Sample records for upper stage engine

  1. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  2. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage/Upper Stage Engine Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I upper stage is an integral part of the Constellation Program transportation system. The upper stage provides guidance, navigation and control (GN and C) for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I vehicle. The Saturn-derived J-2X upper stage engine will provide thrust and propulsive impulse for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I launch vehicle. Additionally, the upper stage is responsible for the avionics system of the the entire Ares I. This brief presentation highlights the requirements, design, progress and production of the upper stage. Additionally, test facilities to support J-2X development are discussed and an overview of the operational and manufacturing flows are provided. Building on the heritage of the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs, the Ares I Us and USE teams are utilizing extensive lessons learned to place NASA and the US into another era of space exploration. The NASA, Boeing and PWR teams are integrated and working together to make progress designing and building the Ares I upper stage to minimize cost, technical and schedule risks.

  3. Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) engine ground demonstration (EGD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles T. Kudija; Patrick E. Frye

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Demonstration (EGD) Program sponsored by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL) conducted a full-up ground demonstration of a solar thermal power and propulsion system at NASA Lewis Research Center in mid-1997. This test validated system capability in a relevant environment, bringing ISUS to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6, and paving

  4. J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

  5. Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

  6. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  7. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

  8. Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

  9. Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

  10. Ariane-5 upper stage EPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holsten, Horst; Kollien, Juergen

    1989-08-01

    The requirements, present configuration, and potential future applications of the Ariane 5 upper stage (EPS) are described. The main characteristics of this upper stage are as follows: four tanks storing 7200 kg of N2O4/MMH propellant, and a 27.5 KN engine allowing for multiple reignition equipped with a retroburn for deorbitation/reentry. The adaptability of the EPS concept for future use within the ATV (Ariane Transfer Vehicle) and Hermes programs is outlined.

  11. Overview of the Development Progress of the Ariane 5 Upper Stage VINCI Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alliot, P.; Dalbies, E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of the VINCI engine development program at mid-2002. The VINCI engine will power the Ariane 5 ESC-B upper stage and will contribute to provide a 12 t payload capability in geo-stationary transfer orbit to the Ariane 5 launch system. It will also provide a multiple firing capability and therefore the potential to perform a broad array of missions. The VINCI engine is a cryogenic expander cycle engine combining the required features of this cycle, i.e. high performance chamber cooling and high performance hydrogen turbopump, with proven design concepts based on the accumulated experience from previous European cryogenic engines such as the HM7 and the Vulcain. High performance along with a constant focus on reliability, low cost and simplicity of architecture are the design goals of the VINCI program. The proposed paper will recall how the engine design choices were made taking into account these sometimes potentially conflicting criteria and using design to cost methods. The paper will also present the major achievements of the program over the 2001 - 2002 period, i.e. the completion of the engine detailed design, the manufacturing of the first subsystems, the first component and subsystem tests.

  12. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

  13. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  14. Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachary, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

  15. A 20k Payload Launch Vehicle Fast Track Development Concept Using an RD-180 Engine and a Centaur Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toelle, Ronald (compiler)

    1995-01-01

    A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

  16. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastacio N. Baez; Greg L. Kimnach

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer

  17. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage engine ground demonstration power management and distribution subsystem design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.; Kimnach, Greg L.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL), and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) in a joint effort are developing technologies for a solar bimodal system. A solar bimodal system combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A spacecraft Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) bimodal system combines orbital transfer propulsion, electric power generation, and on-board propulsion into one overall system. A key benefit of such integrated system is the augmentation of payload to spacecraft mass ratio thus resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. The NASA/PL/DSWA ISUS program is concentrating efforts on a near-term ground test demonstration of the bimodal concept. A successful ground demonstration of the ISUS various technologies will enable a full system flight demonstration of the bimodal concept. NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland Ohio will be the site for the engine ground demonstrator (EGD). The ISUS bimodal system uses solar concentrators to focus solar energy into an integrated receiver, absorber, and converter (RAC) power plant. The power plant main body is a graphite blackbody that stores thermal energy within a cavity in its main core. During the propulsion phase of the bimodal system a propellant flows into the graphite main core and is distributed uniformly through axial flow channels in the heated cavity. The blackbody core heats the propellant that is then discharged into an output tube thus creating thrust. An array of thermionic generators encircles the graphite core cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions during the power generation phase. The power management and distribution subsystem's main functions are to condition raw electrical power generated by the RAC power plant and deliver it to the spacecraft payloads. This paper presents a detail description of the power management and distribution subsystem design for the ISUS ground demonstration program.

  18. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

  19. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  20. Ares I Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

  1. Upper stages for a space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, O. P.

    1986-08-01

    Design features of a flexible use upper stage for the STS are described, noting that potential users must become interested if the system is to be developed. Based on the design for the low-energy Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), the system would be required to utilize the Orbiter payload bay, have reattachable separation devices, have replaceable external propellant tanks, and have standard mechanical and functional interfaces. Implementation of an open grid triangular lattice structure covered with standardized aluminum plates would allow for the system to be tailored to specific missions at standardized increments of size. The system would tilt out of the bay and deploy all necessary appendages before ascent to GEO. A small bi-propellant engine is recommended as a prototype propulsion system to meet launch and mass constraints, particularly for GEO boosts.

  2. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davusm Daniel J.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system.

  3. Inertial upper stage - Development status and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringe, G. T.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1980-04-01

    A two-stage inertial upper stage (IUS) design, its subsystems, and its integration into an orbiter system are described along with the resulting capabilities. Ground, pre-flight, and orbital operations are discussed. Services to the spacecraft provided by IUS are presented. Status of the IUS program is summarized, and the activities required in the near term to support the first launches of a Titan III (34)D and STS/IUS configuration are described.

  4. Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) mission analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Frye

    1997-01-01

    Solar thermal propulsion and propulsion\\/power systems were identified as key technologies by the Operational Effectiveness and Cost Comparison Study. These technologies were found to be pervasively cost effective with short transfer times and very good performance across a wide range of missions (Feuchter 1996). The on-going Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program sponsored by Phillips Laboratory represents development of one

  5. Upper stages for a space transportation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. P. Harwood

    1986-01-01

    Design features of a flexible use upper stage for the STS are described, noting that potential users must become interested if the system is to be developed. Based on the design for the low-energy Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), the system would be required to utilize the Orbiter payload bay, have reattachable separation devices, have replaceable external propellant tanks, and have

  6. STS spin-stabilized upper stage study (study 2.6). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Spinning solid propellant upper stage rocket engines designed for geosynchronous satellite payloads are investigated. Factors considered include: impact of the spinning stages on the payloads; applicability to 1981-1991 NASA mission model; and cost effectiveness.

  7. Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.; Coook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    The Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), a key component of NASA's blueprint for the next generation of spacecraft to take humans back to the moon, is being designed and built by engineers at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The vehicle s design is based on the results of NASA's 2005 Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which called for development of a crew-launch system to reduce the gap between Shuttle retirement and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Initial Operating Capability, identification of key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance these reference exploration systems, and a reprioritization of near- and far-term technology investments. The Upper Stage Element (USE) of the CLV is a clean-sheet approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115' long and 216" in diameter, consisting of the following subsystems: Primary Structures (LOX Tank, LH2 Tank, Intertank, Thrust Structure, Spacecraft Payload Adaptor, Interstage, Forward and Aft Skirts), Secondary Structures (Systems Tunnel), Avionics and Software, Main Propulsion System, Reaction Control System, Thrust Vector Control, Auxiliary Power Unit, and Hydraulic Systems. The ESAS originally recommended a CEV to be launched atop a four-segment Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) CLV, utilizing an RS-25 engine-powered upper stage. However, Agency decisions to utilize fewer CLV development steps to lunar missions, reduce the overall risk for the lunar program, and provide a more balanced engine production rate requirement prompted engineers to switch to a five-segment design with a single Saturn-derived J-2X engine. This approach provides for single upper stage engine development for the CLV and an Earth Departure Stage, single Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) development for the CLV and a Cargo Launch Vehicle, and single core SSME development. While the RSRB design has changed since the CLV Project's inception, the USE design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system. Because consideration was given in the ESAS to both clean-sheet and modified USE designs, this paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and provide a detailed discussion of trades/selections made that led to the final upper stage configuration.

