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1

Ares I Upper Stage Subscale Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

2

Cryogenic upper stage test bed engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vehicle system with unique characteristics will be needed in connection with the extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) and beyond. These characteristics are determined by NASA missions related to the deployment of large space structures, satellite servicing, and manned sorties to geosynchronous orbit. Advances in vehicle design and operation will be required along with significant advances in engine technologies. A versatile, well-instrumented test bed engine will be needed for the evaluation of the required technologies. Developments leading to the fabrication and assembly of the first high chamber pressure expander cycle test bed engine are discussed. The test bed engine, which is called Integrated Component Evaluator (ICE), is required for the development of an advanced, cryogenic, upperstage engine.

Pauckert, R.; Zachary, A.; Degaetano, E.; Sutton, R.

1985-01-01

3

J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

Buzzell, James C.

2009-01-01

4

Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

Buzzell, James C.

2010-01-01

5

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

1999-01-01

6

Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving the way for a flight demonstration by the turn of the century. The ISUS technology offers high specific impulse propulsion at moderate thrust levels and high power, radiation-tolerant electrical power generation. This bimodal system capability offers savings in launch vehicle costs and/or substantial increases in payload power and mass over present day satellite systems. The ISUS EGD consisted of the solar receiver/absorber/converter (RAC), power generation, management, and distribution subsystems, solar concentrator, and cryogen storage/feed subsystems. Simulation of a low Earth orbit (LEO)-to-Molniya orbit transfer (30-day trip time) as well as characterization of on-orbit power production was planned for this ground test. This paper describes the EGD test integration, setup and checkout, system acceptance tests, performance mapping, and exercise of the system through a mission-like series of operations. Key test data collected during the test series is reported along with a summary of technical insights achieved as a result of the experiment. Test data includes propulsion performance as derived from flowrate, temperature, and pressure measurements and the total number of thermal cycles.

Kudija, Charles T.; Frye, Patrick E.

1998-01-01

7

Low-speed inducers for cryogenic upper-stage engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-phase, low-speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers driven by electric motors and applicable to the tug engine were designed and constructed. The oxygen inducer was tested in liquid and two-phase oxygen. Its head and flow performance were approximately as designed, and it was able to accelerate to full speed in 3 seconds and produce its design flow and head. The analysis of the two-phase data indicated that the inducer was able to pump with vapor volume fractions in excess of 60 percent. The pump met all of its requirements (duration of runs and number of starts) to demonstrate its mechanical integrity.

Bissell, W. R.; Jenkins, D. S.; King, J. A.; Jackson, E. D.

1975-01-01

8

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

9

Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

2006-01-01

10

Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

2000-01-01

11

The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Heritage to Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Global Exploration Strategy requires safe, reliable, robust, efficient transportation to support sustainable operations from Earth to orbit and into the far reaches of the solar system. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to provide that transportation. Guiding principles in creating the architecture represented by the Ares vehicles were the maximum use of heritage hardware and legacy knowledge, particularly Space Shuttle assets, and commonality between the Ares vehicles where possible to streamline the hardware development approach and reduce programmatic, technical, and budget risks. The J-2X exemplifies those goals. It was selected by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) as the upper stage propulsion for the Ares I Upper Stage and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). The J-2X is an evolved version ofthe historic J-2 engine that successfully powered the second stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle and the second and third stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Constellation architecture, however, requires performance greater than its predecessor. The new architecture calls for larger payloads delivered to the Moon and demands greater loss of mission reliability and numerous other requirements associated with human rating that were not applied to the original J-2. As a result, the J-2X must operate at much higher temperatures, pressures, and flow rates than the heritage J-2, making it one of the highest performing gas generator cycle engines ever built, approaching the efficiency of more complex stage combustion engines. Development is focused on early risk mitigation, component and subassembly test, and engine system test. The development plans include testing engine components, including the subscale injector, main igniter, powerpack assembly (turbopumps, gas generator and associated ducting and structural mounts), full-scale gas generator, valves, and control software with hardware-in-the-loop. Testing expanded in 2007, accompanied by the refinement of the design through several key milestones. This paper discusses those 2007 tests and milestones, as well as updates key developments in 2008.

Byrd, THomas

2008-01-01

12

Upper stage technology evaluation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

1972-01-01

13

Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

Zachary, A. T.

1973-01-01

14

The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

Byrd, Thomas

2010-01-01

15

CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

16

Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, reliable, affordable upper stage engine to power the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. The J-2X engine is being developed for that purpose, epitomizing NASA's philosophy of employing legacy knowledge, heritage hardware, and commonality to carry the next generation of explorers into low-Earth orbit and out into the solar system This presentation gives top-level details on accomplishments to date and discusses forward work necessary to bring the J-2X engine to the launch pad.

Byrd, Thomas D.; Kynard, Michael .

2007-01-01

17

Coasting Phase Propellant Management for Upper Stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of European cryogenic upper stages, namely the A5ME upper stage, is expected to perform multiple engine restarts in order to enhance the mission flexibility. The management of the propellant in the upper stage tanks under g conditions is thus a major issue with respect to the handling of these phases. A number of different tasks play a major role, e.g. the coupling of the rigid body motion and the sloshing in the tanks driven by the controller of the stage. Furthermore also thermal aspects are of importance which have to be considered. Coasting phases are not a new aspect with respect to mission scenarios of upper stages as they occur during every P/L release. Main difference in case of a restart mission is however that the tank fill level is much higher compared to past P/L separations with a nearly empty tank. The coupling between rigid body motion, controller and fluid motion is thus much stronger. Astrium therefore developed a software tool, called "FIPS", which is able evaluate the coupled closed loop rigid body motion including fluid dynamics and the control algorithm. The tool couples the high sophisticated CFD software FLOW-3D with an Astrium developed closed loop rigid body dynamics simulator. The presentation discusses details concerning the propellant behaviour in coasting phases. The impact of internal equipments such as sloshing baffles will be detailed. One conclusion of the assessment is that to a major part disturbing torques are non-negligible such that a realistic propellant behaviour can only be realized in a closed loop simulation. The impact of the upper stage controller can not be neglected.

Philipp, Behruzi; Strauch, Hans; de Rose, Francesco

18

Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and discussed in light of the various missions. For each mission there are several trajectory options and each will be discussed in terms of delta-v required and transit duration. Each propulsion system will be modeled, sized, and judged based on their applicability to the whole range of beyond LEO missions. Criteria for scoring will include the resulting dry mass of the stage, resulting propellant required, time to destination, and an assessment of key enabling technologies. In addition to the larger metrics, this paper will present the results of several coupled sensitivity studies. The ultimate goals of these tools and studies are to provide NASA with the most mass-, technology-, and cost-effective in-space stage for its future exploration missions.

Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

2014-01-01

19

Ariane 5 upper stage thermal protection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal protection system of the Ariane 5 upper stage tank section development program is described with special emphasis on the heat shield. The optimization process is given, beginning with material selection combined with analysis and followed by test verification. Attention is given to the storable propellant stage (SPS) thermal design, heat shield component thermal performance tests, SPS heat shield verification test results, and the manufacturing and integration approach.

Schwarz, B.; Menn, F.; Gutschmidt, K.

1991-07-01

20

Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

2007-01-01

21

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

1979-01-01

22

Shuttle/Centaur Upper Stage Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint project to design, develop, procure, and produce Centaur upper stages for use with the Space Shuttle is discussed. A common Centaur G stage 6 meters (19.5 feet) in length is being jointly developed. A longer version designated Centaur G Prime is being developed by NASA to accomplish the Galileo and International Solar-Polar Mission flights in 1986. The Centaur G and G Prime will have the capability to place, respectively, approximately 4540 kilograms (10,000 pounds) and 5910 kilograms (13,000 pounds) into geosynchronous orbit from a standard Shuttle parking orbit of 278 kilometers (150 nautical miles) and Shuttle performance (lift) capability 29,500 kilograms (65,000 pounds). The advent of high energy upper stage capability in 1986 will permit space users and spacecraft developers to utilize spacecraft growth, stage combination concepts with storage modules, teleoperator systems, and other mission peculiar devices to satisfy complex mission demands. These capabilities should greatly enhance the usefulness of the space environment and stimulate mission planners toward conception of innovative means to meet ever increasing mission requirements.

Clark, H. J.

1984-01-01

23

Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

1984-01-01

24

Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

Schallhorn, Paul; Campbell, D. Michael; Chase, Sukhdeep; Piquero, Jorge; Fortenberry, Cindy; Li, Xiaoyi; Grob, Lisa

2006-01-01

25

Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

2010-01-01

26

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares 1-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

Davis, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

27

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DuPont(tm) Vespel(R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750degF during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

Wingard, Doug

2013-01-01

28

Upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additive. These propellants increase the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other Earth-orbital transfer missions. However, using metallized propellants for planetary missions can deliver great reductions in flight time with a single-stage, upper-stage system. Tradeoff studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with nonmetallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages, launched from the STS and STS-C, are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to high altitude orbits and onto interplanetary trajectories that are unattainable with only the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C). The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the STS and STS-C launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1992-01-01

29

United States upper stages for the next decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970 s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G' was ultimately developed as the centaur upper stage for use with the Titan IV launch system. In the last two decades upper stage development decisions and requirements were driven by increased payload performance demands. As we look forward to the next decade it is apparent that the situation has changed. Significant effort is underway to downsize payloads. The best mission model projections indicate that the payload performance demands have reached a maximum with current or near-term missions, and that maximum weight requirements will generally decrease in the near future. Thus the current fleet of launch systems and upper stages are expected to be able to meet all projected performance requirements through the next one to two decades. The impetus for development of a new upper stage will have to come from somewhere other than increased performance requirements. A driving need for a new upper stage is emerging from the concept and technology development work currently underway in the U.S. on the evolved expendable vehicle (EELV) and reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The key EELV upper stage requirements are cost, operability and reliability. Clearly the EELV presents a performance challenge for a single upper stage to operate with a booster family over the complete mission model payload weight and destination range. The design requirements and trade-off considerations are quite different for a stage to operate with an RLV. In this case, manned safety and payload bay packaging become significant additional considerations which must be addressed, and reusability, with or without space basing, is an option. This paper covers the need and prospects of U.S. upper stages for the next decade by tracing the history of development and planned improvements, and identifying new requirements and challenges expected to be imposed by emerging EELV and RLV requirements. Trade-off factors, design considerations and sensitivities, as well as cost and reliability benchmarks, are highlighted through the use of representative design solutions.

Goldstein, A.; Woods, F.

30

Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger  

DOEpatents

A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA)

2011-11-01

31

Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger  

DOEpatents

A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA)

2006-05-09

32

Overview of the Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overview begins with the bold vision for space exploration set out by President Bush in 2004. A brief description of the proposed systems architecture is presented along with an animation showing the various stages and phases of a mission. The overview concludes with latest roadmaps for the Upper Stage.

Funk, Joan G.

2006-01-01

33

Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

Ahmed, Rafiq

2012-01-01

34

Analytical study of spinning solid upper stage dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical solutions for the spinning vehicle dynamics during the burning phase in vacuum were derived. These solutions explicity incorporate the effects of thrust misalignment, gravity gradient torques, jet damping, dynamic unbalance and spin rate variations. These expressions are useful in preliminary design studies of spinning upper stages of launch vehicles. The main advantages of this approach lies in the fact that the time required to carry out detailed parametric studies is one order lower than regular 6 DOF simulations. The application of this approach for a typical Shuttle Launched Spinning Solid Upper Stage (SSUS) mission incorporating AS-05-A payload is illustrated.

Menon, K. A. P.; Sundararajan, N.

1980-11-01

35

Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

2014-01-01

36

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOEpatents

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01

37

Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

1974-01-01

38

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D.

1998-01-01

39

Optimization, an Important Stage of Engineering Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of leaders in technology education have indicated that a major difference between the technological design process and the engineering design process is analysis and optimization. The analysis stage of the engineering design process is when mathematical models and scientific principles are employed to help the designer predict design…

Kelley, Todd R.

2010-01-01

40

NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

Walker, James

2008-01-01

41

Risk Assessment Challenges in the Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently at work developing hardware and systems for the Ares I rocket that will send future astronauts into orbit. Built on cutting-edge launch technologies, evolved powerful Apollo and Space Shuttle propulsion elements, and decades of NASA spaceflight experience, Ares I is the essential core of a safe, reliable, cost-effective space transportation system -- one that will carry crewed missions back to the moon, on to Mars and out into the solar system. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the vehicle's primary mission -carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit --Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to "park" payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Crew transportation to the International Space Station is planned to begin no later than 2014. The first lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe. This paper presents the challenges in designing the Ares I upper stage for reliability and safety while minimizing weight and maximizing performance.

Stott, James E.; Ring, Robert W.; Elrada, Hassan A.; Hark, Frank

2007-01-01

42

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

43

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

44

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

45

Staged Turbojet Engine Would Emit Less NO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New turbojet-engine concept could reduce nitric oxide emissions to a level from one-fifteenth to as little as one three-hundredth that of conventional units. Multiple-stage combustor could overcome flame instability problems associated with previous low-flame-temperature systems. It operates in a relatively-simple adiabatic mode without elaborate fuel-flow and air circulation patterns.,

Craig, R. A.; Pritchard, H. O.

1982-01-01

46

Aerothermodynamics calculation of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at descent in the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering calculation method has been developed for investigation of the process of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at deorbiting and descent into the Earth's atmosphere. The results of calculation of its descent trajectory and characteristics of aerodynamic heating are presented. Within the framework of the thermodynamic approach, the authors investigated the process of pressure increase in the tanks due to heating and evaporation of the liquid phase of fuel. Stresses in the shells, the height and the energy equivalent of explosive destruction of tanks were calculated depending on the degree of their filling with remains of the components of liquid fuel.

Glazunov, A. A.; Goldin, V. D.; Zverev, V. G.; Ustinov, S. N.; Finchenko, V. S.

2013-06-01

47

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

48

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overall description of the avionics and software functions of the Ares I Upper Stage Crew Launch Vehicle. The contents include: 1) IUA Team - Development Approach Roadmap; 2) Ares I US Avionics and Software Development Approach; 3) NDT Responsibilities; 4) Ares I Upper Stage Avionics Locations; 5) Ares I Overall Avionics & Software Functions; 6) Block Diagram Version of Avionics Architecture; 7) Instrument Unit Avionics Preliminary Design; and 8) Upper Stage Avionics External Interfaces.

Nola, Charles L.

2008-01-01

49

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

50

Engineering Notes Parametric Analysis of Single-Stage  

E-print Network

Engineering Notes Parametric Analysis of Single-Stage Earth-Departure-Stage In-Orbit Refueling, Russia DOI: 10.2514/1.A32718 Nomenclature A = total mass stage gear ratio A1 = propellant mass stage gear ratio Isp = stage specific impulse, s mEDS = total Earth-departure-stage stage mass (reference case

de Weck, Olivier L.

51

Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

2013-01-01

52

DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CABLE FROM THIS ENGINE LEADS DOWN INTO THE DEEP RAVINE IN FRONT OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL. IT WAS PROBABLY USED TO DRAG MATERIALS UP TOWARD THE TERMINAL WHEN THE TERMINAL WAS BEING CONSTRUCTED, OR IN TIMES OF TRAMWAY BREAKDOWN. THE DRIVE ENGINE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TWO LONG OPERATING LEVERS FOR THE ENGINE ARE IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. AN EXTRA SPOOL OF CABLE IS ON THE GROUND TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. A WATER PIPELINE STRETCHES ACROSS THE SLOPE IN THE BACKGROUND, CARRYING WATER TO THE UPPER MINES. SEE CA-291-37 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

53

DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CABLE FROM THIS ENGINE LEADS DOWN INTO THE DEEP RAVINE IN FRONT OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL. IT WAS PROBABLY USED TO DRAG MATERIALS UP TOWARD THE TERMINAL WHEN THE TERMINAL WAS BEING CONSTRUCTED, OR IN TIMES OF TRAMWAY BREAK DOWN. THE DRIVE ENGINE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TWO LONG OPERATING LEVERS FOR THE ENGINE ARE IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. AN EXTRA SPOOL OF CABLE IS ON THE GROUND TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. A WATER PIPELINE STRETCHES ACROSS THE SLOPE IN THE BACKGROUND, CARRYING WATER TO THE UPPER MINES. SEE CA-291-52 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

54

Cost-effectiveness of common upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'Advanced Terminal Interceptor Design' code is presently used in conjunction with the 'Aerojet Interceptor Design and Evaluation' and 'Near-Earth Mission Analysis Routine' codes to ascertain the cost-effectiveness of common versus optimized upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters at equal payloads. It is thereby established that the development and production costs of a three-stage booster with common upper stages

Steve Tiwari; Mark Umansky; Steven Bryant; Gerald E. Hanson; James R. Krakus

1993-01-01

55

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

56

Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1990-01-01

57

Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

Graham, Scott R.

2014-01-01

58

Cost-effectiveness of common upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'Advanced Terminal Interceptor Design' code is presently used in conjunction with the 'Aerojet Interceptor Design and Evaluation' and 'Near-Earth Mission Analysis Routine' codes to ascertain the cost-effectiveness of common versus optimized upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters at equal payloads. It is thereby established that the development and production costs of a three-stage booster with common upper stages can be significantly less than an optimized booster involving three different stages, due to less design effort, less component development and qualification, and less production tooling.

Tiwari, Steve; Umansky, Mark; Bryant, Steven; Hanson, Gerald E.; Krakus, James R.

1993-02-01

59

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage. A.N. Boudewyns, P.H. Van de Heyning, W.A. De Backer. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Various sites along the upper airway (UA) are prone to narrow and collapse in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep stages may even- tually alter these sites. The present study was designed

A. N. Boudewyns; P. H. Van de Heyning; W. A. De Backer

1997-01-01

60

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

61

Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton capability boundary for the upper stage, such that if the combined first stage and boosters can achieve any one staging point on that surface, then the design is identified as feasible. With the surrogate model created, design and analysis of advanced booster concepts is streamlined, as optimization of the upper stage trajectory is no longer required in every design loop.

Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

2012-01-01

62

Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

2003-01-01

63

Control of a two stage turbocharger on a Diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stage turbochargers have been developed recently for Diesel engines in order to improve their performances in terms of power, consumption, emissions and dynamic behavior. For this kind of system, the operating conditions are very different than for one stage turbochargers and specific control issues must be considered. In this paper an analysis of single stage turbochargers control issues is

Philippe Moulin; Olivier Grondin; Laurent Fontvieille

2009-01-01

64

TROJID: A portable software package for upper-stage trajectory optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance optimization for upper-stage exoatmospheric vehicles often is performed within the framework of a full capability trajectory simulation package requiring either a large mainframe computer or powerful work-station. Since these software packages tend to include capabilities providing for high-fidelity boost and reentry simulations, the programs usually are quite large and not very portable. The program TROJID is an attempt to provide an environment for the optimization of upper-stage trajectories within a small package capable of being run on a standard desktop microcomputer. Utilizing a state-of-the-art nonlinear programming algorithm and a trajectory simulator implementing impulsive burns and an analytic coast phase propagator, TROJID is capable of producing trajectories for optimal multi-burn upper-stage orbit transfers. The package has been designed to allow full generality in definition of both the trajectory simulator and the parameter optimization problem.

Hammes, Steven M.

1990-01-01

65

Recognition and correlation of the Kapitean Stage (Upper Miocene, New Zealand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salient features of New Zealand Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene microfaunas are outlined, and criteria for recognising the Kapitean Stage are summarised. Paleoecological evidence suggests that the Kapitean Age was a time when seas were relatively shallow, that the shallowing took place in the latest part of the Tongaporutuan Age, and that deepening took place in the earliest part

J. P. Kennett

1967-01-01

66

High temperature energy conversion for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies were conducted to assess the benefits of the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) concept and key components including high temperature thermionic converters, have been tested and evaluated. Advanced radiatively coupled heat pipe cooled thermionic converters with rhenium and tungsten emitters were characterized individually for integration in a modular power unit. The converter with the tungsten emitter was performance

Mysore L. Ramalingam; Thomas R. Lamp; M. Jacox; F. Kennedy

1996-01-01

67

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification / Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested to validate the mathematical model of the launcher. Additionally, transfer functions were measured for Pogo investigations. Validated mathematical launcher models are the basis to predict the launcher global responses in the low frequency domain with sufficient confidence. The predicted global axial and lateral responses for selected sections at the stage represent the flight loads for these sections. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. The verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro shock) a stage separation test was performed. All the equipment was qualified separately for its dynamic (sine, random and shock excitation) and thermal environment to proof its structural and functional integrity. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine-vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electrodynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 150 Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experiences which were made - the comparison between prediction and test results shows the ability and good quality of analysis but - the advantage of combined analysis of shaker table and stage model for test prediction - local effects observed in test - the dependency of damping on the load level - the efficiency of the so called SARO-Damping Device

Rittweger, A.; Beuchel, W.; Eckhardt, K.

2002-01-01

68

Robotic Planetary Science Missions Enabled with Small NTR Engine/Stage Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a LOX/LH2-fueled injection stage. The paper discusses NTR technology and mission characteristics, shows NTR stage and payload accommodations within the 26.2 m long Titan IV payload fairing, and discusses NTR stage performance as a function of assumed cryogenic tank technology.

Borowski, Stanley K.

1995-01-01

69

Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

70

Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan H.

2010-01-01

71

Compartment C1 engine room upper level; view aft to forward; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment C-1 engine room upper level; view aft to forward; note auxiliary condenser at lower center and main steam stop valve at upper left. (077) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

72

Preburner of Staged Combustion Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A regeneratively cooled LOX/hydrogen staged combustion assembly system with a 400:1 expansion area ratio nozzle utilizing an 89,000 Newton (20,000 pound) thrust regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and 175:1 tubular nozzle was analyzed, assembled, and tested. The components for this assembly include two spark/torch oxygen-hydrogen igniters, two servo-controlled LOX valves, a preburner injector, a preburner combustor, a main propellant injector, a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber, a regeneratively cooled tubular nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 175:1, an uncooled heavy-wall steel nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 400:1, and interconnecting ducting. The analytical effort was performed to optimize the thermal and structural characteristics of each of the new components and the ducting, and to reverify the capabilities of the previously fabricated components. The testing effort provided a demonstration of the preburner/combustor chamber operation, chamber combustion efficiency and stability, and chamber and nozzle heat transfer.

Yost, M. C.

1978-01-01

73

Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

2008-01-01

74

Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

2008-01-01

75

Characterization of the 2012-044c Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to request radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, Joseph; Papanyan, Valen

2013-01-01

76

Migration and winter distributions of canvasbacks staging on the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fall and winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) staging on the upper Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin (navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Pool 19) were studied during 1973-77. Sightings and recoveries obtained from 1,488 color-marked males during 1973-75 and 3,789 banded males and females during 1973-77 suggested 2 principal migration corridors: 1 extending eastward from Pools 7 and 8 to the eastern Great Lakes and southeast to the Mid-Atlantic Region and another southward from Pools 7 and 8 to the lower Mississippi Valley, Gulf Coast, and east Texas regions. These discrete populations stage concurrently on Pools 7 and 8 during the fall, but winter in different areas of the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Central flyways. Populations staging on Pool 19 were not discrete from those staging on Pools 7 and 8. A continual turnover of birds passing through these staging areas was indicated. Canvasbacks wintering in the Mississippi and Central flyways were widely dispersed among a variety of habitats, whereas canvasbacks wintering in the Atlantic Flyway were concentrated in a few traditional habitats. Canvasbacks exhibited strong fidelity to wintering areas. Distribution patterns and population attributes of canvasbacks during fall and winter may be explained by the predictability of natural foods and their ability to exploit these foods.

Serie, J.R.; Trauger, D.L.; Sharp, D.E.

1983-01-01

77

A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

2002-01-01

78

Dinoflagellates: Fossil motile-stage tests from the upper cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey coastal plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

May, F.E.

1976-01-01

79

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

Holland, L.E.

1986-01-01

80

IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

1975-01-01

81

A palynological biozonation for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five palynological biozones are proposed for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, these highest-occurrence interval zones are the Osculapollis vestibulus (Ov) Biozone, the Holkopollenites propinquus (Hp) Biozone, the Holkopollenites forix (Hf) Biozone, the Complexiopollis abditus (Ca) Biozone, and the Osculapollis aequalis (Oa) Biozone. These biozones are based on an analysis of more than 400 subsurface and outcrop samples throughout the Coastal Plain Province of South Carolina, and the adjacent states of Georgia and North Carolina. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithostratigraphy and geophysical log data suggests that the lower and upper boundaries of each biozone are bounded by regional unconformities. Five new species are described, and an emendation is presented for one additional species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

2010-01-01

82

Seal Joint Analysis and Design for the Ares-I Upper Stage LOX Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sealing capability of the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank-to-sump joint is assessed by analyzing the deflections of the joint components. Analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models and the ABAQUS commercial finite element software. For the pressure loads and feedline interface loads, the analyses employ a mixed factor of safety approach to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirements. Naflex pressure-assisted seals are considered first because they have been used successfully in similar seal joints in the Space Shuttle External Tank. For the baseline sump seal joint configuration with a Naflex seal, the predicted joint opening greatly exceeds the seal design specification. Three redesign options of the joint that maintain the use of a Naflex seal are studied. The joint openings for the redesigned seal joints show improvement over the baseline configuration; however, these joint openings still exceed the seal design specification. RACO pressure-assisted seals are considered next because they are known to also be used on the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the joint opening allowable is much larger than the specification for the Naflex seals. The finite element models for the RACO seal analyses are created by modifying the models that were used for the Naflex seal analyses. The analyses show that the RACO seal may provide sufficient sealing capability for the sump seal joint. The results provide reasonable data to recommend the design change and plan a testing program to determine the capability of RACO seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank sump seal joint.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2011-01-01

83

Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

Carter, Robert W.

