exists at this time, we are investigating mechanical supercharging options, which will deliver the required boost pressure (3 bar absolute intake) at the expense of some reduction in the output power and efficiency. An appropriate turbocharger can later be installed for improved performance when it becomes available or when a custom turbocharger is developed. The engine is now running in HCCI mode and producing power in an essentially naturally aspirated mode. Current work focuses on developing an automatic controller for obtaining consistent combustion in the 6 cylinders. The engine will then be tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate durability. This paper presents intermediate progress towards development of an HCCI engine for stationary power generation and next steps towards achieving the project goals.

Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Killingsworth, N; Aceves, S M; Dibble, R; Kristic, M; Bining, A

2005-07-12

274

Quiet Engine Program Flight Engine Design Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typica...

J. F. Klapproth R. E. Neitzel C. T. Seeley

1974-01-01

275

Engineering cell attachments to scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the challenges of tissue engineering, a promising cell-based treatment for damaged or diseased cartilage, is designing the scaffold that provides structure while the tissue regenerates. In addition to the scaffold material's biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and ease of manufacturing, scaffold interactions with the cells must also be considered. In cartilage tissue engineering, a range of scaffolds with various degrees of cell attachment have been proposed, but the attachment density and type have yet to be optimized. Several techniques have been developed to modulate cell adhesion to the scaffold. These studies suggest that the need for cell attachment in cartilage tissue engineering may vary with cell type, stage of differentiation, culture condition, and scaffold material. Further studies will elucidate the role of cell attachment in cartilage regeneration and enhance efforts to engineer cell-based cartilage therapies.

Steward, Andrew J.; Liu, Yongxing; Wagner, Diane R.

2011-04-01

276

How Is Wilms Tumor Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology Previous Topic How are Wilms tumors diagnosed? Next ... Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology How is Wilms tumor staged? The stage of ...

277

Harmonic engine  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2009-10-20

278

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

Lee, Fitzhugh T.

1974-01-01

279

Rocket Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains the theory of rocket engines using Newton's third law of motion. This five minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

280

Cybernetic engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a timing mechanism adapted for use in conjunction with a four stroke internal combustion engine including pistons disposed to reciprocate within cylinders and attached to a crankshaft in a timed sequence.

Jones, H.L.

1987-09-08

281

Engineering Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This section is concerned with engineering services. It is an alphabetical listing of companies and consultants offering services including analytical testing services. Addresses are included in section six. (MA)|

Environmental Science and Technology (Environmental Control Issue), 1977

1977-01-01

282

Materials Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gateway Engineering Education Coalition consists of a group of universities that are concerned with providing high-quality educational resources in the field of engineering education. Their site contains a number of topical sections that deal with the different branches of this field. This particular section deals with educational resources in the area of materials engineering, and visitors will be glad to learn that there are interactive features here that cover the corrosion of metals, electrical conductivity, fracture mechanics, and ten additional topics. These materials can be used in the classroom to illustrate different principles and processes within materials engineering, and students may also wish to return to them as reference points during their studies.

283

Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus  

PubMed Central

Background Extended neoteny and late stage allometric growth increase morphological disparity between growth stages in at least some dinosaurs. Coupled with relatively low dinosaur density in the Upper Cretaceous of North America, ontogenetic transformational representatives are often difficult to distinguish. For example, many hadrosaurids previously reported to represent relatively small lambeosaurine species were demonstrated to be juveniles of the larger taxa. Marginocephalians (pachycephalosaurids + ceratopsids) undergo comparable and extreme cranial morphological change during ontogeny. Methodology/Principal Findings Cranial histology, morphology and computer tomography reveal patterns of internal skull development that show the purported diagnostic characters for the pachycephalosaurids Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer are ontogenetically derived features. Coronal histological sections of the frontoparietal dome of an adult Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis reveal a dense structure composed of metaplastic bone with a variety of extremely fibrous and acellular tissue. Coronal histological sections and computer tomography of a skull and frontoparietal dome of Stygimoloch spinifer reveal an open intrafrontal suture indicative of a subadult stage of development. These dinosaurs employed metaplasia to rapidly grow and change the size and shape of their horns, cranial ornaments and frontoparietal domes, resulting in extreme cranial alterations during late stages of growth. We propose that Dracorex hogwartsia, Stygimoloch spinifer and Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis are the same taxon and represent an ontogenetic series united by shared morphology and increasing skull length. Conclusions/Significance Dracorex hogwartsia (juvenile) and Stygimoloch spinifer (subadult) are reinterpreted as younger growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis (adult). This synonymy reduces the number of pachycephalosaurid taxa from the Upper Cretaceous of North America and demonstrates the importance of cranial ontogeny in evaluating dinosaur diversity and taxonomy. These growth stages reflect a continuum rather than specific developmental steps defined by “known” terminal morphologies.

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.

2009-01-01

284

Cylinder liner insert and method of making engine block therewith  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a cylinder liner insert to be cast-in-place in a light alloy cylinder block for an internal combustion engine. It comprises: at least two generally cylindrical cylinder liners each of which includes an upper end and a lower end, an interior surface for defining a combustion chamber of the engine and an exterior surface adapted to successfully interface

N. L. Field; B. P. Winter

1990-01-01

285

Engine construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured

1984-01-01

286

Thermoacoustic engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoacoustic engines, or acoustic heat engines, are energy-conversion devices that achieve simplicity and concomitant reliability by use of acoustic technology. Their efficiency can be a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency. In thermoacoustic prime movers, heat flow from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink generates acoustic power (which may be converted to electric power using a transducer). In thermoacoustic heat

G. W. Swift

1988-01-01

287

Upper extremity digital subtraction venography with gadoterate meglumine before fistula creation for hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper extremity digital subtraction venography with gadoterate meglumine before fistula creation for hemodialysis.BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and potential role of gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA) as a contrast agent for upper extremity venography before the creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for nondialyzed renal insufficiency patients.MethodsOver a 16-month period, 50 venographies were performed on end-stage

Olivier Geoffroy; Marc Tassart; Alain-Ferdinand Le Blanche; Antoine Khalil; Viviane Duédal; Jérôme Rossert; Jean-Michel Bigot; Frank P. Boudghene

2001-01-01

288

Upper disparity limit after LASIK.  

PubMed

We evaluate the effect of the emmetropization technique LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) on stereoscopic vision. For this, we used a mirror stereoscope to measure the upper disparity limit D(max) before (with best correction) and after LASIK for 30 patients. The results show that the upper disparity limit declines from 41.1 min of arc on average to 31.3 min of arc after LASIK, being significant in 83% of the patients. This deterioration is significantly correlated with an increase in the postsurgical interocular differences in higher-order aberrations, corneal asphericity, and presurgical anisometropia. New ablation algorithms should minimize interocular differences in order to improve binocular visual performance. PMID:18516131

Jiménez, José R; Castro, José J; Hita, Enrique; Anera, Rosario G

2008-06-01

289

Engineering Geocryological Mapping for Construction in the Permafrost Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of compiling a digital engineering geological and engineering geocryological maps at all stages of a geotechnical survey for construction are presented. The technique has been used for the engineering survey along the main pipelines in the northern regions of European Russia and Western Siberia and in the mountain regions of Transbaikalia, Eastern Siberia, and the Far East.

Rivkin, Felix; Kuznetsova, Irina; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Suhodolsky, Sergey

290

Operational maintenance data base development for kinematic Stirling engines  

SciTech Connect

In the initial stages of developing the automotive Stirling engine (ASE), data has been accumulated under the program's Quality Assurance Report (QAR) program to identify problem areas encountered during engine operation. This data has been used as the basis for developing design modifications to existing hardware, identifying diagnostic techniques and instrumentation, and providing guidance towards component and system development requirements for future engine designs, such as the Mod II engine currently in the initial design stage. The QAR has proven itself to be an essential part of the ASE Program, and has successfully guided the development of the automotive application of this emerging engine technology.

Richey, A.; Smith, G.

1985-02-01

291

Simulation of transient augmenting work stability for a turbofan engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stage-by-stage cell control volume modeling technique which was used in the compression system is applied to a mixed exhaust turbofan engine with afterburner. The model is combined with the engine components matching technology in this paper. The explicit MacCormack two-step difference schemes and characteristic line method were used to simulate the process of transient augmenting engine stability and test

Gao Shuang-lin; Cai Yuan-hu

2010-01-01

292

Internal combustion engine cylinder liner coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder liner mounted in a cylinder block, the improvement is described comprising a first coating of a wear and seizure resistance material applied to the inside surface of a prescribed upper portion of the cylinder liner, and a second coating of a surface treating agent composed principally of manganous phosphate applied to the

Yoshimitsu

1987-01-01

293

Structure of combustion chamber in diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combustion chamber structure in a diesel engine of a direct injection type having a cylinder block, a cylinder head disposed above the cylinder block, a piston fitted in a cylinder of the cylinder block, a combustion chamber which is formed as a recess in a top part of the piston and whose upper surface is covered

T. Moriyasu; J. Isomoto; T. Nakagami; H. Takahashi; T. Maeda

1988-01-01

294

Less common upper limb mononeuropathies.  

PubMed

This article will focus on the less commonly injured nerves of the upper extremity. These nerves may be involved when trauma results in fractures, dislocations, or swelling with resultant nerve compression. Tumors and ganglions can also compress nerves, causing pain and, over time, demyelination or axon degeneration with weakness. Other mechanisms for upper limb nerve injury include participation in high-level sports, that is, those that generate torque about the arm and shoulder, abnormal stresses about the joints and muscles, or muscle hypertrophy, which may result in nerve injury. The goals of this review are to discuss the clinical presentation and possible causes of upper extremity nerve entrapments and to formulate an electrodiagnostic plan for evaluation. Descriptions of the appropriate nerve conduction studies or needle electromyographic protocols are included for specific nerves. The purpose of the electrodiagnostic examination is to evaluate the degree of nerve injury, axon loss over time, and later, evidence for reinnervation to assist with prognostication. The latter has implications for management of the neuropathy, including the type of exercises and therapy that may be indicated to help maintain the stability and motion of the involved joint(s) and promote strengthening over time as the nerve regenerates. PMID:23523706

Williams, Faren H; Kumiga, Bryan

2013-03-21

295

Reservoir facies architecture of two upper point bar deposits  

SciTech Connect

The exposed upper parts of the oldest and youngest point bar deposits along the Mississippi River at Duncan Point south of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, present information about the change in reservoir architecture during their latest stages of development. The youngest and inner one is still growing because it becomes inundated yearly and is sandier than the higher point bar that receives sediment only during the very occasional high flood stage. Maximum inundation of the point bar normally results in a wide and shallow water body across the entire upper point bar, providing conditions that are more favorable for the deposition of fine-grained sediment. The dense vegetation on the older point bars helps reduce current velocities. Although gamma-ray measurements indicate that the sand:mud ratio differs slightly between these two point bars, the sedimentary structures are much the same in type but not in occurrence. Horizontal heterogeneity can be observed in both locations, but vertical connectivity changes from reasonable in the younger point bar to low in the older one because of silty clay and clayey mud layers in between sandy ones. The exposures together give more complete information about the upper point bar reservoir characteristics. A gradual decrease in vertical permeability is typical, but seating conditions require that fine-grained overbank muds cover the point bar deposits.

Bouma, A.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bouma, L.O. [Geo-Marine Consultants, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1994-09-01

296

Failure analysis of J85 Engine turbine blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the cause of the engine damage due to the fracture of the J85 Engine first stage turbine blades. Discoloration due to thermal effect and fine multi-cracks as well as necking at 1\\/3 of the way down from the tip on the entire first stage turbine blade concave side surface have been noted. Of the first stage blades,

Seon-gab Kim; Young-ha Hwang; Tae-gu Kim; Chang-min Shu

2008-01-01

297

Breast Cancer Staging  

MedlinePLUS

Breast cancer Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Expert Blog Resources What's New Reprints A single copy of ... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Breast cancer staging By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http:// ...

298

STAGE2 Macroprocessor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general purpose language-independent macroprocessor (STAGE2), mainly for implementing portable software is described. The macroprocessor, itself a piece of highly portable software, was implemented on the ICL 1905 computer by bootstrapping. This report ...

M. Zimanyi

1975-01-01

299

Stages of Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... your baby in these three stages. First trimester (week 1-week 12) First trimester See how your baby is ... is each pregnancy. Return to top Second trimester (week 13-week 28) Second trimester See how your ...

300

Precision adjustable stage  

DOEpatents

An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA); Silva, Leonard L. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

301

Staging Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence supporting a staging model for bipolar disorder. The authors conducted\\u000a an extensive Medline and Pubmed search of the published literature using a variety of search terms (staging, bipolar disorder,\\u000a early intervention) to find relevant articles, which were reviewed in detail. Only recently specific proposals have been made\\u000a to apply clinical

Eduard Vieta; M. Reinares; A. R. Rosa

2011-01-01

302

Stage Two Enhancements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay I consider two kinds of human enhancement technologies. Stage 1 enhancements are discrete, medical enhancements;\\u000a they involve a modest augmentation of some specific function or capacity, and have quantifiable harms and benefits that are\\u000a amenable to conventional study designs. Examples of these enhancements include psychopharmaceuticals for enhanced cognitive\\u000a function, cosmetic surgery, and sports doping. Stage 2 enhancements

George Khushf

303

MOD II Engine and technology development  

SciTech Connect

The second-generation automotive Stirling engine, known as the Mod II, will be used to accomplish the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Program objectives. Preliminary design has advanced to the point of procuring long-lead components to evaluate manufacturability. The heater head castings of the Hot Engine System (working gas cycle) are being procured, while the V-block casting of the Cold Engine/Drive System is being sectioned for evaluation. The technology required for these designs, and their impact on Mod II performance, have progressed to the design substantiation stage, and successful accomplishment of the program objectives is expected.

Ernst, W.D.