  8. Delta interim upper stage system study. Volume 2: Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Dawson; J. F. Meyers; R. C. Doiron; R. G. Monger

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle System will require an upper stage (Space Tug, or OOS - Orbit-to-Orbit Shuttle) to achieve maximum effectiveness. A reusable upper stage, although highly desirable, requires a greater initial cash outlay, which would compete for early Shuttle development program funds. Hence, an expendable upper stage, to be used in the interim, has been the subject of various government

  9. ARES I Upper Stage Subsystems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.; Senick, Paul F.; Tolbert, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    From 2005 through early 2011, NASA conducted concept definition, design, and development of the Ares I launch vehicle. The Ares I was conceived to serve as a crew launch vehicle for beyond-low-Earth-orbit human space exploration missions as part of the Constellation Program Architecture. The vehicle was configured with a single shuttle-derived solid rocket booster first stage and a new liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage, propelled by a single, newly developed J-2X engine. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was to be mated to the forward end of the Ares I upper stage through an interface with fairings and a payload adapter. The vehicle design passed a Preliminary Design Review in August 2008, and was nearing the Critical Design Review when efforts were concluded as a result of the Constellation Program s cancellation. At NASA Glenn Research Center, four subsystems were developed for the Ares I upper stage. These were thrust vector control (TVC) for the J-2X, electrical power system (EPS), purge and hazardous gas (P&HG), and development flight instrumentation (DFI). The teams working each of these subsystems achieved 80 percent or greater design completion and extensive development testing. These efforts were extremely successful representing state-of-the-art technology and hardware advances necessary to achieve Ares I reliability, safety, availability, and performance requirements. This paper documents the designs, development test activity, and results.

  10. Commercial launch vehicles and upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, J.; Wild, J.

    1984-01-01

    Since the beginning of the space age in October 1957, a family of expendable launch vehicles, capable of launching a wide range of payloads, was developed along with the Space Shuttle and a number of upper stages. A brief description is presented of selected orbits which have proved to be most useful for initial or conceptual understanding of space operations, taking into account direct injection and Hohman transfers, and synchronous and sun-synchronous orbits. Early American boosters are discussed along with current expendable launch vehicles, giving attention to the Vanguard, Redstone and Juno, Saturn 1B and Saturn V, Scout, the Atlas booster, Atlas Centaur, Delta, Titan IIIC, and Ariane. Details regarding the Space Shuttle are considered along with PAM-D, PAM-A, PAM-DII, TOS, IUS, Centaur-G, and Syncom-IV and Intelsat-VI.

  11. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element. The topics include: 1) What is NASA s Mission?; 2) NASA s Exploration Roadmap What is our time line?; 3) Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologies Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 4) Ares I Upper Stage; 5) Upper Stage Primary Products; 6) Ares I Upper Stage Development Approach; 7) What progress have we made?; 8) Upper Stage Subsystem Highlights; 9) Structural Testing; 10) Common Bulkhead Processing; 11) Stage Installation at Stennis Space Center; 12) Boeing Producibility Team; 13) Upper Stage Low Cost Strategy; 14) Ares I and V Production at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF); 15) Merged Manufacturing Flow; and 16) Manufacturing and Assembly Weld Tools.

  12. The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

  13. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

  14. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2013-01-01

    DuPont (TM) Vespel (R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750 F during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

  15. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2013-01-01

    DuPont(tm) Vespel(R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750degF during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

  16. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  17. Expendable solid rocket motor upper stages for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.; Jones, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A family of expendable solid rocket motor upper stages has been conceptually defined to provide the payloads for the Space Shuttle with performance capability beyond the low earth operational range of the Shuttle Orbiter. In this concept-feasibility assessment, three new solid rocket motors of fixed impulse are defined for use with payloads requiring levels of higher energy. The conceptual design of these motors is constrained to limit thrusting loads into the payloads and to conserve payload bay length. These motors are combined in various vehicle configurations with stage components derived from other programs for the performance of a broad range of upper-stage missions from spin-stabilized, single-stage transfers to three-axis stabilized, multistage insertions. Estimated payload delivery performance and combined payload mission loading configurations are provided for the upper-stage configurations.

  18. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  19. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  20. Which way to Shuttle upper stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Tischler

    1975-01-01

    Suitable approaches for obtaining a cost-efficient space transportation system which in supplementing the Space Shuttle will permit payload insertion into high-altitude orbits are discussed. Attention is given to a low-cost geosynchronous payload deployment\\/retrieval propulsion system. The system comprises two expendable solid-rocket stages, one for the perigee and one for the apogee kick. It is pointed out that the perigee and

  1. Reusable Agena study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [space shuttle Agena upper stage tug concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The shuttle Agena upper stage interim tug concept is based on a building block approach. These building block concepts are extensions of existing ascent Agena configurations. Several current improvements, have been used in developing the shuttle/Agena upper stage concepts. High-density acid is used as the Agena upper stage oxidizer. The baffled injector is used in the main engine. The DF-224 is a fourth generation computer currently in development and will be flight proven in the near future. The Agena upper stage building block concept uses the current Agena as a baseline, adds an 8.5-inch (21.6 cm) extension to the fuel tank for optimum mixture ratio, uses monomethyl hydrazine as fuel, exchanges a 150:1 nozzle extension for the existing 45:1, exchanges an Autonetics DF-224 for the existing Honeywell computer, and adds a star sensor for guidance update. These modifications to the current Agena provide a 5-foot (1.52m) diameter shuttle/Agena upper stage that will fly all Vandenberg Air Force Base missions in the reusable mode without resorting to a kick motor. The delta V velocity of the Agena is increased by use of a strap-on propellant tank option. This option provides a shuttle/Agena upper stage with the capability to place almost 3900 pounds (1769 kg) into geosynchronous orbit (24 hour period) without the aid of kick motors.

  2. Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

  3. Preliminary design of a guidance and control system for a pressure-fed cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, E. M.

    1982-09-01

    The configurations for tomorrow's launch vehicles require high-performing, lightweight, low-cost upper stages. This report presents a preliminary guidance and control system design for an inertially guided, pressure-fed cryogenic upper stage utilizing a dual-thrust engine concept. The dust-thrust concept, capable of generating sufficient propulsive force during both the coast and powered portions of flight, requires a unique control system design to provide the necessary vehicle stability. The combination of the inertial guidance system and the on-board flight computer provides total autonomy for this advanced propulsion system.

  4. Orbit decay analysis of STS upper stage boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, O. F., Jr.; Mueller, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    An orbit decay analysis of the space transportation system upper stage boosters is presented. An overview of the computer trajectory programs, DSTROB, algorithm is presented. Atmospheric drag and perturbation models are described. The development of launch windows, such that the transfer orbit will decay within two years, is discussed. A study of the lifetimes of geosynchronous transfer orbits is presented.

  5. Attitude controller design for the advanced upper stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cui Nai-gang; Zhang Li-bin; Pu Jia-lun

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed design method and performance of the digital autopilot for attitude control of the advanced upper stage. The reaction control system (RCS) of the attitude control system (ACS) is used for attitude control, reignition operations and large angle attitude maneuvers. The RCS control laws employ parabolic switch curves in their phase plane logic to obtain fast

  6. Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

  7. Mission applications of an Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, F.G. III [Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Jacox, M.G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program at the US Air Force`s Phillips Laboratory is directing its efforts to solving endemic national spacelift architecture problems. Air Force Space Command has called spacelift both unaffordable and nonresponsive; today`s space launch systems are descendants of 1950`s era ICBM technologies and require prolonged on-pad processing. Advanced propulsion techniques, reusability, and modular architectures have not been generally incorporated into US systems. The ISUS system is an advanced, integrated upper stage concept that would permit payload realignment, allowing large payloads to be moved to smaller, less expensive boosters; such realignment both reduces cost and enhances responsiveness, as smaller boosters cost less to launch and require less vehicle and payload processing time. Three ISUS operational concepts are discussed, allowing the realignment of payloads currently launched aboard Titan IV/Centaur, Atlas IIAS, and Delta 2. A space demonstration of ISUS is examined. The Integrated Solar Upper Stage is a single piece of hardware that provides electric power and orbit transfer propulsion to a spacecraft. There are three major subsystems that comprise the ISUS; the receiver/absorber/converter or RAC, the concentrators, and the hydrogen tankage and feed subsystem.

  8. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  9. Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion for Spacecraft and Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Rnrico; Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Sanmartin, Juan

    1998-01-01

    Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to 'push' against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant. The groundwork has been laid for this type of propulsion. Important recent milestones include retrieval of a tether in space (TSS-1, 1992), successful deployment of a 20-km-long tether in space (SEDS-1, 1993), and operation of an electrodynamic tether with tether current driven in both directions (PMG, 1993). The planned Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a 5 km bare copper tether from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4 N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of the endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. The flight experiment is a precursor to utilization of the technology on the International Space Station for reboost and the electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes, all using electrodynamic thrust. In addition, the use of this type of propulsion may be attractive for future missions at Jupiter.