2011-01-01

84

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

2004-01-01

85

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell  

E-print Network

Background: A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings: Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa.

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Nathan Myhrvold

86

Treatment of giant congenital melanocytic nevus of the left upper extremity with staged expanded flap.  

PubMed

Excision of a congenital giant nevus is advised due to the possibility of it degenerating into a malignant melanoma or for aesthetic concerns. Tissue expansion has emerged as the primary treatment of giant congenital nevi because it enables the body to produce extra skin with excellent texture, better colour match, less severe donor-site deformity and repeated usage of an expanding donor-site. We present a multi-staged expansion/local flap technique to treat a case of a circumferential nevus from the acromioclavicular joint and axillary area throughout the upper extremity excluding the hand. The affected skin was approximately 10% of the total body surface area. The patient underwent eight operations and a total of 11 rounds of tissue expansions (500 cc × 9 rounds, 600 cc × 1 round, 300 cc × 1 round) were completed over a 2-year period prior to the removal of the nevus. A good aesthetic and functional outcome in the left upper extremity was gained. It is recommended that the treatment of giant nevi is best if completed at preschool age after taking several factors into consideration. PMID:21795129

Liu, Yufeng; Huang, Jinlong; Wen, Ke; Liu, Ning; Wang, Jinming

2012-02-01

87

Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high sinuosity stage, the secondary anabranches behave as non-developed meanders. Also, it was concluded that the planform for secondary anabranches in all main channel sinuosity stages are controlled by the main anabranch migration.

Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

2013-12-01

88

The Dublin Engineering Program offers upper division Boston University engineering students the opportunity to take technical and engineering courses through local university study at Dublin City  

E-print Network

The Dublin Engineering Program offers upper division Boston University engineering students the opportunity to take technical and engineering courses through local university study at Dublin City University (DCU). Students in the Dublin Engineering Program enroll directly in DCU, a modern and fast

89

Operations analysis (study 2.1). Contingency analysis. [of failure modes anticipated during space shuttle upper stage planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future operational concepts for the space transportation system were studied in terms of space shuttle upper stage failure contingencies possible during deployment, retrieval, or space servicing of automated satellite programs. Problems anticipated during mission planning were isolated using a modified 'fault tree' technique, normally used in safety analyses. A comprehensive space servicing hazard analysis is presented which classifies possible failure modes under the catagories of catastrophic collision, failure to rendezvous and dock, servicing failure, and failure to undock. The failure contingencies defined are to be taken into account during design of the upper stage.

1974-01-01

90

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

2008-01-01

91

Reusable Centaur study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [development costs of Centaur launch vehicle as upper stage for space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the Reusable Centaur for use as an initial upper stage with the space shuttle was conducted. The currently operative Centaur stage, with modifications for space shuttle orbiter compatibility and for improved performance, represents a cost effective development solution. The performance needs and available development funds are discussed. The main features of three Reusable Centaur configurations with increasing capability at increasing development costs are summarized.

Heald, D. A.

1974-01-01

92

Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

2000-01-01

93

Composite engines for application to a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven composite engines were designed for application to a reusable single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The engine designs were variations of the supercharged ejector ramjet engine. The resulting performance, weight, and drawings of each engine form a data base for establishing a potential of this class of composite engine to various missions, including the single-stage-to-orbit application. The impact of advanced technology in the design of the critical fan turbine was established.

Bendot, J. G.; Brown, P. N.; Piercy, T. G.

1975-01-01

94

Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

2009-12-15

95

Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid-life Evolution (A5-ME) program track the progress of these technology developments and analyze their applicability in time for A5-ME. In order to approximate A5-ME concerned preconditions, activities are initiated aiming at harmonization of the available specifications. Hence, a look-out towards a further technology step approaching TRL6 in a subsequent phase is given, briefly addressing topics of full scale manufacture and appropriate thermo-mechanical testing of an entire sandwich common bulkhead.

Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

2012-12-01

96

Lessons learned from the dynamic identification/qualification tests on the ESC-A upper stage model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modeling approach made at the beginning of the development. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. For the low frequency domain the verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro-shock) a stage separation test was performed. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electro-dynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 100÷150Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach of how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experience accomplished.

Rittweger, Andreas; Beuchel, Werner; Andersen, Martin G.; Albus, Jochen

2005-12-01

97

28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

98

Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were discussed. The three burn transfer was found to be a viable, arguably preferable, alternative to the two burn transfer.

Williams, Craig H.

2014-01-01

99

Engineering human hepatic tissue for modeling liver-stage malaria  

E-print Network

The Plcsmodium liver stage is an attractive target for the development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines, as it provides an opportunity to interrupt the life cycle of the parasite at a critical early stage. However, ...

Ng, Shengyong

2014-01-01

100

Compartment C1, engine room upper level; view to starboard showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment C-1, engine room upper level; view to starboard showing main condenser, lighting control panel is at center right. Air compressor is in background at top right. (075) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

101

Multiple output power supply circuit for an ion engine with shared upper inverter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power supply circuit for an ion engine suitable for a spacecraft is coupled to a bus having a bus input and a bus return. The power supply circuit has a first primary winding of a first transformer. An upper inverter circuit is coupled to the bus input and the first primary winding. The power supply circuit further includes a first lower inverter circuit coupled to the bus return and the first primary winding. The second primary winding of a second transformer is coupled to the upper inverter circuit. A second lower inverter circuit is coupled to the bus return and the second primary winding.

Cardwell, Jr., Gilbert I. (Inventor); Phelps, Thomas K. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

102

Total upper eyelid reconstruction by single staged malar-cheek flap  

PubMed Central

We report a case of total upper eyelid reconstruction by a new technique after excision of an eyelid tumour. The eyelid was reconstructed by a horizontal, laterally based flap from just under the lower eyelid combined with a chondro-mucosal graft from the nasal septum. Surgical outcome was an excellent aesthetically reconstructed eyelid, which was mobile and properly gliding on the globe to achieve complete eye closure. PMID:24987215

Ahuja, Rajeev B.; Chatterjee, Pallab; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Shrivastava, Prabhat

2014-01-01

103

Feeding ecology of canvasbacks staging on Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Foods consumed by canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria), food availability, and energetic relationships were studied on Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Canvasbacks fed primarily upon winter buds of American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) and tubers of stiff arrowhead (Sagittaria rigida). In 1980, waterfowl consumed 40% of 380,160 kg of wildcelery winter buds on a portion of Pool 7 referred to as Lake Onalaska. Daily energy expenditure based on estimates from the literature suggests that individual canvasbacks require a minimum of 125 g (dry wt) of wildcelery winter buds each day. Extrapolation of use-days and the daily energy requirement suggests that 3,470 ha of wildcelery are required to support a canvasback population represented by 5 million use-days.

Korschgen, C.E.; George, L.S.; Green, W.L.

1988-01-01

104

Modeling and test data analysis of a tank rapid chill and fill system for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept, where a spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill. Thus the vent valve can be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept,

Robin H. Flachbart; Ali Hedayat; Kimberly A. Holt

2002-01-01

105

Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

2010-01-01

106

An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

2003-01-01

107

Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

108

Separation dynamics of the COMET FreeFlyer and an upper stage STAR-48V motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, the orbital separation between a STAR-48V upperstage motor and the COMET FreeFlyer is investigated. The time from nominal STAR-48 engine burnout is to be determined such that the STAR-48 will not collide with the FreeFlyer once the separation process has been initiated. To analyze this separation, the forces acting upon both the FreeFlyer and the STAR-48 are described in a body fixed coordinate system. These coordinates are then transformed into an Euler coordinate system and then further transformed into a relative inertial coordinate system. From this analysis and some basic assumptions about the Star-48/FreeFlyer vehicle, it can be concluded that the STAR-48 will not collide with the Free Flyer if the separation occurs at 120 seconds after nominal burnout of the STAR-48. In fact, the separation delay could be a shorter period of time, but it is recommended that this separation delay be as long as possible for risk mitigation. This delay is currently designed to be 120 seconds and the analysis presented in this report shows that this time is acceptable.

Fuller, Kevin M.; Myers, Carter H.

1993-01-01

109

Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

110

United States upper stages for the next decade 1 1 Paper IAF96–V. 2.01 presented at the 47th International Astronautical Congress, Beijing, China, 7–11 October 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G? was ultimately developed as the centaur

A. Goldstein; F. Woods

1997-01-01

111

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

PubMed Central

Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected. PMID:21347420

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

2011-01-01

112

Installation of H-1 Engines to Saturn IB S-IB Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) near New Orleans, Louisiana, install the H-1 engines into the Saturn I, S-IB (first) stage. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Chrysler Corporation at MAF, the 90,000-pound booster utilized eight H-1 engines. Each produced 200,000 pounds of thrust, a combined thrust of 1,600,000 pounds.

1967-01-01

113

Performance of a turbojet engine with adjustable first-stage turbine stator and variable-area exhaust nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a turbojet engine with a two-stage turbine, an adjustable first-stage turbine stator, and a variable-area exhaust nozzle was investigated at selected constant engine speeds and two simulated flight conditions. For the particular component characteristics of the engine investigated, little improvement in thrust levels of interest by use of an adjustable rather than an optimum fixed first-stage turbine stator.

Meyer, Carl L; Smith, Ivan D; Bloomer, Harry E

1953-01-01

114

Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

115

Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

2010-01-01

116

F-1 engines of Apollo/Saturn V first stage leave trail of flame after liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five F-1 engines of the Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle's first (S-IC) stage leaves a trail of flame in the sky after liftoff. The launch of the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission occurred on April 4, 1968. These views of the Apollo 6 launch were taken from a chase plane.

1968-01-01

117

Pressure control of a two-stage turbocharged diesel engine using a novel nonlinear IMC approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with nonlinear multivariable output feedback control of a two-stage turbocharged diesel engine. The feedback structure of internal model control (IMC) is used in combination with a nonlinear feedforward controller based on geometric nonlinear control design methods. Input saturations as well as measured disturbances are taken into account and a severe rank deficiency is handled. This novel control

Dieter Schwarzmann; Rainer Nitsche; Jan Lunze; Andreas Schanz

2006-01-01

118

Joining of Materials - An Upper Level Undergraduate Course in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering A Progress Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An upper level undergraduate course: Joining of Materials, has been designed to require that students perform at the higher level of Blooms Taxonomy1. Students are required to synthesize the subject matter from several prerequisite core engineering courses (applied materials science, thermal sciences, chemistry, and mathematics) in order to best determine the means to join two materials. To make these engineering decisions the students also must consider non-technical issues such as economics, safety, and human resources. Effective communication is critical. This ten-week course introduces the students to the following joining methods: welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding. After completing the course the students should be able to differentiate between the methods, and based on this knowledge decide the best method to join two materials. Because most texts focus on only one of the four methods listed above, and then tend to focus on either scientific background or technique (not both), it was necessary to develop a series of learning modules for this course. These modules include classroom presentation, webbased notes and exercises, laboratory experiences (joining, physical testing, and metalography), and assignments. This progress report will focus on all aspects of this newly developed course including pedagogy, course content, and course structure. Results of course assessments and continuous improvement will also be presented.

Palmer, Mark A.

2011-08-25

119

CHaracteristics of Two-Stage Absorption Heat Pump Cycler Driven by Waste Heat From Gas Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the energy conservation is expected from the global environment protection view point. In this study, a new concept of a compound gas cooling system using treated sewage water combining a gas engine heat pump and an absorption heat pump is proposed. In this system, the absorption heat pump is driven by the waste heat from the gas engine. In this paper, first, the best absorption cycle for this absorption heat pump is selected for the cooling and heating mode. And finally the simulation model of the two-stage absorption heat pumps for heating mode is demonstrated and the static characteristics are clarified.

Kojima, Hiroshi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

120

Reconstruction of central upper lip defects with the subcutaneous pedicled nasolabial island flap: a single-stage alternative to Abbe flap in the elderly male.  

PubMed

Defects in the central upper lip are difficult to close because of the unique anatomy and limited reconstructive options. Therefore, for every individual patient, reconstructive goals must be prioritized. Reconstructive priorities for an old patient with a large full-thickness oncologic defect are clearly different than those of a teenager with a residual deficiency after cleft repair. Authors aim to share their experience of 2 cases in which large central upper lip oncologic defects have been reconstructed in a single stage using subcutaneous pedicled nasolabial island flap, which provides a single-stage reconstruction by recruiting tissue from the cheek. It obsoletes the need for a lip adhesion. Lip adhesion-related feeding problems are eliminated, oral aperture circumference is maintained, and oral function is preserved. For the elderly male, a full beard is an advantage because it hides both the cheek and the lip scars. PMID:23851859

Bitik, Ozan; Uzun, Hakan

2013-07-01

121

An upper limit for the total energy of relativistic particles contained in the early stages of supernova explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is proposed for the emission of X-rays from supernova explosions wherein the thermal distribution of photons from a supernova photosphere is inverse Compton scattered by relativistic electrons within or near the surface of the star. Using this model, upper limits for the number of relativistic electrons and their total energy are established on the basis of upper limits to the observed X-ray luminosity of a supernova during maximum light. These upper limits, in conjunction with radio frequency upper limits obtained by Brown and Marscher, strongly suggest that supernovae do not produce significant numbers of relativistic particles until at least 70 years after the initial outburst. This, in turn, implies that young supernovae cannot account for the radio and X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

Beall, J. H.

1979-01-01

122

Dual-stage growth factor release within 3D protein-engineered hydrogel niches promotes adipogenesis.  

PubMed

Engineered biomimetic microenvironments from hydrogels are an emerging strategy to achieve lineage-specific differentiation in vitro. In addition to recapitulating critical matrix cues found in the native three-dimensional (3D) niche, the hydrogel can also be designed to deliver soluble factors that are present within the native inductive microenvironment. We demonstrate a versatile materials approach for the dual-stage delivery of multiple soluble factors within a 3D hydrogel to induce adipogenesis. We use a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) embedded with alginate microgels to deliver two pro-adipogenic soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) with two distinct delivery profiles. We show that dual-stage delivery of FGF-1 and BMP-4 to human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) significantly increases lipid accumulation compared with the simultaneous delivery of both growth factors together. Furthermore, dual-stage growth factor delivery within a 3D hydrogel resulted in substantially more lipid accumulation compared to identical delivery profiles in 2D cultures. Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest that dual-stage release of FGF-1 and BMP-4 within 3D microenvironments can promote the in vitro development of mature adipocytes. PMID:25309741

Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Teasley, Eric S; Heilshorn, Sarah C

2014-11-01

123

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Nathan Myhrvold; Peter Roopnarine

2011-01-01

124

Geochemical make-up of oceanic peridotites from NW Turkey and the multi-stage melting history of the Tethyan upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the whole-rock and the mineral chemical data for upper mantle peridotites from the Harmanc?k region in NW Turkey and discuss their petrogenetic-tectonic origin. These peridotites are part of a Tethyan ophiolite belt occurring along the ?zmir-Ankara-Ercincan suture zone in northern Turkey, and include depleted lherzolites and refractory harzburgites. The Al2O3 contents in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the depleted lherzolite are high, and the Cr-number in the coexisting spinel is low falling within the abyssal field. However, the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgites have lower Al2O3 contents for a given Cr-number of spinel, and plot within the lower end of the abyssal field. The whole-rock geochemical and the mineral chemistry data imply that the Harmanc?k peridotites formed by different degrees of partial melting (~%10-27) of the mantle. The depleted lherzolite samples have higher MREE and HREE abundances than the harzburgitic peridotites, showing convex-downward patterns. These peridotites represent up to ~16 % melting residue that formed during the initial seafloor spreading stage of the Northern Neotethys. On the other hand, the more refractory harzburgites represent residues after ~4-11 % hydrous partial melting of the previously depleted MOR mantle, which was metasomatized by slab-derived fluids during the early stages of subduction. The Harmanc?k peridotites, hence, represent the fragments of upper mantle rocks that formed during different stages of the tectonic evolution of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in Northern Neotethys. We infer that the multi-stage melting history of the Harmanc?k peridotites reflect the geochemically heterogeneous character of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere currently exposed along the ?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone.

Uysal, ?brahim; ?en, A. Dündar; Ersoy, E. Yalç?n; Dilek, Yildirim; Saka, Samet; Zaccarini, Federica; Escayola, Monica; Karsl?, Orhan

2014-02-01

125

Integrated configuration effects of hypersonic upper body designs on Single Stage To Orbit non-circular bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of air breathing Single Stage To Orbit vehicles requires investigating configurations that integrate 'Tip to Tail' propulsion flowpaths, active aerodynamic control, and large propellant volumes. The selection of these configurations can vary from arrangements like a Conical Fuselage Wing Body to a Non-Circular Lifting Body. Specifically, the selection criterion relies on satisfying both the aeropropulsion requirements and the

Patrick F. Cassidy

1993-01-01

126

Brunnstrom Recovery Stage and Motricity Index for the Evaluation of Upper Extremity in Stroke: Analysis for Correlation and Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to find out first whether Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and motricity index (MI) were correlated with each other and second to observe whether the two assessment tools were sensitive to changes regarding the rehabilitation outcome. Forty-six stroke patients who were admitted to the Stroke Rehabilitation Unit at our…

Safaz, Ismail; Ylmaz, Bilge; Yasar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan

2009-01-01

127

Performance Testing of the Engineering Model Astro-H 3-stage ADR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Japanese Astro-H mission will include the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument provided by NASA/GSFC. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon microcalorimeters operated at 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR), which is configured to use either a 1.3 K superfluid helium tank or a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cryocooler as a heat sink. At present, the engineering model SXS, including the detectors and ADR, has been performance tested at GSFC and integrated with the EM dewar in Japan. The flight model SXS is currently being fabricated. This paper presents test results of the EM ADR and changes that will be implemented in the flight version.

Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; DiPirro, Michael J.

2013-01-01

128

Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

Schoenman, L.

1981-01-01

129

Single-stage surgery combining nerve and tendon transfers for bilateral upper limb reconstruction in a tetraplegic patient: case report.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old tetraplegic patient had paralysis of elbow, thumb, and finger extension and thumb and finger flexion. We transferred axillary nerve branches to the triceps long and upper medial head motor branches, supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve, and brachioradialis tendon to the flexor pollicis longus and flexor superficialis of the index finger. Surgery was performed bilaterally 18 months after spinal cord injury. At 12 months after surgery, we performed bilateral distal radioulnar arthrodesis percutaneously. By 22 months postoperatively, we observed triceps strength scoring M3 bilaterally and full metacarpophalangeal joint extension scoring M4 bilaterally. The thumb span was 53 and 66 mm from the proximal index phalanx on the right and left sides, respectively. Pinch strength measured 1.5 kg on the left side and 2.0 kg on the right. Before surgery, the patient was incapable of grasping; after surgery, a useful grasp had been restored bilaterally. PMID:23751324

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

2013-07-01

130

Space Shuttle guidance for multiple main engine failures during first stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents contingency abort guidance schemes recently developed for multiple Space Shuttle main engine failures during the first two minutes of flight (first stage). The ascent and entry guidance schemes greatly improve the possibility of the crew and/or the Orbiter surviving a first stage contingency abort. Both guidance schemes were required to meet certain structural and controllability constraints. In addition, the systems were designed with the flexibility to allow for seasonal variations in the atmosphere and wind. The ascent scheme guides the vehicle to a desirable, lofted state at solid rocket booster burnout while reducing the structural loads on the vehicle. After Orbiter separation from the solid rockets and the external tank, the entry scheme guides the Orbiter through one of two possible entries. If the proper altitude/range/velocity conditions have been met, a return-to-launch-site 'Split-S' maneuver may be attempted. Otherwise, a down-range abort to an equilibrium glide and subsequent crew bailout is performed.

Sponaugle, Steven J.; Fernandes, Stanley T.

1987-01-01

131

Connection between Mature Stages of Deep Convection and the Vertical Transport of Aerosols in the Upper Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective transport of aerosol has implications to aerosol-cloud interactions and is an important problem for climate studies. We use along-track Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (Calipso) vertical feature mask data, CloudSat data, and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) deep convection tracking data to study the impact of deep convection on the transport of aerosols to the upper troposphere (UT) over the South Asian region (0-40N, 70-100E). To minimize misclassification among aerosols and the clouds at UT, we have only used data having large magnitude of cloud aerosol discrimination (CAD) scores for the period of June 2006 to June 2008 when CloudSat and Calipso overlap with the ISCCP deep convection tracking data. Preliminary results suggest that active clouds most likely transport aerosols to high altitudes, whereas decaying clouds are least likely to transport aerosols to the UT. Mature clouds act in-between the active and decaying clouds. Active clouds that transport aerosols are different than decaying clouds in terms of higher cloud water path, cloud water content at 10 km altitude, number of convective clusters, and convective fraction. The NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office wind data, projected onto the CloudSat tracks, suggests a strong updraft associated with active clouds in favor of aerosol transportation, and a low level or mid-level subsidence associated with decaying clouds.

Chakraborty, S.; Fu, R.; Massie, S. T.; Pan, L.

2011-12-01

132

Swirl injectors for oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle engines and hypergolic propellants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented here are two efforts concerning the application of swirl injectors to rocket engine main chamber injectors. The first study was undertaken to develop a liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with new hypergolic propellants in conjunction with KB Sciences and China Lake. The second study focuses on gas/liquid swirl injectors typically used for main chamber elements in oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines. The design, development and testing of hypergolic liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) and non-toxic hypergolic miscible fuels (NHMF) are discussed first. Cold flow tests were conducted to measure the spray cone angle and discharge coefficient of the injector, and allow for comparison with theoretical predictions to evaluate the design model. The goal of this effort was to establish a method to design swirl injectors operating in a thrust regime of 35 lbf, characteristic lengths of 30 in, and c* efficiencies above 90%. A literature review of existing inviscid swirl models is provided. The bi-centrifugal swirler design process is described, along with the design features of the series of bicentrifugal swirl injectors that were built. Results from cold flow experiments are compared to the theoretical predictions of the models reviewed. Characteristic velocity (c*) efficiencies of 70-92% were measured. Next an introduction will be made to the transition of the study into the research regarding swirl injectors for the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The derivation of the baseline operating conditions is discussed. The liquid oxygen/hydrogen (LOX/H2) preburner and GOX/RP-1 injector design and hardware are detailed. Two alternative injector designs chosen to explore the stability margins of this type of injector and give a quantitative comparison of the dynamic response to the baseline injector geometry are presented. The hydrogen/oxygen torch igniter with established heritage used in the preburner is briefly discussed. Finally, the results of igniter and preburner testing are presented.

Long, Matthew R.

133

Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

134

Trends and Limits of Two-Stage Boosting Systems for Automotive Diesel Engines .  

E-print Network

??Internal combustion engines developments are driven by emissions reduction and energetic efficiency increase. To reach the next standards, downsized/downspeeded engines are required to reduce fuel… (more)

Varnier ., Olivier Nicolás

2012-01-01

135

Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 7: High pressure fuel turbo-pump third stage impeller analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume summarizes the analysis used to assess the structural life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbo-Pump (HPFTP) Third Stage Impeller. This analysis was performed in three phases, all using the DIAL finite element code. The first phase was a static stress analysis to determine the mean (non-varying) stress and static margin of safety for the part. The loads involved were steady state pressure and centrifugal force due to spinning. The second phase of the analysis was a modal survey to determine the vibrational modes and natural frequencies of the impeller. The third phase was a dynamic response analysis to determine the alternating component of the stress due to time varying pressure impulses at the outlet (diffuser) side of the impeller. The results of the three phases of the analysis show that the Third Stage Impeller operates very near the upper limits of its capability at full power level (FPL) loading. The static loading alone creates stresses in some areas of the shroud which exceed the yield point of the material. Additional cyclic loading due to the dynamic force could lead to a significant reduction in the life of this part. The cyclic stresses determined in the dynamic response phase of this study are based on an assumption regarding the magnitude of the forcing function.

Pool, Kirby V.

1989-01-01

136

Parallel 3D Multi-Stage Simulation of a Turbofan Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3D multistage simulation of each component of a modern GE Turbofan engine has been made. An axisymmetric view of this engine is presented in the document. This includes a fan, booster rig, high pressure compressor rig, high pressure turbine rig and a low pressure turbine rig. In the near future, all components will be run in a single calculation for a solution of 49 blade rows. The simulation exploits the use of parallel computations by using two levels of parallelism. Each blade row is run in parallel and each blade row grid is decomposed into several domains and run in parallel. 20 processors are used for the 4 blade row analysis. The average passage approach developed by John Adamczyk at NASA Lewis Research Center has been further developed and parallelized. This is APNASA Version A. It is a Navier-Stokes solver using a 4-stage explicit Runge-Kutta time marching scheme with variable time steps and residual smoothing for convergence acceleration. It has an implicit K-E turbulence model which uses an ADI solver to factor the matrix. Between 50 and 100 explicit time steps are solved before a blade row body force is calculated and exchanged with the other blade rows. This outer iteration has been coined a "flip." Efforts have been made to make the solver linearly scaleable with the number of blade rows. Enough flips are run (between 50 and 200) so the solution in the entire machine is not changing. The K-E equations are generally solved every other explicit time step. One of the key requirements in the development of the parallel code was to make the parallel solution exactly (bit for bit) match the serial solution. This has helped isolate many small parallel bugs and guarantee the parallelization was done correctly. The domain decomposition is done only in the axial direction since the number of points axially is much larger than the other two directions. This code uses MPI for message passing. The parallel speed up of the solver portion (no 1/0 or body force calculation) for a grid which has 227 points axially.