1984-08-01

304

Multiple stage railgun  

DOEpatents

A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Scudder, Jonathan K. (Pleasanton, CA); Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

305

Assessment of upper airway mechanics during sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive sleep apnea, which is the most prevalent sleep breathing disorder, is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse and reopening. However, the mechanical properties of the upper airway are not directly measured in routine polysomnography because only qualitative sensors (thermistors for flow and thoraco-abdominal bands for pressure) are used. This review focuses on two techniques that quantify upper

Ramon Farré; Josep M. Montserrat; Daniel Navajas

2008-01-01

306

Upper Extremity Surgical Treatment of Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to review the surgical treatment of the upper extremity involved with cerebral palsy over a 25-year period and present our results with regard to changes in upper limb function. Surgical results were assessed by comparison of preoperative and postoperative levels of upper extremity functional use using a previously described 9-level scale. The effect of

Ann E. Van Heest; James H. House; Carol Cariello

1999-01-01

307

Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering  

PubMed Central

Aerosols could be injected into the upper atmosphere to engineer the climate by scattering incident sunlight so as to produce a cooling tendency that may mitigate the risks posed by the accumulation of greenhouse gases. Analysis of climate engineering has focused on sulfate aerosols. Here I examine the possibility that engineered nanoparticles could exploit photophoretic forces, enabling more control over particle distribution and lifetime than is possible with sulfates, perhaps allowing climate engineering to be accomplished with fewer side effects. The use of electrostatic or magnetic materials enables a class of photophoretic forces not found in nature. Photophoretic levitation could loft particles above the stratosphere, reducing their capacity to interfere with ozone chemistry; and, by increasing particle lifetimes, it would reduce the need for continual replenishment of the aerosol. Moreover, particles might be engineered to drift poleward enabling albedo modification to be tailored to counter polar warming while minimizing the impact on equatorial climates.

Keith, David W.

2010-01-01

308

Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering.  

PubMed

Aerosols could be injected into the upper atmosphere to engineer the climate by scattering incident sunlight so as to produce a cooling tendency that may mitigate the risks posed by the accumulation of greenhouse gases. Analysis of climate engineering has focused on sulfate aerosols. Here I examine the possibility that engineered nanoparticles could exploit photophoretic forces, enabling more control over particle distribution and lifetime than is possible with sulfates, perhaps allowing climate engineering to be accomplished with fewer side effects. The use of electrostatic or magnetic materials enables a class of photophoretic forces not found in nature. Photophoretic levitation could loft particles above the stratosphere, reducing their capacity to interfere with ozone chemistry; and, by increasing particle lifetimes, it would reduce the need for continual replenishment of the aerosol. Moreover, particles might be engineered to drift poleward enabling albedo modification to be tailored to counter polar warming while minimizing the impact on equatorial climates. PMID:20823254

Keith, David W

2010-09-07

309

Seal mechanism for a Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

A seal mechanism for a Stirling engine of the type having a displacer piston and a power piston slidably disposed inside a cylinder, the displacer piston having an upper ring groove and a lower ring groove and the power piston having one or more ring grooves, is described comprising: an upper displacer piston ring which is mounted in the upper ring groove; a lower displacer piston ring which is mounted in the lower ring groove; one or more power piston rings, each of which is mounted in one of the ring grooves of the power piston; and means for rendering the seals produced by the upper displacer piston ring and the lower displacer piston ring unidirectional in opposite directions.

Kawajiri, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Nomaguchi, T.; Tsuchino, K.; Kazumoto, Y.

1988-04-12

310

Response of Vegetation and Fish During an Experimental Drawdown in Three Pools, Upper Mississippi River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment to improve ecological conditions while maintaining a 9- foot (2.74-m) navigation channel was continued in 1995 and 1996 on the three pools of the Upper Mississippi River managed by the St. Louis District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Water ...

J. H. Wlosinski J. T. Rogala T. W. Owens K. L. Dalrymple D. Busse

2000-01-01

311

Numerical Simulation and Visualization of Flood Inundation in the Upper Reaches of Huangpu River  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated strategy coupling GIS with two-dimension hydrodynamic model is explored to simulate the flooding inundation in the upper reaches of Huangpu River. DEM data, hydraulic engineering map and other available geospatial data are used and aid to generate the computational grid, while, some treatments of interior and exterior boundary conditions, and calculations of variable resistance terms are discussed. Then

Maohui Zheng; Yuerong Guo; Shuguang Liu; Cuiping Kuang; Hongliang Gou; Fei Xing

2010-01-01

312

The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall

W. J. Charley; J. A. Stiman

2008-01-01

313

How the Upper Mantle Became Oxidized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, Earth's upper mantle has an average oxygen fugacity near the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) redox buffer (1), although significant departures from this redox state occur in different localities and at different depths (2). However, early in Earth history, following the Moon-forming impact, the upper mantle was almost certainly uniformly more reduced. The impactor that formed the Moon was probably Mars-sized or larger (3) and had already differentiated an iron core. Successful models of lunar formation must account for the fact that the Moon has only 25 percent of Earth's iron abundance (4). This can be accomplished if the iron core of the impactor was accreted by the Earth, while the Moon was formed from the mantles of the impactor and the Earth. Other large impactors would also have brought in metallic iron, and all such large impacts would have melted large portions of Earth's mantle. It is therefore inevitable that the Earth's upper mantle began its existence with an oxygen fugacity at or below iron-wüstite (IW). How the upper mantle became oxidized from IW up to QFM is an interesting question. Much of the oxidation could have taken place during brief steam atmosphere stages following impacts (5,6) when hydrogen escape to space was extremely rapid (7). Continued oxidation could have been caused by cycling of volatiles through the mantle, accompanied by outgassing of reduced gases (8) and by subduction of ferric iron that had been oxidized at the surface (9). Oxidation of the uppermost 700 km of the mantle from QFM to IW would have required the equivalent of about half an ocean of water, assuming that the hydrogen was lost to space. This could have been accomplished in less than 2 b.y. if the average H2 outgassing rate was a few times the present value, 5x1012 mol/yr (10). The timing of mantle oxidation has important consequences for the composition of Earth's atmosphere at the time when life originated because it controls the oxidation state of volcanic gases. If redox indicators (Cr and V) from ancient rocks have been correctly interpreted (11,12), the process of mantle oxidation was essentially complete by 3.5 Ga. However, mantle oxidation would have hung up somewhat below QFM by conversion of graphite (or diamond) to CO2 or carbonate, before rising to QFM. This process may therefore help explain why atmospheric O2 did not rise until ~2.3 Ga (13,14), nearly half a billion years after the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis (15). References: 1. Holland, H.D. The Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton (1984). 2. Woodland, A.B. and Koch, M. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214, 295 (2003). 3. Cameron, A. G. W. In Origin of the Earth and Moon, R. M Canup and K. Righter (eds.), p. 133, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson (2000). 4. Wood, J.A. In Hartmann, W.K., et al. (eds.) Origin of the Moon, p. 17, Lunar and Planetary Inst., Houston, TX (1986). 5. Matsui, T. and Abe, Y. Nature 319, 303 (1986). 6. Matsui, T. and Abe, Y. Nature 322, 526 (1986). 7. Pepin, R.O. Icarus 92, 2 (1991). 8. Kasting, J.F., et al., J. Geol. 101, 245 (1993). 9. Lecuyer, C. and Ricard, Y. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 165, 197 (1999). 10. Holland, H.D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3811 (2002). 11. Delano, J.W. Origins of Life Evol. Biosph. 31, 311 (2001). 12. Canil, D. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 195, 75 (2002). 13. Holland, H. D. In Early Life on Earth, S. Bengtsson, ed., p. 237. New York, Columbia Univ. Press (1994). 14. Farquhar, J., et al., Science 289, 756 (2000). 15. Brocks, J.J., et al., Science 285, 1033 (1999).

Kasting, J. F.

2004-12-01

314

Applying a Hierarchical Model of Mental Growth to Educate Undergraduate Engineering Students: Preliminary Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation illustrates the framework for implementing a hierarchical model of mental growth as the basis for developing critical thinking skills and engineering judgment in engineering undergraduates. We adopt the hypotheses that mental growth constitutes a progression through a hierarchy of cognition, that the critical thinking and judgment required of engineers lies at an upper level in the hierarchy, and

S. M. Husson; D. E Hirt; D. A. Bruce; C. H. Gooding; J. M. Haile; G. M. Harrison; S. M. Kilbey; R. W. Rice; D. M. Switzer

315

Microorganisms of the Upper Atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The relationship between frontal activity and the micropopulation of the atmosphere at altitude is described. It is shown that certain of the meteorological events associated with frontal activity quantitatively modify the micropopulation of the atmosphere. Precipitation associated with frontal passage reduces the micropopulation at altitude, whereas frontal activity with high levels of associated surface and atmospheric turbulence results in great increases in micropopulations of the upper atmosphere—particularly in those situations where surface conditions are conductive to the development of dust. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Fulton, John D.

1966-01-01

316

Legal Engine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This metasite is a useful starting-point for any search for online legal information, pulling together a wide array of international, federal, state, and organizational resources. Links are organized in numerous sections, including Caselaw, specific Legal Topics (Cyberlaw, Intellectual Property, Family Law, etc.), Reference Aids, Trial Advocacy, and Federal Rules, among others. Legal Engine also features link collections aimed at professors, students, and lawyers, as well as numerous other related search and legal sites. Please note that most linked pages are displayed within a frame at the Legal Engine site.

317

Engine part  

SciTech Connect

An engine part is described which consists of: a plurality of ceramic members, a first ceramic member having a front surface and a back surface, the front surface contacting a hot gas; and a second ceramic member having a front surface and a back surface, the front surface of the second ceramic member being fittingly secured to the back surface of the first ceramic member by a means for permitting relative sliding therebetween at an operative temperature of the engine part, wherein each of the first and second ceramic members have mechanical strengths of greater than 20 Kg/mm/sup 2/.

Matsui, M.; Soma, T.

1986-07-15

318

Manufacturing Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Manufacturing Engineering is a monthly publication of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. It is targeted primarily at manufacturing professionals, but it can also be of use to anyone with an interest in the field. This Web site posts between six and ten in-depth articles from each issue of the magazine. Examples of some topics that have been addressed in past issues include turbomachining processes, computer-aided design and manufacturing, and robotic assembly. The online archive maintains all previous monthly postings back to January 2000.

319

Gravitational Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical basics of the gravitational engine's operation are discussed. The basics are based upon non-equivalence of gravitational and inertial masses, and on external origin of the gravitational force, as it follows from the stream mechanism of gravitation. The mechanism is developed from Newton's ideas about existence of streams in ether toward celestial bodies, which are squeezing things to them. Principal scheme of the engine is outlined, its thrust and mass are discussed. Technical problems of its creation are defined, spheres of its applications are named.

Uspensky, George R.

2002-01-01

320

Corrosion engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

Fontana, M.G.

1986-01-01

321

Engineering Magic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers offers a fascinating Web site that examines the engineering principles behind some common magic tricks. There are six educational modules given on the site, consisting of Disappearing Milk, Piercing a Balloon, Floating Dollar, Milk Pitcher, Playing Card, and Egg in a Bottle. Each one shows the "magic" as it is performed and then explains how it actually works. There are instructions and materials available to teach the user how to do each trick. Teachers interested in demonstrating the material in class can find lesson plans and handouts for all of the modules.

322

Application of dual-fuel propulsion to a single stage AMLS vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of NASA's Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study to determine a follow-on, or complement, to the Space Shuttle, a reusable single-stage-to-orbit concept utilizing dual-fuel rocket propulsion has been examined. Several dual-fuel propulsion concepts were investigated. These include: a separate engine concept combining Russian RD-170 kerosene-fueled engines with SSME-derivative engines; the kerosene and hydrogen-fueled Russian RD-701 engine concept; and

Roger A. Lepsch Jr.; Douglas O. Stanley; Resit Unal

1993-01-01

323

Upper lid blepharoplasty: a current perspective.  

PubMed

Upper eyelid blepharoplasty is one of the most common facial plastic surgeries performed in the United States. Understanding how brow position contributes to the upper eyelid appearance is essential. Consistent and desirable surgical outcomes are best achieved with a detailed knowledge of periorbital anatomy. The surgeon must understand patients' expectations and ensure that surgical goals are realistic. The potential complications and their management are discussed. The goal of upper eyelid blepharoplasty is to create a sculpted upper lid with a visible pretarsal strip and subtle fullness along the lateral upper lid-brow complex. The trend toward volume preservation is discussed. PMID:23186766

Lieberman, David M; Quatela, Vito C

2013-01-01

324

Development of H-II rocket first stage propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-II rocket will serve as Japan's main launch vehicle in the 1990's, with the capability of placing a two-ton satellite into geostationary orbit. This paper presents the basic plan of the overall LOX/LH2 propulsion system of the H-II rocket first stage. The system description includes tank pressurization, pneumatic control, the auxiliary engine, pogo suppression, chilldown of the main engine, component development, and firing tests. The test facility is also described.

Nagai, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Suzuki, A.; Yamazaki, I.

1985-10-01

325

Aerodynamic Design of First Stage Turbines for Small Aero Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minimization of tip leakeage and limit loading are discussed. Results obtained with a 4.5:1 pressure ratio turbine having an aerodynamic loading of 2.11 indicate that very efficient turbines can be designed in loading and pressure ratio regimes of interes...

U. Okapuu

1987-01-01

326

New School Stages for Old.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new and dynamic approach to auditorium stage design is presented. Contents include--(1) modified proscenium stage plan--a definition, (2) benefits of a modified proscenium stage plan, and (3) details of a modified proscenium stage plan--basic concepts, a typical layout, projection systems, and scenic design for space stage. (RH)|

Miller, James Hull

327

Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

328

Thermal engine  

SciTech Connect

A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

1984-01-03

329

Engineering Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we integrate insights from diverse islands of research on electronic privacy to offer a holistic view of privacy engineering and a systematic structure for the discipline's topics. First we discuss privacy requirements grounded in both historic and contemporary perspectives on privacy. We use a three-layer model of user privacy concerns to relate them to system operations (data

Sarah Spiekermann; Lorrie Faith Cranor

2009-01-01

330

Engineering Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students extend their knowledge of the skeletal system to biomedical engineering design, specifically the concept of artificial limbs. Students relate the skeleton as a structural system, focusing on the leg as structural necessity. They learn about the design considerations involved in the creation of artificial limbs, including materials and sensors.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

331

Adaptive Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineers today cannot meet their professional obligation to the welfare of society if they do not have a broad, multidisciplinary vision, and yet a multidisciplinary vision is becoming enormously difficult to obtain. A new curriculum must emerge that can integrate a focused, discipline-based scientific approach with an integrated approach. To do…

VanderSteen, Jonathan

2011-01-01

332

Automotive Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

calculate engine displacement find the volume of a cylinderThe Volume of a Cylinder ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ now that you have the formula lets convert it into automotive terms original = AREA of BASE X the HEIGHT automotive = AREA of BORE X the STROKE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- with the calculations you have of one cylinder, multiply that by how many cylinders you have total. You now know ...