  10. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, President Bush gave the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a vision for Space Exploration by setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. In response to this vision, NASA started the Constellation Program, which is a new exploration launch vehicle program. The primary mission for the Constellation Program is to carry out a series of human expeditions ranging from Low Earth Orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond for the purposes of conducting human exploration of space, as specified by the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). The intent is that the information and technology developed by this program will provide the foundation for broader exploration activities as our operational experience grows. The ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) has been designated as the launch vehicle that will be developed as a "first step" to facilitate the aforementioned human expeditions. The CLV Project is broken into four major elements: First Stage, Upper Stage Engine, Upper Stage (US), and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for the design of the CLV and has the prime responsibility to design the upper stage of the vehicle. The US is the second propulsive stage of the CLV and provides CEV insertion into low Earth orbit (LEO) after separation from the First Stage of the Crew Launch Vehicle. The fully integrated Upper Stage is a mix of modified existing heritage hardware (J-2X Engine) and new development (primary structure, subsystems, and avionics). The Upper Stage assembly is a structurally stabilized cylindrical structure, which is powered by a single J-2X engine which is developed as a separate Element of the CLV. The primary structure includes the load bearing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks, a Forward Skirt, the Intertank structure, the Aft Skirt and the Thrust Structure. A Systems Tunnel, which carries fluid and electrical power functions to other Elements of the CLV, is included as secondary structure. The MSFC has an overall responsibility for the integrated US element as well as structural design an thermal control of the fuel tanks, intertank, interstage, avionics, main propulsion system, Reaction Control System (RCS) for both the Upper Stage and the First Stage. MSFC's Spacecraft and Vehicle Department, Structural and Analysis Design Division is developing a set of predicted mass of these elements. This paper details the methodology, criterion and tools used for the preliminary mass predictions of the upper stage structural assembly components. In general, weight of the cylindrical barrel sections are estimated using the commercial code Hypersizer, whereas, weight of the domes are developed using classical solutions. HyperSizer is software that performs automated structural analysis and sizing optimization based on aerospace methods for strength, stability, and stiffness. Analysis methods range from closed form, traditional hand calculations repeated every day in industry to more advanced panel buckling algorithms. Margin-of-safety reporting for every potential failure provides the engineer with a powerful insight into the structural problem. Optimization capabilities include finding minimum weight panel or beam concepts, material selections, cross sectional dimensions, thicknesses, and lay-ups from a library of 40 different stiffened and sandwich designs and a database of composite, metallic, honeycomb, and foam materials. Multiple different concepts (orthogrid, isogrid, and skin stiffener) were run for multiple loading combinations of ascent design load with and with out tank pressure as well as proof pressure condition. Subsequently, selected optimized concept obtained from Hypersizer runs was translated into a computer aid design (CAD) model to account for the wall thickness tolerance, weld land etc for developing the most probable weight of the components. The flow diram summarizes the analysis steps used in developing these predicted mass.

  11. Shuttle/IUS performance for planetary missions. [Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Driver, J. M.; Wright, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Potential requirements for planetary missions in the 1980s, capabilities of the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) candidates to perform those missions, and Shuttle/IUS mission profile options for performance enhancement are examined. The most demanding planetary missions are the Pioneer Saturn/Uranus/Titan Probe and the Mariner-class orbiters of Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn. Options available to designers of these missions will depend on the specific IUS selected for development and the programmatic phasing of the IUS and the NASA Tug. Use of Shuttle elliptic orbits as initial conditions for IUS ignition offers significant performance improvements; specific values are mission dependent.

  12. Trade studies on Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, J.D. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Jacox, M.G.; Kennedy, F.G. [Air Force Phillips Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Program at the USAF Phillips Laboratory is directed at demonstrating a solar bimodal power and propulsion system for military applications. Trades were performed to examine the potential performance of the ISUS stage combined with the proposed LLV-3 launch vehicle. Variation in ISUS thermal power directly affects the trip time from LEO to GEO. These variations can be altered by changing average propellant temperature raising or lowering the average specific impulse. If the ISUS system is sized for the spacecraft`s electrical power requirements, this can result in long trip times for high mass satellites with low electrical power requirements. The ISUS can be sized, however, for a suitable thermal power to allow more rapid trip times with minimum impact on delivered mass. Such a system can place significantly more payload in GEO than a solid chemical stage. The mass advantages of the ISUS increase as electrical power requirements increase, rising from 46% improvement at 0 kW(e) to 179% improvement at 3 kW(e).

  13. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-06-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  14. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  15. Risk Assessment Challenges in the Ares I Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Ring, Robert W.; Elrada, Hassan A.; Hark, Frank

    2007-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently at work developing hardware and systems for the Ares I rocket that will send future astronauts into orbit. Built on cutting-edge launch technologies, evolved powerful Apollo and Space Shuttle propulsion elements, and decades of NASA spaceflight experience, Ares I is the essential core of a safe, reliable, cost-effective space transportation system -- one that will carry crewed missions back to the moon, on to Mars and out into the solar system. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the vehicle's primary mission -carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit --Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to "park" payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Crew transportation to the International Space Station is planned to begin no later than 2014. The first lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe. This paper presents the challenges in designing the Ares I upper stage for reliability and safety while minimizing weight and maximizing performance.

  16. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  17. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  18. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  19. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

  20. Waterhammer Testing and Modeling of the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. Hunter; Holt, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Ares I rocket is the agency's first step in completing the goals of the Constellation Program, which plans to deliver a new generation of space explorers into low earth orbit for future missions to the International Space Station, the moon, and other destinations within the solar system. Ares I is a two-stage rocket topped by the Orion crew capsule and its service module. The launch vehicle's First Stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), derived from the Space Shuttle Program's four segment RSRB. The vehicle's Upper Stage, being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is propelled by a single J-2X Main Engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During active Upper Stage flight of the Ares I launch vehicle, the Upper Stage Reaction Control System (US ReCS) will perform attitude control operations for the vehicle. The US ReCS will provide three-axis attitude control capability (roll, pitch, and yaw) for the Upper Stage while the J-2X is not firing and roll control capability while the engine is firing. Because of the requirements imposed upon the system, the design must accommodate rapid pulsing of multiple thrusters simultaneously to maintain attitude control. In support of these design activities and in preparation for Critical Design Review, analytical models of the US ReCS propellant feed system have been developed using the Thermal Hydraulic Library of MSC.EASY5 v.2008, herein referred to as EASY5. EASY5 is a commercially available fluid system modeling package with significant history of modeling space propulsion systems. In Fall 2009, a series of development tests were conducted at MSFC on a cold-flow test article for the US ReCS, herein referred to as System Development Test Article (SDTA). A subset of those tests performed were aimed at examining the effects of waterhammer on a flight-representative system and to ensure that those effects could be quantified with analytical models and incorporated into the design of the flight system. This paper presents an overview of the test article and the test approach, along with a discussion of the analytical modeling methodology. In addition, the results of that subset of development tests, along with analytical model pre-test predictions and post-test model correlations, will also be discussed in detail.

  1. Shuttle program standard maneuver sequences for orbiter/upper-stage separation SSUS-A, SSUS-D, and IUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Descriptions of standard post-ejection maneuver sequences for the deployment of IUS, SSUS-A, and SSUS-D upper stages from the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The sequences were designed to satisfy requirements for limiting the damage inflicted on the orbiter by upper-stage exhaust particles, subject to a further requirement for minimizing the impingement of orbiter thruster plumes on the deployed payload. In all cases it was assumed that the orbital maneuvering system engines would be used to apply the orbiter's major separation velocity increment.

  2. Hosted non-deployed payloads on upper stages for enhanced space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulk, T. A.; Lindas, K.; Pitchford, B.; Szatkowski, J.

    With the growing market of “ hosted payloads” on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, the capability exists to leverage the excess performance on existing upper stages to provide similar or enhanced opportunities for science experiments or low TRL instruments. Leveraging the capabilities of the Atlas V Centaur and Delta IV upper stages, Special Aerospace Services (SAS) and United Launch Alliance (ULA) are investigating hosting non-deployed systems on these existing upper stages.

  3. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Charles L.; Blue, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Building on the heritage of the Saturn and Space Shuttle Programs for the Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT and E) of avionics and software for NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the Ares I Upper Stage Element is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. The Upper Stage Element's Avionics Subsystem is actively proceeding toward its objective of delivering a flight-certified Upper Stage Avionics System for the Ares I CLV.

  4. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  5. ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhls, A.

    2002-01-01

    -A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the development planning aiming at a first launch of ESC-B in 2006.

  6. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing and Analytical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for solar thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.