Turner, Mark G.; Topp, David A.

1998-01-01

137

Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 ?g L?1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 ?g L?1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 ?g L?1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 ?g L?1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

2014-01-01

138

Basic stages in the development of the theory of Ramjet Engines (RJE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic periods in the history of the development of ramjet engine theory are cited. The periods include the first experimental tests as well as the development of basic ideas and theoretical development of the cosmic ramjet engine.

Merkulov, I. A.

1977-01-01

139

Development and Lab-Scale Testing of a Gas Generator Hybrid Fuel in Support of the Hydrogen Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a NASA funded contract to develop and demonstrate a gas generator cycle hybrid rocket motor for upper stage space motor applications, the development and demonstration of a low sensitivity, high performance fuel composition was undertaken. The ultimate goal of the development program was to demonstrate successful hybrid operation (start, stop, throttling) of the fuel with high concentration (90+%) hydrogen peroxide. The formulation development and lab-scale testing of a simple DOT Class 1.4c gas generator propellant is described. Both forward injected center perforated and aft injected end burner hybrid combustion behavior were evaluated with gaseous oxygen and catalytically decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide. Cross flow and static environments were found to yield profoundly different combustion behaviors, which were further governed by binder type, oxidizer level and, significantly, oxidizer particle size. Primary extinguishment was accomplished via manipulation of PDL behavior and oxidizer turndown, which is enhanced with the hydrogen peroxide system. Laboratory scale combustor results compared very well with 11-inch and 24-inch sub-scale test results with 90% hydrogen peroxide.

Lund, Gary K.; Starrett, William David; Jensen, Kent C.; McNeal, Curtis (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

140

Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

2012-01-01

141

Environmental problems of fossil fuels and suggested solution: Hydrogen energy system; a one-semester multi-disciplinary course for upper division science and engineering students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impending crisis of fossil fuel exhaustion, the devastating acid rain, the greenhouse effect have made the search for an alternate fuel imperative to the survival of man. This course is designed to inform all upper division science and engineering students about the nature of the crisis and to suggest a viable solution. The hydrogen energy system has not had

1989-01-01

142

Integrated biostratigraphy, stage boundaries and Paleoclimatology of the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene successions in Kharga and Dakhala Oases, Western Desert, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene succession in the studied sections is divided into four rock units that arranged from base to top: the Dakhla, Tarawan, Esna and the Thebes formations. Detailed study of the foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils has led to the recognition of 58 and 82 species, respectively. Based on planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils 8 planktonic foraminiferal biozones (CF4, P2, P3, P4, E1, E2, E3 and E4) have been recognized as well as 8 calcareous nannofossil biozones (CC25b, NP3, NP4, NP5, NP6, NP7/8, NP9, and NP10). At Gabal Teir/Tarawan section, Kharga Oasis, the Paleocene can be divided into three stages; Danian, Selandian and Thanetian. The Danian/Selandian boundary is placed at P3a/P3b zonal boundary (LO of Igorina albeari) which corresponds to the level of LO of Lithoptychius ulii, Fasciculithus pileatus, Fasciculithus involutus and Lithoptychius janii (upper part of Zone NP4). The Selandian/Thanetian boundary, on the other hand, can be traced within the foraminiferal Zone P4 (Globanomalina pseudomenardii Zone) and between the nannofossil zones NP6 and NP7/8 (LO of Discoaster mohleri). At Gabal Ghanima section, the Paleocene/Eocene boundary is located within the lower part of the Esna Formation. It can be traced at the base of planktonic foraminiferal Zone E1 (LOs of Acarinina africana, A sibaiyaensis and Morozovella allinsoensis), and at the NP9a/NP9b subzonal boundary (LO of Rhomboaster spp). However, the lower Eocene succession seems to be condensed and punctuated by minor hiatus (absence of Subzone NP10a). The dominance of cool water nannofossil species in the late Maastrichtian and early Danian interval suggests a gradual decrease in the surface water paleotemperature. However, a slight warming condition prevailed around the Danian/Selandian transition as evidenced by the warm water nannofossil species. At the P/E boundary interval, the high abundance of warm-water taxa (e.g. Discoaster, Sphenolithus, Rhomboaster, Tribrachiatus and Pontosphaera species) indicates a warm-water paleotemperatures.

Khalil, H.; Al Sawy, S.

2014-08-01

143

From Concept to Design: Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with national policy and NASA's Global Exploration Strategy, the Ares Projects Office is embarking on development of a new launch vehicle fleet to fulfill the national goals of replacing the space shuttle fleet, returning to the moon, and exploring farther destinations like Mars. These goals are shaped by the decision to retire the shuttle fleet by 2010, budgetary constraints, and the requirement to create a new fleet that is safer, more reliable, operationally more efficient than the shuttle fleet, and capable of supporting long-range exploration goals. The present architecture for the Constellation Program is the result of extensive trades during the Exploration Systems Architecture Study and subsequent refinement by the Ares Projects Office at Marshall Space Flight Center.

Byrd, Thomas

2008-01-01

144

Turbopumps for cryogenic upper stage engines. [fabrication and evaluation of turbine pumps for liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small, high-performance LO2 and LH2 turbopump assembly configurations were selected, detail designs were prepared and two of each unit were fabricated with each unit consisting of pump, turbine gas generator, and appropriate controls. Following fabrication, development testing was conducted on each type to demonstrate performance, durability, transient characteristics, and heat transfer under simulated altitude conditions. Following successful completion of development effort, the two LO2 turbopump units and one LH2 turbopump unit were acceptance tested as specified. Inspection of the units following development testing revealed no deleterious effects of testing. The test results of LO2 turbopump assembly testing correlated well with predicted performance while the LH2 turbopump test results, though generally consistent with predicted values, did show lower than anticipated developed head at the design point and in the high flow range of operation.

Zachary, A. T.; Csomor, A.; Tignac, L. L.

1973-01-01

145

Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

Rahman, Shamim

2005-01-01

146

The influence of immersion and presence in early stage engineering designing and building  

E-print Network

This paper explores the role of a designer's sense of engagement in early stage design. In the field of virtual reality, presence and immersion are standard measures of an individual's sense of engagement and involvement ...

Faas, Daniela

147

Three-stage autoignition of gasoline in an HCCI engine: An experimental and chemical kinetic modeling investigation  

SciTech Connect

The alternative HCCI combustion mode presents a possible means for decreasing the pollution with respect to conventional gasoline or diesel engines, while maintaining the efficiency of a diesel engine or even increasing it. This paper investigates the possibility of using gasoline in an HCCI engine and analyzes the autoignition of gasoline in such an engine. The compression ratio that has been used is 13.5, keeping the inlet temperature at 70 C, varying the equivalence ratio from 0.3 to 0.54, and the EGR (represented by N{sub 2}) ratio from 0 to 37 vol%. For comparison, a PRF95 and a surrogate containing 11 vol% n-heptane, 59 vol% iso-octane, and 30 vol% toluene are used. A previously validated kinetic surrogate mechanism is used to analyze the experiments and to yield possible explanations to kinetic phenomena. From this work, it seems quite possible to use the high octane-rated gasoline for autoignition purposes, even under lean inlet conditions. Furthermore, it appeared that gasoline and its surrogate, unlike PRF95, show a three-stage autoignition. Since the PRF95 does not contain toluene, it is suggested by the kinetic mechanism that the benzyl radical, issued from toluene, causes this so-defined ''obstructed preignition'' and delaying thereby the final ignition for gasoline and its surrogate. The results of the kinetic mechanism supporting this explanation are shown in this paper. (author)

Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert (France)

2008-12-15

148

A three stage model for the inner engine of GRBs: Prompt emission and early afterglow  

E-print Network

We describe a model within the ``Quark-nova'' scenario to interpret the recent observations of early X-ray afterglows of long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) with the Swift satellite. This is a three-stage model within the context of a core-collapse supernova. STAGE 1 is an accreting (proto-) neutron star leading to a possible delay between the core collapse and the GRB. STAGE 2 is accretion onto a quark-star, launching an ultrarelativistic jet generating the prompt GRB. This jet also creates the afterglow as the jet interacts with the surrounding medium creating an external shock. Slower shells ejected from the quark star (during accretion), can re-energize the external shock leading to a flatter segment in the X-ray afterglow. STAGE 3, which occurs only if the quark-star collapses to form a black-hole, consists of an accreting black-hole. The jet launched in this accretion process interacts with the preceding quark star jet, and could generate the flaring activity frequently seen in early X-ray afterglows. Alternatively, a STAGE 2b can occur in our model if the quark star does not collapse to a black hole. The quark star in this case can then spin down due to magnetic braking, and the spin down energy may lead to flattening in the X-ray afterglow as well. This model seems to account for both the energies and the timescales of GRBs, in addition to the newly discovered early X-ray afterglow features.

Jan Staff; Brian Niebergal; Rachid Ouyed

2007-12-11

149

Acoustic characteristics of a large-scale wind tunnel model of an upper-surface blown flap transport having two engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The upper-surface blown (USB) flap as a powered-lift concept has evolved because of the potential acoustic shielding provided when turbofan engines are installed on a wing upper surface. The results from a wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale USB model powered by two JT15D-1 turbofan engines are-presented. The effects of coanda flap extent and deflection, forward speed, and exhaust nozzle configuration were investigated. To determine the wing shielding the acoustics of a single engine nacelle removed from the model were also measured. Effective shielding occurred in the aft underwing quadrant. In the forward quadrant the shielding of the high frequency noise was counteracted by an increase in the lower frequency wing-exhaust interaction noise. The fuselage provided shielding of the opposite engine noise such that the difference between single and double engine operation was 1.5 PNdB under the wing. The effects of coanda flap deflection and extent, angle of attack, and forward speed were small. Forward speed reduced the perceived noise level (PNL) by reducing the wing-exhaust interaction noise.

Falarski, M. D.; Aoyagi, K.; Koenig, D. G.

1973-01-01

150

An exhaust manifold pressure estimator for a two-stage turbocharged Diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaust manifold pressure is a crucial variable for turbocharged Diesel engines, affecting the torque production and the emissions through variations in the EGR mass flow and in the residual mass fraction in the cylinder. This variable is therefore considered very relevant for closed-loop EGR and turbocharger control. However, in production applications, the cost of the pressure sensor and the

Fabio Chiara; Marcello Canova; Yue-Yun Wang

2011-01-01

151

National Aeronautics and Space Administration The J2X Engine  

E-print Network

by a small, internal combustion chamber separate from the primary combustion chamber producing engine thrustNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts The J­2X Engine NASA's New Upper Stage Engine The next generation of space exploration has begun with the development of NASA's Space Launch

152

Cold-air investigation of a 31/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 2: Performance of 2-, 3- and 3 1/2-stage configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stage work distribution among the three stages was very close to the design value. The specific work output-mass flow characteristics of the three stages were closely matched. The efficiency of the 3 1/2 stage turbine at design specific work output and design speed was within 0.008 of the estimated value, and this agreement was felt to demonstrate the adequacy of the prediction method in the high stage loading factor regime.

Whitney, W. J.

1977-01-01

153

Energy efficient engine. Fan and quarter-stage component performance report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fan configuration for the general Electric/NASA Energy Efficient Engine was selected following an extensive preliminary design study. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flowrate of 208.9 Kg/sec/sq. m (42.8 1bm/sec/sq. ft). The design corrected tip speed is 411.5 m/sec (1350 ft/sec) producing a bypass flow total-pressure ratio of 1.65 and a core flow total-pressure ratio of 1.6. The design bypass ratio is 6.8. The aerodynamic design point corresponds to the maximum climb power setting at Mach 0.8 and 10.67 Km (35,000 ft) altitude. The fully-instrumented fan component was tested in the Lynn Large Fan Test Facility in 1981. The overall performance results, reported herein, showed excellent fan performance with the fan meeting all of its component test goals of flow, efficiency and stall margin.

Cline, S. J.; Halter, P. H.; Kutney, J. T., Jr.; Sullivan, T. J.

1983-01-01

154

Analysis of the capabilities of a two-stage turbocharging system to fulfil the US2007 anti-pollution directive for heavy duty diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a two-stage turbocharged heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine designed to fulfil the US2007 anti-pollution\\u000a directive. This directive imposes very restrictive limits on the NOx and particle emissions of HDD engines. In this work,\\u000a the possibility of combining particle traps in the exhaust line to reduce soot emissions with very high EGR rates to reduce\\u000a NOx emissions is considered.

J. R. Serrano; F. J. Arnau; V. Dolz; A. Tiseira; M. Lejeune; N. Auffret

2008-01-01

155

Advanced expander test bed engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

Mitchell, J. P.

1992-01-01

156

Rocket Engine Clustering and Vehicle Integration as Influenced by Base Thermal Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clustered rocket engines create severe thermal environments in the base of rocket vehicle stages. Boosters burning hydrocarbon fuels experience severe radiant heating early in flight; as the plumes interact at higher altitudes, convective heating becomes significant. For hydrogen-fueled upper stages radiation is not important, but convective heating is severe during the entire stage operation. Predicted and measured heating rates are discussed. The base region thermal environments of stages with clustered engines present a variety of engine/vehicle interaction problems. Components and structures in the base region, including the rocket engines, cannot survive radiant and convective heating from engine exhausts without such remedies as protective insulation, shielding, air-scooping, and proper disposal of the fuel-rich turbine exhaust gases. Different thermal protection concepts evolve for booster and upper stages due to the differences in ground test and flight environments. Solutions to the engine/vehicle interaction and design integration problems are described.

Hopson, George D.; McAnelly, William B.

1966-01-01

157

Performance of a 13-Stage Development Compressor for the J40-WE-24 Engine at Equivalent Speeds from 30 to 112 Percent of Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a 13-stage development comressor for the J40-WE-24 engine has been determined at equivalent speeds from 30 to 112 percent of design. The design total-pressure ratio of 6.0 and the design weight flow of 164 pounds per second were not attained, An analysis was conducted to determine the reasons for the poor performance at the design and over-design speed. The analysis indicated that most of the difficulty could be attributed to the fact that the first stage was overcompromised to favor part-speed performance,

Hatch, James E.; Lucas, James G.; Finger, Harold B.

1953-01-01

158

Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic performance, steady amd vibratory loads, surface temperatures, and acoustic characteristics of a large-scale twin-engine upper-surface blown jet-flap configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static and wind-on tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of and the effects of jet impingement on the wing of a large scale upper surface blown configuration powered with an actual turbine engine. The wing and flaps were instrumented with experimental dual-sensing transducer units consisting of a fluctuating pressure gage, a vibratory accelerometer, and a surface mounted alumel thermocouple. Noise directivity and spectral content measurements were obtained for various flap configurations and various engine thrust settings to provide baseline noise data for other upper surface blown configurations.

1976-01-01

159

Stage Separation Performance Analysis Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stage separation process is an important phenomenon in multi-stage launch vehicle operation. The transient flowfield coupled with the multi-body systems is a challenging problem in design analysis. The thermodynamics environment with burning propellants during the upper-stage engine start in the separation processes adds to the complexity of the-entire system. Understanding the underlying flow physics and vehicle dynamics during stage separation is required in designing a multi-stage launch vehicle with good flight performance. A computational fluid dynamics model with the capability to coupling transient multi-body dynamics systems will be a useful tool for simulating the effects of transient flowfield, plume/jet heating and vehicle dynamics. A computational model using generalize mesh system will be used as the basis of this development. The multi-body dynamics system will be solved, by integrating a system of six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with high accuracy. Multi-body mesh system and their interactions will be modeled using parallel computing algorithms. Adaptive mesh refinement method will also be employed to enhance solution accuracy in the transient process.

Chen, Yen-Sen; Zhang, Sijun; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Ten-See

2001-01-01

160

Assessment of crack growth in a space shuttle main engine first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopump blade  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional finite element fracture mechanics analysis of a space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbine blade firtree was performed using the MARC finite element code. The analysis was conducted under combined effects of thermal and mechanical loads at steady-state conditions. Data from a typical engine stand cycle of the SSME engine were used to run a heat transfer analysis and,

Ali Abdul-Aziz

2002-01-01

161

INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The models represent an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic models served as the framework for the simulations. The geologic-engineering models of the Appleton and Vocation Field reservoirs have been developed. These models are being tested. The geophysical interpretation for the paleotopographic feature being tested has been made, and the study of the data resulting from drilling of a well on this paleohigh is in progress. Numerous presentations on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been made at professional meetings and conferences and a short course on microbial reservoir characterization and modeling based on these fields has been prepared.

Ernest A. Mancini

2003-09-25

162

Congenital upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most causes of upper airway obstruction are rare in the neonatal period and during infancy. They may, however, cause major respiratory problems either initially or during the first few weeks of life. It is important to recognise these problems at an early stage so that appropriate measures to overcome airway obstruction can be initiated, thus avoiding significant hypoxia-related complications. Specific

Robert Dinwiddie

2004-01-01

163

A three stage model for the inner engine of Gamma Ray Burst: Prompt emission and early afterglow  

E-print Network

We propose a new model within the ``Quark-nova'' scenario to interpret the recent observations of early afterglows of long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) with the Swift satellite. This is a three-stage model within the context of a core-collapse supernova. Stage 1 is an accreting (proto-) neutron star leading to a possible delay between the core collapse and the GRB. Stage 2 is an accreting quark-star, generating the prompt GRB. Stage 3, which occurs only if the quark-star collapses to form a black-hole, consists of an accreting black-hole. The jet launched in this accretion process interacts with the ejecta from stage 2, and could generate the flaring activity frequently seen in X-ray afterglows. This model may be able to account for both the energies and the timescales of GRBs, in addition to the newly discovered early X-ray afterglow features.

Jan Staff; Rachid Ouyed; Manjari Bagchi

2006-08-22

164

Planar LIF observation of unburned fuel escaping the upper ring-land crevice in an SI engine  

SciTech Connect

PLIF has been used to observe the in-cylinder transport of unburned fuel that, while trapped in the ring-land and ring-groove crevices, survives combustion in the propagating flame. Away from the top-ring gap, we detect a wall-jet comprised of unburned charge exiting the top ring-land crevice opening. At the location of the top-ring gap, we observed unburned fuel lying in the cool boundary layer along the cylinder wall during the later stages of the expansion stroke. This layer is scraped into the roll-up vortex during the exhaust stroke. These data lead us to conclude that away from the end gap, unburned, high pressure charge, trapped between the two compression rings escapes as a wall jet after ring-reversal near the bottom center. Conversely, at the ring gap, when the cylinder pressure drops below the pressure between the compression rings, the trapped charge escapes through the gap and forms a thin layer on the cylinder wall.

Green, R.M.; Cloutman, L.D.

1997-01-01

165

Ares 1 First Stage Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is an integral part of NASA s exploration architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Currently in the system definition phase, the CLV is planned to replace the Space Shuttle for crew transport in the post 2010 time frame. It is comprised of a solid rocket booster (SRB) first stage derived from the current Space Shuttle SRB, a liquid oxygen/hydrogen fueled second stage utilizing a derivative of the Apollo upper stage engine for propulsion, and a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) composed of command and service modules. This paper deals with current design, development, test, and evaluation planning for the CLV first stage SRB. Described are the current overall point-of-departure design and booster subsystems, systems engineering approach, and milestone schedule requirements.

Williams, Tom; Cannon, Scott

2006-01-01

166

Assessment of crack growth in a space shuttle main engine first-stage, high-pressure fuel turbopump blade  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional finite element fracture mechanics analysis of a space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbine blade firtree was performed using the MARC finite element code. The analysis was conducted under combined effects of thermal and mechanical loads at steady-state conditions. Data from a typical engine stand cycle of the SSME were used to run a heat transfer analysis and, subsequently,

Ali Abdul-Aziz

1993-01-01

167

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Operational Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the years of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) program the engine has evolved and operational capabilities have been demonstrated beyond the original Shuttle requirements. In an effort to enhance flight safety and demonstrate safety features and margins, engines have been analyzed and tested at many different operating points. Various studies through the years evaluating the SSME for different applications both as a boost stage and upper stage have also added insight into the overall operational characteristics of the engine and have further defined safety margins for the Shuttle application. This paper will summarize the operational characteristics of the SSME from the original design requirements to the expanded capabilities demonstrated through analysis, lab testing and especially "off-nominal" engine testing leading to an increased understanding of the engine operational characteristics and safety margins. Basic engine characteristics such as thrust, mixture ratio, propellant inlet conditions, system redundancy, etc. will be examined.

Benefield, Philip; Bradley, Doug

2010-01-01

168

Impact of two-stage turbocharging architectures on pumping losses of automotive engines based on an analytical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present work presents an analytical study of two-stage turbocharging configuration performance. The aim of this work is to understand the influence of different two-stage-architecture parameters to optimize the use of exhaust manifold gases energy and to aid decision making process. An analytical model giving the relationship between global compression ratio and global expansion ratio is developed as a function of

J. Galindo; J. R. Serrano; H. Climent; O. Varnier

2010-01-01

169

INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on reservoir architecture and geographic distribution of Smackover reservoirs is the fabric and texture of the depositional lithofacies, diagenesis (chiefly dolomitization) is a significant factor that preserves and enhances reservoir quality. The evaporative pumping mechanism is favored to explain the dolomitization of the thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone reservoir flow units at Appleton and Vocation Fields. Geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and the testing and applying the resulting integrated geologic-engineering models have shown that little oil remains to be recovered at Appleton Field and a significant amount of oil remains to be recovered at Vocation Field through a strategic infill drilling program. The drive mechanisms for primary production in Appleton and Vocation Fields remain effective; therefore, the initiation of a pressure maintenance program or enhanced recovery project is not required at this time. The integrated geologic-engineering model developed for a low-relief paleohigh (Appleton Field) was tested for three scenarios involving the variables of present-day structural elevation and the presence/absence of potential reef thrombolite lithofacies. In each case, the predictions based upon the model were correct. From this modeling, the characteristics of the ideal prospect in the basement ridge play include a low-relief paleohigh associated with dendroidal/chaotic thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone that has sufficient present-day structural relief so that these carbonates rest above the oil-water contact. Such a prospect was identified from the modeling, and it is located northwest of well Permit No. 3854B (Appleton Field) and south of well No. Permit No.11030B (Northwest Appleton Field).

Ernest A. Mancini

2004-02-25

170

SLS Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objective: Provide an overview of SLS DUUS type capability requirements to provide context for possible International Partner collaboration. Addition of a DUUS would greatly increase exploration mission capture and performance margin for cis-Lunar and Near Earth System exploration campaigns.

Creech, Steve; Holladay, Jon; Jones, Davey

2013-01-01

171

Toroidal Tank Development for Upper-stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages, development, and fabrication of toroidal propellant tanks are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. Several images are included of independent research and development (IR&D) of toroidal propellant tanks at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Other images in the presentation give a brief overview of Thiokol conformal tank technology development. The presentation describes Thiokol's approach to continuous composite toroidal tank fabrication in detail. Images are shown of continuous and segmented toroidal tanks fabricated by Thiokol.

DeLay, Tom; Roberts, Keith

2003-01-01

172

Low speed inducers for cryogenic upper stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Briefing charts are presented, which were used in an oral presentation of the results and recommendations for the design and analysis of low speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers and their drive systems applicable to the space tug. A discussion of the design of the 15K and RL-10 inducers is included.

King, J. A.

1973-01-01

173

Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of Department of Energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 2: Stage performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE upgraded gas turbine engine was determined in low temperature air. The as-received cast rotor blading had a significantly thicker profile than design and a fairly rough surface finish. Because of these blading imperfections a series of stage tests with modified rotors were made. These included the as-cast rotor, a reduced-roughness rotor, and a rotor with blades thinned to near design. Significant performance changes were measured. Tests were also made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance. Comparisons are made between this turbine and the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas turbine engine.

Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

1982-01-01

174

The effects of compressor seventh-stage bleed air extraction on performance of the F100-PW-220 afterburning turbofan engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of seventh-stage compressor bleed on the performance of the F100 afterburning turbofan engine. The effects of bleed on thrust, specific fuel consumption, fan turbine inlet temperature, bleed total pressure, and bleed total temperature were obtained from the engine manufacturer's status deck computer simulation. These effects were determined for power settings of intermediate, partial afterburning, and maximum afterburning for Mach numbers between 0.6 and 2.2 and for altitudes of 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ft. It was found that thrust loss and specific fuel consumption increase were approximately linear functions of bleed flow and, based on a percent-thrust change basis, were approximately independent of power setting.

Evans, Alison B.