Todd, Teacher

2005-10-19

333

Sales Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes sales engineers--also called manufacturers' agents, sales representatives, or technical sales support workers--who work with customers and the production department to help design or modify products to meet customers' needs. Includes information about earnings, education and training, job outlook, and working conditions as well as…

Nelson, Andrew J.

2001-01-01

334

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

Hatheway, Allen W.

1978-01-01

335

Hero's Engine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning how this apparatus works, students will improve their understanding of action/reaction. This knowledge will also help students understand how a rocket engine works and many other important phenomena. Just as the exhaust coming from the rear of

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

336

Stirling Engine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains information about Stirling Engines, including how they operate, their history, and how they are designed. Examples are given, along with references to other information. All the sections of the site have accompanying pictures for clarification. This website is also available in Japanese.

Hirata, Koichi

2006-04-20

337

Copycat Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the idea of biomimicry â or looking to nature for engineering ideas. Biomimicry involves solving human problems by mimicking natural solutions, and it works well because the solutions exist naturally. There are numerous examples of useful applications of biomimicry, and in this lesson we look at a few fun examples.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

338

Surgical reconstruction of the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Positive airway pressure can be effective for OSA treatment but is not effectively used by many patients. Surgical reconstruction of the airway is appropriate for patients who are not otherwise effectively treated or as first-line treatment for patients with focal airway lesions. For surgical planning, examination schemes of the awake patient, as well as sleep endoscopy may be used. Nasal surgery may facilitate treatment using positive airway pressure or oral appliances or to improve quality of life. Pharyngoplasty and tongue base techniques for therapeutic upper airway reconstruction may be performed staged or simultaneously. Current and future approaches are described. PMID:22480814

Jacobowitz, Ofer

2012-04-01

339

Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

2012-01-01

340

Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

2012-01-01

341

Two-stage operation for high cervical intramedullary ependymoma in young adult.  

PubMed

We describe a two-stage operation, rarely reported since being introduced in 1911, for treatment of an intramedullary ependymoma extending to the upper cervical cord in a young adult. This classic two-stage strategy combined with modern techniques remains a useful option for selected patients to safely remove intramedullary ependymomas. PMID:22122713

Yokota, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Kazuhiro; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Yoshitomo

2011-11-28

342

[Early-stage polyarthritis].  

PubMed

Prodromes, articular signs and the different courses in the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis are explained. Atypical forms and variants of rheumatoid arthritis are especially described. These are the following syndromes: palindromic rheumatism, polymyalgic rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren-syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis, acute symmetric polyarthritis with pitting edema of elderly people. Furthermore the significance of radiological procedures and the investigation for rheumatoid factors in the early stages are discussed. Early diagnosis and consecutively early therapeutic strategies in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are of paramount importance for prognosis. PMID:8465130

Schlumpf, U

1993-03-23

343

Staged fluidized bed  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, R.G.

1983-05-13

344

Quantum lubrication: Suppression of friction in a first-principles four-stroke heat engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum model of a heat engine resembling the Otto cycle is employed to explore strategies to suppress frictional losses. These losses are caused by the inability of the engine’s working medium to follow adiabatically the change in the Hamiltonian during the expansion and compression stages. By adding external noise to the engine frictional losses can be suppressed.

Feldmann, Tova; Kosloff, Ronnie

2006-02-01

345

How Is Thyroid Cancer Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer survival by type and stage How is thyroid cancer staged? Staging is the process of finding ... the information is not available. T categories for thyroid cancer (other than anaplastic thyroid cancer) TX: Primary ...

346

MK2206 in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

2013-06-03

347

Development and Testing of a 6-Cylinder HCCI Engine for Distributed Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the technical approach for converting a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine into HCCI mode. The paper describes all stages of the process, starting with a preliminary analysis that determined that the engine can be opera...

D. L. Flowers J. Martinez-Frias F. Espinosa-Loza R. Dibble M. Kristic A. Bining N. Killingsworth

2005-01-01

348

The Junior Engineering Technical Society: Explore Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS) has a relatively large Web site. This site has a variety of online motivational brochures that describe most engineering disciplines and the job roles of different types of engineers.

2003-01-01

349

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID...

M. L. Grygiel

1996-01-01

350

[Treatment tactics of hemorroidal disease stage III-IV].  

PubMed

The Miligan-Morgan's operation has long been considered to be the "golden standard" of hemorrhoids' stage I-III treatment. The invention of distal branches of the upper rectal artery' suture ligation with mucopexia and lifting of the anal canal mucosa discovered new possibilities for hemorrhoids surgery, though there are still some questions considering long-term results. 151 cases of recurrence within 1-6 months were analyzed. The use of CT-angiography with 3D reconstruction of the upper rectal artery allowed to chose the operative technique more relevant and thus improve the treatment results. PMID:23715415

2013-01-01

351

Retrieval of upper tropospheric water Retrieval of upper tropospheric water Retrieval of upper tropospheric water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regression method was developed to retrieve upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV in kg/m2) and upper tropospheric humidity (UTH in %RH) frACPD.om radiances measured by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). In contrast to other UTH retrieval methods, UTH is defined as the average relative humidity between 500 and 200 hPa, not as a Jacobian weighted average, which has the advantage that the UTH altitude does not depend on the atmospheric conditions. The method uses AMSU channels 6-10, 18, and 19, and should achieve an accuracy of 0.48 kg/m2 for UTWV and 6.3%RH forACPD. UTH, according to a test against an independent synthetic data set. This performance was confirmed for northern mid-latitudes by a comparison against radiosonde data from station Lindenberg in Germany, which yielded errors of 0.23 kg/m2 for UTWV and 6.1%RH forACPD. UTH.

Houshangpour, A.; John, V. O.; Buehler, S. A.

2005-03-01

352

Optimized second stage concentrator  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of second-stage trumpetlike reflective element at the focal plane of a parabolic dish reflector is analyzed to exmine the improvment in solar concentration capability. The optimally adapted trumpet compensates for the optical aberrations of the dish and for large f/nos. The consequent concentration capability is comparable to the ideal.

Kritchman, E.

1981-09-01

353

Lean staged combustion assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a lean staged combustion assembly. It comprises: means for channeling compressed air including a pilot portion and a main portion. This patent also describes an annular combustor outer liner having an upstream end and a downstream end; an annular combustor inner liner having an upstream end and a downstream end and spaced from the outer liner; means

P. E. Sabla; W. J. Dodds; T. M. Tucker

1992-01-01

354

Sleep Stages and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relation of sleep stages to performance is reviewed. Data from 12 subjects who were deprived of sleep for two nights, to study the recuperative effects of slow-wave sleep and REM sleep following sleep deprivation, are presented. There was no significa...

L. C. Johnson P. Naitch A. Lubin J. Moses

1970-01-01

355

MultiStage Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much research has focused on methods for evaluating and maximizing the accuracy of classifiers either individually or in ensembles, little effort has been devoted to analyzing how classifiers are typically deployed in practice. In many domains, classifiers are used as part of a multi-stage process that increases accuracy at the expense of more data collection and\\/or more processing resources

Ted E. Senator

2005-01-01

356

Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

357

End-Stage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through her reflections on dealing with dialysis for end-stage renal disease and awaiting a kidney transplant, the author presents insights into how her experience was shaped by the physical, emotional, and multicultural forces she faced. Among the issues discussed are her ambivalent feelings between pursuing a regular lifestyle and receiving…

Moua, Mai Neng

2001-01-01

358

Science on Stage 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Science on Stage festival, held at CERN in Geneva in November 2005, was a great success. As described in the previous issue of The Messenger, almost five hundred science educators from across Europe met to share innovative science-teaching techniques.

2006-03-01

359

Science on Stage 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Science on Stage”, the European Science Teaching Festival, is a major educational outreach programme for science teachers. It aims to identify and foster innovation within formal science education by means of exchange of best practice, workshops and seminars involving educators from all over Europe.

Pierce-Price, D.; Boffin, H.; Madsen, C.

2005-12-01

360

Failure analysis of an aero engine ball bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aero engine failed due to the misalignment of the ball bearing fitted on the main shaft of the engine.\\u000a \\u000a The aero engine incorporates two independent compressors: a six-stage axial flow low-pressure compressor and a nine-stage\\u000a axial flow high-pressure compressor. The bearing under consideration is a high-pressure-location bearing and is fitted at\\u000a the rear of the nine-stage compressor. It was

N. Ejaz; I. Salam; A. Tauqir

2006-01-01

361

The Martian Upper Atmosphere Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Mars spacecraft datasets and 3-D modeling capabilities are emerging to characterize the Mars thermospheric circulation patterns for the first time. Upper atmosphere wind constraints are available from recent aerobraking and Mars Express measurements. Mars Global Surveyor (1997-1999) and Mars Odyssey (2001-2002) Accelerometer datasets obtained during aerobraking operations provide density and temperature distributions over limited local time and latitude regions at lower thermospheric altitudes ( ˜100-160 km) [e.g. Keating et al., 1998; 2002; 2003; Withers et al., 2003]. Latitudinal gradients of these fields (i.e. into the winter polar night) vary greatly with the changing Martian seasons. The winter polar warming features observed serve as a tracer of the strength and variability of the Martian thermospheric wind patterns during solstice conditions [Keating et al., 2003; Bougher et al., 2005].Accelerometer data is also being used to estimate cross-track (zonal) wind speeds in the Mars lower thermosphere ( ˜100-130 km) [Baird et al., 2005], yielding values as large as 300-400 m/sec. Most recently, the Mars Express SPICAM instrument discovered nitric oxide (NO) nightglow spectral features in the ? and ? -bands from limb observations (Ls = 74) [Bertaux et al., 2005]. These observed UV nightglow emissions are brightest in the winter polar night region. The solstice winds required to produce the Mars winter polar warming features are also responsible for transporting dayside produced N and O atoms to the nightside where radiative recombination and UV chemiluminescence occurs. These new dynamical constraints for the Martian upper atmosphere are now investigated using coupled MGCM (NASA Ames) and MTGCM (Michigan) simulations for aphelion (Ls = 90) and perihelion (Ls = 270) conditions appropriate to MGS and Odyssey aerobraking datasets described above. Seasonal variations in the thermospheric circulation, and the underlying mechanisms likely responsible for these variations, are investigated. Consistency with the NO nightglow morphology and intensities is also discussed.

Bougher, S. W.; Bell, J. M.; Baird, D. T.; Murphy, J. R.

2005-08-01

362

Decomposition and (importance) sampling techniques for multi-stage stochastic linear programs  

SciTech Connect

The difficulty of solving large-scale multi-stage stochastic linear programs arises from the sheer number of scenarios associated with numerous stochastic parameters. The number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of stages and problems get easily out of hand even for very moderate numbers of stochastic parameters per stage. Our method combines dual (Benders) decomposition with Monte Carlo sampling techniques. We employ importance sampling to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of both expected future costs and gradients and right-hand sides of cuts. The method enables us to solve practical large-scale problems with many stages and numerous stochastic parameters per stage. We discuss the theory of sharing and adjusting cuts between different scenarios in a stage. We derive probabilistic lower and upper bounds, where we use importance path sampling for the upper bound estimation. Initial numerical results turned out to be promising.

Infanger, G.

1993-11-01

363

A Hybrid Sport Education-Games for Understanding Striking/Fielding Unit for Upper Elementary Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a hybrid Sport Education-Games for Understanding unit through which upper elementary pupils can learn to play basic striking/fielding games. The unit is written for a class of 30 pupils. The twenty-five lesson unit is described in detail within 10 stages: (1) Getting started and early skill, strategy, rule, and role work…

Curtner-Smith, Matthew

2004-01-01

364

Depositional environments, diagenetic history, and reservoir characteristics of upper Smackover at Eustace field, Henderson County, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three shoaling-upward cycles were identified in the upper Smackover at Eustace field. Shoaling cycles ended during minor regressive stages. Each successive cycle was more widespread than the previous. Four depositional environments were defined: (1) shoal crest, (2) shoal flank, (3) back shoal, and (4) open marine. The shoal crest and flank environments are represented by ooid grainstones and ooid pisolite

Sequeira; J. J. Jr. Ahr

1987-01-01

365

Evidence for upper Great Lakes waters in the Erie Basin until 10. 5 ka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern recession at Niagara Falls suggests that Erie basin flow alone produces a narrower gorge with recession reduced by an order of magnitude. Gorge interpretations relate dimensions to stages of Great Lakes evolution. A published date of 9.8 ka, for upper river shells at Whirlpool State Park favors an interpretation implying 3.5 kilometers of gorge were cut in the period

K. J. Tinkler; T. W. Anderson; G. D. M. Cameron

1992-01-01

366

Separated Core Turbofan Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new concept for a turbofan engine called the 'Separated Core Turbofan Engine' is proposed and studied under the research program of the ultrahigh bypass turbofan engine for the next generation high-subsonic transport aircraft. The concept engine consist...

Y. Saito M. Endoh Y. Matsuda N. Sugiyama N. Sugahara K. Yamamoto

1996-01-01

367

Engineering Tribology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ideal textbook for a first tribology course, this book provides an interdisciplinary understanding of the field. It includes materials constraints, real design problems and solutions (such as those for journal and rolling element bearing), cams and followers and heavily loaded gear teeth. Including physics, materials science, and surface and lubricant chemistry, the volume integrates quantitative material from a wide variety of disciplines with traditional engineering approaches.