  7. Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

  8. Ulysses spacecraft and its upper stage system are deployed during STS-41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft and its upper stage system consisting of a two-stage inertial upper stage (IUS) (gold-colored with rocket nozzle visible) and the payload assist module-Shuttle (PAM-S) (middle section) drift against the blackness of space after deployment from Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB) during STS-41. The airborne support equipment (ASE) extending from the spacecraft at the PAM-S/IUS mating interface is visible.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of common upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Tiwari; Mark Umansky; Steven Bryant; Gerald E. Hanson; James R. Krakus

    1993-01-01

    The 'Advanced Terminal Interceptor Design' code is presently used in conjunction with the 'Aerojet Interceptor Design and Evaluation' and 'Near-Earth Mission Analysis Routine' codes to ascertain the cost-effectiveness of common versus optimized upper stages for multistage solid rocket boosters at equal payloads. It is thereby established that the development and production costs of a three-stage booster with common upper stages

  10. Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  11. Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CABLE FROM THIS ENGINE LEADS DOWN INTO THE DEEP RAVINE IN FRONT OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL. IT WAS PROBABLY USED TO DRAG MATERIALS UP TOWARD THE TERMINAL WHEN THE TERMINAL WAS BEING CONSTRUCTED, OR IN TIMES OF TRAMWAY BREAK DOWN. THE DRIVE ENGINE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TWO LONG OPERATING LEVERS FOR THE ENGINE ARE IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. AN EXTRA SPOOL OF CABLE IS ON THE GROUND TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. A WATER PIPELINE STRETCHES ACROSS THE SLOPE IN THE BACKGROUND, CARRYING WATER TO THE UPPER MINES. SEE CA-291-52 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CABLE FROM THIS ENGINE LEADS DOWN INTO THE DEEP RAVINE IN FRONT OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL. IT WAS PROBABLY USED TO DRAG MATERIALS UP TOWARD THE TERMINAL WHEN THE TERMINAL WAS BEING CONSTRUCTED, OR IN TIMES OF TRAMWAY BREAKDOWN. THE DRIVE ENGINE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TWO LONG OPERATING LEVERS FOR THE ENGINE ARE IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. AN EXTRA SPOOL OF CABLE IS ON THE GROUND TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. A WATER PIPELINE STRETCHES ACROSS THE SLOPE IN THE BACKGROUND, CARRYING WATER TO THE UPPER MINES. SEE CA-291-37 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agency-wide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  15. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  16. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

  17. The low cost development, test, and production of a commercial STS upper stage: TOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. White; B. E. Thompson; J. R. Grubbs

    1985-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) has to compete for commercial payload launches with a variety of expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Many of these payloads have to be placed into a final orbit which cannot be provided by the Shuttle Orbiter. An upper stage booster is, therefore, needed. The Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) is being developed to satisfy this need at

  18. Next generation: Unmanned launch vehicles and upper stages: The needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The focus is on common vehicle elements, higher mission success, and lower transportation cost with respect to the common needs of the Department of Defense, NASA, and U.S. Industry. The following are presented in viewgraph form: (1) perspectives on mission costs and failures; (2) the recurring costs of the Delta 7925, Atlas/Centar, Titan 3, and Titan 4; (3) U.S. launches from 1957-1987 of Vanguard, Jupiter, Thor/Delta, Juno, Atlas, Scout, Redstone, Saturn, Titan, and the Space Transportation System; and (4) subsystem sources of failure. The following topics are also briefly presented: (1) engine costs; (2) a summary of flight experience; (3) recommendations for next generation space transportation; (4) low cost engine demonstration; and (5) the next generation commercial expendable launch vehicle (ELV) needs estimate.

  19. Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

  20. Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt O. Westerman; Barry J. Miles

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical

  1. Upper stage rocket guidance and control using discontinuous reaction control thrusters via sliding modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tournes; Y. B. Shtessel; E. Wells

    1997-01-01

    In spring 1995 a very significant academic project took place at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. This integrated project supported by NASA Marshal Flight Center and major aerospace, companies aimed at designing the MSLS upper stage, based on an hybrid rocket design. This project included the design of the avionics system, and of the guidance and control subsystem (G&C).

  2. Upper extremity lymphangiography as an aid to treatment planning for stage 1A epitrochlear Hodgkin's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack E. Meyer; Edward C. Halperin; Rita M. Linggood

    1982-01-01

    A 6-year-old girl with Stage 1A Hodgkin's disease confined to the right epitrochlear area is described. An upper extremity\\u000a lymphangiogram, for planning primary radiation therapy, demonstrated a lymph node adjacent to the medial midhumeral shaft.\\u000a The implication of this finding and the role of the lymphangiogram in treatment planning are discussed.

  3. Design, capability, and cost of a Versatile Upper Stage /VUS/ family of vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haltermann, R. L.; Nelson, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    Trade-off studies and a preliminary design were accomplished to investigate the Versatile Upper Stage (VUS) concept. This concept entails the development by one contractor of a family of stages with a great deal of commonality to perform a spectrum of potential unmanned automated missions planned through 1990. The trade studies and analyses revealed areas where the penalty for commonality between stages was excessive in weight and performance loss. This occurred in the selection of the vehicle structural shell. In many of the expensive subsystems, especially astrionics, it was found that establishing the requirements for all family members and the application of commonality in subsystem selection could result in significant savings.

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM CHEST FOR LOW PRESSURE STAGE ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM CHEST FOR LOW PRESSURE STAGE ENGINE OF UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  5. Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage engine of unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  6. Module Profile Module title: Language Stage 4 for Engineers

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    1 Module Profile Module title: Language Stage 4 for Engineers Module code: GERM9039 Faculty by Faculty Programmes Committee Aims and learning outcomes The aim of every language course at the University/A Language stages are deemed independent of levels Any pre-requisite and/or co-requisite modules Successful

  7. Module Profile Module title: Language Stage 2 for Engineers

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    1 Module Profile Module title: Language Stage 2 for Engineers Module code: GERM9034 Faculty by Faculty Programmes Committee Aims and learning outcomes The aim of every language course at the University/A Language stages are deemed independent of levels Any pre-requisite and/or co-requisite modules Successful

  8. Module Profile Module title: Language Stage 3 for Engineers

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    1 Module Profile Module title: Language Stage 3 for Engineers Module code: GERM9036 Faculty by Faculty Programmes Committee Aims and learning outcomes The aim of every language course at the University/A Language stages are deemed independent of levels Any pre-requisite and/or co-requisite modules Successful

  9. Engineering Notes Parametric Analysis of Single-Stage

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Earth orbit (LEO). Because orbital maneuvers required in human spaceflight missions to the Moon and MarsEngineering Notes Parametric Analysis of Single-Stage Earth-Departure-Stage In-Orbit Refueling imply demanding delta V budgets compared to LEO missions, an in-orbit propulsion stagewill likely

  10. Robotic Planetary Science Missions Enabled with Small NTR Engine/Stage Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-01-01

    The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a LOX/LH2-fueled injection stage. The paper discusses NTR technology and mission characteristics, shows NTR stage and payload accommodations within the 26.2 m long Titan IV payload fairing, and discusses NTR stage performance as a function of assumed cryogenic tank technology.

  11. Robotic planetary science missions enabled with small NTR engine/stage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-10-01

    The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a LOX/LH2-fueled injection stage. The paper discusses NTR technology and mission characteristics, shows NTR stage and payload accommodations within the 26.2 m long Titan IV payload fairing, and discusses NTR stage performance as a function of assumed cryogenic tank technology.

  12. The Inertial Upper Stage - A space transportation system element nearing first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbaugh, D. J.; Redd, F. J.; Van Rensselaer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) developed by the USAF and NASA is a highly reliable, cost-effective solid propellant upper stage, with inherent flexibility and adaptability for integration with the Space Shuttle. The propulsion system is simple, utilizing safe, solid rocket motors with extremely light-weight nonmetallic cases and nozzles. The IUS can deliver 2268 kg from the Shuttle to geosynchronous altitude; it consists of a 9700 kg propellant weight first stage, an interstage structure, a 2720 kg propellant weight second stage, and an equipment support section. The avionics system includes the electronic and electrical hardware used to perform all signal conditioning, data processing, and software formatting associated with navigation, guidance, control, data management, and redundancy management. The generic thermal design of the IUS is suited to a wide range of thermal environments; the software design provides for selectable thermal maneuvers (rotisserie, reciprocating, toasting, space facing, sun facing) to satisfy different payload thermal requirements. A 1982 launch with the Titan 34D and a 1983 launch with the Shuttle Orbiter are planned.

  13. Non-toxic propulsion for spaceplane ``pop-up'' upper stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmann, James B.; Wiswell, Robert L.; Haberman, Eugene G.

    1998-01-01

    Military spaceplane operations scenarios envision using the ``Pop-Up'' employment profile to significantly increase the payload to orbit capability of the vehicle. Previous studies have investigated a range of propulsion system and stage design options for a pop-up upper stage (Cotta 1996). Operationally it is desirable to have the upper stage and payload stored as a wooden round that is quickly loaded on the spaceplane when needed. The current study therefore focuses on non-toxic (less-toxic), storable propellant options. These are compared to the use of conventional (toxic) storable bi-propellant, Nitrogen Tetroxide/Monomethyl Hydrazine (N2O4/MMH), and cryogenic oxidizer bi-propellant, (LO2/RP1), options. The non-toxic oxidizers investigated include Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Hydroxyammonium Nitroformate (HANF). The non-toxic fuels include hydrocarbon jet fuel (JP-4), Quadricyclane (C7H8), and Methylcubane (C9H10). The impact of H2O2 purity (90% to 100%) and various fuel blends are also evaluated. The comparison includes payload delivery performance, propellant handling issues and technology development needs. The results show that there are propellant combinations that are less toxic than N2O4/MMH and yet deliver comparable payload delivery performance. However, there are propellant handling issues and technology development needs that must be addressed. These are discussed.

  14. Characterization of the 2012-044C Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, J.; Horstman, M.; Papanyan, V.