1991-01-01

175

A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

1999-01-01

176

934 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 47, NO. 7, JULY 2000 Staging of Cervical Cancer with Soft Computing  

E-print Network

paradigm for detecting the different stages of cervical cancer. Hybridization includes the evolution of knowledge-based subnetwork modules with genetic algorithms (GA's) using rough set theory and the Interactive the knowledge of the modular structure, already generated, for faster convergence. The GA tunes the network

Mitra, Pabitra

177

Assessment of crack growth in a space shuttle main engine first-stage, high-pressure fuel turbopump blade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional finite element fracture mechanics analysis of a space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbine blade firtree was performed using the MARC finite element code. The analysis was conducted under combined effects of thermal and mechanical loads at steady-state conditions. Data from a typical engine stand cycle of the SSME were used to run a heat transfer analysis and, subsequently, a thermal structural fracture mechanics analysis. Temperature and stress contours for the firtree under these operating conditions were generated. High stresses were found at the firtree lobes where crack initiation was triggered. A life assessment of the firtree was done by assuming an initial and a final crack size.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali

1993-03-01

178

Assessment of crack growth in a space shuttle main engine first-stage, high-pressure fuel turbopump blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional finite element fracture mechanics analysis of a space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbine blade firtree was performed using the MARC finite element code. The analysis was conducted under combined effects of thermal and mechanical loads at steady-state conditions. Data from a typical engine stand cycle of the SSME were used to run a heat transfer analysis and, subsequently, a thermal structural fracture mechanics analysis. Temperature and stress contours for the firtree under these operating conditions were generated. High stresses were found at the firtree lobes where crack initiation was triggered. A life assessment of the firtree was done by assuming an initial and a final crack size.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali

1993-01-01

179

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

180

Parametric and exergetic analysis of a two-stage transcritical combined organic Rankine cycle used for multiple grades waste heat recovery of diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel engine has multiple grades of waste heat with different ratios of combustion heat, exhaust is 400 °C with the ratio of 21% and coolant is 90 °C with 19%. Few previous publications investigate the recovery of multiple grades waste heat together. In this paper, a two-stage transcritical combined organic rankine cycle (CORC) is presented and analyzed. In the combined system, the high and low temperature stages transcritical cycle recover the high grades waste heat, and medium to low grades waste heat respectively, and being combined efficiently. Meanwhile, the suitable working fluids for high stage are chosen and analyzed. The cycle parameters, including thermal efficiency (?th), net power output (Pnet), energy efficiency (?exg) and global thermal efficiency of DE-CORC(?glo) have also been analyzed and optimized. The results indicate that this combined system could recover all the waste heat with a high recovery ratio (above 90%) and obtain a maximum power output of 37kW for a DE of 243kW. The global thermal efficiency of DE-CORC can get a max value of 46.2% compared with 40% for single DE. The results also indicate that all the energy conversion process have a high exergy efficiency.

Tian, H.; Zhang, J.; Xu, X. F.; Shu, G. Q.; Wei, H. Q.

2013-12-01

181

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

DOEpatents

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

1984-01-01

182

J-2 Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smokeless flame juts from the diffuser of a unique vacuum chamber in which the upper stage rocket engine, the hydrogen fueled J-2, was tested at a simulated space altitude in excess of 60,000 feet. The smoke you see is actually steam. In operation, vacuum is established by injecting steam into the chamber and is maintained by the thrust of the engine firing through the diffuser. The engine was tested in this environment for start, stop, coast, restart, and full-duration operations. The chamber was located at Rocketdyne's Propulsion Field Laboratory, in the Santa Susana Mountains, near Canoga Park, California. The J-2 engine was developed by Rocketdyne for the Marshall Space Flight Center.

1963-01-01

183

Two stage turbine for rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

Veres, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

184

Two stage turbine for rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

Veres, Joseph P.

1993-11-01

185

Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems.

Foster, Richard W.; Escher, William J. D.; Robinson, John W.

1989-01-01

186

Two-stage Supercharging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The arrangement of the parts and the installation and control problems of the two-stage mechanically driven superchargers for aircraft engines are discussed. Unless an entirely new form of supercharging is developed, there will be a definite need for a two-stage centrifugal supercharger. It is shown that the two-stage mechanically driven supercharger itself is a comparatively simple device; the complications arise from the addition of inter-coolers and controls.

Buck, Richard S

1941-01-01

187

A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC engine model. HYFIM performs the aerodynamic analysis of forebodies and inlet characteristics of RBCC powered SSTO launch vehicles. HYFIM is applicable to the analysis of the ramjet/scramjet engine operations modes (Mach 3-12), and provides estimates of parameters such as air capture area, shock-on-lip Mach number, design Mach number, compression ratio, etc., based on a basic geometry routine for modeling axisymmetric cones, 2-D wedge geometries. HYFIM also estimates the variation of shock layer properties normal to the forebody surface. The thermal protection system (TPS) is directly linked to determination of the vehicle moldline and the shaping of the trajectory. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. The need to analyze vehicle forebody and engine inlet is critical to be able to design the RBCC vehicle. To adequately determine insulation masses for an RBCC vehicle, the hypersonic aerodynamic environment and aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to reduce the TPS mass.

Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

2000-01-01

188

Saturn IB Second Stage (S-IVB Stage)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This cutaway drawing shows the S-IVB stage in its Saturn IB configuration. As a part of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) 'building block' approach to the Saturn development, the S-IVB stage was utilized in the Saturn IB launch vehicle as a second stage and, later, the Saturn V launch vehicle as a third stage. The stage was powered by a single J-2 engine, initially capable of 200,000 pounds of thrust.

1968-01-01

189

Engineering characterisation of a shaken, single-use photobioreactor for early stage microalgae cultivation using Chlorella sorokiniana.  

PubMed

This work describes the characterisation and culture performance of a novel, orbitally shaken, single-use photobioreactor (SUPBr) system for microalgae cultivation. The SUPBr mounted on an orbitally shaken platform was illuminated from below. Investigation of fluid hydrodynamics indicated a range of different flow regimes and the existence of 'in-phase' and 'out-of-phase' conditions. Quantification of the fluid mixing time (tm) indicated a decrease in tm values with increasing shaking frequency up to 90 rpm and then approximately constant tm values in the range 15-40 s. For batch cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana, the highest biomass concentration achieved was 6.6 g L(-1) at light intensity of 180 ?mol m2 s(-1). Doubling the total working volume resulted in 35-40% reduction in biomass yield while shaking frequency had little influence on culture kinetics and fatty methyl esters composition. Overall this work demonstrates the utility of the SUPBr for early stage development of algal cultivation processes. PMID:25314667

Ojo, E O; Auta, H; Baganz, F; Lye, G J

2014-12-01

190

Cancer Staging  

MedlinePLUS

... is called metastasis. 2. What are the common elements of staging systems? Staging systems for cancer have ... others focus on a particular type. The common elements considered in most staging systems are as follows: ...

191

Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

Jones, David

2011-01-01

192

Alternative fuels for medium-speed diesel engines (AFFMSED) project: slurries, emulsions and blended-fuel extenders; cylinder wear measurements, staged injection. Third research phase final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third year of research activity on an ongoing research, development and demonstration effort to investigate the use of alternative fuels for medium-speed engines is described. Tests were performed using laboratory medium-speed diesel engines to define the ability of these engines to operate on alternative fuels, the fuel property limits that the engines can tolerate, the problems associated with alternative

Q. A. Jr. Baker; J. F. Wakenell; S. Ariga

1983-01-01

193

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

Maroncelli, Mark

194

Cardiovascular risk and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis: sleep study, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life: a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. Methods/Design A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height2; circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. Discussion CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC RBR-7yhr4w and World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number UTN: U1111-1127-9390 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-7yhr4w/]). PMID:24103561

2013-01-01

195

The effect of initial flow nonuniformity on second-stage fuel injection and combustion in a supersonic duct. [supersonic combustion ramjet engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of flow nonuniformity on second-stage hydrogen fuel injection and combustion in supersonic flow were evaluated. The first case, second-stage fuel injection into a uniform duct flow, produced data indicating that fuel mixing is considerably slower than estimates based on an empirical mixing correlation. The second-case, two-stage fuel injection (or second-stage fuel injection into a nonuniform duct flow), produced a large interaction between stages with extensive flow separation. For this case the measured wall pressure, heat transfer, and amount of reaction at the duct exit were significantly greater than estimates based on the mixing correlation. Substantially more second-stage fuel burned in the second case than in the first case. Overall effects of unmixedness/chemical kinetics were found not to be significant at the exit for stoichiometric fuel injection.

Russin, W. R.

1975-01-01

196

Conceptual design of two-stage-to-orbit hybrid launch vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this design class was to design an earth-to orbit vehicle to replace the present NASA space shuttle. The major motivations for designing a new vehicle were to reduce the cost of putting payloads into orbit and to design a vehicle that could better service the space station with a faster turn-around time. Another factor considered in the design was that near-term technology was to be used. Materials, engines and other important technologies were to be realized in the next 10 to 15 years. The first concept put forth by NASA to meet these objectives was the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The NASP is a single-stage earth-to-orbit air-breathing vehicle. This concept ran into problems with the air-breathing engine providing enough thrust in the upper atmosphere, among other things. The solution of this design class is a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The first stage is air-breathing and the second stage is rocket-powered, similar to the space shuttle. The second stage is mounted on the top of the first stage in a piggy-back style. The vehicle takes off horizontally using only air-breathing engines, flies to Mach six at 100,000 feet, and launches the second stage towards its orbital path. The first stage, or booster, will weigh approximately 800,000 pounds and the second stage, or orbiter will weigh approximately 300,000 pounds. The major advantage of this design is the full recoverability of the first stage compared with the present solid rocket booster that are only partially recoverable and used only a few times. This reduces the cost as well as providing a more reliable and more readily available design for servicing the space station. The booster can fly an orbiter up, turn around, land, refuel, and be ready to launch another orbiter in a matter of hours.

1991-01-01

197

System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

Ballard, Richard O.

2012-01-01

198

75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The single turbofan engine is mounted on the upper...aft fuselage mounted engine installations, along with the need to protect such installed engines from fires, were not...made predicting the effects of a fire...

2010-04-20

199

Blockage of upper airway  

MedlinePLUS

Airway obstruction - acute upper ... Prevention depends on the cause of the upper airway obstruction. The following methods may help prevent an obstruction: Eat slowly and chew food completely. Do not drink too much alcohol before or while ...

200

CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

1999-01-01

201

Acquired upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired upper airway obstruction is a common cause of respiratory emergencies in children. Most pathologic processes that result in upper airway compromise are a consequence of infection, trauma or aspiration. Today, many of the infectious causes of upper airway obstruction have lost their threat as a result of the progress made in preventing and treating these infections. Prompt recognition and

Jürg Hammer

2004-01-01

202

Multi-stage Continuous Culture Fermentation of Glucose-Xylose Mixtures to Fuel Ethanol using Genetically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A  

EPA Science Inventory

Multi-stage continuous (chemostat) culture fermentation (MCCF) with variable fermentor volumes was carried out to study utilizing glucose and xylose for ethanol production by means of mixed sugar fermentation (MSF). Variable fermentor volumes were used to enable enhanced sugar u...

203

Ariane 5 Plus Cryogenic Stage Development ESC-A: Qualification Achieved for the First Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of the Ariane 5 Plus programme, Europe is developing a new cryogenic upper stage ESC. In order to maintain the ARIANE 5 international competitive edge, Europe decided to enhance the payload capacity of its new workhorse by adding a cryogenic upper stage enabling up to 12 tons to be delivered into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit. A two-step approach was decided in order to meet the near future and long-term market demand. The first step consists of developing an intermediate version named ESC- A utilising the propulsion system components and engine from the Ariane 4 launcher vehicle 3rd (cryogenic) stage within a new structure. In the second step the B-version will follow based on ESC-A but utilising a new propulsion system and a new expander cycle engine. This paper describes the definition and performance characteristics of ESC-A and presents the qualification philosophy applied for the Ariane 4 reused equipment and also for the new equipment and substructures under the stringent schedule constraints. The qualification test phase is well under way with the first flight of ESC-A scheduled second half of 2002. On stage level two qualification test items are built and tested: one stage for mechanical qualification, and a second stage for qualifying the ground/launcher interface and thermal system during filling and draining of the stage. On subsystem level the mechanical qualification (stiffness and strength) for the new LH2-Tank, the Interstage Structure, and the stage internal structures are performed. Functional qualification of ESCA is performed without a hot firing test. The propulsion system and engine are already qualified for Ariane 4 - H10; therefore only complementary qualification for ESC-A environment is necessary (increased firing time, different dynamic and thermal environment). This is supported by specific functional tests, for example pressurisation loop tests, LH2 feeding system test, LH2 and LOX sloshing tests, LOX draining tests, and engine hot firing tests under the ESC-A conditions. An overview of these qualification tests is given resulting in a qualified stage ready for the first flight.

Lassmann, J.

2002-01-01

204

Multiple angle single stage scrubber  

SciTech Connect

A scrubber for cleansing flue gases is disclosed. The scrubber includes a housing which defines a channel. The channel includes a scrubber stage wherein vertically spaced rows of deflecting members of l-shaped cross-section are disposed. In a given row of deflecting members, a plurality of flow paths are defined between horizontally adjacent deflecting members. Each deflecting member has an upper arm and a lower arm. The lowermost edge of the lower arms of the deflecting members in one row are disposed between vertical projections from the uppermost edges of upper arms of deflecting members in a row below the last mentioned row.

Ostlie, L.

1982-02-02

205

Neoplasms of the upper gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Neoplasms of the upper gastrointestinal tract are generally detected by barium studies or endoscopy. Computed tomography remains the primary imaging modality for staging. Magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography may also play an increasing role in evaluating these tumors. PMID:8284355

Trenkner, S W; Halvorsen, R A; Thompson, W M

1994-01-01

206

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Semiconductor Technology Sandia National Laboratories EE External Advisory Council CURRENT MEMBERS #12;Contents Engineering, please visit us online at www.fulton.asu.edu. THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ANNUAL REPORT This publication is written, designed, and produced by the Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering

Zhang, Junshan

207

Ares I and Ares I-X Stage Separation Aerodynamic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamics of the Ares I crew launch vehicle (CLV) and Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) during stage separation was characterized by testing 1%-scale models at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s (AEDC) von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility (VKF) Tunnel A at Mach numbers of 4.5 and 5.5. To fill a large matrix of data points in an efficient manner, an injection system supported the upper stage and a captive trajectory system (CTS) was utilized as a support system for the first stage located downstream of the upper stage. In an overall extremely successful test, this complex experimental setup associated with advanced postprocessing of the wind tunnel data has enabled the construction of a multi-dimensional aerodynamic database for the analysis and simulation of the critical phase of stage separation at high supersonic Mach numbers. Additionally, an extensive set of data from repeated wind tunnel runs was gathered purposefully to ensure that the experimental uncertainty would be accurately quantified in this type of flow where few historical data is available for comparison on this type of vehicle and where Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational simulations remain far from being a reliable source of static aerodynamic data.

Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.

2011-01-01

208

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

209

Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

2012-01-01

210

Multi-stage continuous culture fermentation of glucose-xylose mixtures to fuel ethanol using genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A.  

PubMed

Multi-stage continuous (chemostat) culture fermentation (MCCF) with variable fermentor volumes was carried out to study the utilization of glucose and xylose for ethanol production via mixed sugar fermentation (MSF). Variable fermentor volumes were used to enable enhanced sugar utilization, accounting for differences in glucose and xylose utilization rates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A-LNH-ST was used for fermentation of glucose-xylose mixtures. The dilution rates employed for continuous fermentation were based on earlier batch kinetic studies of ethanol production and sugar utilization. With a feed containing approximately 30 g L(-1) glucose and 15 g L(-1) xylose, cell washout was observed at a dilution rate of 0.8 h(-1). At dilution rates below 0.5 h(-1), complete glucose utilization was observed. Xylose consumption in the first-stage 1 L reactor was only 37% at the lowest dilution rate studied, 0.0 5h(-1). At this same flow rate, xylose consumption rose to 69% after subsequently passing through 3 and 1 L reactors in series, primarily due to the longer residence time in the 3 L reactor (0.0167 h(-1) dilution rate). PMID:19811910

Govindaswamy, Shekar; Vane, Leland M

2010-02-01

211

Condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the jet exhausts of rocket engines: 1. Model calculation of the physical conditions in a jet exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model calculations have been performed for the temperature and pressure of combustion products in the jet exhaust of rocket engines of last stages of Proton, Molniya, and Start launchers operating in the upper atmosphere at altitudes above 120 km. It has been shown that the condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide can begin at distances of 100-150 and 450-650 m away from the engine nozzle, respectively.

Platov, Yu. V.; Alpatov, V. V.; Klyushnikov, V. Yu.

2014-01-01

212

38. DETAIL OF CYLINDER LEVELING SYSTEM SHOWING TYPICAL UPPER AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF CYLINDER LEVELING SYSTEM SHOWING TYPICAL UPPER AND LOWER PULLEY BRACKET. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-S-8. INEL INDEX CODE - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

213

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Director, MESA Fabrication Sandia National Laboratories EE External Advisory Council CURRENT MEMBERS #12. Section Manager National Systems Division General Dynamics C4 Systems Bernadette Buddington Manager Radar Engineering, please visit us online at www.fulton.asu.edu. THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ANNUAL

Zhang, Junshan

214

High/variable mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A LOX/LH2 high/variable mixture ratio booster upper stage is described. The engine has high thrust-weight ratio as a booster and high specific impulse as an upper stage engine. Operation at high mixture ratio utilizes the propellants at high bulk density. The engine may use multiple turbopump-preburners for higher thrust ratings. The engine uses the full flow cycle to obtain minimum turbine inlet temperatures for a given chamber pressure and to avoid interpropellant shaft seals and other single point failure modes. A portion of the liquid hydrogen is used to regeneratively cool the thrust chamber assembly. The warmed hydrogen coolant is then used to drive the fuel boost turbopump. All propellants arrive at the gas-gas injector ready to burn. Shear mixing of the parallel flowing high velocity, low density fuel-rich gases with the high density, low velocity oxidizer-rich gases provides complete combustion with a modest chamber volume. Combustion stability is assured by the injection of the heated fuel-rich gases and the comparatively low volume ratio of the propellants before and after combustion. The high area ratio nozzle skirt is fitted with a low area ratio nozzle skirt insert for optimum low altitude performance. The overall engine characteristics make it a candidate for ALS, Shuttle-C, LRB, and SSTO applications.

Knuth, William H.; Beveridge, John H.

1988-01-01

215

SolSTUS: Solar Source Thermal Upper Stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was written by members of the Utah State University (USU) Space Systems Design class, fall quarter 1993. The class is funded by NASA and administered by the University Space Research Association (USRA). The focus of the class is to give students some experience in design of space systems and as a source of original ideas for NASA. This paper is a summary of the work done by members of the Space Systems Design class during the opening phase of the course. The class was divided into groups to work on different areas of the Solar Thermal Rocket (STR) booster in order to produce a design reference mission that would identify the key design issues. The design reference mission focused upon a small satellite mission to Mars. There are several critical components in a Solar Thermal Rocket. STR's produce a very low thrust, but have a high specific impulse, meaning that they take longer to reach the desired orbit, but use a lot less fuel in doing it. The complexity of the rocket is discussed in this paper. Some of the more critical design problems discussed are: (1) the structural and optical complexity of collecting and focusing sunlight onto a specific point, (2) long term storage of fuel (liquid hydrogen), (3) attitude control while thrusting in an elliptical orbit and orienting the mirrors to collect sunlight, and (4) power and communications for the rocket and it's internal systems. The design reference mission discussed here is a very general mission to Mars. A first order trajectory design has been done and a possible basic science payload for Mars has been suggested. This paper summarizes the design reference mission (DRM) formulated by the USU students during fall quarter and identifies major design challenges that will confront the design team during the next two quarters here at USU.

216

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid\\/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical

Alain Ravex; Robin Flachbart; Barney Holt

1999-01-01

217

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy is required. a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point. the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating, boil-off losses.

Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

1999-01-01

218

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space, and would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray-bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray-bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger, and a spray-bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses.

Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

2001-01-01

219

SolSTUS: Solar Source Thermal Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper was written by members of the Utah State University (USU) Space Systems Design class, fall quarter 1993. The class is funded by NASA and administered by the University Space Research Association (USRA). The focus of the class is to give students some experience in design of space systems and as a source of original ideas for NASA. This paper is a summary of the work done by members of the Space Systems Design class during the opening phase of the course. The class was divided into groups to work on different areas of the Solar Thermal Rocket (STR) booster in order to produce a design reference mission that would identify the key design issues. The design reference mission focused upon a small satellite mission to Mars. There are several critical components in a Solar Thermal Rocket. STR's produce a very low thrust, but have a high specific impulse, meaning that they take longer to reach the desired orbit, but use a lot less fuel in doing it. The complexity of the rocket is discussed in this paper. Some of the more critical design problems discussed are: (1) the structural and optical complexity of collecting and focusing sunlight onto a specific point, (2) long term storage of fuel (liquid hydrogen), (3) attitude control while thrusting in an elliptical orbit and orienting the mirrors to collect sunlight, and (4) power and communications for the rocket and it's internal systems. The design reference mission discussed here is a very general mission to Mars. A first order trajectory design has been done and a possible basic science payload for Mars has been suggested. This paper summarizes the design reference mission (DRM) formulated by the USU students during fall quarter and identifies major design challenges that will confront the design team during the next two quarters here at USU.

1994-01-01

220

Upper stage flight experiment (USFE) integral structure development effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicle Directorate (AFRL\\/VS) has established a customer focused composite tankage development program that is targeted to existing and future aerospace applications. AFRL\\/VS is developing a wide range of tank concepts that include linerless cryogenic tankage, self-healing cryogenic tankage, hydrogen peroxide compatible tankage, volumetrically efficient toroidal (donut shaped) geometries, and more.This paper will summarize the

Jim Guerrero; Brent Hamilton; Randy Burton; Dave Crockett; Zach Taylor

2004-01-01

221

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6.89 kPa (1psi) band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Complete destratification of the liquid and ullage was achieved at these fill levels. The axial jet was effective in providing tank pressure control within the same pressure control band at the 90% fill level. However, at the 50% level, the system reached a point at which it was unable to extract enough energy to keep up with the heat leak into the tank. Due to a hardware problem, the recirculation pump operated well below the axial jet design flow rate. Therefore, it is likely that the performance of the axial jet would have improved had the pump operated at the proper flow rate. A CFD model is being used to determine if the desired axial jet performance would be achieved if a higher pump flow rate were available. Testing conducted thus far has demonstrated that both TVS concepts can be effective in destratifying a propellant tank, rejecting stored heat energy, and thus, controlling tank pressure.

Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

222

Upper Yosemite Falls  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, Upper Yosemite Falls may be seen from the Yosemite Falls Trail. Upper Yosemite Falls has a total plunge of 1,430 ft (440 m). Yosemite Falls is one of the most famous waterfalls within Yosemite National Park....

223

Upper Yosemite Falls Detail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, a detailed view Upper Yosemite Falls may be seen from the Yosemite Falls Trail. Upper Yosemite Falls has a total plunge of 1,430 ft (440 m). Yosemite Falls is one of the most famous waterfalls within Yosemite National Park....

224

Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US) EO, assuming a reference launch vehicle with 5 RP engines on the CS and 3 LOX/LH2 engines on the US. The benefit of adding both CS and US engine-out capability is significant. When adding EOC for either first or second stages, there is less than a 20% benefit. Performance analysis has shown that if the vehicle is not protected for EO during the first part of the flight and only protected in the later part of the flight, there is a diminishing performance penalty, as indicated by failures occurring in the first stage at different times. This work did not consider any options to abort. While adding an engine for EOC drives cost upward, the impact depends on the number of needed engines manufactured per year and the launch manifest. There is a significant cost savings if multiple flights occur within one year. Flying two flights per year would cost approximately $4,000 per pound less than the same configuration with one flight per year, assuming both CS and US EOC. The cost is within 15% of the cost of one flight per year with no engine-out capability for the same vehicle. This study can be extended to other launch vehicles. While the numbers given in this paper are specific to a certain vehicle configuration, the process requires only a high level of data to allow an analyst to draw conclusions. The weighting of each of the identified parameters will determine the optimization of each launch vehicle. The results of this engine-out assessment provide a means to understand this optimization while maintaining an unbiased perspective.

Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

2012-01-01

225

Let the Volgian stage stay in the Jurassic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 the Volgian Stage was divided into the Jurassic and Cretaceous units, removed from the Geological Time Scale, and substituted by the Tithonian Stage according to the guidelines of the Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Committee of the Russian Federation (ISC RF). Consequently, the Upper Volgian Substage including three zones (five subzones) was placed into the Berriasian Stage (the Cretaceous) proceeding from

V. A. Zakharov; M. A. Rogov

2008-01-01

226

Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExtended neoteny and late stage allometric growth increase morphological disparity between growth stages in at least some dinosaurs. Coupled with relatively low dinosaur density in the Upper Cretaceous of North America, ontogenetic transformational representatives are often difficult to distinguish. For example, many hadrosaurids previously reported to represent relatively small lambeosaurine species were demonstrated to be juveniles of the larger taxa.

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Paul Sereno

2009-01-01

227

Shakespeare's Staging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California at Berkeley's English Department has undertaken the enormous task of presenting "a survey of current information, opinions and visuals about...the original nature of Shakespearean performance during his lifetime, and of its development through four centuries thereafter." Visitors can click on "Performance Galleries" at the top of the homepage to be taken to ten albums of over 900 images. Some of the topics of the albums that you can link to are "Productions from the Sixteenth through the Twentieth Century", "Productions in Britain 1960-1998", and "Unusual Representations of Shakespeare Performances". The albums contain items such as playbills, photos and drawings of performances, and photos of the rebuilt Globe Theatre. On the far left side of the homepage, visitors can click on "Videos" to view a documentary series about Elizabethan life, as well as excerpts of performances staged by the Shakespeare Program of UC Berkeley at Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. The videos can be viewed by "Latest", "Most Viewed", "Highest Rated", and "Featured". Visitors interested in other websites that explore Shakespeare performance will want to click on "Relevant Websites" on the far left side of the homepage, to access a link that has 27 Shakespeare performance related websites.

228

A transient model of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RL10A-3-3A rocket engines have served as the main propulsion system for Centaur upper stage vehicles since the early 1980's. This hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine continues to play a major role in the American launch industry. The Space Propulsion Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center has created a computer model of the RL10 engine, based on detailed component analyses and available test data. This RL10 engine model can predict the performance of the engine over a wide range of operating conditions. The model may also be used to predict the effects of any proposed design changes and anticipated failure scenarios. In this paper, the results of the component analyses are discussed. Simulation results from the new system model are compared with engine test and flight data, including the start and shut-down transient characteristics.