Williams, John

368

Engineering Judgement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineers who develop safety-related systems are required to work to remarkably high standards: SIL 1, the lowest classification recognised by the international standard IEC 61508, requires a probability of failure\\/hour (pfh) of 10-5 or lower; and many systems are required to achieve several orders of magnitude lower failure rates than this. Yet SIL 1 is already so demanding that it

Martyn Thomas

2004-01-01

369

Conveyor Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the engineering behind the conveyor belt and consider the impact this invention has had on transportation and the coordinated shipping and delivery of goods. Teams design and build a conveyor system out of everyday materials that can transport pieces of candy 4 feet (120cm). The conveyor must make a 90 degree turn as it moves along. Teams design their system, build and test it, evaluate their designs, and share observations.

Ieee

2013-07-08

370

Engineering Brainstorming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students act as an engineering consulting firm with the task to design and sell their idea for a new vehicle power system. During the brainstorming activity (Generate Ideas), students determine and comprehend what type of information is important to learn in order to accomplish the task. Then they watch several video clips as part of Multiple Perspectives. The new input contributes to changing and focusing their original ideas.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

371

Cryogenic engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments and trends in cryogenic engineering are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of cryogenics in power generation, machine building, chemistry, and metallurgy. Several cryogenic systems are described, including air-separation apparatus, cryogenic storage systems, cryothermovacuum devices, and the cryogenic systems of superconducting devices. The theoretical principles underlying the design of cryogenic systems are examined, along with the theory for the processes involved.

Beliakov, V. P.

372

Engineered Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how musical instruments are engineered. Learners explore how mass manufacturing impacted the recorder, and then work in teams to design their own musical instrument using easy to find materials. Teams first design their instrument on paper, then build their instrument, and evaluate the strategies employed. The new instrument must be "tunable" and must also be unique from other instruments. Learners will also consider the concepts of patents and intellectual property.

Ieee

2013-07-08

373

Tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Wound care has become one of the first fields to see the benefit of a new technology: tissue engineering. Tissue engineering involves the development of new materials or devices capable of specific interactions with biological tissues. In wound care, these materials may be based entirely on naturally occurring tissues and cells, or may be materials that combine synthetics, usually polymers, with biological layers. Both wound dressings and skin substitutes are available. The complexity of the materials depends on the end uses. Generally, synthetics made from polymeric materials such as Tegaderm and Opsite are used as wound dressings over relatively simple and shallow wounds or as coverings over more complex dressings. Their function is one of protection from water loss, drying, and mechanical injury. More complex dressings vary from dermal replacements made of reconstituted collagen and chondroitan sulfate backed by a polymer layer such as Integra(R) to the complex Apligraftrade mark that contains collagen and seeded cells. This last is designed as a complete skin replacement or skin substitute. Ultimately, engineered skin will contain all of the components necessary to modulate healing and provide the desired response: a wound closed with limited scar tissue that retains all of the characteristics of natural skin. PMID:10082603

Sefton, M V; Woodhouse, K A

1998-12-01

374

44. DETAIL VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN UPPER WEST WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. DETAIL VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN UPPER WEST WALL CONTROL STATION, LOOKING EAST. UPPER INTERMEDIATE WALL AND UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATIONS IN BACKGROUND - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

375

Rheology of the upper mantle: a synthesis.  

PubMed

Rheological properties of the upper mantle of the Earth play an important role in the dynamics of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. However, such fundamental issues as the dominant mechanisms of flow have not been well resolved. A synthesis of laboratory studies and geophysical and geological observations shows that transitions between diffusion and dislocation creep likely occur in the Earth's upper mantle. The hot and shallow upper mantle flows by dislocation creep, whereas cold and shallow or deep upper mantle may flow by diffusion creep. When the stress increases, grain size is reduced and the upper mantle near the transition between these two regimes is weakened. Consequently, deformation is localized and the upper mantle is decoupled mechanically near these depths. PMID:17746109

Karato, S; Wu, P

1993-05-01

376

Upper Tier Lower Tier Co-ordination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active defence part of TMD can among others be performed by upper tier and lower tier weapon systems. A lower tier weapon system can only eliminate a TBM after reentry into the atmosphere (below approximately 40 km). An upper tier system can eliminate a TBM just inside (between 40 km and approximately 80 km) as well as outside the atmosphere. The engagement intervals from launch to intercept of an upper tier and lower tier system can overlap. In such case, coordination of engagements may be desirable to prevent unnecessary wastage of interceptors. Furthermore, upper tier missiles can be saved by reducing the salvo size of an upper tier system against a TBM if the TBM also can be engaged by a lower tier system. In this report, the coordination between upper tier and lower tier systems is subject of analysis.

Bloemen, A. A. F.; Kuipers, E. J.

2002-07-01

377

Alternative Automobile Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technology assessment of various heat engines for automobile propulsion is presented covering: the spark ignition (Otto) engine; the compression ignition (diesel) engine; the vapor cycle (Rankine) engine; the Stirling engine; and the open and closed Brayton cycle (gas turbines) engines. Comparative data given include temperature ratio, thermal efficiency, power to mass ratio, exhaust emissions, and manufacturing cost. The defects

David Gordon Wilson

1978-01-01

378

Biocommodity Engineering.  

PubMed

The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of xylose and other nonglucose sugars, and "consolidated bioprocessing" in which cellulase production, cellulose hydrolysis, and fermentation of soluble carbohydrates to desired products occur in a single process step. With respect to product diversification, a distinction is made between replacement of a fossil resource-derived chemical with a biomass-derived chemical of identical composition and substitution of a biomass-derived chemical with equivalent functional characteristics but distinct composition. The substitution strategy involves larger transition issues but is seen as more promising in the long term. Metabolic engineering pursuant to the production of biocommodity products requires host organisms with properties such as the ability to use low-cost substrates, high product yield, competitive fitness, and robustness in industrial environments. In many cases, it is likely to be more successful to engineer a desired pathway into an organism having useful industrial properties rather than trying to engineer such often multi-gene properties into host organisms that do not have them naturally. Identification of host organisms with useful industrial properties and development of genetic systems for these organisms is a research challenge distinctive to biocommodity engineering. Chemical catalysis and separations technologies have important roles to play in downstream processing of biocommodity products and involve a distinctive set of challenges relative to petrochemical processing. At its current nascent state of development, the definition and advancement of the biocommodity field can benefit from integration at multiple levels. These include technical issues associated with integrating unit operations with each other, integrating production of individual products into a multi-product biorefinery, and integrating biorefineries into the broader resource, economic, and environmental systems in which they function. We anticipate that coproduction of multiple products, for example, production of fuels, chemicals, power, and/or feed, is likely to

Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

1999-10-01

379

Bob West field: Extending upper Wilcox production in south Texas  

SciTech Connect

Discovered in 1990 near the southern limit of the upper Wilcox gas-producing trend in south Texas, Bob West field is the largest pool to date in this trend, with probable reserves of up to 1 Tcf. The field produces from seven major sandstone {open_quotes}packages,{close_quotes} comprising 27 individual reservoirs and distributed over 3500 productive acres. The sandstones represent either fluvial/deltaic deposits or delta-margin barrier bar and strand-plain sediments. Porosities range up to 20%, but permeabilities are low, commonly less than 1.5 md. Artificial stimulation is therefore required to establish commercial rates of production. Bob West lies on a faulted anticline between two major growth-fault structures, with several stages of structural development evident. Such development has directly affected sandstone thickness. Rates of production are higher at Bob West than at other upper Wilcox fields due to commingling of zones, large-scale fracture treatments, and directional drilling. Discovery at Bob West has significant implications for renewed exploration in this part of the upper Wilcox gas trend.

Montgomery, S.L. [Petroleum Consultant, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-05-01

380

THE DISK POPULATION OF THE UPPER SCORPIUS ASSOCIATION  

SciTech Connect

We present photometry at 3-24 {mu}m for all known members of the Upper Scorpius association ({tau} {approx} 11 Myr) based on all images of these objects obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. We have used these data to identify the members that exhibit excess emission from circumstellar disks and estimate the evolutionary stages of these disks. Through this analysis, we have found {approx}50 new candidates for transitional, evolved, and debris disks. The fraction of members harboring inner primordial disks is {approx}< 10% for B-G stars (M > 1.2 M{sub Sun }) and increases with later types to a value of {approx}25% at {approx}>M5 (M {approx}< 0.2 M{sub Sun }), in agreement with the results of previous disk surveys of smaller samples of Upper Sco members. These data indicate that the lifetimes of disks are longer at lower stellar masses and that a significant fraction of disks of low-mass stars survive for at least {approx}10 Myr. Finally, we demonstrate that the distribution of excess sizes in Upper Sco and the much younger Taurus star-forming region ({tau} {approx} 1 Myr) is consistent with the same, brief timescale for clearing of inner disks.

Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

2012-10-10

381

Ureteroscopic management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma and ureteropelvic obstruction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Technological advances have increased the application of the endoscopic management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Materials and Methods: Published, peer-reviewed articles on endoscopic treatment of upper tract TCC and UPJO were identified using the MEDLINE database. Results: Although nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard for upper tract TCC treatment, low-grade, low-stage and small tumors, especially in patients with solitary kidneys or poor renal function can be managed with encouraging success rates, despite the considerable recurrence rate. Endoscopic alternatives to pyeloplasty for UPJO can be used especially in cases with absence of crossing vessels, stricture length less than 1.5 cm, severe hydronephrosis and renal function less than 30%. Conclusion: Proper patient selection is critical for the successful endoscopic management of treatment of upper tract TCC and UPJO.

Crouzet, Sebastien; Berger, Andre; Monga, Manoj; Desai, Mihir

2008-01-01

382

A preliminary stage configuration for a low pressure nuclear thermal rocket (LPNTR)  

SciTech Connect

A low pressure nuclear thermal rocket (LPNTR) is configured to meet the requirements of a nuclear stage for manned Mars exploration. Safety, reliability and performance are given equal consideration in selecting the stage configuration. Preliminary trade studies are conducted to size the engine thrust and determine the thrust chamber pressure. A weight breakdown and mechanical configuration for the selected LPNTR concept are defined. A seven engine stage configuration is selected which gives a two engine out capability and eliminates the need for engine gimbaling. The stage can be ground assembled and launched as a unit including tankage for trans Earth injection and Earth orbital capture. The tankage is configured to eliminate the need for an inert shield. The small engine will be cheaper to develop than a single engine providing full thrust, and will be compatible with stages for Earth orbital, Lunar and deep space missions. Mission analyses are presented with engine operation in a high thrust mode and in a dual range high thrust-low thrust mode. Mass savings over a reference NERVA stage are projected to be 45--55% for the high thrust operating mode and 50--60% for the dual range mode. Potential exists for further increases in performance by optimizing the thrust chamber/nozzle design. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Leyse, C.F.; Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Schnitzler, B.G.

1990-01-01

383

Rituximab and Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2013-01-04

384

Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage--Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

The current management of a patient with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage involves three steps: initial correction of unstable hemodynamics, obtaining the specific diagnosis of the lesion responsible for gastrointestinal blood loss, and therapy directed at the specific bleeding lesion. The current approach to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is carrying out upper gastrointestinal endoscopy following stabilization of the patient. Although improved morbidity and mortality statistics have been slow to appear, the use of endoscopy permits appropriate therapy directed at the specific lesion. Specific therapeutic measures have been outlined for seven common causes of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The advent of therapeutic endoscopy promises to bring further advances in therapy in the near future.

Midgley, Robert C.; Cantor, David

1977-01-01

385

[Stage I endometrial carcinoma].  

PubMed

Most endometrial cancers are diagnosed at stage I (disease limited to the uterine corpus). The definitive treatment for endometrial carcinoma consists in total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymphadenectomy. The decision of adjuvant treatment depends on risk factors. Postoperative radiotherapy plays a major role in the management of stage I endometrial cancer but the respective place of external radiotherapy and vaginal brachytherapy remains controversial. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy reduces locoregional recurrences, but carries a risk of toxicity without overall survival benefits. Recent data suggest that vaginal brachytherapy is effective in preventing vaginal recurrence with lower toxicity and should be the treatment of choice for intermediate risk endometrial cancer. PMID:18706845

Peignaux, K; Truc, G; Blanchard, N; Créhange, G; Maingon, P

2008-08-15

386

A concept of heat pipe engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A closed thermal cycle heat pipe engine is described. The device capitalizes on inefficiencies in normal heat pipes such as small latent heat and a large variation of the saturated vapor pressure with temperature changes. Operations are at medium temperature and with two-phase liquid-vapor conditions. The engine body is kept in an adiabatic state, while the pressure vessel is in a thermosyphon configuration. A piston is included in the engine, while the pressure vessel features an upper condensor thermal-conductively decoupled from a lower evaporator. The evaporator produces high pressure vapor, from which the condensor extracts heat flux in order to condense the vapor. A shutter exposes or shuts off the vapor from the condensor as needed. The vapor moves the piston before being condensed. A working model with methanol fluid and no piston has demonstrated the feasibility of the design, and plans for constructing a prototype engine working at near-300 C temperature are indicated.

Kobayashi, Y.

387

Staging of Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal carcinoma is the fifth most common gastrointestinal cancer, and the recent data suggests that it is rising in incidence\\u000a faster than any other malignancy. Although esophageal carcinoma is generally felt to have a poor prognosis, this is largely\\u000a owing to the heterogeneity of patients. As with any malignancy, the stage of the tumor predicts prognosis and determines treatment\\u000a options.

Jason Vollweiler; Gregory Zuccaro

388

Lean staged combustion assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a lean staged combustion assembly. It comprises: means for channeling compressed air including a pilot portion and a main portion. This patent also describes an annular combustor outer liner having an upstream end and a downstream end; an annular combustor inner liner having an upstream end and a downstream end and spaced from the outer liner; means for obtaining pilot stage combustion of a fuel-air pilot mixture for generating pilot stage combustion gases between the inner and outer liners using the pilot portion of compressed air channeled to the combustor by the channeling means, a pilot combustor first liner having an upstream end and a downstream end and spaced from the outer liner to define a first pilot combustion zone; a pilot combustor second liner having an upstream end and a downstream end and spaced from the inner liner to define a second pilot combustion zone; circumferentially spaced first fuel injectors and corresponding first air swirlers extending between the first and outer liners at the upstream ends thereof; and circumferentially spaced second fuel injectors and corresponding second air swirlers extending between the second and inner liners at the upstream ends thereof.