    2013-01-01

    On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to use specialized radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

  15. Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion–deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case–control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5–4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4–5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7–5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

  16. Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

  17. Operations analysis (study 2.1): Shuttle upper stage software requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of software costs related to space shuttle upper stage operations with emphasis on the additional costs attributable to space servicing was conducted. The questions and problem areas include the following: (1) the key parameters involved with software costs; (2) historical data for extrapolation of future costs; (3) elements of the basic software development effort that are applicable to servicing functions; (4) effect of multiple servicing on complexity of the operation; and (5) are recurring software costs significant. The results address these questions and provide a foundation for estimating software costs based on the costs of similar programs and a series of empirical factors.

  18. Correlation of upper Bajocian-Bathonian zones in Siberia with the stage standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meledina, S. V.; Nal'Nyaeva, T. I.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2009-06-01

    The suggestions to transfer the Arcticoceras ishmae Zone from the middle to the lower Bathonian and the Arctocephalites arcticus Zone from the lower Bathonian to the upper Bajocian put forward by some researchers, are critically considered. These suggestions are based on paleontological records from the Sokur quarry near Saratov. Based on paleontological data from Siberia represented in a number of regional ammonite, belemnite, and retroceram zonations, we infer that the proposed zonal subdivision of the Jurassic in the Sokur quarry to be untrue and believe the revision of the correlation of the above-mentioned zones with the stage and zonal standard to be premature because of insufficient argumentation.

  19. Module Profile Module title: Italian Language Stage 1 for Engineers

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    1 Module Profile Module title: Italian Language Stage 1 for Engineers Module code: ITAL9029 Faculty Belgiorno (bba1y07@soton.ac.uk) & Paola Visconti (pv@soton.ac.uk) Aims and learning outcomes The aim contact plus independent learning), you should have skills, knowledge and understanding in the areas

  20. A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of the ARES UPPER STAGE Transportation, Lifting, Stacking and Mating Operations Within the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kromis, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the modeling and simulation of the Ares Upper Stage Transportation, lifting, stacking, and mating operations within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An aerial view of KSC Launch Shuttle Complex, two views of the Delmia process control layout, and an upper stage move subroutine and breakdown are shown. An overhead image of the VAB and the turning basin along with the Pegasus barge at the turning basin are also shown. This viewgraph presentation also shows the actual design and the removal of the mid-section spring tensioners, the removal of the AFT rear and forward tensioners tie downs, and removing the AFT hold down post and mount. US leaving the Pegasus Barge, the upper stage arriving at transfer aisle, upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle, and an overhead view of upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle are depicted. Five views of the actual connection of the cabling to the upper stage aft lifting hardware are shown. The upper stage transporter forward connector, two views of the rotation horizontal to vertical, the disconnection of the rear bolt ring cabling, the lowering of the upper stage to the inspection stand, disconnection of the rear bolt ring from the upper stage, the lifting of the upper stage and inspection of AFT fange, and the transfer of upper stage in an integrated stack are shown. Six views of the mating of the upper stage to the first stage are depicted. The preparation, inspection, and removal of the forward dome are shown. The upper stage mated on the integrated stack and crawler is also shown. This presentation concludes with A Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) utilizing male and female models for assessing risk factors to the upper extremities of human beings in an actual physical environment.

  2. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  3. Internal combustion engines and method of operating an internal combustion engine using staged combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    A method of operating an internal combustion engine with a split chamber design for stage combustion comprising the steps of: forming at least one primary combustion chamber and at least one secondary combustion chamber in association with a cylinder means having at least two regions formed therein and piston means within the engine, causing air within the cylinder means to

  4. First flight performance of the control system of the inertial upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, A. K.; Vono, C.

    The results of a flight performance data analyses from the first flight of an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) with a Titan 34D booster are reported. The IUS has solid rocket motors, a monopropellant hydrazine reaction control system (RCS), and is separated from the spacecraft when the desired higher energy orbit is reached. Steering is guided by a mission sequencing function that indicates the proper reference attitude quaternions, which are compared with the navigation or current attitude quaternion to form a control error quaternion. Telemetry contact with the spacecraft and IUS failed during an initial boost phase; however, the desired orbit was achieved. Performance was as predicted, except for an increased rate of fuel consumption due to failure to include atmospheric drag in the preflight simulations of conditions in the LEO parking orbit. The effects are expected to be less with a Shuttle launch, and will in any case be offset by an overly adequate propellant supply.

  5. Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers check the lower fittings of the fairing installed around the Stardust spacecraft and upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, the spacecraft is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  6. Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers begin placing the fairing around the Stardust spacecraft and upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  7. Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Stardust spacecraft waits for installation of the fairing (behind, right) that will enclose the spacecraft and the upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre- solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  8. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

  9. Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

  10. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

  11. Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. CONCLUSION: Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT. PMID:25320538

  12. Computed Tomography-Guided Tissue Engineering of Upper Airway Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan N.; Siebenlist, Nicholas J.; Cheetham, Jonathan; Ducharme, Norm G.; Rawlinson, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Normal laryngeal function has a large impact on quality of life, and dysfunction can be life threatening. In general, airway obstructions arise from a reduction in neuromuscular function or a decrease in mechanical stiffness of the structures of the upper airway. These reductions decrease the ability of the airway to resist inspiratory or expiratory pressures, causing laryngeal collapse. We propose to restore airway patency through methods that replace damaged tissue and improve the stiffness of airway structures. A number of recent studies have utilized image-guided approaches to create cell-seeded constructs that reproduce the shape and size of the tissue of interest with high geometric fidelity. The objective of the present study was to establish a tissue engineering approach to the creation of viable constructs that approximate the shape and size of equine airway structures, in particular the epiglottis. Computed tomography images were used to create three-dimensional computer models of the cartilaginous structures of the larynx. Anatomically shaped injection molds were created from the three-dimensional models and were seeded with bovine auricular chondrocytes that were suspended within alginate before static culture. Constructs were then cultured for approximately 4 weeks post-seeding and evaluated for biochemical content, biomechanical properties, and histologic architecture. Results showed that the three-dimensional molded constructs had the approximate size and shape of the equine epiglottis and that it is possible to seed such constructs while maintaining 75%+ cell viability. Extracellular matrix content was observed to increase with time in culture and was accompanied by an increase in the mechanical stiffness of the construct. If successful, such an approach may represent a significant improvement on the currently available treatments for damaged airway cartilage and may provide clinical options for replacement of damaged tissue during treatment of obstructive airway disease. PMID:24164398

  13. KAP@FREGAT - A Carrier for New Technology In -Orbit Demonstration using FREGAT Upper Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, C.; Pfeuffer, H.; Pont, G.; Smirnow, A.; Ishin, S.

    2008-08-01

    The success of the Kayser-Threde test satellite MAQSAT-B2 on Ariane L521 in February 2005 (2nd Ariane 5 ECA qualification flight) and its instrument platform equipped with experiments, sensors and an autonomous telemetry system has led to the development of a new autonomous experiment platform called KAP. KAP stands for Kayser-Threde Auxiliary Platform carrier and is a direct spin-off product out of Kayser-Threde Ariane 5 post projects and experience. The main idea is to use the available remaining payload capacity of the launcher to provide a flexible and low- cost test facility for scientific experiments and In-Orbit Demonstration of new technologies remaining attached to the launcher upper stage. KAP is a fully autonomous kit providing the complete necessary infrastructure (power, data acquisition and telemetry) to minimize constraints and interactions with the launch vehicle, increasing significantly the possibility for regular flight opportunities. Two different mission scenarios are foreseen. One with KAP only working during the launch phase itself, referred to as Short Mission (SM), the other as Medium Mission (MM), to be switched on after upper stage passivation for up to 7 days in orbit. Different accommodations for KAP are foreseen in order to ease its integration on various launchers including Ariane 5, SOYUZ and Vega. KAP can either be mounted on an additional load-carrying raising cylinder located underneath the launcher payload adaptor (MFD type), or integrated on a platform for auxiliary payloads (ASAP-5 type). The technical concept for both mechanical and electrical subsystems for space segment and ground support equipment is mainly based on existing and space qualified technologies from the successful MAQSAT-B2 project and Kayser-Threde's sounding rocket programme TEXUS/MAXUS. In particular, the data acquisition and telemetry unit as back bone of the KAP experimental payload infrastructure, is a direct adaptation from these programmes to the specific mission needs. A version to be accommodated onto SOYUZ-FREGAT named KAP@FREGAT, based on an octagonal raising cylinder, was recently manufactured in collaboration with our Russian partner, Lavochkin Association. The KAP kit including equipment and experimental payload will be mounted on this octagonal structure mated underneath the primary passenger. The robust capabilities of the FREGAT Upper Stage are a true asset for KAP providing features such as low-gravity environment, platform orientation and stabilization. Finally, the KAP programme is planned to have one flight opportunity per year on alternating launchers depending on the flight opportunities availability and on the auxiliary payloads requirements (orbits, low-gravity, separation, etc.). The present paper summarizes the latest status of the KAP development, including system design and mission scenarios, and provides information regarding the first mission onboard SOYUZ-FREGAT scheduled beginning 2010.