Binder, Michael P.

1995-01-01

229

TRIDENT 1 third stage motor separation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The third stage engine separation system has shown through test and analysis that it can effectively and reliably perform its function. The weight of the hardware associated with this system is well within the targeted value.

Welch, B. H.; Richter, B. J.; Sue, P.

1977-01-01

230

VATS right upper lobectomy  

PubMed Central

A 56-year-old male patient was admitted due to one small pulmonary nodule in the apicoposterior segment of the right upper lobe, which was found on his health screening one month ago. Preoperative examinations showed no distant metastasis, and his heart and lung functions could tolerate the lobectomy. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed one small pulmonary nodules on the apicoposterior segment of the right upper lobe, which was considered to be malignant lesions. No remarkably swollen lymph node was visible in the mediastinum. Therefore, VATS right upper lobectomy was performed and intraoperative frozen section confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.

Mei, Xinyu; Li, Tian; Xie, Mingran

2014-01-01

231

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

232

Rotary valve system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fuel intake and exhaust system for use with a four stroke engine of a type having an engine block formed with at least one piston cavity having an upper opening in the top surface of the block, a piston having an upper surface reciprocating in the cavity toward and away from the upper opening, a crankshaft

1992-01-01

233

Upper respiratory tract (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

234

The upper intertidal zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The upper intertidal zone is exposed most of the time and will become submerged only during high tide. This zone is least abundant of the intertidal zones but contains some mollusks, barnacles, and other animals adapted to avoid drying out.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-04

235

The upper intertidal zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The upper intertidal zone is exposed most of the time and will become submerged only during high tide. This zone is least abundant of the intertidal zones but contains some mollusks, barnacles, and other animals adapted to avoid drying out.

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-06-08

236

Acute Upper Airway Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper airway obstruction is defined as blockage of any portion of the airway above the thoracic inlet. Stridor, suprasternal\\u000a retractions, and change of voice are the sentinel signs of upper airway obstruction. Most of the common causes among children\\u000a presenting to emergency department are of acute infectious etiology. Among these, croup is the commonest while diphteria remains\\u000a the most serious

K. Sasidaran; Arun Bansal; Sunit Singhi

237

Altitude Performance and Operational Characteristics of 29-inch-diameter Tail-pipe Burner with Several Fuel Systems and Fuel-cooled Stage-type Flame Holders on J35-A-5 Turbojet Engine / Richard L. Golladay and Harry E. Bloomer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of tail-pipe burning was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel with a full-scale turbojet engine and an 29-inch-diameter tail-pipe burner. Effects of fuel distribution and number and arrangement of stages on performance and operational characteristics of several fuel-cooled flame holders are presented and discussed. Operation with a three-stage flame holder having the large stage upstream was the most efficient. Combustion efficiency was slightly increased at high altitudes by injecting fuel upstream of the flame holder.

Golladay, Richard L; Bloomer, Harry E

1950-01-01

238

Stages of Adolescence  

MedlinePLUS

... Stages of Adolescence Ages & Stages Listen Stages of Adolescence Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

239

Draft Inventory Upper Snake Province  

E-print Network

Draft Inventory Upper Snake Province Submitted To The Northwest Power and Conservation Council ...........................................................................................................1 Bonneville Power Administration Funded Projects within the Upper Snake Province Needed Future Actions within the Upper Snake Subbasin.........................22 Needed Future Actions

240

Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.  

PubMed

Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. PMID:23101609

Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

2012-11-01

241

Family Life Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual life stages happen within the context of family life. This article describes Betty Carter's and Monica McGoldrick's Family Life Cycle stages as a context for Eric Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Daniel Levinson's Stages of a Man's Life, and Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive development. The author juxtaposes the tasks of each family life stage with the individual life

M. A. Armour

1995-01-01

242

Upper Level Engineering (ULE) Courses Electrical and Computer Engineering  

E-print Network

of the Design of Biomedical Instrumentation II: Physiological and Clinical (4) 580.472 Medical Imaging Systems.326 Introduction to Optical Instrumentation (3) 520.401 Basic Communication (3) 520.410 Fiber Optics and Devices (3 Processing and Analysis II (3) 520.432 Medical Imaging Systems (3) 520.433 Medical Image Analysis 520

Wong, Philip

243

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

-sponsored competition to have an autonomous vehicle race through the desert in Oct. 2005. Vision and AI are crucial and constructs autonomous robot soccer teams and competes in national and inter- national competitions under pride in us- ing a systems engineering approach. Contributions from students in CS, ECE, and MAE

Keinan, Alon

244

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

245

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

246

General performance characteristics of real heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic upper bounds can be placed on the power and efficiency of real heat engines via a relatively simple analytic treatment of primary sources of irreversibility. Generalized curves for heat engine performance, their universal nature, and quantitative evaluation of upper bounds for power and efficiency are derived for the following engine types: Brayton cycle (gas turbines); Rankine cycles (steam turbines);

J. M. Gordon; Mahmoud Huleihil

1992-01-01

247

Application of the integrated modular engine (IME) to space vehicle concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incorporation of integrated modular engines (IME) in space vehicles offers attractive benefits which include improved system reliability and fault tolerance, increased I(sp) and thrust/weight ratio, and improved operability and maintainability. This paper summarizes a study that was performed to define concepts for three cryogenic space vehicles incorporating the IME: a trans-lunar injection stage, a lunar lander, and an upper stage for a launch vehicle. The goals of the study were to quantify potential IME benefits, identify issues that must be addressed, and define the technical and programmatic actions required to develop the IME.

Cramer, John M.; Wakefield, Michael E.

1992-01-01

248

Upper Air Measurement Improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balloon-borne radiosondes designed to measure upper atmosphere temperature, relative humidity, and ozone are utilized by the Upper Air Instrumentation Research Project (UAIRP) at NASA's Wallops Island for satellite instrument calibration and validation. NASA is continually interested in new developments or improvement of existing instruments as they are integrated into the measurement system. Although radiosondes have been around for many decades they necessarily undergo periodic change and new and/or improved sensors are always needed. The UAIRP seeks to refine and improve upper-air measurement systems. The UAIRP conducts atmospheric soundings to serve the needs of satellite validation and climate-change research programs. Measurements are made on-site at the Wallops Flight Facility and in the field for observational campaigns. The facilities at Wallops Island are used to support instrumentation research, provide traceable standards, calibrations, and characterizations, and to obtain temperature, ozone, and water vapor measurements. Instruments currently in use or being tested at Wallops Island are the: Accurate Temperature Measurement (ATM) radiosonde used to provide accurate temperature soundings and to quantify temperature errors in other sounding systems including satellite validation; Automated Digital Calibration Bench was recently implemented for calibration and preparation of the ECC ozonesonde; and, chilled mirror radiosondes (a.k.a. Snow White) for improved relative humidity measurement. These instruments are well characterized and their impact on upper air data quality are discussed. The presentation also will include examples of data quality improvement.

Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ashburn, C. E.; Brothers, C. B.

2012-04-01

249

CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE FIRST STAGE OF THE SATURN I ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE FIRST STAGE OF THE SATURN I ROCKET, SHOWING A DETAIL VIEW OF THE ENGINE CLUSTER. THE SATURN I ROCKET WAS THE FIRST UNITED STATES ROCKET TO HAVE MULTIPLE ENGINES ON A SINGLE STAGE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

250

Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB View/Download: Small: 684x636 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows ...

251

Cervical Cancer Stage IB  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IB View/Download: Small: 774x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical cancer ...

252

Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA View/Download: Small: 612x612 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing shows ...

253

Cervical Cancer Stage IVA  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVA View/Download: Small: 756x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and ...

254

Cervical Cancer Stage IVB  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVB View/Download: Small: 594x640 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing shows ...

255

Cervical Cancer Stage IA  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IA View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; ...

256

Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC View/Download: Small: 734x648 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Stage IIIC ovarian cancer; ...

257

Ovarian Cancer Stage IV  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IV View/Download: Small: 528x757 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Stage IV ovarian cancer; ...

258

Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4 View/Download: Small: 533x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4 Description: Stage IV pancreatic cancer; drawing ...

259

Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing ...

260

42. VIEW OF STAGE RECORDER AT END OF UPSTREAM GUIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. VIEW OF STAGE RECORDER AT END OF UPSTREAM GUIDE WALL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. (Several hours after this view was taken, the stage recorder was hit a~d heavily damaged by a grain barge.) - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

261

Mars upper atmosphere network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars Express and other spacecraft obtain a wide range of measurements of the complex upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and space environment of Mars. The ionosphere and space envi-ronment of Mars form a unique plasma laboratory due to Mars's intense, small-scale crustal magnetic fields. This region of Mars is involved in many atmospheric loss processes. Collabora-tions that bring together instrument teams, modellers and others are powerful mechanisms for studying Mars with a broad range of tools, enabling discoveries that cannot be made by isolated groups. Consequently, the Mars Upper Atmosphere Network was created as a self-sustaining scientific enterprise in early 2009. This presentation will provide an overview on the composition and activities of this Network, including a focused observing campaign on the upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and space en-vironment of Mars conducted by Mars Express in March 2010. At this time, Earth and Mars were on the same arm of the solar wind's Parker spiral, which permits extensive comparisons of upstream solar wind data at Earth to observations from Mars.

Withers, Paul; Witasse, Olivier; Opgenoorth, Hermann

262

Mars Upper Atmosphere Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars Express and other spacecraft obtain a wide range of measurements of the complex upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and space environment of Mars. The ionosphere and space environment of Mars form a unique plasma laboratory due to Mars's intense, small-scale crustal magnetic fields. This region of Mars is involved in many atmospheric loss processes. Collaborations that bring together instrument teams, modellers and others are powerful mechanisms for studying Mars with a broad range of tools, enabling discoveries that cannot be made by isolated groups. Consequently, the Mars Upper Atmosphere Network was created as a self-sustaining scientific enterprise in early 2009. This presentation will provide an overview on the composition and activities of this Network, including a focused observing campaign on the upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and space environment of Mars conducted by Mars Express in March 2010. At this time, Earth and Mars were on the same arm of the solar wind's Parker spiral, which permits extensive comparisons of upstream solar wind data at Earth to observations from Mars.

Opgenoorth, Hermann; Witasse, O.; Withers, P.

2010-10-01

263

Altitude Testing of Large Liquid Propellant Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration entered a new age on January 14, 2004 with President Bush s announcement of the creation the Vision for Space Exploration that will take mankind back to the Moon and on beyond to Mars. In January, 2006, after two years of hard, dedicated labor, engineers within NASA and its contractor workforce decided that the J2X rocket, based on the heritage of the Apollo J2 engine, would be the new engine for the NASA Constellation Ares upper stage vehicle. This engine and vehicle combination would provide assured access to the International Space Station to replace that role played by the Space Shuttle and additionally, would serve as the Earth Departure Stage, to push the Crew Excursion Vehicle out of Earth Orbit and head it on a path for rendezvous with the Moon. Test as you fly, fly as you test was chosen to be the guiding philosophy and a pre-requisite for the engine design, development, test and evaluation program. An exhaustive survey of national test facility assets proved the required capability to test the J2X engine at high altitude for long durations did not exist so therefore, a high altitude/near space environment testing capability would have to be developed. After several agency concepts the A3 High Altitude Testing Facility proposal was selected by the J2X engine program on March 2, 2007 and later confirmed by a broad panel of NASA senior leadership in May 2007. This facility is to be built at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center located near Gulfport, Mississippi. 30 plus years of Space Shuttle Main Engine development and flight certification testing makes Stennis uniquely suited to support the Vision For Space Exploration Return to the Moon. Propellant handling infrastructure, engine assembly facilities, a trained and dedicated workforce and a broad and varied technical support base will all ensure that the A3 facility will be built on time to support the schedule needs of the J2X engine and the ultimate flight of the first Ares I vehicle. The A3 facility will be able to simulate pre-ignition altitude from sea-level to 100,000 feet and maintain it up to 650 seconds. Additionally the facility will be able to accommodate initial ignition, shutdown and then restart test profiles. A3 will produce up to 5000 lbm/sec of superheated steam utilizing a Chemical Steam generation system. Two separate inline steam ejectors will be used to produce a test cell vacuum to simulate the 100,000 ft required altitude. Operational capability will ensure that the facility can start up and shutdown without producing adverse pressure gradients across the J2X nozzle. The facility will have a modern thrust measurement system for accurate determination of engine performance. The latest advances in data acquisition and control will be incorporated to measure performance parameters during hotfire testing. Provisions are being made in the initial design of the new altitude facility to allow for testing of other, larger engines and potential upper stage launch vehicles that might require vacuum start testing of the engines. The new facility at Stennis Space Center will be complete and ready for hotfire operations in late 2010.

Maynard, Bryon T.; Raines, Nickey G.

2010-01-01

264

BEE 473. Watershed Engineering Fall Semester 2007  

E-print Network

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp962. Course objectives: 1. Functional competency in basic engineering of engineering solutions developed by a team, including interdisciplinary teams. ABET Outcome (g) [Primary] 4

Walter, M.Todd

265

Upper Back Pain COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

Upper Back Pain COMMON CAUSES: Upper back pain may be triggered by a specific event of the computer can innocently strain muscles of the upper back. Long term back problems are more likely when pain develops gradually or discomfort is recurrent over a period of time. Chronic back pain is often triggered

Virginia Tech

266

Engineering Electrical &  

E-print Network

Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

Hickman, Mark

267

Engineering Electrical &  

E-print Network

Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

Hickman, Mark

268

Tripropellant engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engine performance data, combustion gas thermodynamic properties, and turbine gas parameters were determined for various high power cycle engine configurations derived from the space shuttle main engine that will allow sequential burning of LOX/hydrocarbon and LOX/hydrogen fuels. Both stage combustion and gas generator pump power cycles were considered. Engine concepts were formulated for LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 propellants. Flowrates and operating conditions were established for this initial set of engine systems, and the adaptability of the major components of shuttle main engine was investigated.

Wheeler, D. B.

1978-01-01

269

Upper Gastrointestinal Stent  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) stent has been developed for palliation of obstructive symptoms in various diseases causing obstruction of GI tract. Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has replaced old type of plastic stent, and endoscopic insertion of stent has replaced fluoroscopy-guided insertion. Nowadays, newly-designed SEMSs have been developed for prevention of complications such as stent migration and re-obstruction, and indications of stent recently have been widened into benign conditions as well as malignant obstruction. In this review, the types, method of insertion, indications and clinical outcomes of stent in the upper GI tract would be discussed. PMID:23251886

Kim, Sang Gyun

2012-01-01

270

Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

2009-01-01

271

Engineering Engineering Education  

E-print Network

E School of Engineering Engineering Education in a University Setting 292 Degree Programs in Engineering 294 Special Programs 296 Honors 298 Academic Regulations 300 Courses of Study 305 Engineering of Engineering is the largest and oldest private engineering school in the South. Classes offering engineering

Simaan, Nabil

272

Upper dorsal sympathectomy.  

PubMed

Over a 20 year period, 60 patients underwent 76 procedures for upper dorsal sympathectomy, usually with a transaxillary approach but occasionally with an anterior approach. Procedures in male patients and in those that were carried out on the right side were most frequent. There were few simultaneous procedures. The extent of sympathectomy included resection of the lower half of the stellate ganglion through the fourth thoracic ganglion. The results were satisfying for patients with vasospastic disorders and hyperhidrosis and quite acceptable for those with causalgia and vaso-occlusive disorders. Complication rates and the incidence of postoperative Horner's syndrome were low. There were prominent differences in results among the various age groups. In addition, female patients and those with bilateral procedures had less favorable results. Factors that did not appear to affect results included technique of surgical approach, extent of sympathectomy, presence of Horner's syndrome, or the addition of other procedures. Current indications for upper dorsal sympathectomy include cases of Raynaud's and Buerger's diseases refractory to drug therapy, causalgia, vaso-occlusive disorders, and hyperhidrosis. PMID:4073370

Manart, F D; Sadler, T R; Schmitt, E A; Rainer, W G

1985-12-01

273

Ovarian Cancer Stage II  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage II View/Download: Small: 792x324 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of ...

274

Ovarian Cancer Stage I  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage I View/Download: Small: 792x324 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of ...

275

Stage Management & Technology  

E-print Network

?????????????????????????..30 Role of the stage manager in rehearsal....????????????..30 The rehearsal station????????????????????..32 Sign-in??????????????????????????35 Reports?????????????????????????...36 Notes..??????????????????????????41 Blocking... piece of information, whether it is a costume fitting, a change in design, or a line change, must be passed through the stage manager and then distributed by the stage manager to those who need to be notified. During rehearsal, the stage manager...

O'Brien, Madison D

2013-02-04

276

Diffusion tensor MRI of early upper motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative system disorder affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. Despite supportive electro- physiological investigations, the involvement of the upper motor neuron is often difficult to assess at an early stage of disease. Diffusion tensor MRI provides an estimate of the orientation of fibre bundles in white matter on the basis of

Miriam Sach; Gerhard Winkler; Volkmar Glauche; Joachim Liepert; Bernhard Heimbach; Martin A. Koch; Christian Buchel; Cornelius Weiller

2004-01-01

277

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-29

278

How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... rates for ovarian cancer, by stage How is ovarian cancer staged? Staging is the process of finding ... from the most recent FIGO staging. Stages of ovarian and fallopian tube cancer Once a patient's T, ...

279

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2013-12-12

280

78 FR 5710 - Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...certain high-pressure turbine (HPT) stage 2 nozzles. This AD also requires mandatory removal from service of these HPT stage 2 nozzles at the next engine shop visit...received of inadequate cooling of the HPT stage 2 nozzle, leading to damage to the...

2013-01-28

281

Apollo 15 Lunar Module 'Falcon' seen before ascent stage liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 15 Lunar Module 'Falcon' is seen only seconds before ascent stage liftoff in this black and white reproduction taken from a color transmission made by the RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The LRV was parked about 300 feet east of the Lunar Module (LM). The LM liftoff was at 171:37 ground elapsed time. The LM descent stage is used as a launching platform and remains behind on the Moon (41511); The flame from the Apollo 15 LM ascent stage engine creates a kaleidoscope effect during lunar liftoff. In this view, the two stages are beginning to separate (41512); The LM descent stage rests alone on the Moon shortly after the ascent stage liftoff from the lunar surface. The lunar soil dust cloud stirred up by the ascent stage engine thrust has already settled (41513).

1971-01-01

282

Aerodynamic performance of 0.5 meter-diameter, 337 meter-per-second tip speed, 1.5 pressure-ratio, single-stage fan designed for low noise aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall and blade-element aerodynamic performance of a 0.271-scale model of QF-1 are presented, examined, and then compared and evaluated with that from similar low noise fan stage designs. The tests cover a wide range of speeds and weight flows along with variations in stator setting angle and stator axial spacing from the rotor. At design speed with stator at design setting angle and a fixed distance between stage measuring stations, there were no significant effects of increasing the axial spacing between rotor stator from 1.0 to 3.5 rotor chords on stage overall pressure ratio, efficiency or stall margin.

Gelder, T. F.; Lewis, G. W., Jr.

1974-01-01

283

Age and correlation of California Paleogene benthic foraminiferal stages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparisons of age determinations and correlations derived from calcareous plankton with those derived from benthic foraminifers in a number of sections in California show significant overlap in time of the Ynezian through the Ulatisian Stages. Thus interbasin time correlations deduced from these stage assignments must be treated with caution. Calcareous plankton occasionally associated with benthic foraminifers diagnostic of the Narizian through the Zemorrian Stages indicate that the Narizian-Refugian boundary is within the upper Eocene of international usage and that the Refugian is entirely upper Eocene. Overlap of the Narizian and the Refugian appears to be minimal. The Zemorrian correlates, mostly, with the Oligocene, although the upper limit of the Zemorrian might be in the lower Miocene.

Poore, Richard Z.

1980-01-01

284

Upper atmosphere dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial distribution of stratospheric ozone is useful in diagnosis of some features of the large scale atmospheric circulation, and the ozone may also interact with the atmospheric general circulation. Local maxima in the column ozone distribution are often associated with disturbances in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, which may herald cyclone development in the troposphere. One research objective is to explore these issues by means of time series analysis of a zonal index of total column ozone, to suggest the existence or nonexistence of relationships between column ozone and dynamical processes which are known to occur on various time scales. Another objective is to investigate the correlation between the ozone mixing ratio on the 350 K isentropic surface and the column integrated ozone, and to investigate the use of an easily derived parameter as a proxy for ozone mixing ratio, which is conserved in the stratosphere for time scales shorter than the photochemical time scale. The source of data for these studies is the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data set.

Miller, Timothy L.; Reynolds, Nathaniel D.

1990-01-01

285

Upper Hudson Dredging Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In preparation for the activity a lecture is given on the properties and history of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. Each student is assigned to one of six groups with an interest in the outcome of the debate. The teams must meet and prepare a position paper on the proposed environmental dredging in the Upper Hudson River. Each team must represent the interests of its assigned constituency. Data and background information is found on the world wide web and from the instructor's collection of related articles. On the day of the debate the student's orally present their position paper (some make posters or powerpoint presentations). After each group has made their opening statement the invited guest senators on the panel (other faculty, myself, interested students, those who were absent for the preparation) ask each group a series of questions related to their stance. After this a general debate begins with detailed and sometimes heated discussions between the groups and the panel. A few moments are saved at the end of class and everyone is allowed to drop their assumed affiliation and speak their mind on what should be done. Before leaving the class is give a series of big picture topics to think about over the weekend and these are discussed during the next class.

Chiarenzelli, Jeff

286

Upper respiratory infections.  

PubMed

It is estimated that >24 million cases of acute bacterial sinusitis occur annually in the United States. Recently, a number of medical societies have issued guidelines to aid in the management of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). Although these guidelines serve to aid practitioners in the proper use of antibiotics, confusion remains regarding the disparity of guideline recommendations as well as some recommendations being outdated. This review presents 3 illustrative case studies designed to provide some clarity with regard to these guidelines. Case 1 is a typical presentation of a patient with worsening sinus conditions over the previous 2 weeks. Case 2 is a more challenging case of a patient with a sinus condition accompanied by a penicillin allergy that ultimately requires referral to an otolaryngologist. Case 3 is an atypical case with symptoms of a sinus infection accompanied by a normal sinus computed tomography scan. It is hoped that the presentation and discussion surrounding these cases will provide some helpful insights into the management of patients with URIs. PMID:20350632

Anon, Jack B

2010-04-01

287

Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.  

PubMed

Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

2014-11-01

288

Upper carboniferous conodont zones of Russia and their global correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has been marked by significant progress in the study of the stratigraphic ranges of the conodonts characteristic of the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages in shallow-water sediments of the type sections in the Moscow Basin and the deeper facies of the South Urals. This paper discusses the history of studies of the Upper Carboniferous conodont zonation in Russia and abroad, and proposes a refined zonal conodont scale for the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages, which may be included, as a standard, into the general Carboniferous scale of Russia. In this scale, the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages correspond respectively to six ( subexcelsus, makhlinae, sagittalis, cancellosus, toretzianus, firmus) and five ( simulator, vitali, virgilicus, bellus, wabaunsensis) zones. The proposed scale works for the entire East European Platform and the Urals from the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in the north to the Mugodzhary Mountains in the south. These regions of Russia are occupied by Upper Carboniferous marine facies. At several levels (especially in the Gzhelian Stage), the scale reliably correlates with zones of the Missourian and Virgilian stages in North America and also Dalaun and Mapingian stages in China.

Goreva, N. V.; Alekseev, A. S.

2010-12-01

289

Two stage catalytic combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

290

Rotorcraft convertible engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Rotorcraft Convertible Engine Study was to define future research and technology effort required for commercial development by 1988 of convertible fan/shaft gas turbine engines for unconventional rotorcraft transports. Two rotorcraft and their respective missions were defined: a Fold Tilt Rotor aircraft and an Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) rotorcraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted with these rotorcraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size, mission fuel requirements, and direct operating costs (DOC). The two rotorcraft were flown with conventional propulsion systems (separate lift/cruise engines) and with convertible propulsion systems to determine the benefits to be derived from convertible engines. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine the optimum engine cycle and staging arrangement for a convertible engine. Advanced technology options applicable to convertible engines were studied. Research and technology programs were identified which would ensure technology readiness for commercial development of convertible engines by 1988.

Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Mar, H. M.

1982-01-01

291

Ergonomic stressors and upper extremity disorders in vehicle manufacturing: cross sectional exposure-response trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between upper extremity soft tissue disorders and exposure to preventable ergonomic stressors in vehicle manufacturing operations. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in one vehicle stamping plant and one engine assembly plant. A standardised physical examination of the upper extremities was performed on all subjects. An interviewer administered questionnaire obtained data on demographics, work

L. Punnett

1998-01-01

292

OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, PRIMARY ORE BIN,OVERBURDEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, PRIMARY ORE BIN,OVERBURDEN PILE, AND DEBRIS SCATTER,LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THE MAIN ACCESS TRAIL BETWEEN THE LOWER MILL AREA GOES ACROSS THE CENTER LEFT TO RIGHT. WINCHING ENGINE AND FOUNDATION IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER (SEE CA-291-37). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

293

Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering  

E-print Network

Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering Dr Derek Clarke Admissions Tutor #12;2 What is Civil) ­ Water Hydraulics (Dams & rivers) ­ Engineering Mathematics Civil Engineering Core Subjects #12;11 Core. Renovation of old canals and tunnels Design of new storage reservoirs #12;17 Civil Engineering

Anderson, Jim

294

Prognosis prediction and staging.  