Sabla, P.E.; Dodds, W.J.; Tucker, T.M.

1992-03-31

389

Staged depressurization system  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump.

Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, Westmoreland County, PA)

1993-01-01

390

Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering

Grygiel

1996-01-01

391

Qualification of Minuteman stage III motor for spin stabilized perigee stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third stage of the Minuteman III ICBM was recently qualified for Space Transportation System launch as a tailored upper stage in order to use its unique combination of performance (2.1 million lbf-sec), reliability (100% on 140 tests), and maturity (900 built). The motor was static fired while spinning at 70 rpm and 100 F, and the propellant was also tested for spin effects up to 27 g in small motors. The ignition system, propellant, and case materials were also subjected to long vacuum exposure. Analyses of carry and launch from the Shuttle showed higher margins than previous qualification on the expendable missile vehicle. Early space flights are expected by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics PAM-A (SSUS-A) version, and for the Hughes LEASAT.

Day, E. E.

1980-06-01

392

PNGV vehicle engineering accomplishments  

SciTech Connect

This article describes technical progress made by the industry/government partnership which sets the stage for developing tomorrow`s supercar. The alliance among Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, and the US federal government, known as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), continues to work towards its long-term goal of developing and producing an affordable, fuel-efficient, low-emission automobile that meets today`s performance standards. A diverse range of new concepts and technologies in such areas as power generation, energy storage, electronics, materials, manufacturing, and systems analysis is being explored to meet these goals. The following is a summary of recent, significant accomplishments being made by the PNGV with respect to concept vehicles, hybrid propulsion systems, and air bags which the partnership classifies as vehicle engineering technology.

Taylor, C.

1996-11-01

393

Discovery Channel: Extreme Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Extreme Engineering is a program on the Discovery Channel that unveils "some of the most ambitious architectural plans of our times." The projects highlighted in each episode come from locations around the world. Some are in the planning stages, while others are only theoretical. This Web site serves as a companion to the television broadcasts and has interactive multimedia tours that offer a glimpse of what the projects would look like when completed. An underwater train tunnel linking New York and London, a massive skyscraper city in Tokyo, and a bridge over the Bering Strait are just some of the remarkable projects featured. The online elements are added after the corresponding episode is aired.

2005-12-21

394

Discovery Channel: Extreme Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Extreme Engineering is a program on the Discovery Channel that unveils "some of the most ambitious architectural plans of our times." The projects highlighted in each episode come from locations around the world. Some are in the planning stages, while others are only theoretical. This Web site serves as a companion to the television broadcasts and has interactive multimedia tours that offer a glimpse of what the projects would look like when completed. An underwater train tunnel linking New York and London, a massive skyscraper city in Tokyo, and a bridge over the Bering Strait are just some of the remarkable projects featured. The online elements are added after the corresponding episode is aired.

2003-01-01

395

Schwannoma in the Upper Limbs  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are the commonest tumours of peripheral nerves. Despite the classical description that schwannomas are well encapsulated and can be completely enucleated during excision, a portion of them have fascicular involvement and could not be completely shelled out. A retrospective review for 8 patients was carried out over 10 years. 75% of schwannoma occurred over the distal region of upper limb (at elbow or distal to it). It occurs more in the mixed nerve instead of pure sensory or motor nerve. 50% of patients had mixed nerve involvement. Fascicular involvement was very common in schwannoma (75% of patients). Removal of the tumour with fascicles can cause functional deficit. At present, there is no method (including preoperative MRI) which can predict the occurrence of fascicular involvement; the authors therefore proposed a new system to stratify patients who may benefit from interfascicular nerve grafts. In this group of patients, the authors strongly recommend that the possibility and option of nerve graft should be discussed with patients prior to schwannoma excision, so that nerve grafting could be directly proceeded with patient consent in case there is fascicular involvement of tumour found intraoperatively.

Yuk Kwan Tang, Chris; Fung, Boris; Fok, Margaret; Zhu, Janet

2013-01-01

396

Energy Development Vs Water Quality in the Upper Colorado and Upper Missouri River Basins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the relationship between energy development and water quality in Upper Colorado and Upper Missouri River Basins. To provide a background for problem assssment, the general physiographic, water resources, and water quality setting is d...

A. B. Bishop S. L. Klemetson M. F. Torpy M. McKee

1979-01-01

397

Stage at diagnosis in breast cancer: race and socioeconomic factors.  

PubMed Central

Cancer incidence data from three US metropolitan areas were coupled with census tract indicators of education and income. The data suggest that both Black and White cancer patients living in census tracts with lower median education/income values are diagnosed in later disease stages than are patients in tracts with higher median education/income values. Within education and income strata, Black women had a less favorable stage of disease at diagnosis than Whites. The exception was in upper education/income levels, where the disadvantage for Blacks disappeared. These data provide additional evidence that women of low socioeconomic status could benefit from targeted screening.

Wells, B L; Horm, J W

1992-01-01

398

Implementing Systems Engineering on a CERCLA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), enacted in 1980, provides a regulatory and legal mechanism to reduce risks from prior disposal of hazardous and toxic chemicals. Regulations, Standards, and Guidelines have been published to further define the CERCLA Process. The OU 7-10 Staged Interim Action Project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a CERCLA project working to remediate the pre-1970 disposal pit in which transuranic materials have been disposed. This paper analyzes the CERCLA process from a systems engineering perspective and describes how systems engineering is implemented on this project.

G. A. Beitel

1999-06-01

399

Theoretical Limits of Performance and Economy for Methanol, Ethanol and Gasoline Blends in Automotive Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the theoretical upper limits of indicated Otto cycle engine performance and economy with pure methanol and ethanol fuels. The ideal adiabatic constant volume Otto cycle was used to determine the limits. Parameters varied were compres...

N. W. Sung D. J. Patterson

1980-01-01

400

Creative Thinking of Practical Engineering Students during a Design Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses variations in creative thinking during various stages of a design project and the relationship between creative thinking and motivation factors. Based on a study of Israeli practical engineering students. Appendix includes survey instrument. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/NB)

Waks, Shlomo; Merdler, Moti

2003-01-01

401

Principles of Reconstruction of the Upper Extremities  

PubMed Central

Successful surgical reconstruction of the upper extremities paralyzed by poliomyelitis depends largely on the careful analysis of the individual problem and replacement of critical motions of the upper extremity. These replacements or substitutions may be gained by muscle transposition, tendon transplantation, tenodesis, bone block, or arthrodesis.

Schottstaedt, Edwin R.; Larsen, Loren J.; Bost, Frederic C.

1957-01-01

402

The ionosphere and upper atmosphere of Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is presented of current understanding of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus and its interaction with the solar wind, based on data from the Mariner 5 and Mariner 10 fly-bys and on far UV spectra obtained in rocket experiments. The major constituent of the upper atmosphere is CO2. Minor constituents include H, He, O, C, and CO

S. Kumar

1975-01-01

403

The palatal shape of upper removable appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a clinical-experimental study the influence of variations in the palatal shape of upper removable appliances upon tongue position during swallowing was investigated. During a clinical examination of 35 dental students displaying a physiological swallowing pattern, the tongue position during swallowing was recorded by palatography on an individually adapted upper plate. During swallowing with a roughened plate with an individual

Christine Reinicke; Nicole Obijou; Joachim Tränkmann

1998-01-01

404

A quantitative test of upper extremity function  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN A number of clinical situations, there is a need for a simple semi-quantitative test of upper extremity function. Measurement of function is of particular importance in evaluating the results of hand surgery and upper extremity prosthesis, in following the development of hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis and neurological diseases, and in judging the effectiveness of different forms of therapy.

DOUGLAS CARROLL

1965-01-01

405

Risk assessment after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish the relative importance of risk factors for mortality after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and to formulate a simple numerical scoring system that categorizes patients by risk. A prospective, unselected, multicentre, population based study was undertaken using standardised questionnaires in two phases one year apart. A total of 4185 cases of acute upper

T A Rockall; R F Logan; H B Devlin; T C Northfield

1996-01-01

406

Robotic model for simulating upper body movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the human upper limb was developed for predicting the motion of the human upper limb while performing activities of daily living. This study focuses on the effect of a joint limit function on the ability of the model to perform human like movements. This measurement was analysed by comparing the modelled joint movements with recorded movements of

Derek Lura; Stephanie Carey; Rajiv Dubey; M. Jason Highsmith

2009-01-01

407

State upper houses and parliamentary democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong upper houses are a distinctive and important part of Australia's constitutional heritage. While the Senate is the most visible and celebrated example, State upper houses (the Legislative Councils) are now also vital components of Australian democracy. Changes in the Legislative Councils over the past half-century, particularly with regard to their electoral systems, have subtly transformed their status and potential.

Bruce Stone

408

The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

Bird, John

409

Surgical management of upper lid entropion  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and eighty-three surgical procedures were conducted on 107 patients over seven years. 91% of the cases of upper lid entropion were corrected satisfactorily with only one operation. It is postulated that this level of success is achieved by grading the degree of surgical intervention according to the clinical established on systematic examination of upper lid entropion.

E G Kemp; J R Collin

1986-01-01

410

Upper Los Alamos canyon fact sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory is planning to make environmental assessments in portions of Upper Los Alamos Canyon. Upper Los Alamos Canyon is one of the areas included in the 2005 Consent Order agreed to by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and the New Mexico Environment Department. As such, it must be evaluated for potential contamination. The

Jeffrey H

2007-01-01

411

A high energy stage for the National Space Transporation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle\\/Centaur is an expendable hydrogen\\/oxygen cryogenic upper stage for use with the National Space Transportation System. It is a modification of the existing Atlas\\/Centaur which was used by NASA since 1966 to launch interplanetary and Earth orbital payloads for numerous organizations. Two configurations of the Shuttle\\/Centaur are being developed. Vehicle capability includes placing approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) in

A. J. Stofan

1984-01-01

412

Moral Stage Sequence and Principled Reasoning in an Indian Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the cross-cultural generality of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in India. A sample of 112 males and females between 11 and 50-plus years was drawn from an urban middle- and upper-middle-class population and interviewed individually on Kohlberg’s dilemmas. A two-way analysis of variance performed on the moral maturity scores indicates a significant effect of age (p <

Jyotsna Vasudev; Raymond C. Hummel

1987-01-01

413

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

SciTech Connect

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15

414

Frostbite of the upper extremity.  

PubMed

Human capacity for physiologic adaptation to cold is minimal; we survive by insulating ourselves with protective clothing. In addition to the irreversible direct injury caused by ice crystallization, the authors have outlined four possible mechanisms by which indirect injury may damage tissue. Other than rapid rewarming, there is no uniformly accepted protocol for the treatment of frostbite injury. Attempting to sort out the world's literature on frostbite in an effort to present a comprehensive treatment protocol is a daunting task. In addition to the probably irreversible direct injury caused by ice crystallization, the authors have outlined at least four possible mechanisms by which indirect injury may damage tissue. The literature is full of various treatment protocols that allegedly are beneficial despite addressing different mechanisms. Mills described 10 different categories of medications, each addressing one of four possible mechanisms, used in the clinical treatment of frostbite injury over a 30-year period. Analyzing this information is even more confusing when one realizes that there is little uniformity in animal models employed to generate these data. This is further complicated by the lack of clinical correlation with the most common experimental model--liquid nitrogen rapid freezing. The risk of frostbite is highest when psychiatric disturbance, intoxication, or unplanned circumstances lead to cold exposure without adequate protective clothing. As tissue freezes, both direct and indirect factors cause injury. Most therapies have been aimed at limiting indirect injury, in an attempt to limit progressive tissue loss. Rapid rewarming is universally accepted, but the benefits of other modalities are still controversial. Traditionally, observation and delayed amputation have been employed to manage frostbite. More recently, triple-phase bone scans have been used to distinguish between tissue that is irreversibly destined for necrosis and tissue that is at-risk for necrosis, but potentially salvageable. Early operation can be used to provide at-risk tissue with a new blood supply and preserve both function and length in the upper extremity. PMID:10791170

Su, C W; Lohman, R; Gottlieb, L J

2000-05-01

415

Engineering Technology: Electronic Maintenance Engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, youâÂÂll learn about the role of an electronic maintenance technician, and see how this important position keeps the machines in a factory moving. Community college graduate Brad Richardson always liked taking things apart to see how they work, and his job at Tupperware gives him that satisfaction. Brad describes what brought him to study engineering, and what he does in his career. The video runs 3:03 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-05-24

416

EUV Engineering Test Stand  

SciTech Connect

The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is an EUV laboratory lithography tool. The purpose of the ETS is to demonstrate EUV full-field imaging and provide data required to support production-tool development. The ETS is configured to separate the imaging system and stages from the illumination system. Environmental conditions can be controlled independently in the two modules to maximize EUV throughput and environmental control. A source of 13.4 nm radiation is provided by a laser plasma source in which a YAG laser beam is focused onto a xenon-cluster target. A condenser system, comprised of multilayer-coated mirrors and grazing-incidence mirrors, collects the EUV radiation and directs it onto a-reflecting reticle. A four-mirror, ring-field optical system, having a numerical aperture of 0.1, projects a 4x-reduction image onto the wafer plane. This design corresponds to a resolution of 70nm at a k{sub 1} of 0.52. The ETS is designed to produce full-field images in step: and-scan mode using vacuum-compatible, one-dimension-long-travel magnetically levitated stages for both reticle and wafer. Reticle protection is incorporated into the ETS design. This paper provides a system overview of the ETS design and specifications.

Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Replogle, W.C.; Klebanoff, L.E.; Wronosky, J.B.; Hale, L.C.; Chapman, H.N.; Taylor, J.S.; Folta, J.A.; Montcalm, C.; Hudyma, R.M.

2000-02-14

417

3D Range Maximization of a Suborbital Launch Vehicles Upper Stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates a different way of finding the maximum range trajectory for a suborbital launch vehicle in real time. Instead of evaluating terminal constraints and transversality conditions at the end point of the final ballistic arc, these values are evaluated at the end point of a burn arc. This modification offers several advantages. First, the free terminal time is changed to be a fixed terminal time, therefore the ballistic coast arc propagation can be avoided and the Hamiltonian for the remaining fixed terminal time system is a constant. Second, since there is only one arc involved in optimization, no discontinuity happens and convergence is more reliable. Third, compared with Vinh and Arora's method, the 2D scenario is extended to 3D without singularities associated with 0o inclination. Simulation results demonstrate that the use of this method is proper for real time maximum range trajectory planning.