  14. Evaluation of a staged fuel combustor for turboprop engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdouw, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    Proposed EPA emission regulations require emission reduction by 1979 for various gas turbine engine classes. Extensive combustion technology advancements are required to meet the proposed regulations. The T56 turboprop engine requires CO, UHC, and smoke reduction. A staged fuel combustor design was tested on a combustion rig to evaluate emission reduction potential in turboprop engines from fuel zoning. The can-type combustor has separately fueled-pilot and main combustion zones in series. The main zone fueling system was arranged for potential incorporation into the T56 with minor or no modifications to the basic engine. Three combustor variable geometry systems were incorporated to evaluate various airflow distributions. Emission results with fixed geometry operation met all proposed EPA regulations over the EPA LTO cycle. CO reduction was 82 percent, UHC reduction was 96 percent, and smoke reduction was 84 percent. NOx increased 14 percent over the LTO cycle. At high power, NOx reduction was 40 to 55 percent. This NOx reduction has potential application to stationary gas turbine powerplants which have different EPA regulations.

  15. Wind tunnel investigation of a twin engine straight wing upper surface blown jet flap configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, A. E., III

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a full scale wind tunnel to determine the performance and aerodynamic characteristics of a twin engine, straight wing, upper surface blown jet flap configuration. The model had two simulated high bypass ratio turbofan engines with rectangular nozzles exhausting onto the upper surface of the wing at the 35 percent chord station. The model was tested with an aspect ratio 8.2 wing and with the wingtips removed to give an aspect ratio of 6.0.

  16. Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

  17. Reconstruction of columella, membranous septum, and upper lip in a single stage operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayati Akba?; Mustafa Keskin; Ethem Güneren; Lütfi Ero?lu; Ahmet Demir

    2003-01-01

    Reconstruction options for columellar defects together with membranous septum, nasal base, and upper lip are restricted. We present a case successfully treated with bilateral cheek advancement flaps with upper medial, perialar skin flaps to reconstruct the upper lip, columella, nasal base and membranous septum in a single session. This method provides adequate tissue with minimal cosmetic deformity in a single

  18. Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid-life Evolution (A5-ME) program track the progress of these technology developments and analyze their applicability in time for A5-ME. In order to approximate A5-ME concerned preconditions, activities are initiated aiming at harmonization of the available specifications. Hence, a look-out towards a further technology step approaching TRL6 in a subsequent phase is given, briefly addressing topics of full scale manufacture and appropriate thermo-mechanical testing of an entire sandwich common bulkhead.

  19. Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

  20. Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-12-15

    An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

  1. Internal combustion engines and method of operating an internal combustion engine using staged combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, R.S.

    1991-12-31

    A method of operating an internal combustion engine with a split chamber design for stage combustion comprising the steps of: forming at least one primary combustion chamber and at least one secondary combustion chamber in association with a cylinder means having at least two regions formed therein and piston means within the engine, causing air within the cylinder means to flow through the at least one primary combustion chamber at a predetermined rate and volume; admitting a predetermined amount of fuel to the at least one primary combustion chamber to form a fuel/air mixture, therein; igniting the fuel/air mixture within the at least one primary combustion chamber to generate a first stage of combustion; causing the flow of the the ignited fuel/air mixture to the at least one secondary combustion chamber for continued burning of the fuel/air mixture in a second stage of combustion within the at least one secondary combustion chamber. This patent also describes a split chamber, staged combustion internal combustion engine. It comprises means defining a cylinder having at least two regions formed therein, piston means; combustion chambers; fuel delivery means; and means for igniting the fuel in the primary combustion chamber.

  2. 28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. Evolutionary stages of a mid-Proterozoic carbonate basin as inferred from the upper marble, Adirondack Lowlands, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, K.L.; Grant, N.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Mineral abundances for Upper Marble protoliths, obtained through least-squares multiple regression calculations, and trace element concentrations for 112 samples from two drill cores, exhibit stratigraphic variations that are interpretable in terms of stages in the development of the original carbonate basin. Factor analysis with varimax rotation reveals three dominant factors; dolomite, calcite + Sr, and quartz; and five minor factors: clastics, anhydrite + Sr, magnesite, ore + Sr, and illite. When the factor affiliations of samples are considered with respect to their stratigraphic arrangement, the result can be interpreted in terms of a seven-stage model of basin evolution that possesses elements common to both Proterozoic and Phanerozoic carbonate basins. According to this model, stage 1 was dominated by widespread penecontemporaneous dolomitization punctuated by brief periods of increased basin restriction. Stage 2 involved increasing basin restriction during which dolomitization was progressively inhibited by increasing Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 3 was characterized by further basin restriction and episodes of anhydrite precipitation during which dolomitization resumed briefly because of lowered Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 4 and 5 involved decreasing restriction and brine concentrations which allowed large-scale dolomitization to resume during stage 5, and abundant chert was formed in these sediments subsequent to dolomitization. Stage 6 was characterized by increasing restriction and progressive inhibition of dolomitization. Finally, stage 7 saw rapid increases in aluminosilicate sedimentation that ended further carbonate deposition. Sr abundances throughout the cores reflect control by carbonate mineralogy, which was in turn controlled by the degree of basin restriction.

  4. University of Southampton 1 Module Profile January 2012 Language Stage 2 for Engineers

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    Profile Module title: Italian Language Stage 2 for Engineers Module code: ITAL9036 Faculty Humanities / MLUniversity of Southampton 1 Module Profile January 2012 Language Stage 2 for Engineers Module / CLS ECTS Points, e.g. 10 ECTS 20 CATS (10 ECTS) Level (4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 in the FHEQ) N/A Language

  5. University of Southampton 1 Module Profile January 2012 Language Stage 3 for engineers

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    Profile Module title: Italian Language Stage 3 for Engineers Module code: ITAL9064 Faculty Humanities / MLUniversity of Southampton 1 Module Profile January 2012 Language Stage 3 for engineers Module / CLS ECTS Points, e.g. 10 ECTS 20 CATS (10 ECTS) Level (4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 in the FHEQ) N/A Language

  6. Engineering human hepatic tissue for modeling liver-stage malaria

    E-print Network

    Ng, Shengyong

    2014-01-01

    The Plcsmodium liver stage is an attractive target for the development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines, as it provides an opportunity to interrupt the life cycle of the parasite at a critical early stage. However, ...

  7. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  8. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie E. Holland

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

  9. Sensory nerve conduction in the upper limbs at various stages of diabetic neuropathy 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Noël

    1973-01-01

    In 59 diabetic patients, sensory nerve potentials were recorded at various sites along the course of the median nerve. Pathological responses were characterized by reduced amplitude, desynchronization and decreased conduction velocity (CV). Four groups of patients with increasingly severe nerve dysfunction were distinguished. The presence and severity of clinical neuropathy in the upper limbs could be related to decreased maximal

  10. Influence of River Stage on Shoreline Electrofishing Catches in the Upper Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney B. Pierce; Daniel W. Coble; Scott D. Corley

    1985-01-01

    The numbers of fish and fish species caught per unit of electrofishing effort along main-channel shorelines in pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River were inversely related to water level. Four species contributed predominantly to the relation between catch rate and water level: Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens; white bass Morone chrysops; and sauger Stizostedion canadense. There was

  11. Large Scale Testing of a Foam/Multilayer Insulation Thermal Control System (TCS) for Cryogenic Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Leon; Martin, James

    1998-01-01

    The development of high energy cryogenic upper stages is essential for the efficient delivery of large payloads to various destinations envisioned in future programs. A key element in such upper stages is cryogenic fluid management (CFM) advanced development/technology. Due to the cost of and limited opportunities for orbital experiments, ground testing must be employed to the fullest extent possible. Therefore, a system level test bed termed the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is representative in size and shape (3 meter diameter by 3 meter long with a volume of 18 cubic meters) of a fully integrated space transportation vehicle liquid hydrogen propellant tank has been established. To date, upper stage studies have often baselined the foam/multilayer insulation (FMLI) combination concept; however, hardware experience with the concept is minimal and was therefore selected for the MHTB. The foam element (isofoam SS-1 171 with an average thickness of 3.5 centimeters) is designed to protect against ground hold/ascent flight environments, and allows for the use of a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required with MLI in cryogenic applications. The MLI (45 layers of Double Aluminized Mylar with Dacron spacers) provides protection in the vacuum environment of space and is designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Several unique features were incorporated in the MLI concept and included: variable density MLI (reduces weight and radiation losses by changing the layer density), larger but fewer DAM perforations for venting during ascent to orbit (reduces radiation losses), and roll wrap installation of the MLI with a commercially established process to lower assembly man-hours and reduce seam heat leak. Thermal performance testing of the MHTB TCS was conducted during three test series conducted between September 1995 and May 1996. Results for the ground hold portion of the tests were as expected producing an average heat leak of 63 WattS/M2 at an average foam surface temperature of 170 K. The results of the simulated orbit hold test interval produced heat leaks ranging from 0.085 to 0.22 Watts/squareM at warm boundary temperatures of 164K and 305K, respectively. When compared to the performance for a traditional MLI system, a 60% reduction in orbital heat leak or boiloff was measured. Overall, the MHTB TCS demonstrated satisfactory performance for all mission phases required of a cryogenic upper stage.