PubMed

Staging and prognosis assessment are critical steps in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. This cancer is a complex disease usually associated with chronic liver disease, and any attempt to assess the prognosis should consider tumour burden, degree of liver function impairment and evaluation of cancer-related symptoms. In addition, for any staging system to be meaningful it has to link staging with treatment indication and this should be based on robust scientific data. Currently, the only proposal that serves both aims is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system. It divides patients into very early/early, intermediate, advanced and end-stage. Very early/early stage HCC patients should be considered for potentially curative options such as resection, transplantation and ablation. Patients at intermediate stage benefit from chemoembolization, while patients at an advanced stage or who cannot benefit of options of higher priority have sorafenib as standard of care. Finally, patients at end-stage should receive best supportive care. PMID:25260313

Forner, Alejandro; Díaz-González, Alvaro; Liccioni, Alexandre; Vilana, Ramón

2014-10-01

295

System Engineering for J-2X Development: The Simpler, the Better  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I and Ares V Vehicles will utilize the J-2X rocket engine developed for NASA by the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne Company (PWR) as the upper stage engine (USE). The J-2X is an improved higher power version of the original J-2 engine used for Apollo. System Engineering (SE) facilitates direct and open discussions of issues and problems. This simple idea is often overlooked in large, complex engineering development programs. Definition and distribution of requirements from the engine level to the component level is controlled by Allocation Reports which breaks down numerical design objectives (weight, reliability, etc.) into quanta goals for each component area. Linked databases of design and verification requirements help eliminate redundancy and potential mistakes inherent in separated systems. Another tool, the Architecture Design Description (ADD), is used to control J-2X system architecture and effectively communicate configuration changes to those involved in the design process. But the proof of an effective process is in successful program accomplishment. SE is the methodology being used to meet the challenge of completing J-2X engine certification 2 years ahead of any engine program ever developed at PWR. This paper describes the simple, better SE tools and techniques used to achieve this success.

Kelly, William M.; Greasley, Paul; Greene, William D.; Ackerman, Peter

2008-01-01

296

History of staged combustion cycle development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for ever greater delivered specific impulse led to an interest in very high chamber pressure operation, and with it, exploration of the staged combustion cycle as a means to extract the most energy possible from the chemical reactants. A major effort was supported by the Air Force with possible application to engines in the 1-2 million pound thrust class which used storable liquid propellants. These programs advanced the art by demonstrating the use of supercritical N2O4 as a coolant and introducing the photo etched platelet technique for manufacturing both injector and thrust chamber hardware. NASA initiated advanced engine design studies which identified the promise of high-pressure staged combustion and then accomplished subscale staged combustion testing at 2500 psia to demonstrate the feasibility of the combustion system. The Air Force also initiated efforts on high discharge pressure hydrogen pumps and on a high chamber pressure H2/O2 staged combustion engine concept which established the turbomachinery and cycle groundwork for the SSME.

Bumb, Anu; Hawk, Clark W.

1993-06-01

297

Stages of Huntington's Disease (HD)  

MedlinePLUS

... Hd Hd Care Stages Of Hd facebook twitter Stages of HD Publications for Download The progression of ... find your local HDSA social worker here. Early Stage In the early stages of HD, people see ...

298

Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.  

PubMed

Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty. PMID:23186767

Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

2013-01-01

299

Upper and Lower Case Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do the different upper and lower case letters of the alphabet look like? Use the Graphic Organizer Watch the video. Alphabet Town Video Play this matching game. Alpha Pig s Amazing Alphabet Match Up Game Play this alphabet game. Star Fall Alphabet Match the letters here. ABC Matching Watch this Video. Upper and Lowercase Letter Flashcards Video Now you will complete the project. Each of you will get a digital camera. I want you to go around the classroom and take pictures of upper and lowercase letters you see. ...

Sherman1a

2012-04-04

300

33engineering EnginEEring and  

E-print Network

33engineering EnginEEring and ThE builT EnvironmEnT www.wits.ac.za/ebe #12;34 guide for applicants 2015 The study of Engineering Career opportunities for engineers are limitless and extend beyond the formal engineering sector. A career in engineering requires special talents ­ engineers need

Wagner, Stephan

301

Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-12-23

302

Muscles of the Upper Extremity  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Upper Extremity Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

303

Vortices in Saturn's upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturn's magnetosphere exhibits phenomena with 10.7-hour periodicity that scientists do not fully understand. One proposed explanation is that twin vortices in the upper atmosphere at Saturn's north and south poles generate currents that drive the magnetosphere periodicity.

Balcerak, Ernie

2014-11-01

304

TEXT-TO-SPEECH CONVERSION WITH STAGED NEURAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a series of staged artificial neural networks (ANNs) for phoneme recognition for text -to-speech applications. Applying ANNs for phoneme mapping for text -to-speech conversion creates a fast distributed recognition engine. This engine not only supports the mapping of missing words in the database, but it can also reduce contradictions related to different pronunciations for the same word.

FABIO ARCINIEGAS; MARK J. EMBRECHTS

305

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING PREREQUISITE & GENERAL EDUCATION COURSES  

E-print Network

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING PREREQUISITE & GENERAL EDUCATION COURSES Mathematics 24 cr MATH&S. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING UPPER-DIVISION COURSE WORK The BSCE degree covers six areas, WA 98195 Phone 206- 543-5092 ceadvice@uw.edu #12;Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE

306

Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

2014-12-23

307

J-2 Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technicians from the Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American in Canoga Park, Calif., remove components of a 1960s J-2 rocket engine that has been displayed at the John C. Stennis Visitors Center for more than 10 years. Some usable parts of the Apollo-era engine will be used for testing of Rocketdyne's aerospike engine for the X-33 program. Five J-2 engines were used on the second stage of the huge Saturn V rockets that took American astronauts to the moon.

1997-01-01

308

S-IB Stage Entering Point Barrow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Saturn 1B first stage (S-IB) enters the NASA barge Point Barrow, in March 1968. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) utilized a number of water transportation craft to transport the Saturn stages to-and-from the manufacturing facilities and test sites, as well as delivery to the Kennedy Space Center for launch. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Chrysler Corporation at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), the S-IB utilized the eight H-1 engines and each produced 200,000 pounds of thrust, a combined thrust of 1,600,000 pounds.

1968-01-01

309

Early stage colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent “curative” resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., “tumor budding”) should lead to improved staging and clinical care. PMID:24379564

Freeman, Hugh James

2013-01-01

310

electrical, engineering  

E-print Network

engineering materials science and engineering mechanical engineering solar energy engineering and Sustainable Solar Technologies (QESST), works with students building solar cars in Fulton Engineering's BESTschool of electrical, computer and energy engineering Annual Report 2012-2013 Breaking the final

Zhang, Junshan

311

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

2014-01-01

312

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

2014-01-01

313

An Introduction to Complex-System Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an introduction to complex-system engineering (cSE). cSE is going to become the second branch of system engineering. It is still in its formative stages. All of cSE's presently known ideas are briefly discussed. A familiarity with the first branch of system engineering, so called traditional system engineering (TSE), is assumed.

Kuras, Michael L.

314

V160 Stirling engine program update  

SciTech Connect

Development efforts being made toward the preproduction stage of the V160 Stirling engine are examined. The history of continued reliability encompassing all engine models is reviewed, and efforts towards engine manufacturing and cost reduction are addressed. A preview is given of the initial product line based on the V160 engine and substantiated through testing of the offered configurations.

Johansson, L.; Torstensson, B.; Williams, T. Y.; Houtman, W.H.; Monahan, R.

1988-01-01

315

Draft Management Plan Upper Snake Province  

E-print Network

Draft Management Plan Upper Snake Province Submitted To The Northwest Power and Conservation ..................................................................................................................1-1 Upper Snake Province Plan .........................................................................1-3 Location and Physical Description of the Upper Snake Province...................1-3 Vision

316

Full scale upper surface blown flap noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

1975-01-01

317

Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright 2005, American Society for Engineering Education  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2005, American Society for Engineering Education Concurrent System Design: Applied Mathematics Copyright © 2005, American Society for Engineering Education language and operating system provides coverage in the upper- level technical elective course Principles of Concurrent Software Systems

Vallino, James R

318

Sentinel node detection in pre-operative axillary staging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery is based on the fact that the tumour drains in a logical way via the lymphatic system, from the first to upper levels. Since axillary node dissection does not improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of

Giuseppe Trifirò; Giuseppe Viale; Oreste Gentilini; LauraLavinia Travaini; Giovanni Paganelli

2004-01-01

319

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. FLASH EVAPORATORS ARE PLACED ON UPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. FLASH EVAPORATORS ARE PLACED ON UPPER LEVEL OF EAST SIDE OF BUILDING. WALLS WILL BE FORMED AROUND THEM. WORKING RESERVOIR BEYOND. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. EXHAUST AIR STACK IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2579. Unknown Photographer, 6/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

320

Prostate cancer staging  

MedlinePLUS

... understand that only if and when you have surgery to remove the prostate gland can you and your doctor know for certain what the stage of your prostate cancer is. However, using your symptoms, physical exam, and ...

321

Staging Airliner Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

Hahn, Andrew S.

2007-01-01

322

Stages of Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... your baby in these three stages. First trimester (week 1-week 12) First trimester See how your baby is ... is each pregnancy. Return to top Second trimester (week 13-week 28) Second trimester See how your ...

323

Biological Survey of the Upper Purgatoire Watershed  

E-print Network

Biological Survey of the Upper Purgatoire Watershed Las Animas County, CO John Carney Colorado ......................................................................................................................................17 Upper Purgatoire River Watershed Conservation Site Profiles

324

Staging Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence supporting a staging model for bipolar disorder. The authors conducted\\u000a an extensive Medline and Pubmed search of the published literature using a variety of search terms (staging, bipolar disorder,\\u000a early intervention) to find relevant articles, which were reviewed in detail. Only recently specific proposals have been made\\u000a to apply clinical

Eduard Vieta; M. Reinares; A. R. Rosa

2011-01-01

325

Precision adjustable stage  

DOEpatents

An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA); Silva, Leonard L. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

326

Phenological Growth Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous authors have published descriptive development-stage scales over the past 70 years, covering various plant species.\\u000a Troitzki (1925) examined connections between occurrence\\/control of the apple blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum) and phenological development of flower buds. He divided apple bud formation into three stages and twelve phases. This initial\\u000a development scale for woody fruit plants was also used by (1937) and

Uwe Meier

327

Prognosis following Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common, high risk emergency disorders in the western world. Almost nothing has been reported on longer term prognosis following upper GI bleeding. The aim of this study was to establish mortality up to three years following hospital admission with upper GI bleeding and its relationship with aetiology, co-morbidities and socio-demographic factors. Methods Systematic record linkage of hospital inpatient and mortality data for 14 212 people in Wales, UK, hospitalised with upper GI bleeding between 1999 and 2004 with three year follow-up to 2007. The main outcome measures were mortality rates, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative survival. Results Mortality at three years was 36.7% overall, based on 5215 fatalities. It was highest for upper GI malignancy (95% died within three years) and varices (52%). Compared with the general population, mortality was increased 27-fold during the first month after admission. It fell to 4.3 by month four, but remained significantly elevated during every month throughout the three years following admission. The most important independent prognostic predictors of mortality at three years were older age (mortality increased 53 fold for people aged 85 years and over compared with those under 40 years); oesophageal and gastric/duodenal malignancy (48 and 32 respectively) and gastric varices aetiologies (2.8) when compared with other bleeds; non-upper GI malignancy, liver disease and renal failure co-morbidities (15, 7.9 and 3.9); social deprivation (29% increase for quintile V vs I); incident bleeds as an inpatient (31% vs admitted with bleeding) and male patients (25% vs female). Conclusion Our study shows a high late as well as early mortality for upper GI bleeding, with very poor longer term prognosis following bleeding due to malignancies and varices. Aetiologies with the worst prognosis were often associated with high levels of social deprivation. PMID:23251344

Roberts, Stephen E.; Button, Lori A.; Williams, John G.

2012-01-01

328

Proposition de Stage : 2013-2014 Intitul du stage  

E-print Network

Proposition de Stage : 2013-2014 Intitulé du stage Couplage des signaux physiologiques et de données d'IRM fonctionnelle chez l'Homme sain: acquisition et traitement des données. Contexte du stage Le). Objectifs du stage Ce stage s'inscrit dans un projet de recherche en neuroimagerie chez l'Homme sain qui

329

College of Engineering College of Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering College of Engineering Office in Engineering Building, Room 202 (970) 491 UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental Engineering Mechanical Engineering

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

330

Multiple stage railgun  

DOEpatents

A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Scudder, Jonathan K. (Pleasanton, CA); Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

331

Ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging in upper airways obstruction in sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that the sites of upper airways obstruction (UAO) are varied in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among different sleep stages is studied. Four patients with OSAS underwent ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a field strength of 0.064 Tesla provided real-time images and generated less noise and necessitated less strict magnetic isolation compared with conventional high-field MRI. After the fixed end-apneic sleep stage was determined, the polysomnogram was switched off and ultra-low-field MRI was commenced. The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the upper airway patency in the deepest sleep stage obtained for each patient was assessed. Upper airway obstruction was found at the level of the palatopharynx (PP) at sleep onset extended to the glossopharynx (GP) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in two cases and during NREM sleep in one case. This combined PP and GP obstruction was observed from sleep onset and remained unchanged in one case. The patent upper airways were observed during treatment with CPAP during REM sleep in two patients and during stage two of NREM sleep in the other two patients. It can be concluded that the sites of UAO vary in a patient with OSAS in different sleep stages. The results also suggest the use of the ultra-low-field MRI in order to visualize the dynamic and real-time behaviors of the upper airways during sleep in patients with OSAS. PMID:9201792

Okada, T; Fukatsu, H; Ishigaki, T; Yasuma, F; Kayukawa, Y

1996-10-01

332

Industrial Engineering Education: A Prospective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the origin of the industrial engineering discipline and how the subject was taught in the early stages of its development. Describes current changes in the curricula to meet new requirements in industry. (Author/CCM)

Elsayed, E. A.

1999-01-01

333

Engineering analysis and test results of the pre-stage planetary gear trains for wrist rotation and pitch assembly and azimuth and elevation assembly of the extendable stiff arm manipulator kit assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve the performance capability of the Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM) it was necessary to increase the overall gear ratio by a factor of approximately four. This is accomplished with minimum effect to existing hardware by the interposition of a planetary gear transmission between the respective drive motors and the harmonic drive transmissions. The engineering analysis in support of this design approach and the subsequent no-load test results are reported.

Morris, R. N.

1973-01-01

334

From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

Kynard, Michael

2011-01-01

335

Depositional environments of Pennsylvanian Upper Strawn Group in McCulloch and San Saba Counties, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Upper Strawn Group (Desmoinesean) represents a transition to fluvial facies from progradational deltaic facies. The lower part of the upper Strawn is composed mostly of horizontally bedded, fine-grained sandstones and shales of a distal delta-front origin. These sandstones and shales exhibit foreset bed dips of up to 15/sup 0/. In addition to the dipping foreset beds, the delta-front facies on occasion contain small listric normal faults, resulting from periodic higher rates of sedimentation. The middle parts of the upper Strawn consist predominantly of massive, fine to medium-grained, mature sandstones which represent distributary-mouth-bar deposits, as well as other proximal delta-front deposits such as distributary channels. The upper part of the upper Strawn consists of fluvial trough cross-bedded sandstones and chert-pebble conglomerates. These overlie the deltaic facies and indicate the final stages of upper Strawn deposition. The upper Strawn is overlain by the Adams Branch limestone and shales which represent marine transgression and subsequent shallow-marine deposition. The upper Strawn Group in McCulloch and San Saba Counties, Texas, represents continued filling of the Fort Worth basin during Desmoinesean time. The upper Strawn overlies the lower Strawn, an older, deeper water facies, in most parts of the study area. The upper Strawn overlies the Atokan age Marble Falls Limestone in an isolated section of the study area due to its position there on the Concho arch.

Jamieson, W.H. Jr.

1983-03-01

336

Offre de stage de Master 2 Titre du stage  

E-print Network

Offre de stage de Master 2 Titre du stage : Etude des propriétés du manteau neigeux par mesures de stage : F. Karbou, M. Dumont, Y. Durand Type de stage : Stage de recherche niveau Master 2. Compétences nécessaires : Bonnes connaissances en météorologie, télédétection. Date et durée du stage : 1er semestre 2012

Ribes, Aurélien

337

Fuzzy Upper Bounds in Groupoids  

PubMed Central

The notion of a fuzzy upper bound over a groupoid is introduced and some properties of it are investigated. We also define the notions of an either-or subset of a groupoid and a strong either-or subset of a groupoid and study some of their related properties. In particular, we consider fuzzy upper bounds in Bin(X), where Bin(X) is the collection of all groupoids. Finally, we define a fuzzy-d-subset of a groupoid and investigate some of its properties. PMID:24982979

Ahn, Sun Shin; Kim, Young Hee; Neggers, J.

2014-01-01

338

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM GUIDE Fall 2012 Spring 2013  

E-print Network

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM GUIDE Fall 2012 ­ Spring 2013 ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS 1. REQUIRED TOTAL CREDITS Electrical Engineering, 125-126 A minimum of 42 upper-division semester credits (300 by the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. The Lasers & Optical Engineering concentration is also 125

339

Web Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

White, Bebo

2003-06-23

340

Saturn IB S-IB Stage at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) near New Orleans, Louisiana, install the last engine on the S-IB stage. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and built by the Chrysler Corporation at MAF, the S-IB stage utilized eight H-1 engines to produce a combined thrust of 1,600,000 pounds.

1967-01-01

341

Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; illustration ...

342

Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing ...

343

The current status of rehabilitation engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical and electrical engineering devices for paralytic patient care are discussed as they are applied to medical problems. These include means of preventing bedsores, mobility aids, upper extremity orthoses, and electrical stimulation.

Reswick, J. B.

1974-01-01

344

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering enve.cornell.edu 2013-2014 #12;Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 1 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT

Walter, M.Todd

345

Structure of divided combustion chamber for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a structure defining a divided combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising an upper ceramic member, and a lower ceramic member having a transfer passage which communicates with a main combustion chamber of the engine. The upper and lower ceramic members meet with each other at an interface to form divided combustion chamber such that it

Y. Ogawa; T. Ogasawara; S. Hanzawa

1987-01-01

346

DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 2010 2012 Technical Area/Track 2  

E-print Network

List MBME 370 Principles of Engineering Design BME 251 BME 348 SBME Sr. Elective*** BME Senior Elective Elective Varies TAny BME Tech Elective (3 hours) TAny Upper- division Engr (3 hrs) Varies TAny Upper- division Comp Sci (3 hours) Varies TAny Upper- division Math (3 hours) Varies TAny Upper- division Physics

Ben-Yakar, Adela

347

78 FR 9003 - Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prompted by damage to the high-pressure compressor (HPC) stage 7-9 spool caused by...turbofan engines with a high-pressure compressor (HPC) stage 6 disk, part number...separation of the flanges between the compressor case and the combustion diffuser...

2013-02-07

348

Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pictured is a component of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. This engine was designed to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsion systems and ultimately a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

2004-01-01

349

Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal/fluids analysis of a direct gain solar thermal upper stage engine is presented and the results are discussed. The engine was designed and constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for ground testing in a facility that can provide about 10 kilowatts of concentrated solar energy to the engine. The engine transfers energy to a coolant (hydrogen) that is heated and accelerated through a nozzle to produce thrust. For the nominal design values and a hydrogen flowrate of 2 lb./hr., the results of the analysis show that the hydrogen temperature in the chamber (nozzle entrance) reaches about 3800 F after 30 minutes of heating and about 3850 F at steady-state (slightly below the desired design temperature of about 4100 F. Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be relatively insensitive to the values used for the absorber surface infrared emissivity and the convection coefficient within the cooling ducts but very sensitive to the hydrogen flowrate. Decreasing the hydrogen flowrate to 1 lb./hr. increases the hydrogen steady-state chamber temperature to about 4700 F, but also of course causes a decrease in thrust.

Alexander, Reginald A.; Coleman, Hugh W.

1999-01-01

350

Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal/fluids analysis of a direct gain solar thermal upper stage engine is presented and the results are discussed. The engine has been designed and constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for ground testing in a facility that can provide about 10 kilowatts of concentrated solar energy to the engine. The engine transfers that energy to a coolant (hydrogen) that is heated and accelerated through a nozzle to produce thrust. For the nominal design values and a hydrogen flowrate of 2 lb/hr., the results of the analysis show that the hydrogen temperature in the chamber (nozzle entrance) reaches about 3800 F after 30 minutes of heating and about 3850 F at steady-state (slightly below the desired design temperature of about 4100 F). Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be relatively insensitive to the values used for the absorber surface infrared emissivity and the convection coefficient within the cooling ducts but very sensitive to the hydrogen flowrate. Decreasing the hydrogen flowrate to 1 lb/hr. increases the hydrogen steady-state chamber temperature to about 4700 F, but also causes an undesirable decrease in thrust.

Alexander, Reginald A.; Coleman, Hugh W.

1998-01-01

351

Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Airbreathing Hypersonic Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Established analyses of conventional ramjet/scramjet performance characteristics indicate that a considerable decrease in efficiency can be expected at off-design flight conditions. This can be explained, in large part, by the deterioration of intake mass flow and limited inlet compression at low flight speeds and by the onset of thrust degradation effects associated with increased burner entry temperature at high flight speeds. In combination, these effects tend to impose lower and upper Mach number limits for practical flight. It has been noted, however, that Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy management techniques represent a possible means for extending the flight Mach number envelope of conventional engines. By transferring enthalpy between different stages of the engine cycle, it appears that the onset of thrust degradation may be delayed to higher flight speeds. Obviously, the introduction of additional process inefficiencies is inevitable with this approach, but it is believed that these losses are more than compensated through optimization of the combustion process. The fundamental idea is to use MHD energy conversion processes to extract and bypass a portion of the intake kinetic energy around the burner. We refer to this general class of propulsion system as an MHD-bypass engine. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass airbreathing hypersonic engines using ideal gasdynamics and fundamental thermodynamic principles.

Litchford, Ron J.; Bityurin, Valentine A.; Lineberry, John T.

1999-01-01

352

Staged fluidized bed  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, R.G.

1983-05-13

353

Science & Engineering Engineering Databases  

E-print Network

9/09 DK,DS Science & Engineering Library Engineering Databases How to search the engineering SEARCH TIPS Aerospace Latest 2 yrs only. For 1960-present, view print indexes in S&E Ref or ask for online search * is truncation symbol Adjacency (phrase) assumed Applied Science & Technology Applied

Hampton, Randy

354

College of Engineering ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

: The College of Engineering is dedicated to advancing alternative energy, including wind energy. ResearchersCollege of Engineering CYCLONE ENGINEERING RESEARCH `SENSING SKIN' MAKES WIND ENERGY MORE COST to the Director of the Office of Equal Opportunity, 3350 Beardshear Hall 515 294-7612. BUILDING ON A RICH HISTORY

Mayfield, John

355

Camshaft driving device for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A camshaft driving device for use in a double overhead cam type internal combustion engine having a cylinder block, an upper deck formed at an upper portion of the cylinder block, a cylinder head disposed on the cylinder block, a driving shaft rotatably mounted at a lower portion of the cylinder block, and a pair of camshafts rotatably mounted at

Ebesu

1988-01-01

356

Targeting metastatic upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Upper gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, including adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and biliary tree, have traditionally been difficult to treat with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. There has been little drug development success in treating these cancers over the last 20 years, perhaps a reflection of a combination of the aggressive biology of these tumors, the void in effective and specific drug development for these varied tumors, and the lack of properly designed, biologically-based clinical trials. Recently, so called “targeted agents” have risen to the forefront in the care of cancer patients and have made strong impacts in many areas of oncology, particularly gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), colon, breast, and lung cancers. Unfortunately, slow progress has been made using such agents in upper GI tumors. However, more recently, trials in some tumor types have demonstrated gains in progression free survival and overall survival. In this review, we discuss the drugs and pathways that have been most successful in the treatment of upper GI tumors and present the relevant data supporting their use for each tumor site. Additionally, we will explore a few novel pathways that may prove effective in the treatment of upper GI malignancies in the near future. PMID:21611088

Spratlin, Jennifer L; Chu, Quincy; Koski, Sheryl; King, Karen; Mulder, Karen

2011-01-01

357

Mica in the upper mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite several lines of indirect evidence, there has hitherto been little unambiguous evidence of a volatile bearing phase in the upper mantle. Mica has been found as a primary phase in several specimens of peridotite and one specimen of garnet lherzolite from the Lashaine volcano, northern Tanzania.

J. B. Dawson; D. G. Powell

1969-01-01

358

Physics of the upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papers are presented on experimental and theoretical studies of physical and dynamic processes in the upper atmosphere. A revieaw of active experiments using artificial clouds is presented as well as data on wind-velocity fluctuations in a wide range of altitudes, on turbulent diffusion, and on the brightness of artificial luminous clouds. Meteorological-rocket instrumentation is also described.

Khanan'ian, A. A.

359

4. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM ENGINE, FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL; AS SEEN FROM THE UPPER LEVEL BRIDGE CRANE, THIS ENGINE WAS THE DIRECT DRIVE TO THE 40" BLOOMING MILL LOCATED IN THE ADJACENT ROOM TO THE LEFT. THE UNITED-TOD ENGINE, A TWIN TANDEM COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE, WAS RATED AT 20,000 MP. IN 1946 NEW HIGH PRESSURE CYLINDERS WERE INSTALLED AND THE ENGINE RAN ON 200 PSI STEAM, WITH A 44"X76"X60" STROKE, TO A BUILT-UP COUNTER-BALANCED CENTER CRANK. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

360

Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal place for the settlement of the Late Palaeolithic fishers. There came an abrupt end to this situation when the Nile returned to its meandering regime at the end of the LGM. This situation created an catastrophic food crisis for the

Vermeersch, Pierre M.