Xu, Y.

418

The LOx–methane upper stage motor development for the Lyra Launch Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lyra Launch Vehicle represents a follow-on of the Vega Launcher development that ELV(I), as Prime Contractor, is carrying out under ESA contract and whose qualification flight is scheduled in 2008. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) has set-up the Lyra Program with the objectives of studying the possible improvement of the Payload capability and launch service flexibility of the European

Arturo de Lillis; Mauro Balduccini; Daniele Barbagallo; Emanuela D’Aversa

419

Launch vehicle platform and high-energy upper stage acceptance testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of a basic integrated test plan and the steps involved in test planning and management are considered. An integrated test plan contains: an introduction, a test program summary, development testing, qualification testing, component acceptance, and an acceptance test. The types and implementation of component and vehicle acceptance testing are described; diagrams of the acceptance test schemes are presented. The acceptance testing of the Centaur vehicle and the Centaur Integrated Support System is discussed.

Kiszla, Joseph J.

420

The floods of March 1936, Part 3, Potomac, James, and upper Ohio Rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the period March 9-22, 1936, there occurred in close succession over the northeastern United States, from the James and upper Ohio River Basins in Virginia and Pennsylvania to the river basins of Maine, two extraordinarily heavy storms, in which the precipitation was almost entirely in the form of rain. The depths of rainfall mark this period as one of the greatest concentrations of precipitation, in respect to time and magnitude of the area covered, of which there is record in this country. At the time of the rain there were also accumulations of snow on the ground over much of the storm-affected region that were large for the season. The comparatively warm temperatures associated with the storms thawed the snow and added materially to the quantities of water to be disposed of by drainage into the waterways, by surface storage in lakes, ponds, and reservoirs, by absorption in the ground, and, probably in comparatively negligible degree, by evaporation. The total quantity of water that had to be disposed of in these ways ranged between 10 and 30 inches in depth over much of the region. The water disposed of by natural storage, absorption, and evaporation amounted to average depths over the many river basins generally within the range of 1 to 3 inches, with a significant degree of uniformity and systematic areal distribution. The remainder of the rain and snow water, generally much larger or even several times larger in amount than surface storage, absorption, and evaporation, required accommodation by the channels of the brooks, creeks, and rivers. There were generally two distinct flood peaks, and in many of the basins the destruction was seriously aggravated, especially during the first flood, by the break-up of thick ice cover accumulated through a winter of exceptionally continuous and severe cold weather. The resulting floods were extraordinarily severe, and records of river stages, extending on some streams back to or nearly to the time of settlement by white men, were broken many of them by wide margins. The peak of the Connecticut River at Hartford, Conn., was 8.6 feet higher than had been experienced since the settlement by white men, 300 years ago. The Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., was 3.5 feet higher than had been known in a period of record covering about 200 years. The Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pa., was 6.1 feet higher than had been known in the period beginning 1762. This volume presents many of the facts of these notable floods with respect to the New England rivers, for permanent record and for study and reference by engineers concerned with the building of highways, bridges, and industrial plants, planners of river development, and others. Similar volumes for the region from the Hudson River to the Susquehanna River and for the Potomac, James, and upper Ohio River Basins are presented in companion Water-Supply Papers 799 and 800 respectively. In this volume records of stage and discharge for the period Including the floods are presented for about 150 measurement stations; peak discharges with comparative data for other floods at more than 400 measurement points are summarized; crest stages along an aggregate length of stream channel of 2,820 miles are tabulated; and results of detailed studies of the rainfall and run-off and many other kinds of flood information are presented.

Grover, Nathan C.; Lichtblau, Stephen.

1937-01-01

421

First year engineering: Exploring engineering through the engineering design loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS) at Miami University has moved toward the principle of a common first year curriculum for all of our nine majors. A significant component of this common first year is a one hour course entitled computing, engineering, and society that all engineering and computing students take in the

Douglas Troy; D. Steven Keller; James Kiper; Lei Kerr

2008-01-01

422

How Engineers Engineer: Lessons from My First Big Engineering Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little did the author realize how much his first engineering project would change his career path, but when it came, he was hooked forever on doing R&D-type engineering. In this article, the author takes the reader back to his first really important electrical engineering project. While the technology he worked on back then is antiquated by…

Roman, Harry T.

2008-01-01

423

Upper-lip vermilion reconstruction with a modified cross-lip vermilion flap in hemifacial atrophy.  

PubMed

Lip-vermilion reconstruction is part of the comprehensive treatment of progressive hemifacial atrophy. In this study, we described a two-stage reconstruction procedure to address the defect of the upper lip in patients with hemifacial atrophy, using a modified cross-lip vermilion flap with the pedicle specifically positioned at the commissure for functional and aesthetic purposes. During the first stage of surgery, a pre-determined mucosal flap from the lower lip with a vascular pedicle containing an inferior labial artery and the surrounding orbicularis oris muscle cuff were raised and transposed to reconstruct the upper-vermilion defect. Additional manoeuvres include simultaneous creation of the central tubercle of the upper lip with a segment of de-epithelised vermilion flap. At the second stage, the pedicle was divided 10-14 days later to complete the reconstruction. The patients achieved satisfactory results without compromising the shape of the commissure and the donor-site scar was inconspicuous. During the period prior to the division of the pedicle, this technique also overcomes the discomfort and pain during eating and speaking that could occur with the traditional cross-lip vermilion-flap transfer whereby the pedicle is centrally located. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a technique specifically applied to address the unilateral upper-lip vermilion defect in patients with hemifacial atrophy. PMID:23410844

Jin, Xiaolei; Teng, Li; Lu, Jianjian; Xu, Jiajie; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Meibang; Zhao, Jingyi

2013-02-12

424

Development study of precooled-cycle hypersonic turbojet engine for flight demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a development study of a precooled-cycle hypersonic turbojet engine for the first stage of TSTO space plane and hypersonic airplane. With reflecting the key technologies accumulated from ATREX (expander cycle ATR engine) ground tests, the next flyable subscale engine “S-engine” is now developed. S-engine has 23cm×23cm of rectangular cross-section, 2.2m of the overall length and about 100kg

Tetsuya Sato; Hideyuki Taguchi; Hiroaki Kobayashi; Takayuki Kojima; Keiichi Okai; Kazuhisa Fujita; Daisaku Masaki; Motoyuki Hongo; Toyohiko Ohta

2007-01-01

425

Radial engine  

SciTech Connect

A radial engine is described comprising: a housing; equally spaced openings disposed in ring-like arrangement on the periphery of the housing; a piston and cylinder arrangement in each of the opening, a piston rod for each arrangement fixed to and extending radially inwardly from its respective piston and through its respective opening; shoe means pivotally attached at the other end of each of the piston rod; radial guide means extending in the housing in line with each of the piston rods, and the shoe means provided with guide means followers to ensure radial reciprocal movement of the piston rods and shoe means; and a connecting ring journaled on a crankshaft for circular translation motion in the housing, the ring including a circular rim. Each shoe means includes an arcuate follower member being slidably connected to the rim of the connecting ring.

Kmicikiewicz, M.A.

1988-03-01

426

30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main (promenade) deck level. Threaded admission valve lift rods (two at immediate left of chronometer) permit adjustment of valve timing in lower and upper admission valves of cylinder (left rod controls lower valve, right rod upper valve). Valve rods are lifted by jaw-like "wipers" during operation. Exhaust valve lift rods and wipers are located to right of chronometer. Crank at extreme right drives valve wiper shaft when engaged to end of eccentric rod, shown under "Crank Indicator" dial. Pair of handles to immediate left of admission valve rods control condenser water valves; handles to right of exhaust valve rods control feedwater flow to boilers from pumps. Gauges indicate boiler pressure (left) and condenser vacuum (right); "Crank Indicator" on wall aids engineer in keeping engine crank off "dead-center" at stop so that engine may be easily restarted. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

427

Industrial Education. "Small Engines".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

Parma City School District, OH.

428

Industrial Education. "Small Engines".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

Parma City School District, OH.

429

Modeling diesel engine performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical technique is described to predict the performance of diesel engines. A set of equations are developed from an actual engine test or a performance map to predict fuel consumption as a function of engine speed and torque. The methodology uses a two-dimensional polynomial to predict fuel consumption as a function of engine speed and torque requiring nine engine

G. Jahns; K. J. Forster; P. W. II Claar

1987-01-01

430

Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for nonnative species expansion between the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes Basin. This report presents a synthesis of data on nonnative fish species observed during Long Term Resource Monitoring Program monitoring activities.

Irons, Kevin S.; Delain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J. Edited by Irons, Kevin S.

2009-01-01

431

High Variable Mixture Ratio Oxygen/Hydrogen Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of an O2/H2 engine to operate over a range of high-propellant mixture ratios was previously shown to be advantageous in single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. The results are presented for the analysis of high-performance engine power cycles o...

C. M. Erickson W. H. Tu A. H. Weiss

1988-01-01

432

Operational maintenance data base development for kinematic Stirling engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the initial stages of developing the automotive Stirling engine (ASE), data has been accumulated under the program's Quality Assurance Report (QAR) program to identify problem areas encountered during engine operation. This data has been used as the basis for developing design modifications to existing hardware, identifying diagnostic techniques and instrumentation, and providing guidance towards component and system development requirements

A. Richey; G. Smith

1985-01-01

433

Project ITCH: Interactive Digital Simulation in Electrical Engineering Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-stage project is investigating the educational potential of a low-cost time-sharing system used as a simulation tool in Electrical Engineering (EE) education. Phase I involves a pilot study and Phase II a full integration. The system employs interactive computer simulation to teach engineering concepts which are not well handled by…

Bailey, F. N.; Kain, R. Y.

434

Career development of biomedical engineers in medical device industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With concerns of the current health care system, biomedical engineers have expertise, opportunity and responsibility in developing innovations that may improve cost, coverage and quality of health care delivery. This paper reviews the product development process in the medical device industry, and the associated training and experience required for biomedical engineers involved at each stage of the process. This paper

Quan Ni; Yachuan Pu

2009-01-01

435

How Are Ewing Tumors Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... described below as well. AJCC staging system for bone cancer The AJCC has developed staging systems for most ... about each of these factors. T categories of bone cancer T0: There is no evidence of a main ( ...

436

How Is Vaginal Cancer Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... document called Melanoma Skin Cancer . Tumor extent (T) Tis: Cancer cells are only in the most superficial ... are treated in a similar way. Stage 0 (Tis, N0, M0): In this stage, cancer cells are ...

437

Stages of Huntington's Disease (HD)  

MedlinePLUS

... Up Shop Login Contact Us For Physicians Twitter Facebook facebook twitter search form search: New to HD New ... Living With HD HD Care Stages Of HD facebook twitter Stages of HD Publications for Download The ...

438

Elements of Computational Science and Engineering Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidisciplinary nature of computational science and engineering (CSE) and its rela- tion to other disciplines is described. The stages through which CSE education is evolving, from initial recognition in the 1980s to present growth, are discussed. The challenges and benefits of different approaches to CSE education are discussed, as is the emergence of a set of core elements common

Osman Yasar; Rubin H. Landau

2003-01-01

439

Performance Characteristics of the Lysholm Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of a 5 in. diameter rotor Lysholm engine prototype running on simulated geothermal flows from 16 to 100% quality is described. Staging was performed with conventional Westinghouse 25 kW steam turbines demonstrating that such a process is f...

R. E. Berger

1980-01-01

440

Plant genetic engineering for crop improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant genetic engineering has long since left its experimental stage: transgenic plants with resistance to viruses, bacteria, fungi, various pests and abiotic stresses have already been released in their hundreds. Transgenic plants can produce better fruits and food of higher quality than wild-types, and can be used as bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important compounds. This review portrays some

G. Kahl; P. Winter

1995-01-01

441

Development status of the Vulcain engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present account of the current status of the Ariane V launch vehicle's Vulcain first-stage cryofueled bipropellant engine gives attention to the Vulcain's overall configuration, as well as to its component designs, operational flowcharts, turbopump and combustion chamber performance verification trials, and program management responsibilities. Prospective development efforts currently envisioned are noted.

Gastal, J.; Eury, S.; Borromee, J.; Micewicz, J. B.

1993-06-01

442

Progress in railroad freight car engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the result of an annual survey, conducted by the author on behalf of the Rail Transportation Division (RTD), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to document progress in the design, construction and use of freight cars and components. Typically, the design must be at a prototype stage or beyond in order for it to be included here.

S. K. Punwani

1997-01-01

443

Challenges in Understanding the Upper Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper atmosphere is a complicated system that exhibits complex behavior. The system response clearly depends on preconditioning and exhibits global coupling. One of the challenges we face is that of making the measurements that are required to either predict the future behavior of the upper atmosphere or to monitor the upper atmosphere extensively enough that we can predict the future or current behavior. In this paper we discuss the challenges of space mission architecture and the transformation of data into actionable knowledge. There are a number of new developments that may aid in the development of a new understanding: these include new isntrument concepts, the development of cubesats, and knowledge management technologies.

Paxton, L. J.