  12. Short-term morbidity of the upper limb after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection for Stage I or II breast carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan S. Rietman; Pieter U. Dijkstra; Jan H. B. Geertzen; Peter Baas; Jaap de Vries; Wil Dolsma; Johan W. Groothoff; Willem H. Eisma; Harald J. Hoekstra

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The goals of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are to improve axillary staging and reduce unnecessary axillary lymph node dissections (ALND), thereby reducing treatment-related upper-limb morbidity. In the current prospec- tive study, short-term upper-limb morbidity was assessed after SLNB and\\/or ALND. METHODS. The study comprised 204 patients with Stage I\\/II breast carcinoma. Mean patient age was 55.6 years (standard

  13. Three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of a receiver-absorber-converter system in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.

    1999-12-01

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program is directing its efforts at solving endemic national spacecraft architecture problems. The ISUS is an advanced, integrated upper stage concept that would permit payload realignment, allowing large payloads to be moved by smaller and less expensive boosters. A receiver-absorber-converter (RAC) system in the ISUS unit is designed to convert solar energy to kinetic energy in the propulsion phase or electrical energy in the power generation phase for spacecraft control and operation. In this study a three-dimensional, transient, turbulent hydrogen gas flow through the RAC system was simulated using a finite element thermal-hydraulic model. With this model, transient temperature, pressure, and flow fields in the RAC system were obtained. Numerical results of the mass flow rate distribution through hydrogen heating channels reveal that higher mass flow rates occur through those channels near either the hydrogen channels reveal that higher mass flow rates occur through those channels near either the hydrogen inlet or exit. It takes about 18.5 min for the hydrogen exhaust temperature to drop below 2,000 K. The results obtained from this work have been applied for validating and optimizing the present RAC design, as well as for performing the thermal stress analysis.

  14. An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

  15. Fine particle and organic vapor emissions from staged tests of an in-use aircraft engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert A. Presto; Ngoc T. Nguyen; Manish Ranjan; Aaron J. Reeder; Eric M. Lipsky; Christopher J. Hennigan; Marissa A. Miracolo; Daniel D. Riemer; Allen L. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Staged tests were conducted to measure the particle and vapor emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135T Stratotanker airframe at different engine loads. Exhaust was sampled using a rake inlet installed 1-m downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft and a dilution sampler and portable smog chamber were used to investigate the

  16. Internal combustion engine with two-stage combustion chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sertich

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in an internal combustion engine of the type in which a piston reciprocates within a cylinder toward a top dead center position to compress a charge of fuel within a combustion chamber, within which combustion chamber the charge is ignited by ignition means so as to burn and drive the piston away from the top

  17. Separation dynamics of the COMET FreeFlyer and an upper stage STAR-48V motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Kevin M.; Myers, Carter H.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, the orbital separation between a STAR-48V upperstage motor and the COMET FreeFlyer is investigated. The time from nominal STAR-48 engine burnout is to be determined such that the STAR-48 will not collide with the FreeFlyer once the separation process has been initiated. To analyze this separation, the forces acting upon both the FreeFlyer and the STAR-48 are described in a body fixed coordinate system. These coordinates are then transformed into an Euler coordinate system and then further transformed into a relative inertial coordinate system. From this analysis and some basic assumptions about the Star-48/FreeFlyer vehicle, it can be concluded that the STAR-48 will not collide with the Free Flyer if the separation occurs at 120 seconds after nominal burnout of the STAR-48. In fact, the separation delay could be a shorter period of time, but it is recommended that this separation delay be as long as possible for risk mitigation. This delay is currently designed to be 120 seconds and the analysis presented in this report shows that this time is acceptable.

  18. Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

  19. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected. PMID:21347420

  20. Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

  1. Evaluation of innovative rocket engines for single-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manski, Detlef; Martin, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Computer models of rocket engines and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that were developed by the authors at DFVLR and NASA have been combined. The resulting code consists of engine mass, performance, trajectory and vehicle sizing models. The engine mass model includes equations for each subsystem and describes their dependences on various propulsion parameters. The engine performance model consists of multidimensional sets of theoretical propulsion properties and a complete thermodynamic analysis of the engine cycle. The vehicle analyses include an optimized trajectory analysis, mass estimation, and vehicle sizing. A vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, single-stage, winged, manned, fully reusable vehicle with a payload capability of 13.6 Mg (30,000 lb) to low earth orbit was selected. Hydrogen, methane, propane, and dual-fuel engines were studied with staged-combustion, gas-generator, dual bell, and the dual-expander cycles. Mixture ratio, chamber pressure, nozzle exit pressure liftoff acceleration, and dual fuel propulsive parameters were optimized.

  2. The upper Tortonianlower Messinian at Monte dei Corvi (Northern Apennines, Italy): Completing a Mediterranean reference section for the Tortonian Stage

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    The upper Tortonian­lower Messinian at Monte dei Corvi (Northern Apennines, Italy): Completing Accepted 5 March 2009 Available online 23 April 2009 Editor: P. DeMenocal Keywords: Monte dei Corvi Miocene and cyclostratigraphy is presented for the upper Tortonian and lower Messinian (Upper Miocene) at Monte dei Corvi

  3. Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, D.; Rothermel, J.; Griffin, L.; Thornton, R.; Forbes, J.; Skelley, S.; Huber, F.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the motivation for the study, the numerical method used, the numerical simulations of the vaneless diffuser and vaned diffuser. It also reviews the conclusions from the study

  4. Engineering Upper Hinge Improves Stability and Effector Function of a Human IgG1

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Boxu; Boyd, Daniel; Kaschak, Timothy; Tsukuda, Joni; Shen, Amy; Lin, Yuwen; Chung, Shan; Gupta, Priyanka; Kamath, Amrita; Wong, Anne; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Gloria Y.; Totpal, Klara; Schaefer, Gabriele; Jiang, Guoying; Nogal, Bartek; Emery, Craig; Vanderlaan, Martin; Carter, Paul; Harris, Reed; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    Upper hinge is vulnerable to radical attacks that result in breakage of the heavy-light chain linkage and cleavage of the hinge of an IgG1. To further explore mechanisms responsible for the radical induced hinge degradation, nine mutants were designed to determine the roles that the upper hinge Asp and His play in the radical reactions. The observation that none of these substitutions could inhibit the breakage of the heavy-light chain linkage suggests that the breakage may result from electron transfer from Cys231 directly to the heavy-light chain linkage upon radical attacks, and implies a pathway separate from His229-mediated hinge cleavage. On the other hand, the substitution of His229 with Tyr showed promising advantages over the native antibody and other substitutions in improving the stability and function of the IgG1. This substitution inhibited the hinge cleavage by 98% and suggests that the redox active nature of Tyr did not enable it to replicate the ability of His to facilitate radical induced degradation. We propose that the lower redox potential of Tyr, a residue that may be the ultimate sink for oxidizing equivalents in proteins, is responsible for the inhibition. More importantly, the substitution increased the antibody's binding to Fc?RIII receptors by 2–3-fold, and improved ADCC activity by 2-fold, while maintaining a similar pharmacokinetic profile with respect to the wild type. Implications of these observations for antibody engineering and development are discussed. PMID:22203673

  5. Engineering Science--Raising Awareness of Engineering through Key Stage 3 (Age 11-14) Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannion, Ken

    2012-01-01

    During 2011, a team from the Centre for Science Education (CSE) worked with four local schools and five Sheffield city region engineering organisations on a project to identify ways to increase the input into young people's awareness of engineering that comes from activities they do in school science. The project also tested an hypothesis that…

  6. Joining of Materials - An Upper Level Undergraduate Course in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering A Progress Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Palmer, Mark A.

    An upper level undergraduate course: Joining of Materials, has been designed to require that students perform at the higher level of Blooms Taxonomy1. Students are required to synthesize the subject matter from several prerequisite core engineering courses (applied materials science, thermal sciences, chemistry, and mathematics) in order to best determine the means to join two materials. To make these engineering decisions the students also must consider non-technical issues such as economics, safety, and human resources. Effective communication is critical. This ten-week course introduces the students to the following joining methods: welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding. After completing the course the students should be able to differentiate between the methods, and based on this knowledge decide the best method to join two materials. Because most texts focus on only one of the four methods listed above, and then tend to focus on either scientific background or technique (not both), it was necessary to develop a series of learning modules for this course. These modules include classroom presentation, webbased notes and exercises, laboratory experiences (joining, physical testing, and metalography), and assignments. This progress report will focus on all aspects of this newly developed course including pedagogy, course content, and course structure. Results of course assessments and continuous improvement will also be presented.