2014-05-01

361

Analysis of the possible cause of break up of PSLV-C3\\/PS4 stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 19t h December 2001 the orbiting spent PS4 stage of PSLV -C3 had undergone a break up. Following this event, the Two Line Element (TLE) sets of more than 300 debris pieces from the upper stage are available in public domain by January 2002. These TLE sets are the major input used in this study. Here the velocity components

P. Bandyopadhyay; R. Sharma; V. Adimurthy

2002-01-01

362

An Analytical Theory for the Early Stage of the Development of Hurricanes: Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this series of papers, an analytical theory for the early stage (tropical storm stage) of hurricane development is proposed. In Part I, a linear theory and a nonlinear theory have been formulated. It was found in Part I that the linear theory, a kind of the 2D Rankine vortex, gives some unrealistic properties for hurricane development at the upper

Chanh Q. Kieu

2004-01-01

363

Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

Rhoads, James

364

End-Stage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through her reflections on dealing with dialysis for end-stage renal disease and awaiting a kidney transplant, the author presents insights into how her experience was shaped by the physical, emotional, and multicultural forces she faced. Among the issues discussed are her ambivalent feelings between pursuing a regular lifestyle and receiving…

Moua, Mai Neng

2001-01-01

365

Ages & Stages Activity Development  

E-print Network

Ages & Stages Activity Answer Key Scenario Domain of Development Age Range When Behavior Occurs Cognitive 5 Years Girls are as much as 2 years ahead of boys in physical maturity Girls may begin Years Develop heightened level of self- consciousness Become very cause oriented Self

366

Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

367

Optimized second stage concentrator.  

PubMed

The incorporation of a second-stage trumpetlike reflective element at the focal plane of a paraboloidal dish reflector is analyzed to examine the improvement in solar concentration capability. The optimally adapted trumpet compensates for the optical aberrations of the dish and for large f/nos. The consequent concentration capability is comparable to the ideal. PMID:20333076

Kritchman, E

1981-09-01

368

Optimized second stage concentrator  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of second-stage trumpetlike reflective element at the focal plane of a parabolic dish reflector is analyzed to exmine the improvment in solar concentration capability. The optimally adapted trumpet compensates for the optical aberrations of the dish and for large f/nos. The consequent concentration capability is comparable to the ideal.

Kritchman, E.

1981-09-01

369

CROP STAGES Keith Mason  

E-print Network

of this pest. We have been catching low numbers of this moth in Covert, Holland and West Olive over the past1 CROP STAGES Keith Mason Department of Entomology, Michigan State University In Van Buren County 1597 Ottawa County 7-14-08 1801 1118 7-21-08 2022 1283 Projected for 7-28-08 2217 1422 Contents · Crop

Isaacs, Rufus

370

Stages and Behaviors  

MedlinePLUS

... and support I have Alzheimer's I am a caregiver I am a care professional I am a physician I am a researcher Message boards Get the facts 10 warning signs & symptoms What is dementia What is Alzheimer's 7 stages of Alzheimer's Treatments Contact us 24/7 Helpline: 1-800-272-3900 ...

371

Fiche de stage M2 Titre du stage  

E-print Network

Fiche de stage M2 Titre du stage : Réponse stationnaire de la circulation tropicale à un chauffage diabatique : revisite d'un classique à usage moderne Nom et statut du (des) responsable (s) de stage : Gilles de Climat Coordonnées (téléphone et email) du (des) responsable (s) de stage : 05 61 07 93 22, gilles

Ribes, Aurélien

372

77 FR 66936 - Special Conditions: Turbomeca Ardiden 3K Turboshaft Engine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...series. This engine incorporates a two-stage centrifugal compressor that is driven by a single-stage...designed for a transport category twin-engine helicopter. The helicopter manufacturer anticipates that extended...

2012-11-08

373

Multi-Stage Converters: A New Technology for Traction Drive Juan W. Dixon  

E-print Network

Multi-Stage Converters: A New Technology for Traction Drive Systems Juan W. Dixon Department of Electrical Engineering Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Abstract A multi-stage converter for electric scaled in power of three, and with each converter able to generate three levels of voltage. The multi-stage

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

374

J-2 Engine Assembly Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

J-2 engines for the Saturn IB/Saturn V launch vehicles are lined up in the assembly area at Rocketdyne's manufacturing plant in Canoga Park, California. Five J-2 engines provided more than 1,000,000 pounds of thrust to accelerate the second stage toward a Moon trajectory.

1963-01-01

375

Offre de stage de Master 2 Titre du stage  

E-print Network

Offre de stage de Master 2 Titre du stage : Apport du modèle AROME pour la Prévision du Risque d Universitaire, 1441 rue de la piscine, 38400 St MARTIN D'HERES Responsable(s) de stage : I. Etchevers, F. Karbou, Y. Durand Type de stage : Stage de recherche niveau Master 2. Compétences nécessaires : Bonnes

Ribes, Aurélien

376

Taking centre stage...  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HAMLET (Highly Automated Multimedia Light Enhanced Theatre) was the star performance at the recent finals of the `Young Engineer for Britain' competition, held at the Commonwealth Institute in London. This state-of-the-art computer-controlled theatre lighting system won the title `Young Engineers for Britain 1998' for David Kelnar, Jonathan Scott, Ramsay Waller and John Wyllie (all aged 16) from Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh. HAMLET replaces conventional manually-operated controls with a special computer program, and should find use in the thousands of small theatres, schools and amateur drama productions that operate with limited resources and without specialist expertise. The four students received a £2500 prize between them, along with £2500 for their school, and in addition they were invited to spend a special day with the Royal Engineers. A project designed to improve car locking systems enabled Ian Robinson of Durham University to take the `Working in industry award' worth £1000. He was also given the opportunity of a day at sea with the Royal Navy. Other prizewinners with their projects included: Jun Baba of Bloxham School, Banbury (a cardboard armchair which converts into a desk and chair); Kobika Sritharan and Gemma Hancock, Bancroft's School, Essex (a rain warning system for a washing line); and Alistair Clarke, Sam James and Ruth Jenkins, Bishop of Llandaff High School, Cardiff (a mechanism to open and close the retractable roof of the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff). The two principal national sponsors of the competition, which is organized by the Engineering Council, are Lloyd's Register and GEC. Industrial companies, professional engineering institutions and educational bodies also provided national and regional prizes and support. During this year's finals, various additional activities took place, allowing the students to surf the Internet and navigate individual engineering websites on a network of computers. They also visited the Millennium Dome site, constructing a model of the Dome and designing a range of Dome exhibits from innovative assembly kits. Details of the 1999 competition will be available from the Engineering Council at 10 Maltravers Street, London WC2R 3ER (tel: 0171 240 7891, http://www.engc.org.uk).

1998-11-01

377

Offshore-onshore correlation of upper Pleistocene strata, New Jersey Coastal Plain to continental shelf and slope  

E-print Network

Offshore-onshore correlation of upper Pleistocene strata, New Jersey Coastal Plain to continental to the continental slope. The d18 O stage 5/6 boundary identified at Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 903 on the continental slope anchors the onshore-offshore seismic correlations. Above the d18 O stage 5 sequence

378

Models of Pluto's upper atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Best guesses as to the thermal structure and composition of Pluto's atmosphere have led to speculations of substantial loss rates ({approximately}10{sup 28} s{sup {minus}1}) of methane from the planet over cosmogonic time scales. Results from recent stellar occultation measurements, and using a Parker-type hydrodynamic calculation, show that the loss rates may actually be lower by as much as a factor {approximately}5, depending upon the efficiency of heating of the atmosphere via the absorption of solar EUV and upon the true atmospheric composition, if the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere is properly taken into account. The loss rate may even be less (by another factor {approximately}10) if there is minimal heating of the upper atmosphere.

McNutt, R.L. Jr. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1989-11-01

379

Models of Pluto's upper atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Best guesses as to the thermal structure and composition of Pluto's atmosphere have led to speculations of substantial loss rates of methane from the planet over cosmogonic time scales. Results from recent stellar occultation measurements, and using a Parker-type hydrodynamic calculation, show that the loss rates may actually be lower by as much as a factor of about 5, depending upon the efficiency of heating of the atmosphere via the absorption of solar EUV and upon the true atmospheric composition, if the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere is properly taken into account. The loss rate may even be less (by another factor of about 10) if there is minimal heating of the upper atmosphere.

Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.

1989-01-01

380

Staging colorectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancers are the second most common tumor in the United States and the most common gastrointestinal cancer. Preoperative staging with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endorectal ultrasonography has some limitations. Their routine use has not been established. Endorectal ultrasonography may prove valuable in patients with rectal tumors. Computed tomography is the recommended procedure for follow-up imaging in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:8284359

Thompson, W M; Trenkner, S W

1994-01-01

381

Assessment of Upper Airways Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indication of obstruction to the upper airways (trachea and larynx) may be obtained by calculating the ratio of the forced expired volume in one second to the peak expiratory flow rate (FEV1\\/PEFR). This index was found to be usually less than 10 in normal subjects (mean 7·3), and in patients with asthma (mean 6·9), chronic bronchitis (mean 7·7), or

D. W. Empey

1972-01-01

382

Turbine Design and Analysis for the J-2X Engine Turbopumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center are developing the advanced upper stage J-2X engine based on the legacy design of the J-2/J-2S family of engines which powered the Apollo missions. The cryogenic propellant turbopumps have been denoted as Mark72-F and Mark72-0 for the fuel and oxidizer side, respectively. Special attention is focused on preserving the essential flight-proven design features while adapting the design to the new turbopump configuration. Advanced 3-D CFD analysis has been employed to verify turbine aero performance at current flow regime boundary conditions and to mitigate risks associated with stresses. A limited amount of redesign and overall configuration modifications allow for a robust design with performance level matching or exceeding requirement.

Marcu, Bogdan; Tran, Ken; Dorney, Daniel J.; Schmauch, Preston

2008-01-01

383

Staged depressurization system  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump.

Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, Westmoreland County, PA)

1993-01-01

384

Staged depressurization system  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump. 4 figures.

Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-02

385

College of Engineering College of Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering _______________ 2.8 Page 1 College of Engineering Office in Engineering Professor Thomas Siller, Associate Dean UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental

Stephens, Graeme L.

386

College of Engineering College of Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering _______________ 2.7 Page 1 College of Engineering Office in Engineering Siller, Associate Dean UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental

387

The upper atmosphere of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager measurements of the upper atmosphere of Uranus are analyzed and developed. The upper atmosphere of Uranus is predominantly H2, with at most 10 percent He by volume, and the dominant constituent of the exosphere is H. The thermosphere is warm, with an asymptotic isothermal temperature of about 800 K. Atomic hydrogen at this temperature forms an extensive thermal corona and creates gas drag that severely limits the lifetime of small ring particles. The upper atmosphere emits copious amounts of UV radiation from pressures greater than 0.01 microbar. The depth of this emission level imposes a powerful constraint on permissible emission mechanisms. Electron excitation from a thin layer near the exobase appears to violate this constraint. Solar fluorescence is consistent with the observed trend in solar zenith-angle variation of the emissions and is absent from the night side of the planet. On Uranus, it accounts for the observed Lyman beta to H2 bands intensity ratio and an important fraction of the observed intensity (about 55 percent).

Strobel, Darrell F.; Yelle, Roger V.; Shemansky, Donald E.; Atreya, Sushil K.

1991-01-01

388

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

and Orthotics Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Tissue Mechanics Clinical and Sports Biomechanics Bio to be chosen) Biomedical Electronics Biomedical Instrumentation Introduction to Biomechanics Prosthetics

Strathclyde, University of

389

Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2014-12-23

390

Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

391

Low energy stage study. Volume 3: Conceptual design, interface analysis, flight and ground operations. [launching space shuttle payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low energy conceptual stage designs and adaptations to existing/planned shuttle upper stages were developed and their performance established. Selected propulsion modes and subsystems were used as a basis to develop airborne support equipment (ASE) design concepts. Orbiter installation and integration (both physical and electrical interfaces) were defined. Low energy stages were adapted to the orbiter and ASE interfaces. Selected low energy stages were then used to define and describe typical ground and flight operations.

1978-01-01

392

Apollo 16 television transmission of lunar module ascent stage liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flame from the Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' ascent stage engine creates a kaleidoscope effect during luanr liftoff, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made the the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) (35163); Apollo 16 LM 'Orion' ascent stage makes its liftoff from the lunar surface at 175:44 ground elapsed time, 7:26 p.m., April 23, 1972 (35164).

1972-01-01

393

S-IB Stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Saturn 1B S-IB (first) stage being prepared for shipment at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), near New Orleans, Louisiana. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Chrysler Corporation at MAF, the S-IB stage utilized the eight H-1 engines and each produced 200,000 pounds of thrust, a combined thrust of 1,600,000 pounds.

1968-01-01

394

Saturn IB S-IVB Stage at Vehicle Assembly Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workmen remove the Saturn IB S-IVB-206, the second flight stage for the Skylab 2 mission, from the vehicle assembly building at the Kennedy Space Center. Designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Douglas Aircraft Company in Sacramento, California, the stage was powered by a single J-2 engine, which produced 200,000 pounds of thrust, later uprated to 230,000 pounds for the Saturn V launch vehicle.

1967-01-01

395

Saturn IB S-IVB Stages in Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Saturn IB S-IVB (second) stages in storage at the Douglas Aircraft Company's Sacramento Test Operations Facility (SACTO) in Sacramento, California. Designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Douglas Aircraft Company, the S-IVB stage was powered by a single J-2 engine, which produced 200,000 pounds of thrust, later uprated to 230,000 pounds for the Saturn V launch vehicle.

1967-01-01

396

Rhinovirus infections in the upper airway.  

PubMed

The majority of cold and flulike illnesses are caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs). Improved detection of HRV has shown that HRVs are also associated with more serious illness, such as exacerbation of asthma, wheezing illnesses in children, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiopulmonary disease, and fatal pneumonia in immune-compromised patients. HRV is a major cause of acute viral respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children and is among the leading causes of childhood mortality worldwide. Detection of the HRV genome by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and genomic sequencing has brought to light a new clade, HRV-C, to the already recognized HRV-A and HRV-B clades. The clinical complications related to all rhinovirus infections include acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, and acute bronchitis. The enormous public health implications from those diseases far overshadow those of the common cold. This article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of rhinovirus infection in the upper airways. Most research has been done in young healthy adults with self-limiting experimental and natural rhinovirus infections, and this may set the stage for understanding rhinovirus infections in the ear, sinus, and lower airways. PMID:21364225

Winther, Birgit

2011-03-01

397

Cryo Propulsive Stage: HEFT Phase 2 Point of Departure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CPS is an in-space high thrust propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides high thrust GV for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility: a) Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryofluid management. b) Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryofluid management.

Martinez, Roland M.; Jones, David L.

2011-01-01

398

Electrical, Engineering  

E-print Network

Structure for Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering Schools (Director) Lead These Engineering Undergraduate Environment (Paul Westerhoff) Civil and Environmental Engineering Construction Management EnvironmentalSchool of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering 2009-2010 Annual Report #12;Organizational

Zhang, Junshan

399

Engineering Prestigious  

E-print Network

Engineering Studious Prestigious Adventurous Curious Ambitious Ingenious #12;TheCollegeof Engineering We are committed to innovation in all aspects of engineering education and research. We deliver an accredited professional education program that effectively prepares our students to become engineering

Saskatchewan, University of

400

Environmental Engineering  

E-print Network

CEECivil & Environmental Engineering THE SONNY ASTANI DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING #12;Civil and Environmental engineers are critical in addressing the needs of civilization and human origins. Civil and Environmental Engineers create, con- struct, and manage the infrastructure

Wang, Hai

401

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars missions. The NCPS is being designed to readily integrate with the Space Launch System (SLS). A wide range of strategies for enabling affordable NCPS development, qualification, and utilization should be considered. These include multiple test and demonstration strategies (both ground and in-space), multiple potential test sites, and multiple engine designs. Two potential NCPS fuels are currently under consideration - coated graphite composite fuel and tungsten cermet fuel. During 2014 a representative, partial length (approximately 16") coated graphite composite fuel element with prototypic depleted uranium loading is being fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, a representative, partial length (approximately 16") cermet fuel element with prototypic depleted uranium loading is being fabricated at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the development process small samples (approximately 3" length) will be tested in the Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET) at high temperature (approximately 2800 K) in a hydrogen environment to help ensure that basic fuel design and manufacturing process are adequate and have been performed correctly. Once designs and processes have been developed, longer fuel element segments will be fabricated and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREE) at high temperature (approximately 2800 K) and in flowing hydrogen.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

2014-01-01

402

The NASA program on upper atmospheric research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program is to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere with emphasis on the stratosphere.

1976-01-01

403

Planning for Plume Diagnostics for Ground Testing of J-2X Engines at the SSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is the premier test facility for liquid rocket engine development and certification for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Therefore, it is no surprise that the SSC will play the most prominent role in the engine development testing and certification for the J-2X engine. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine has been selected by the Constellation Program to power the Ares I Upper Stage Element and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage in NASA s strategy of risk mitigation for hardware development by building on the Apollo program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. Accordingly, J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development and testing efforts. In order to leverage SSC s successful and innovative expertise in the plume diagnostics for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) health monitoring,1-10 this paper will present a blueprint for plume diagnostics for various proposed ground testing activities for J-2X at SSC. Complete description of the SSC s test facilities, supporting infrastructure, and test facilities is available in Ref. 11. The A-1 Test Stand is currently being prepared for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions. The A-2 Test Stand is currently being used for testing the SSME and may also be used for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions in the future. Very recently, ground-breaking ceremony for the new A-3 rocket engine test stand took place at SSC on August 23, 2007. A-3 is the first large - scale test stand to be built at the SSC since the A and B stands were constructed in the 1960s. The A-3 Test Stand will be used for testing J-2X engines under vacuum conditions simulating high altitude operation at approximately 30,480 m (100,000 ft). To achieve the simulated altitude environment, chemical steam generators using isopropyl alcohol, LOX, and RELEASED - Printed documents may be obsolete; validate prior to use. water would run for the duration of the test and would generate approximately 2096 Kg/s of steam to reduce pressure in the test cell and downstream of the engine. The testing at the A-3 Test Stand is projected to begin in late 2010, meanwhile the J-2X component testing on A-1 is scheduled to begin later this year.

SaintCyr, William W.; Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; SaintCyr, William W.

2010-01-01

404

Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

1995-01-01

405

How the Upper Mantle Became Oxidized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, Earth's upper mantle has an average oxygen fugacity near the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) redox buffer (1), although significant departures from this redox state occur in different localities and at different depths (2). However, early in Earth history, following the Moon-forming impact, the upper mantle was almost certainly uniformly more reduced. The impactor that formed the Moon was probably Mars-sized or larger (3) and had already differentiated an iron core. Successful models of lunar formation must account for the fact that the Moon has only 25 percent of Earth's iron abundance (4). This can be accomplished if the iron core of the impactor was accreted by the Earth, while the Moon was formed from the mantles of the impactor and the Earth. Other large impactors would also have brought in metallic iron, and all such large impacts would have melted large portions of Earth's mantle. It is therefore inevitable that the Earth's upper mantle began its existence with an oxygen fugacity at or below iron-wüstite (IW). How the upper mantle became oxidized from IW up to QFM is an interesting question. Much of the oxidation could have taken place during brief steam atmosphere stages following impacts (5,6) when hydrogen escape to space was extremely rapid (7). Continued oxidation could have been caused by cycling of volatiles through the mantle, accompanied by outgassing of reduced gases (8) and by subduction of ferric iron that had been oxidized at the surface (9). Oxidation of the uppermost 700 km of the mantle from QFM to IW would have required the equivalent of about half an ocean of water, assuming that the hydrogen was lost to space. This could have been accomplished in less than 2 b.y. if the average H2 outgassing rate was a few times the present value, 5x1012 mol/yr (10). The timing of mantle oxidation has important consequences for the composition of Earth's atmosphere at the time when life originated because it controls the oxidation state of volcanic gases. If redox indicators (Cr and V) from ancient rocks have been correctly interpreted (11,12), the process of mantle oxidation was essentially complete by 3.5 Ga. However, mantle oxidation would have hung up somewhat below QFM by conversion of graphite (or diamond) to CO2 or carbonate, before rising to QFM. This process may therefore help explain why atmospheric O2 did not rise until ~2.3 Ga (13,14), nearly half a billion years after the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis (15). References: 1. Holland, H.D. The Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton (1984). 2. Woodland, A.B. and Koch, M. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214, 295 (2003). 3. Cameron, A. G. W. In Origin of the Earth and Moon, R. M Canup and K. Righter (eds.), p. 133, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson (2000). 4. Wood, J.A. In Hartmann, W.K., et al. (eds.) Origin of the Moon, p. 17, Lunar and Planetary Inst., Houston, TX (1986). 5. Matsui, T. and Abe, Y. Nature 319, 303 (1986). 6. Matsui, T. and Abe, Y. Nature 322, 526 (1986). 7. Pepin, R.O. Icarus 92, 2 (1991). 8. Kasting, J.F., et al., J. Geol. 101, 245 (1993). 9. Lecuyer, C. and Ricard, Y. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 165, 197 (1999). 10. Holland, H.D. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3811 (2002). 11. Delano, J.W. Origins of Life Evol. Biosph. 31, 311 (2001). 12. Canil, D. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 195, 75 (2002). 13. Holland, H. D. In Early Life on Earth, S. Bengtsson, ed., p. 237. New York, Columbia Univ. Press (1994). 14. Farquhar, J., et al., Science 289, 756 (2000). 15. Brocks, J.J., et al., Science 285, 1033 (1999).

Kasting, J. F.

2004-12-01

406

Development of H-II rocket first stage propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H-II rocket will serve as Japan's main launch vehicle in the 1990's, with the capability of placing a two-ton satellite into geostationary orbit. This paper presents the basic plan of the overall LOX/LH2 propulsion system of the H-II rocket first stage. The system description includes tank pressurization, pneumatic control, the auxiliary engine, pogo suppression, chilldown of the main engine, component development, and firing tests. The test facility is also described.

Nagai, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Suzuki, A.; Yamazaki, I.

1985-10-01

407

A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling. PMID:25120937

Manav, Alper Nesip; Kazan, Ercan; Ertek, Mehmet ?irin; Amasyal?, Ak?n Soner; Çulhac?, Nil; Erol, Haluk

2014-01-01

408

A rare cause of testicular metastasis: upper tract urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling. PMID:25120937

Manav, Alper Nesip; Kazan, Ercan; Ertek, Mehmet ?irin; Amasyal?, Ak?n Soner; Culhac?, Nil; Erol, Haluk

2014-01-01

409

Chimpanzee sleep stages.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram of two unrestrained juvenile chimpanzees was monitored for 7 consecutive nights using telemetry methods. Of the sleeping time, 23% was spent in the rapid eye movement of REM type of sleep, whereas 8, 4, 15, and 10% were spent in non-REM stages 1 through 4, respectively. Seven to nine periods of REM sleep occurred per night. The average time from the beginning of one REM period to the beginning of the next was approximately 85 min.

Freemon, F. R.; Mcnew, J. J.; Adey, W. R.

1971-01-01

410

Parcours de stage : Spcialit Psychologie Clinique et Psychopathologie Stages Obligatoires  

E-print Network

1 Parcours de stage : Spécialité Psychologie Clinique et Psychopathologie Stages Obligatoires (soit 44 journées de 7h ou 88 demi-journées) Période 140h de stage soit les 2/3 doivent être effectuésh doivent être réalisées fin juin 200h heures de stage, soit les 2/3 doivent être effectués pendant

Pellier, Damien

411

Fiche de stage M2 Titre du stage  

E-print Network

Fiche de stage M2 Titre du stage : Mécanismes fondamentaux de la variabilité intrasaisonnière de la mousson : quels mécanismes sont observés? Nom et statut du (des) responsable (s) de stage : Gilles Bellon Climat Coordonnées (téléphone et email) du (des) responsable (s) de stage : 05 61 07 93 22, gilles

Ribes, Aurélien

412

An Experimental Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Upper Limb.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is the knowledge of the upper limb kinematics for various final tasks requiring effort or precision. The aim is to integrate these results in a C.A.D. system for human engineering studies. The description of these movements proceeds from the 3-D trajectories of anatomical landmarks delivered by the VICON system. Such a representation using fixed orthogonal reference system x, y, z, does not lead to a simple analysis of the gesture. So from these data we compute a set of angular parameters which are in closer relation with the real kinematics of the upper limb. We obtain this result by the introduction of pertinent intermediate reference systems, related to each rotation degree of freedom. The result exhibit typical patterns of the temporal evolution of the angular parameters related to the task assigned to the subject. The collected data constitute a computerized catalogue of movements included in ERGODATA system.

Hennion, P.-Y.; Mollard, R.; Lornet, P.

1986-07-01

413

The upper airway: congenital malformations.  