2010-12-01

444

The integrated power and propulsion stage: A mission driven solution utilizing thermionic technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of an Integrated Power and Propulsion Stage (IPAPS) and mission analysis demonstrating its utility is presented. Power for the IPAPS is provided by a modified SEHPTR out of core 40-kWe thermionic reactor which has been modified to allow direct thermal heating of hydrogen propellant to 2200 K. The reactor can thus function either as a 40-kWe power source or as a 400-kWt nuclear thermal rocket engine with a specific impulse of 736 s and a thrust of about 111 N. The IPAPS itself then consists of this reactor system, radiators, shield, hydrogen tank, a set of hydrogen arcjets with a specific impulse of 1400 s and 2.2-N thrust, avionics, and a set of power connects to support payload power utilization. The IPAPS becomes the bus for the mission instruments, providing flight avionics, guidance, telemetry, and command and control systems, thus eliminating the need for an independent upper stage for mission payload delivery. Since the arcjets and the SEHPTR thermal thruster utilize the same propellant, division of propellant between high priority high thrust maneuvers using the thermal thruster and for slow maneuvers using the arcjets does not have to be preallocated, hence contingency operations can be readily accommodated. The great increase in thrust made possible using a thermal system allows the IPAPS to transfer payloads from low Earth orbit (LEO) into highly elliptical destination orbits using a perigee kick strategy with greatly reduced gravity losses compared to electric propulsion (EP) spiral and reverse apogee kick transfers. The net result is that the IPAPS can achieve the same mass savings as EP (relative to chemical propulsion) while reducing transfer times in missions of interest from the 6 to 12 months typical of EP down to 2 to 3 weeks. It is concluded that the IPAPS concept holds large performance benefits and cost savings for missions requiring significant amounts of electric power and significant delta-V beyond an initial LEO orbit.

Zubrin, Robert M.; Sulmeisters, Tal K.; Jacox, Michael G.; Watts, Ken

1992-01-01

445

Ares First Stage Element Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation summarizes the status of the various elements of the first stage of the Ares I vehicle. It includes views of the first stage in relation to the complete Ares rocket, details of the first stage, upgrades for the Ares, the Avionics s...

B. K. Tiller

2009-01-01

446

Stage Model for Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops an integrated management framework for building organizational capabilities of knowledge management (KM). The framework consists of four major management objects: organizational knowledge, knowledge worker, knowledge management process, and information technology. Based on the framework, this study proposes a stage model of organizational knowledge management encompassing Initiation, Propagation, Integration, and Networking stages. Each of the four stages is

Jang-hwan Lee; Young-gul Kim; Sung-ho Yu

2001-01-01

447

Quality of Life, Upper Extremity Function and the Effect of Lymphedema Treatment in Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate quality of life (QOL), upper extremity function and the effect of lymphedema treatment in patients with breast cancer related lymphedema. Method The basic data comprised medical records (detailing age, sex, dominant side, location of tumor, cancer stage, operation record, cancer treatment and limb circumferences) and questionnaires (lymphedema duration, satisfaction, self-massage). Further to this, we measured upper extremity function and QOL, administered the DASH (Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand outcome measure) and used the EORTC (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer)-QLQ-C30 and the EORTC-QLQ-Br23. Results of these were calculated as main outcome variables. Results The questionnaire responses and arm circumferences of 59 patients with breast cancer related lymphedema were analyzed. In the DASH questionnaire, it was found that the older the lymphedema patient was, the lower their upper extremity function. On the EORTC-QLQ, patients with metastasis had significantly lower scores in physical functioning and role functioning. In terms of upper extremity circumference, there was a significant upper extremity size reduction after lymphedema treatment. Conclusion There were several dissociations between some subscales of quality of life questionnaires and those of upper extremity functions. Upper extremity function was correlated with the age of breast cancer patients and QOL was influenced by M-stage. Lymphedema treatment was found to be effective in reducing edema in patients with breast cancer related lymphedema.

Park, Ji Eung; Jang, Hye Jin

2012-01-01

448

The InterMod Methodology: An Interface Engineering Process Linked with Software Engineering Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

InterMod is an interactive application design methodology which proposes using user-centred models to define requirements,\\u000a describe human-computer dialogue, and evaluate prototypes. In addition, it promotes the early integration of interface models\\u000a with system functionality. Based on Intermediate Description Design (IDD), which retrieves the formal description of models,\\u000a InterMod makes it possible to quickly produce incremental prototypes and automatically adapt the

Begoña Losada; Maite Urretavizcaya; Isabel Fernández-Castro

449

77 FR 12755 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW) Division Turbofan Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by reports of 3rd and 4th stage vane fractures in the low pressure turbine (LPT) of...PW4000-100'' turbofan engines. These fractures caused an uncontained engine failure...AD to prevent 3rd and 4th stage vane fractures in the LPT, which could damage the...

2012-03-02

450

Distinguishing ecological engineering from environmental engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses complex system thinking to identify key peculiarities of ecological engineering. In particular it focuses on the distinction between the purpose-driven design of structures in environmental engineering and the natural process of self-organization characteristic of life, which needs to be integrated into ecological engineering.Conventional engineering addresses the problem of fabrication of an organized structure, say a road, which

T. F. H Allen; M Giampietro; A. M Little

2003-01-01

451

A proposed staging system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons, with a median survival of 2–3 years. Although various phenotypic and research diagnostic classification systems exist and several prognostic models have been generated, there is no staging system. Staging criteria for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis would help to provide a universal and objective measure of disease progression with benefits for patient care, resource allocation, research classifications and clinical trial design. We therefore sought to define easily identified clinical milestones that could be shown to occur at specific points in the disease course, reflect disease progression and impact prognosis and treatment. A tertiary referral centre clinical database was analysed, consisting of 1471 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis seen between 1993 and 2007. Milestones were defined as symptom onset (functional involvement by weakness, wasting, spasticity, dysarthria or dysphagia of one central nervous system region defined as bulbar, upper limb, lower limb or diaphragmatic), diagnosis, functional involvement of a second region, functional involvement of a third region, needing gastrostomy and non-invasive ventilation. Milestone timings were standardized as proportions of time elapsed through the disease course using information from patients who had died by dividing time to a milestone by disease duration. Milestones occurred at predictable proportions of the disease course. Diagnosis occurred at 35% through the disease course, involvement of a second region at 38%, a third region at 61%, need for gastrostomy at 77% and need for non-invasive ventilation at 80%. We therefore propose a simple staging system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Stage 1: symptom onset (involvement of first region); Stage 2A: diagnosis; Stage 2B: involvement of second region; Stage 3: involvement of third region; Stage 4A: need for gastrostomy; and Stage 4B: need for non-invasive ventilation. Validation of this staging system will require further studies in other populations, in population registers and in other clinic databases. The standardized times to milestones may well vary between different studies and populations, although the stages themselves and their meanings are likely to remain unchanged.

Roche, Jose C.; Rojas-Garcia, Ricardo; Scott, Kirsten M.; Scotton, William; Ellis, Catherine E.; Burman, Rachel; Wijesekera, Lokesh; Turner, Martin R.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Shaw, Christopher E.

2012-01-01

452

High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program  

SciTech Connect

Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

Rich Kruiswyk

2010-07-13

453

Development of a dry ultra-low NOâ double swirler staged gas turbine combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an ultra-low NOâ gas turbine combustor for cogeneration systems. The combustor, called a double swirler staged combustor, utilizes three-staged premixed combustion for low NOâ emission. The unique feature of the combustor is its tertiary premix nozzles located downstream of the double swirler premixing nozzles around the combustor liner. Engine output is controlled by simply

H. Sato; M. Mori; T. Nakamura

1998-01-01

454

A Study of Compact Ram Combustor with Double-Staged Flameholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to carry heavier payloads and to fly longer distance, the compact engine is required. The ram combustor with the double-staged flameholders was introduced to shorten the ram combustor which is a major component of the ATR. An additional flamefolder is placed downstream of the conventional (single-staged) one to achieve quick flame expansion in the downstream direction. The ram

Hiroaki Hasegawa; Takanobu Yoshimura; Yasuhiro Kinoshita

2003-01-01

455

Re-Engineering the Engineering Degree Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students enrolled to degree programs in 1997 will become the first graduates of the 21st century. Engineering courses in the School of Engineering at Leeds Metropolitan University have changed immensely in the last two years, so as to support new markets. Disciplines such as industrial engineering, electronics and computing have enjoyed their…

Marsh, Rodney

456

Concurrent Engineering support in Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of Software Engineering methodology, from waterfall to spiral, from spiral to agile, indicates that high concurrency, iterative development and short cycles are key factors for effective Software Engineering. It is widely accepted that supporting (i.e., formalizing controlling, automating and optimizing) concurrent engineering processes is needed to increase predictability of cost, quality and development time. Unfortunately, current systems (e.g.,

Jacky Estublier; Sergio Garcia

2006-01-01

457

Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (?=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (?=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (?=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (?=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation. PMID:22317463

Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

2012-01-01

458

National Engineers Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option. From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day, which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars, for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

2007-12-12

459

National Engineers Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes "more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option." From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the "Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day," which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming "the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars," for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

2005-11-06

460

Rotary engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine. It comprises: an external rotor housing having a wall defining an internal chamber, a stationary inlet supplying compression fluid to the internal chamber, stationary means mounted in the wall for igniting compression fluid within the internal chamber, means for transporting compression fluid to a combustion chamber formed within the internal chamber from a compression chamber formed within the internal chamber, and a stationary outlet exhausting combustion exhaust from the chamber, a rotor element mounted within the chamber and having an engagement surface with first and second lobes extending therefrom; the internal chamber comprising two spaces, each in the form of a half-crescent, seal means supported within the rotor element for engagement with the housing wall for controlling the flow of compression fluid and combustion gases between the rotor element and housing wall; a central rotating shaft supporting the rotor element within the chamber; and an inlet pawl and a combustion pawl rotatably mounted in the housing wall.

Rogant, H.R.

1990-11-06

461

Developmental Aspects of the Upper Airway  

PubMed Central

The upper airway serves three important functions: respiration, swallowing, and speech. During development it undergoes significant structural and functional changes that affect its size, shape, and mechanical properties. Abnormalities of the upper airway require prompt attention, because these often alter ventilatory patterns and gas exchange, particularly during sleep when upper airway motor tone and ventilatory drive are diminished. Recognizing the relationship of early life events to lung health and disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), with cofunding from the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD), convened a workshop of extramural experts, from many disciplines. The objective of the workshop was: (1) to review the state of science in pediatric upper airway disorders; (2) to make recommendations to the Institute to fill knowledge gaps; (3) to prioritize new research directions; and (4) to capitalize on scientific opportunities. This report provides recommendations that could facilitate translation of basic research findings into practice to better diagnose, treat, and prevent airway compromise in children.

Marcus, Carole L.; Smith, Richard J. H.; Mankarious, Leila A.; Arens, Raanan; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Elluru, Ravindhra G.; Forte, Vito; Goudy, Steven; Jabs, Ethylin W.; Kane, Alex A.; Katz, Eliot; Paydarfar, David; Pereira, Kevin; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Ruiz, Ramon L.; Thach, Bradley T.; Tunkel, David E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wootton, David; Blaisdell, Carol J.

2009-01-01

462

MAVEN: Exploring the Upper Atmosphere of Mars  

NASA Video Gallery

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), set to launch in 2013, will explore the planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind. Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN's Principal Investigator discusses the mission.

gsfcvideo

2010-09-29

463

Prospective Study of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This epidemiologic study of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in manufacturing and health care industries collected individual demographic, health, psychosocial, work organizational and physical load exposure information among 733 permanent full-t...

B. Silverstein C. Smith D. Bonauto J. Fan N. Howard P. Spielholz S. Bao

2006-01-01

464

Upper hybrid wave pumped free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

A large upper hybrid wave has potential to be employed as a wiggler for the generation of high frequency coherent radiation via free electron laser (FEL) instability. At a density fluctuation level of a few percent, due to the upper hybrid wave, the growth time of FEL instability, with electron beam current of a few kilo ampere, turns out to be of the order of a nanosecond. The growth rate of FEL instability depends sensitively on {omega}{sub 1} and this dependence comes through v{sub osc}, the beam oscillatory velocity. However, this scheme of FEL operating suffers from a severe limitation due to the parametric instability of the upper hybrid wave. The process of parametric decay into lower hybrid and upper hybrid waves may have growth rate comparable to that of the FEL instability.

Sharma, S.C.; Tripathi, V.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

1995-08-01

465

The Upper Riser Suspension and Tensioning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the upper riser suspension and tensioning system composed of the following: hydrosphere mount, stand counter, hydraulic slip joint, triservice hydraulic power system, hydroelectric collector, heave measuring and recording system, rise...

1964-01-01

466

Low Temperature Rolling of Upper Bainitic Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation has been carried out on the effect of various low temperature rolling treatments on the mechanical properties of a typical upper bainitic steel. Rolling schedules and thermal treatments involving recrystallisation of the austenite, and al...

D. Dulieu J. J. Irani

1968-01-01

467

HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Science Investigator Program entitled 'HALOE Algorithm Im...

J. M. Russell L. L. Gordley M. E. Hervig M. J. McHugh R. E. Thompson

2001-01-01

468

Upper limb injuries associated with rock climbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cases of upper limb injuries secondary to rock-climbing or training for rock climbing are presented. All four cases had diagnosis and treatment delayed because of unawareness of the range of injuries seen in high grade rock climbing.

P Bannister; P Foster

1986-01-01

469

Nuclear engine system simulation (NESS) program update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis code has been completed. The standalone, versatile Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code provides an accurate, detailed assessment of engine system operating performance, weight, and sizes. The critical information is required to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. This recent development effort included incorporation of an updated solid-core nuclear thermal reactor model that yields a reduced core weight and higher fuel power density when compared to a NERVA type reactor. NESS can now analyze expander, gas generator, and bleed cycles, along with multi-redundant propellant pump feed systems. Performance and weight of efficient multi-stage axial turbopump can now be determined, in addition to the traditional centrifugal pump. Key code outputs include reactor operating charactertistics and weights and well as engine system parameters such as performance, weights, dimensions, pressures, temperatures, mass flows and turbopump operating characteristics for both design and off-design operating conditions. Representative NTP engine system designs are also shown. An overview of NESS methodology and capabilities is presented in this paper, with special emphasis being placed on recent code developments.

Scheil, Christine M.; Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

1993-01-01

470

Giant lipomas of the upper extremity  

PubMed Central

Lipomas are slow-growing soft tissue tumours that rarely reach a size larger than 2 cm. Lesions larger than 5 cm, so-called giant lipomas, can occur anywhere in the body but are seldom found in the upper extremities. The authors present their experiences with eight patients having giant lipomas of the upper extremity. In addition, a review of the literature, and a discussion of the appropriate evaluation and management are included.

Allen, Brian; Rader, Christine; Babigian, Alan

2007-01-01

471

Upper Midwest Rock Art Research Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Upper Midwest Rock Art Research Association site hosts useful information on petroglyph and pictograph research in the upper Midwest region of the United States and other regions. Featured articles and research reports will be changed on a periodic basis. Current offerings include several site reports from Minnesota and Wisconsin; articles on rock art, projectile points, and atlatls in Minnesota; and a review of a new book on Wisconsin archaeology for young readers. Most reports are brief and include photos or illustrations.

1997-01-01

472

A model for the layered upper mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical modeling of mantle convection by Liu (1994, Science, 264: 1904–1907) favors a two-layer convection, if the results are reinterpreted for the correct phase relations in (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. The resulting chemical isolation of the upper and lower mantle suggests a highly differentiated and layered upper mantle to account for the discrepancy between the observed compositions of mantle xenoliths and the cosmic

Tibor Gasparik

1997-01-01

473

Response of Vegetation and Fish during an Experimental Drawdown in Three Pools, Upper Mississippi River. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment to improve ecological conditions while maintaining a 9-foot (2.74-m) navigation channel was continued in 1995 and 1996 on the three pools of the Upper Mississippi River managed by the St. Louis District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Water l...

J. H. Wlosinski J. T. Rogala T. W. Owens K. L. Dalrymple D. Busse C. N. Strauser E. Atwood

2000-01-01

474

Gamma ray bursts inner engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are brief durations of intense, highly variable gamma radiation coming from point like sources in the Universe. GRBs have been seen in connection with Type 1c supernovae. Their isotropical equivalent energy released in gamma rays is in some cases above 10 54 erg, but the engine creating this energy is unknown. In this thesis several models for the engine are explored. It is shown that cannonballs can in principle form from hyperaccreting disks, however the cannonball model requires almost all supernovae to create cannonballs, and our finding then implies that a hyperaccreting disk is a natural consequence in most supernovae, a notion which remains to be confirmed. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the collapsar model have been performed. Within our setup we found that the duration of the collapsar is too short to explain GRBs, and the energy output is not sufficient. Also the supernova connection could not be explained. I find that the more likely candidate for the GRB engine is an accreting quark star. A quark star has a maximum mass, if the mass increases above this the star will collapse to a black hole. This allows for a two stage engine that might be able to explain features observed in GRBs.

Staff, Jan Erling

475

Analysis of the staging maneuver and booster glideback guidance for a two-stage, winged, fully reusable launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the promising launch concepts that could replace the current space shuttle launch system is a two-stage, winged, vertical-takeoff, fully reusable launch vehicle. During the boost phase of ascent, the booster provides propellant for the orbiter engines through a cross-feed system. When the vehicle reaches a Mach number of 3, the booster propellants are depleted and the booster is staged and glides unpowered to a horizontal landing at a launch site runway. Two major design issues for this class of vehicle are the staging maneuver and the booster glideback. For the staging maneuver analysis, a technique was developed that provides for a successful separation of the booster from the orbiter over a wide range of staging angles of attack. A longitudinal flight control system was developed for control of the booster during the staging maneuver. For the booster glide back analysis, a guidance algorithm was developed that successfully guides the booster from the completion of the staging maneuver to a launch site runway while encountering many off-nominal atmospheric, aerodynamic, and staging conditions.

Naftel, J. Christopher; Powell, Richard W.

1993-04-01

476

Systems engineering at the nanoscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials have provided some of the greatest leaps in technology over the past twenty years, but their relatively early stage of maturity presents challenges for their incorporation into engineered systems. Perhaps even more challenging is the fact that the underlying physics at the nanoscale often run counter to our physical intuition. The current state of nanotechnology today includes nanoscale materials and devices developed to function as components of systems, as well as theoretical visions for "nanosystems," which are systems in which all components are based on nanotechnology. Although examples will be given to show that nanomaterials have indeed matured into applications in medical, space, and military systems, no complete nanosystem has yet been realized. This discussion will therefore focus on systems in which nanotechnology plays a central role. Using self-assembled magnetic artificial cilia as an example, we will discuss how systems engineering concepts apply to nanotechnology.

Benkoski, Jason J.; Breidenich, Jennifer L.; Wei, Michael C.; Clatterbaughi, Guy V.; Keng, Pei Yuin; Pyun, Jeffrey

2012-05-01

477

Assessment of upper airway mechanics during sleep.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea, which is the most prevalent sleep breathing disorder, is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse and reopening. However, the mechanical properties of the upper airway are not directly measured in routine polysomnography because only qualitative sensors (thermistors for flow and thoraco-abdominal bands for pressure) are used. This review focuses on two techniques that quantify upper airway obstruction during sleep. A Starling model of collapsible conduit allows us to interpret the mechanics of the upper airway by means of two parameters: the critical pressure (Pcrit) and the upstream resistance (Rup). A simple technique to measure Pcrit and Rup involves the application of different levels of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during sleep. The forced oscillation technique is another non-invasive procedure for quantifying upper airway impedance during the breathing cycle in sleep studies. The latest developments in these two methods allow them to be easily applied on a routine basis in order to more fully characterize upper airway mechanics in patients with sleep breathing disorders. PMID:18638576

Farré, Ramon; Montserrat, Josep M; Navajas, Daniel

2008-06-27

478

Acquired Hemochromatosis with Pronounced Pigment Deposition of the Upper Eyelids  

PubMed Central

Hemochromatosis may be classified into two groups: primary (hereditary) or secondary (acquired). The acquired type most commonly occurs after massive intake of iron supplements or blood transfusions and is also known as transfusional iron overload. In the past, hemochromatosis was usually recognized at an advanced stage by the classic triad of hyperpigmentation, diabetes mellitus (“bronze diabetes”), and hepatic cirrhosis. Cutaneous hyperpigmentation is present in 70 percent of patients due to two different mechanisms: (1) hemosiderin deposition resulting in diffuse, slate-gray darkening and (2) increased production of melanin in the epidermis. A 47-year-old woman who receives regular transfusions due to low iron and chronic, unresolving anemia and who subsequently developed pronounced hyperpigmentation of the upper eyelids is described. The presentation, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment options of hyperpigmentation due to secondary hemochromatosis are discussed.

Morrison, Brian; Hu, Shasa

2013-01-01

479

End stage renal disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction End stage renal disease (ESRD) affects over 1500 people per million population in countries with a high prevalence, such as the USA and Japan. Approximately two thirds of people with ESRD receive haemodialysis, a quarter have kidney transplants, and a tenth receive peritoneal dialysis. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of different doses and osmotic agents for peritoneal dialysis? What are the effects of different doses and membrane fluxes for haemodialysis? What are the effects of interventions aimed at preventing secondary complications? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to April 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 20 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cinacalcet, darbepoetin, dextrose solutions, erythropoietin, haemodialysis (standard-dose, increased-dose), high-membrane-flux haemodialysis, icodextrin, increased-dose peritoneal dialysis, low-membrane-flux haemodialysis, mupirocin, sevelamer, and standard-dose dialysis.

2007-01-01

480

Commercial Actors Stage Strike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 1, 2000, 75,000 members of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists staged a walk-out in protest of advertisers's proposed changes to the ways in which actors get paid for work in commercials. According to the current pay scheme, principle on-screen actors appearing in network commercials earn $479 in base pay as well as a residual payment ranging from $47 to $123. Over a standard thirteen-week run, actors earn an average of $13,000 per commercial. However, actors in cable commercials make a flat fee of $479 to $1,014 for the same thirteen-week run. SAG and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists are demanding a fourteen percent pay raise for both types of commercials. However, the advertisers would like to pay the actors only $2,575 for an unlimited thirteen-week network run. While this amount may seem like a lot of money, the average income for members of the SAG members is only $7000 a year, reflecting the possibility that actors may only appear in one or two commercials a year. This is the first major strike in the entertainment industry since 1988.

Missner, Emily D.

481

33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103 Section 117.1103...Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota. [CGD...

2013-07-01

482

Applying the laser beam for reconstruction of the upper airway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present their own experience in restoration of the upper airway using a different source of high power laser. There are many patients with a stricture of the upper airway. One of the most common cause insufficiency of this is nosal polyps. Surgical treatment of polyps till now is not sufficiently effective. For this reason we work out a Nd:YAG laser applying technique that let us to reduce a hospitalization time with elongation of an asymptotic period of our patients. Nd:YAG energy we apply for conchoplasty benefiting of its profound coagulation as a distinctive role. This type of laser is very useful in removing of granulation tissue from different areas of the upper airway. Other applications of Nd:YAG laser in our hands is very useful for: coagulation of vessels in Kisselbach area, especially in Rendou-Osler's diseases, resection of the nosal Septo-turbinate adhesions, treatment of hemangiomas and small papillomas in nasal cavity, diminishing of the hypertrophied mucosa in the nasopharyngeal space as well as, reduction of the uvula and soft palate in OSAS patients. In our department we use a Nd:YAG for treatment of precancerous and early stages of cancer and for a palliation procedures in an advanced cancer infiltration in mouth, pharynx and laryngeal region. For treatment removing of cicatrix tissue in a larynx and trachea we use to use a Holm: YAG laser their very superficial penetration of tissues is used for a coagulation of small vessels too let us to resect it without bleeding from a bony and mucosa tissue, as a fragments maxillary sinus wall, nosal septum crest or spine with resection of the posterior pole of a turbinate. Both laser are conveyed by fiberoptic, to reach a pathological changes in many plans, places for this reason we are able to continuously work on a new its applications.

Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Wojtowicz, Piotr; Dudziec, Katarzyna; Oledzka, Iwona

2000-11-01

483

Velocity Structure of Upper Ocean Crust at ODP Site 1256  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use shipboard physical property measurements, wireline logs, and vertical seismic profiles (VSP) to investigate lateral and vertical variations in compressional velocity at ODP Site 1256, located in 15 Ma ocean crust formed at a superfast spreading center. Averaged over tens of meters, velocities from all methods are in good agreement. Velocity in both the logging and laboratory data is inversely related to porosity and decreases downward in the upper 1 km of basement. We infer that microfracturing due to pressure release during drilling is minor in samples from the upper 1 km of basement and suggest that pores provide a connection to hydrostatic pressure, so the in-situ effective stress is less than rock strength. Below 1 km in basement, laboratory velocities diverge from logging velocities, probably due to micro-fractures associated with pressure release. We conclude that porosity controls velocity in layer 2 and suggest that lithostatic pressure controls the thickness of seismic layer 2. Large-scale fractures and fissures are not required to explain the velocity profiles at Hole 1256D. The contribution from mineralogical changes to velocity is unclear at this stage in analysis of 1256D rocks. In the upper 280 m of basement, VSP and refraction velocities diverge from sonic log and laboratory velocity by up to 1.3 km/s. We ascribe this divergence to lateral variations in flow types. In the sheeted dikes, changes in physical properties, mineralogy and chemistry define clusters of dikes with apparent thicknesses of 80-150 m that may have influenced subsequent alteration processes.

Swift, S. A.; Stephen, R. A.; Reichow, M. K.; Tikku, A. A.; Tominaga, M.; Gilbert, L. A.

2008-12-01

484

75 FR 12661 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...forward spacer arm) of the LPT stage 3 disk. (i) If the LPT stage 3 disk is cracked or if a circumferential band of fluorescence appears, permanently remove the disk from service. Alternative Methods of Compliance (j) The Manager, Engine...

2010-03-17

485

Atomic-Scale Precision Motion Control Stage (The Angstrom Stage)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a magnetically-suspended six-degree-of-freedom precision motion control stage with sub-nanometer positioning stability inside a 100 ?m cube of travel. This stage utilizes multiple electromagnetic actuators and capacitance probes to provide control forces and position feedback. respectively. The suspended platen (3 kg mass) is floated in oil to enhance the performance of the magnetic bearings. The stage has been

Michael Holmes; David Trumpet; Robert Hocken

1995-01-01

486

Engine Wear with Methanol Fuel in a Nitrogen-Free Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several test programs have shown that the combustion of methanol in spark ignition engines can cause unusually high corrosive wear of the upper cylinder bore and ring areas. In this study, a 2.3-liter engine fueled with methanol was operated in a nitrogen...

D. W. Naegeli D. M. Yost E. C. Owens

1984-01-01

487

Creating a Free, Dependable Software Engineering Environment for Building Java Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As open source software engineering becomes more preva- lent, employing sound software engineering practices and the tools used to implement these practices becomes more important. This paper examines the current status of free software engineering tools. For each set of tools, we deter- mined the important attributes that would best assist a de- veloper in each stage of the waterfall

Marcus Bittman; Robert Roos; Gregory M. Kapfhammer

2001-01-01

488

Improving a stage forecasting Muskingum model by relating local stage and remote discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the parsimonious concept of parameters, simplified models for flood forecasting based only on flood routing have been developed for flood-prone sites located downstream of a gauged station and at a distance allowing an appropriate forecasting lead-time. In this context, the Muskingum model can be a useful tool. However, critical points in hydrological routing are the representation of lateral inflows contribution and the knowledge of stage-discharge relationships. As regards the former, O'Donnell (O'Donnell, T., 1985. A direct three-parameter Muskingum procedure incorporating lateral inflow, Hydrol. Sci. J., 30[4/12], 479-496) proposed a three-parameter Muskingum procedure assuming the lateral inflows proportional to the contribution entering upstream. Using this approach, Franchini and Lamberti (Franchini, M. & Lamberti, P., 1994. A flood routing Muskingum type simulation and forecasting model based on level data alone, Water Resour. Res., 30[7], 2183-2196) presented a simple model Muskingum type to provide forecast water levels at the downstream end by selecting a routing time interval and, hence, a forecasting lead-time allowing to express the forecast stage as a function of only observed quantities. Moramarco et al. (Moramarco, T., Barbetta, S., Melone, F. & Singh, V.P., 2006. A real-time stage Muskingum forecasting model for a site without rating curve, Hydrol. Sci. J., 51[1], 66-82) enhanced the modeling scheme incorporating a procedure for adapting the parameter linked to lateral inflows. This last model, called STAFOM (STAge FOrecasting Model), was also extended to a two connected river branches schematization in order to improve significantly the forecasting lead-time. The STAFOM model provided satisfactory results for most of the analysed flood e