PubMed

The upper airway extends from the nasal aperture to the subglottis and can be the site of multiple types of congenital malformations leading to anatomical or functional obstruction. This can cause severe respiratory distress. Newborns are obligate nasal breathers; therefore nasal obstruction can lead to airway compromise and respiratory distress. The etiologies are varied and include, choanal atresia, pyriform aperture stenosis, and rarely tumors such as glioma, encephalocele, teratoma, or dermoid. More common upper airway congenital anomalies include laryngomalacia, vocal cord paralysis, and subglottic stenosis. Laryngolmalacia is the most common congenital laryngeal anomaly. Inspiratory stridor often does not present until two weeks after birth and resolves by 18 months of age. Most cases are managed with watchful waiting. Severe cases require a surgical intervention. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is usually idiopathic. In certain cases, paralysis may occur secondary to central nervous system abnormality including Arnold-Chiari malformation, cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, spina bifida, or hypoxia. Severe cases may necessitate endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy. Congenital subglottic stenosis is the third most common laryngeal anomaly. It is defined as a diameter of less than 4mm of the cricoid region in a full-term infant, and less than 3mm in a premature infant. This condition is the most common laryngeal anomaly that requires tracheotomy in newborns. Laryngotracheoplasty may be required to achieve decanulation. Knowledge of the upper airway embryological development and congenital anomalies is off prime importance in assessing the newborn with respiratory distress. In most cases flexible endoscopy establishes the diagnosis. Management is tailored to each condition and its degree of severity. PMID:16798587

Daniel, Samuel J

2006-01-01

414

Aeromonas hydrophila upper extremity infection.  

PubMed

A severe soft tissue infection of the upper extremity caused by Aeromonas hydrophila followed a water skiing injury in which a tow rope caused degloving of a portion of the skin and severe contusion to underlying muscle. Infection was established within 36 hours of the injury, accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, and a foul odor. Rapid clinical improvement occurred following radical debridement of all nonviable tissue and antibiotic therapy. In cases involving water contamination, Aeromonas hydrophila infection should be suspected with the onset of a rapidly developing infection with a febrile response. Rapid surgical intervention and treatment with an aminoglycoside or a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic is the treatment of choice. PMID:2754206

Sanger, J R; Yousif, N J; Matloub, H S

1989-07-01

415

Piston for internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a piston for an internal combustion engine comprising: (a) a piston main body made of a first material and having an opening in a top surface thereof, the opening having an upper large diameter portion and a lower small diameter portion with a shoulder defined therebetween; (b) a cavity forming member having a combustion chamber cavity formed

H. Nagase; A. Umemoto

1986-01-01

416

A STAGE-BASED MODEL OF MANATEE POPULATION DYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stage-structured population model for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was developed that explicitly incorporates uncertainty in parameter estimates. The growth rates calculated with this model reflect the status of the regional populations over the most recent 10-yr period. The Northwest and Upper St. Johns River regions have growth rates (k) of 1.037 (95% interval, 1.016- 1.056) and 1.062

Michael C. Runge; Catherine A. Langtimm; William L. Kendall

2004-01-01

417

Terry Fuller Engineering  

E-print Network

Technology Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering Engineering Center Engineering Center ComputerTerry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Construction Engineering and Engineering

Gelfond, Michael

418

Catalyst Development for Hydrogen Peroxide Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of various catalysts of hydrogen peroxide was conducted for the applications of liquid rocket engines. The catalyst development includes silver screen technology, solid catalyst technology, and homogeneous catalyst technology. The silver screen technology development was performed with 85% (by weight) hydrogen peroxide. The results of this investigation were used as the basis for the catalyst design of a pressure-fed liquid-fueled upper stage engine. Both silver-plated nickel 200 screens and pure silver screens were used as the active metal catalyst during the investigation, The data indicate that a high decomposition efficiency (greater than 90%) of 85% hydrogen peroxide can be achieved at a bed loading of 0.5 lbm/sq in/sec with both pure silver and silver plated screens. Samarium oxide coating, however, was found to retard the decomposition process and the catalyst bed was flooded at lower bed loading. A throughput of 200 lbm of hydrogen peroxide (1000 second run time) was tested to evaluate the catalyst aging issue and performance degradation was observed starting at approximately 400 seconds. Catalyst beds of 3.5 inch in diameter was fabricated using the same configuration for a 1,000-lbf rocket engine. High decomposition efficiency was obtained with a low pressure drop across the bed. Solid catalyst using precious metal was also developed for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide from 85% to 98% by weight. Preliminary results show that the catalyst has a strong reactivity even after 15 minutes of peroxide decomposition. The development effort also includes the homogeneous catalyst technology. Various non-toxic catalysts were evaluated with 98% peroxide and hydrocarbon fuels. The results of open cup drop tests indicate an ignition delay around 11 ms.

Morlan, P. W.; Wu, P.-K.; Ruttle, D. W.; Fuller, R. P.; Nejad, A. S.; Anderson, W. E.

1999-01-01

419

Undergraduate environmental engineering education in China  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the development process, present situations, causes of improvement, and trends of higher education of environmental engineering in China are discussed. Several education modes in environmental engineering in China are also presented. The development process can be divided into three stages: the beginning stage, the expansion stage, and the modification stage. The 1970's and early 1980's wake of environmental consciousness and serious pollution situation in China resulted in about 20 universities setting up an environmental engineering specialty. The late 1980's and middle 1990's job opportunities for undergraduates in China resulted in many universities' creation of the environmental engineering specialty from specialties such as geography, geology, hydrology, mining engineering, and mineral separation engineering where job opportunities were stagnant. At present, adjustment and improvement of environmental engineering education are urgently required because of the excessive increase of undergraduate number, change of job opportunities and implementation of five-work-day system in China. Other problems include how to determine the ratio of social science courses to engineering science courses, how to determine the relationship of fundamental and applied courses, and how to determine the specialized direction. Hunan University, as a typical university conferring an accredited Bachelor degree in Environmental Engineering in four academic years in China, has been improving the instruction schedule for undergraduate education in environmental engineering. The curricula of the three phases for undergraduates of environmental engineering specialty at Hunan University are presented as a case study.

Yang, C.; Bero, B.N.

1999-07-01

420

Physiological Mechanisms of Upper Airway Hypotonia during REM Sleep  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM)-induced hypotonia of the major upper airway dilating muscle (genioglossus) potentially contributes to the worsening of obstructive sleep apnea that occurs during this stage. No prior human single motor unit (SMU) study of genioglossus has examined this possibility to our knowledge. We hypothesized that genioglossus SMUs would reduce their activity during stable breathing in both tonic and phasic REM compared to stage N2 sleep. Further, we hypothesized that hypopneas occurring in REM would be associated with coincident reductions in genioglossus SMU activity. Design: The activity of genioglossus SMUs was studied in (1) neighboring epochs of stage N2, and tonic and phasic REM; and (2) during hypopneas occurring in REM. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 29 subjects (38 ± 13 y) (17 male). Intervention: Natural sleep, including REM sleep and REM hypopneas. Measurement and Results: Subjects slept overnight with genioglossus fine-wire intramuscular electrodes and full polysomnography. Forty-two SMUs firing during one or more of stage N2, tonic REM, or phasic REM were sorted. Twenty inspiratory phasic (IP), 17 inspiratory tonic (IT), and five expiratory tonic (ET) SMUs were characterized. Fewer units were active during phasic REM (23) compared to tonic REM (30) and stage N2 (33). During phasic REM sleep, genioglossus IP and IT SMUs discharged at slower rates and for shorter durations than during stage N2. For example, the SMU peak frequency during phasic REM 5.7 ± 6.6 Hz (mean ± standard deviation) was less than both tonic REM 12.3 ± 9.7 Hz and stage N2 16.1 ± 10.0 Hz (P < 0.001). The peak firing frequencies of IP/IT SMUs decreased from the last breath before to the first breath of a REM hypopnea (11.8 ± 10.9 Hz versus 5.7 ± 9.4 Hz; P = 0.001) Conclusion: Genioglossus single motor unit activity is significantly reduced in REM sleep, particularly phasic REM. Single motor unit activity decreases abruptly at the onset of REM hypopneas. Citation: McSharry DG; Saboisky JP; DeYoung P; Jordan AS; Trinder J; Smales E; Hess L; Chamberlin NL; Malhotra A. Physiological mechanisms of upper airway hypotonia during REM sleep. SLEEP 2014;37(3):561-569. PMID:24587579

McSharry, David G.; Saboisky, Julian P.; DeYoung, Pam; Jordan, Amy S.; Trinder, John; Smales, Erik; Hess, Lauren; Chamberlin, Nancy L.; Malhotra, Atul

2014-01-01

421

A Hybrid Sport Education-Games for Understanding Striking/Fielding Unit for Upper Elementary Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a hybrid Sport Education-Games for Understanding unit through which upper elementary pupils can learn to play basic striking/fielding games. The unit is written for a class of 30 pupils. The twenty-five lesson unit is described in detail within 10 stages: (1) Getting started and early skill, strategy, rule, and role work…

Curtner-Smith, Matthew

2004-01-01

422

Sensitivity of a simplified forced oscillation technique for detection of upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a simplified variant of forced oscillation technique (FOT) was studied for assessment of dynamic upper airway obstruction during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The airway impedance |PFOT| was measured by FOT and the oesophageal pressure (Poes) was recorded during stable stage II sleep in 11 patients with OSA. The CPAP

Joachim H. Ficker; Gunther H. Wiest; Gerald Asshoff; Florian S. Fuchs; Alexander H. Schmelzer; Igor A. Harsch; Eckhart G. Hahn

2001-01-01

423

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Com- puter Engineering, Computer Science, Digital Pro

Bolding, M. Chad

424

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING AND  

E-print Network

Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering are each accredited by the Engineering87 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering educational oppor- tunities. The innovative combination of engineering and science disciplines that comprises

Bolding, M. Chad

425

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING AND  

E-print Network

Engineering, Civil Engineer- ing, Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering86 College of Engineering and Science 86 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers a broad range of rigorous and stimulating baccalaure- ate programs which

Stuart, Steven J.

426

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

, Hydrogeology, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, MechanicalCollege of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bio- engineering, Biosystems Engineering

Stuart, Steven J.

427

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

, Hydrogeology, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Mechanical35 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bio- engineering, Biosystems Engineering

Stuart, Steven J.

428

Agrment du Matre de Stage  

E-print Network

Agrément du Maître de Stage Conditions requises pour être Maître de Stage : Au moins 5 ans de, nombre de stagiaires déjà formés, etc., ...) Le Maître de Stage est proposé au CF et la proposition même procédure Cahier de Stage Doit être remis au secrétariat de la Faculté, à Mr Alexandre Weckx (BAT

Cerf, Nicolas

429

THALES OPTRONIQUE PROPOSITION DE STAGE  

E-print Network

THALES OPTRONIQUE PROPOSITION DE STAGE THALES OPTRONIQUE SA ­ 2, avenue Gay-Lussac ­ CS 90502 ­ 78995 �lancourt Cedex ­ France 46090289B Outil.doc TITRE DU STAGE : Calibration géométrique de caméras par traitement d'images OBJECTIF ET CONTENU DU STAGE : Objectif du stage : Dans le cadre de ses études

Dobigeon, Nicolas

430

Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

2004-01-01

431

Transport and Use of a Centaur Second Stage in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As nations continue to explore space, the desire to reduce costs will continue to grow. As a method of cost reduction, transporting and/or use of launch system components as integral components of missions may become more commonplace in the future. There have been numerous scenarios written for using launch vehicle components (primarily space shuttle used external tanks) as part of flight missions or future habitats. Future studies for possible uses of launch vehicle upper stages might include asteroid diverter using gravity orbital perturbation, orbiting station component, raw material at an outpost, and kinetic impactor. The LCROSS (Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was conceived as a low-cost means of determining whether water exists at the polar regions of the moon. Manifested as a secondary payload with the LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) spacecraft aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle, LCROSS guided its spent Centaur Earth Departure Upper Stage (EDUS) into the lunar crater Cabeu's, as a kinetic impactor. This paper describes some of the challenges that the LCROSS project encountered in planning, designing, launching with and carrying the Centaur upper stage to the moon.

Strong, James M.; Morgowicz, Bernard; Drucker, Eric; Tompkins, Paul D.; Kennedy, Brian; Barber, Robert D,; Luzod, Louie T.; Kennedy, Brian Michael; Luzod, Louie T.

2010-01-01

432

Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

2013-08-01

433

Four Stages of Coming Out  

MedlinePLUS

... Register About Us Contact Us My Cart Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Four Stages of Coming Out Ages & Stages Listen ... Manual Immunizations & Infectious Diseases Sports Success Rx! Your Child’s Prescription for the Best Experience ADHD: What Every Parent Needs to Know, 2nd ... Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young ...

434

Glycoprotein and Glycan in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

435

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

436

[Dry solid staging fermentation].  

PubMed

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic fermentation is a new perspective technology for the fuel ethanol production. Compared with traditional hot cook process in most ethanol plants, uncooked process using milled grain slurry in combination with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes makes high gravity fermentation much easier to control. In this study, dry solids staging technique was first time reported in uncooked process for fermentation ethanol. We further studied the difference between the new process and the batch fermentation, including different initial fermentation concentrations and different starting times. The results showed that at the same dry solid concentration of 30% and the same enzyme dose at 0.22% (W/W), the final ethanol output of new process was increased to 18.50% (V/V) from 17.06% (V/V) of the conventional process. This study demonstrated the new application of uncooked fermentation technology. PMID:19459324

Xu, Hongxian; Duan, Gang

2009-02-01

437

55. Photocopy of Fcsle & Upper Deck, Booklet of General ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. Photocopy of Fcsle & Upper Deck, Booklet of General Plans, U.S.C.G.C. White Heath, WLM-545. U.S. Coast Guard Naval Engineering Department, U.S.C.G. Headquarters, Washington, D.C. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-0103-019 C. sheet 5 of 7, dated May 1967; revised June 1971, December 1976, and April 1989. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

438

23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, UPPER FLOOR PLANS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

439

Discover Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The opening quote on the Discover Engineering Homepage reads: "Engineering has been called the invisible profession or the stealth profession because most people have no clue what engineers do. This Website, provided by the National Engineers Week and Discover Engineering team, is a Website dedicated to showing just what engineers do. Sections at the site include About Engineers, Cool Stuff!, Games, Idea Center, FAQs, Downloads, and Links. The Idea Center contains various forums where users can post open-ended questions and reply to posted messages. While the content of this site is intended for non-engineers, engineers will find this a good resource, as well.

440

Stage Acquisition and Stage Use. An Appraisal of Stage Displacement Explanations of Variation in Moral Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the differing perspectives of Kohlberg and Turiel on moral reasoning. Both perspectives use stage displacement models to depict moral development and assume that as ontogenesis proceeds, the role played by earleir acquired moral stages becomes increasingly insignificant in comparison with the role played by more advanced stages. The…

Levine, Charles G.

1979-01-01

441

AC 2007-189: ENGINEERING LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS - AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF TEACHING THE INTRODUCTORY ENGINEERING COURSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In an effort to introduce more realism and familiarity with the current manufacturing and testing equipment at an early stage of students’ engineering education, the introductorylevel engineering course offered by Albany State University’s transfer engineering program with Georgia Institute of Technology was transformed from a 3 hour lecture only to a 2 hour lecture and a 3 hour laboratory

Atin Sinha

2007-01-01

442

Discover Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the National Engineers Week Foundation features a collection of materials and activities on engineering. Topics like environmental sustainability, computer engineering and renewable energy are included on the site. Interactive activities help students learn how engineering impacts our world. Different branches of engineering are also described in detail.

2011-09-22

443

Ureteroscopic management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma and ureteropelvic obstruction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Technological advances have increased the application of the endoscopic management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Materials and Methods: Published, peer-reviewed articles on endoscopic treatment of upper tract TCC and UPJO were identified using the MEDLINE database. Results: Although nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard for upper tract TCC treatment, low-grade, low-stage and small tumors, especially in patients with solitary kidneys or poor renal function can be managed with encouraging success rates, despite the considerable recurrence rate. Endoscopic alternatives to pyeloplasty for UPJO can be used especially in cases with absence of crossing vessels, stricture length less than 1.5 cm, severe hydronephrosis and renal function less than 30%. Conclusion: Proper patient selection is critical for the successful endoscopic management of treatment of upper tract TCC and UPJO. PMID:19468512

Crouzet, Sebastien; Berger, Andre; Monga, Manoj; Desai, Mihir

2008-01-01

444

THE DISK POPULATION OF THE UPPER SCORPIUS ASSOCIATION  

SciTech Connect

We present photometry at 3-24 {mu}m for all known members of the Upper Scorpius association ({tau} {approx} 11 Myr) based on all images of these objects obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. We have used these data to identify the members that exhibit excess emission from circumstellar disks and estimate the evolutionary stages of these disks. Through this analysis, we have found {approx}50 new candidates for transitional, evolved, and debris disks. The fraction of members harboring inner primordial disks is {approx}< 10% for B-G stars (M > 1.2 M{sub Sun }) and increases with later types to a value of {approx}25% at {approx}>M5 (M {approx}< 0.2 M{sub Sun }), in agreement with the results of previous disk surveys of smaller samples of Upper Sco members. These data indicate that the lifetimes of disks are longer at lower stellar masses and that a significant fraction of disks of low-mass stars survive for at least {approx}10 Myr. Finally, we demonstrate that the distribution of excess sizes in Upper Sco and the much younger Taurus star-forming region ({tau} {approx} 1 Myr) is consistent with the same, brief timescale for clearing of inner disks.

Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

2012-10-10

445

AJ26 engine test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John C. Stennis Space Center engineers conduct a 55-second test fire of Aerojet's liquid-fuel AJ26 rocket engine that will power the first stage of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Taurus II space launch vehicle. The Dec. 17, 2010 test was conducted on the E-1 Test Stand at Stennis in support of NASA's Commercial Transportation Services partnerships to enable commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station. Orbital is under contract with NASA to provide eight cargo missions to the space station through 2015.

2010-01-01

446

Terry Fuller Engineering  

E-print Network

Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering EngineeringTerry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Marsha Sharp Center for Student Athletics Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology

Gelfond, Michael

447

"Development of Haptic Feedback Devices for Upper Limb Amputees" Andrew Erwin  

E-print Network

: Professor Frank Sup, Mechanical Engineering With the advent of myoelectric prostheses in the 1960s, amputees the amputee's efferent commands to control the device, they do not relay the necessary afferent signals back and coil systems that wrap around the upper or lower arm, providing feedback in 3-dimensional space

Mountziaris, T. J.

448

Wavelet Solution of Plane Elasticity Problem in the Upper Half-plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plane elasticity problem includes plane strain problem and plane stress problem which are widely applied in mechanics and engineering. In this article, we first reduce the plane elasticity problem in the upper half-plane into natural boundary integral equation and then apply wavelet-Galerkin method to deal with the numerical solution of the natural boundary integral equation. The test and trial

Youjian Shen

2002-01-01

449

Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and

Genter

1986-01-01

450

TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

451

ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE  

E-print Network

ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Fall 2013 #12;Name: ____________________________________________________ E-mail: ____________________________________________________ College of Engineering Cornell University ABET Accredited Programs for 2013­14 ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

Walter, M.Todd

452

Prosthetic Engineering  

MedlinePLUS

... Research CoE » Prosthetic Engineering - Overview Amputation and Prosthetic Engineering Research CoE VA Center of Excellence for Limb ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Prosthetic Engineering - Overview Our aim is to improve prosthetic prescription ...

453

Commercial Actors Stage Strike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 1, 2000, 75,000 members of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists staged a walk-out in protest of advertisers's proposed changes to the ways in which actors get paid for work in commercials. According to the current pay scheme, principle on-screen actors appearing in network commercials earn $479 in base pay as well as a residual payment ranging from $47 to $123. Over a standard thirteen-week run, actors earn an average of $13,000 per commercial. However, actors in cable commercials make a flat fee of $479 to $1,014 for the same thirteen-week run. SAG and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists are demanding a fourteen percent pay raise for both types of commercials. However, the advertisers would like to pay the actors only $2,575 for an unlimited thirteen-week network run. While this amount may seem like a lot of money, the average income for members of the SAG members is only $7000 a year, reflecting the possibility that actors may only appear in one or two commercials a year. This is the first major strike in the entertainment industry since 1988.

Missner, Emily D.

454

Upper Tier Lower Tier Co-ordination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active defence part of TMD can among others be performed by upper tier and lower tier weapon systems. A lower tier weapon system can only eliminate a TBM after reentry into the atmosphere (below approximately 40 km). An upper tier system can eliminate a TBM just inside (between 40 km and approximately 80 km) as well as outside the atmosphere. The engagement intervals from launch to intercept of an upper tier and lower tier system can overlap. In such case, coordination of engagements may be desirable to prevent unnecessary wastage of interceptors. Furthermore, upper tier missiles can be saved by reducing the salvo size of an upper tier system against a TBM if the TBM also can be engaged by a lower tier system. In this report, the coordination between upper tier and lower tier systems is subject of analysis.

Bloemen, A. A. F.; Kuipers, E. J.

2002-07-01

455

College of Engineering Engineering in  

E-print Network

College of Engineering Engineering in Social Context Jonathan Wickert Dean of Engineering #12;College of Engineering Game changers of the 20th century ... · Electrification · Automobile · Airplane optics · Nuclear technologies · High-performance materials #12;College of Engineering ... and of the 21st

Lin, Zhiqun

456

Engineering Why engineering at Sussex?  

E-print Network

(Hons) in Automotive Engineering (with an industrial placement year) BEng (Hons) in Automotive Engineering BEng (Hons) in Automotive Engineering (with an industrial placement year) MEng (Hons) in Computer Engineering MEng (Hons) in Computer Engineering (with an industrial placement year) BEng (Hons) in Computer

Sussex, University of

457

Ares Upper Stage Processes to Implement Model Based Design - Going Paperless  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) has all but replaced the drafting board for design work. Increased productivity and accuracy should be natural outcomes of using CAD. Going from paper drawings only to paper drawings based on CAD models to CAD models and no drawings, or Model Based Design (MBD), is a natural progression in today?s world. There are many advantages to MBD over traditional design methods. To make the most of those advantages, standards should be in place and the proper foundation should be laid prior to transitioning to MBD. However, without a full understanding of the implications of MBD and the proper control of the data, the advantages are greatly diminished. Transitioning from a paper design world to an electronic design world means re-thinking how information gets controlled at its origin and distributed from one point to another. It means design methodology is critical, especially for large projects. It means preparation of standardized parts and processes as well as strong communication between all parties in order to maximize the benefits of MBD.

Gregory, Melanie

2012-01-01

458

Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the spray bar configuration is that pressure reduction is achieved independent of liquid and vapor location, thereby enhancing the applicability of normal gravity test data to zero gravity conditions. The in-tank components are minimized with the proposed TVS design. Because the recirculation pump is external to the tank, no electrical power penetration of the tank is required for pump or valve operation. This is especially desirable for L02 tanks since the presence of an electrical ignition source in oxygen represents a critical failure mode. Also, since the critical components (pump, motor, valve, orifice) are external to the tank, system checkout and ground servicing/replacement are easier. For zero-g operation, component replacement external to the tank may be a significant benefit. In addition to satisfying the zero g TVS design objectives, the TVS concept tested offers additional benefits to the integrated subcritical cryogenic storage and launch system.

Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

1999-01-01

459

Characterization of the 2012-044C Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA breakup model prediction was close to the observed population for catalog objects. The NASA breakup model predicted a larger population than was observed for objects under 10 cm. The stare technique produces low observation counts, but is readily comparable to model predictions. Customized stare parameters (Az, El, Range) were effective to increase the opportunities for HAX to observe the debris cloud. Other techniques to increase observation count will be considered for future breakup events.

Hamilton, Joseph A.; Matney, Mark

2013-01-01

460

115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of three movable stage floor sections. An inclined steel angle track attached to the web of the floor beam allows the sections to roll under the fixed floor. The upper section of the inclined track is hinged so it can be moved upward by a cam mechanism to raise the end of the movable section level with the stage floor. A similar mechanism was used to open and close the floor sections for the star lifts (see sheet 4 of 9, note 6; sheet 8 of 9, details 5, 6A and 6B; sheet 6 of 9, notes 2A, 2B, and 3; and photo IL-1007-120). The pulley, and tongue extending out from the end of the movable section, were used to move the sections back and forth. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

461

NASA's J-2X Engine Builds on the Apollo Program for Lunar Return Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2006, NASA streamlined its U.S. Vision for Space Exploration hardware development approach for replacing the Space Shuttle after it is retired in 2010. The revised CLV upper stage will use the J-2X engine, a derivative of NASA s Apollo Program Saturn V s S-II and S-IVB main propulsion, which will also serve as the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) engine. This paper gives details of how the J- 2X engine effort mitigates risk by building on the Apollo Program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. It is well documented that propulsion is historically a high-risk area. NASA s risk reduction strategy for the J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development efforts. In addition, NASA and its industry partner, Rocketdyne, which originally built the J-2, have tapped into their extensive databases and are applying lessons conveyed firsthand by Apollo-era veterans of America s first round of Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s. NASA s development approach for the J-2X engine includes early requirements definition and management; designing-in lessons learned from the 5-2 heritage programs; initiating long-lead procurement items before Preliminary Desi& Review; incorporating design features for anticipated EDS requirements; identifying facilities for sea-level and altitude testing; and starting ground support equipment and logistics planning at an early stage. Other risk reduction strategies include utilizing a proven gas generator cycle with recent development experience; utilizing existing turbomachinery ; applying current and recent main combustion chamber (Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator) and channel wall nozzle (COBRA) advances; and performing rigorous development, qualification, and certification testing of the engine system, with a philosophy of "test what you fly, and fly what you test". These and other active risk management strategies are in place to deliver the J-2X engine for LEO and lunar return missions as outlined in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.

Snoddy, Jimmy R.

2006-01-01

462

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

463

Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer

2014-12-23

464

College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

, Hydrogeology, Industrial Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Mechanical35 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering and Science offers advanced degrees in Automotive Engineering, Bioengineering, Biosystems Engineering, Chemi

Stuart, Steven J.

465