  7. Treatment-Related Upper Limb Morbidity 1 Year after Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy or Axillary Lymph Node Dissection for Stage I or II Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Rietman; P. U. Dijkstra; J. H. B. Geertzen; P. Baas; J. de Vries; W. V. Dolsma; J. W. Groothoff; W. H. Eisma; H. J. Hoekstra

    2004-01-01

    Background: In a prospective study, upper limb morbidity and perceived disability\\/activities of daily life (ADLs) were assessed before and 1 year after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).Methods: A total of 204 patients with stage I\\/II breast cancer (mean age, 55.6 years; SD, 11.6 years) entered the study, and 189 patients (93%) could be evaluated

  8. Experience of curing serious obstruction of advanced-stage upper digestive tract tumor using laser under endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Man-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Feng-Qiu; Kong, De-Jia; Tang, Li-Bin

    1998-11-01

    The patients who suffer from upper digestive tract tumor, such as cancer of esophagus, cancer of cardia, all have serious obstruction and fail to get nutrition and can not bear the strike of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In order to reduce the obstruction symptom and suffering of the patients and to prolong their life time, since 1989, our hospital used the laser to cure the upper digestive tract tumor 11 cases with serious obstruction and got remarkable curative effect.

  9. One-stage reconstruction of the entire upper lip and the columella with a modified bilateral nasolabial flap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Johannes Lorenz; Heinz Maier

    2010-01-01

    The functional and cosmetic reconstruction of the upper lip after a subtotal defect is a highly demanding challenge, especially\\u000a when the columella is involved. In the majority of cases, the surgical techniques described in the literature are suitable\\u000a only for restoring the function and appearance of the upper lip but not for reconstructing adjacent areas. In this article,\\u000a we present

  10. Two-stage repository development at Yucca Mountain: an engineering feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, H.R. (comp.)

    1984-12-01

    The preliminary concepts for a repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain specify construction of a 70,000-MTU-capacity repository by January 31, 1998, as mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Current schedules for constructing the repository indicate that the 1998 deadline established by the Act cannot be met if the repository is constructed in one stage. Therefore, the Department of Energy has requested the preparation of this engineering study to determine the feasibility of constructing the repository in two stages. The two-stage approach examined in this study involves concurrent construction of two waste-handling buildings. The first would be completed in time to accept the equivalent of 400 MTU/yr of waste by January 31, 1998. It would operate for 5 years, during which time construction of a full-capcity, 3000-MTU/yr waste-handling building would be completed. The design includes six accesses to the underground facility: four vertical shafts and two ramps. Four alternative concepts have been explored to determine whether savings in costs could be accomplished. All four alternatives appear technically feasible and are potentially more cost effective than the reference approach. The principal conclusion derived from this study is that two-stage repository construction can allow receipt and disposal of the 400 MTU/yr of waste by January 1, 1998.

  11. Dual-stage growth factor release within 3D protein-engineered hydrogel niches promotes adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Teasley, Eric S; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-11-01

    Engineered biomimetic microenvironments from hydrogels are an emerging strategy to achieve lineage-specific differentiation in vitro. In addition to recapitulating critical matrix cues found in the native three-dimensional (3D) niche, the hydrogel can also be designed to deliver soluble factors that are present within the native inductive microenvironment. We demonstrate a versatile materials approach for the dual-stage delivery of multiple soluble factors within a 3D hydrogel to induce adipogenesis. We use a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) embedded with alginate microgels to deliver two pro-adipogenic soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) with two distinct delivery profiles. We show that dual-stage delivery of FGF-1 and BMP-4 to human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) significantly increases lipid accumulation compared with the simultaneous delivery of both growth factors together. Furthermore, dual-stage growth factor delivery within a 3D hydrogel resulted in substantially more lipid accumulation compared to identical delivery profiles in 2D cultures. Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest that dual-stage release of FGF-1 and BMP-4 within 3D microenvironments can promote the in vitro development of mature adipocytes. PMID:25309741

  12. Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

  13. Geochemical make-up of oceanic peridotites from NW Turkey and the multi-stage melting history of the Tethyan upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, ?brahim; ?en, A. Dündar; Ersoy, E. Yalç?n; Dilek, Yildirim; Saka, Samet; Zaccarini, Federica; Escayola, Monica; Karsl?, Orhan

    2014-02-01

    We present the whole-rock and the mineral chemical data for upper mantle peridotites from the Harmanc?k region in NW Turkey and discuss their petrogenetic-tectonic origin. These peridotites are part of a Tethyan ophiolite belt occurring along the ?zmir-Ankara-Ercincan suture zone in northern Turkey, and include depleted lherzolites and refractory harzburgites. The Al2O3 contents in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the depleted lherzolite are high, and the Cr-number in the coexisting spinel is low falling within the abyssal field. However, the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgites have lower Al2O3 contents for a given Cr-number of spinel, and plot within the lower end of the abyssal field. The whole-rock geochemical and the mineral chemistry data imply that the Harmanc?k peridotites formed by different degrees of partial melting (~%10-27) of the mantle. The depleted lherzolite samples have higher MREE and HREE abundances than the harzburgitic peridotites, showing convex-downward patterns. These peridotites represent up to ~16 % melting residue that formed during the initial seafloor spreading stage of the Northern Neotethys. On the other hand, the more refractory harzburgites represent residues after ~4-11 % hydrous partial melting of the previously depleted MOR mantle, which was metasomatized by slab-derived fluids during the early stages of subduction. The Harmanc?k peridotites, hence, represent the fragments of upper mantle rocks that formed during different stages of the tectonic evolution of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in Northern Neotethys. We infer that the multi-stage melting history of the Harmanc?k peridotites reflect the geochemically heterogeneous character of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere currently exposed along the ?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone.

  14. Efficacy of computed tomography of the thorax and upper abdomen and whole-body gallium scintigraphy for staging of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    MacMahon, H.; Scott, W.; Ryan, J.W.; Montner, S.M.; Little, A.G.; Hoffman, P.C.; Ferguson, M.K.; Golomb, H.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of performing both computed tomography (CT) of the thorax and upper abdomen and whole-body gallium scintigraphy for staging lung cancer, the results of each test were compared with those obtained by chest radiography and clinical examination in 100 patients. Clinical efficacy was defined in terms of accuracy in staging the tumor based either on surgery, biopsy, or clinical and radiologic follow-up. The CT provided significantly superior accuracy in 27 patients and minor additional staging information in 17 patients compared with the gallium scan. Whole-body gallium scintigraphy provided important additional information in nine patients and minor additional information in a further eight. The diagnostic yield of CT and gallium scanning was considered equivalent in 39 cases. Of the nine cases in which gallium was significantly superior to CT, clinical findings which suggested the presence of metastases had been noted before the scan in four cases. The authors' results confirm the utility of CT for staging lung cancer and indicate that the additional yield from gallium scintigraphy is relatively low provided a thorough history and physical examination have been performed.

  15. Underrepresentation by race-ethnicity across stages of U.S. science and engineering education.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives are underrepresented in science and engineering fields. A comparison of race-ethnic differences at key transition points was undertaken to better inform education policy. National data on high school graduation, college enrollment, choice of major, college graduation, graduate school enrollment, and doctoral degrees were used to quantify the degree of underrepresentation at each level of education and the rate of transition to the next stage. Disparities are found at every level, and their impact is cumulative. For the most part, differences in graduation rates, rather than differential matriculation rates, make the largest contribution to the underrepresentation. The size, scope, and persistence of the disparities suggest that small-scale, narrowly targeted remediation will be insufficient. PMID:24006384

  16. Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

  17. Performance Testing of the Engineering Model Astro-H 3-stage ADR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese Astro-H mission will include the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument provided by NASA/GSFC. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon microcalorimeters operated at 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR), which is configured to use either a 1.3 K superfluid helium tank or a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cryocooler as a heat sink. At present, the engineering model SXS, including the detectors and ADR, has been performance tested at GSFC and integrated with the EM dewar in Japan. The flight model SXS is currently being fabricated. This paper presents test results of the EM ADR and changes that will be implemented in the flight version.

  18. Space Shuttle guidance for multiple main engine failures during first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponaugle, Steven J.; Fernandes, Stanley T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents contingency abort guidance schemes recently developed for multiple Space Shuttle main engine failures during the first two minutes of flight (first stage). The ascent and entry guidance schemes greatly improve the possibility of the crew and/or the Orbiter surviving a first stage contingency abort. Both guidance schemes were required to meet certain structural and controllability constraints. In addition, the systems were designed with the flexibility to allow for seasonal variations in the atmosphere and wind. The ascent scheme guides the vehicle to a desirable, lofted state at solid rocket booster burnout while reducing the structural loads on the vehicle. After Orbiter separation from the solid rockets and the external tank, the entry scheme guides the Orbiter through one of two possible entries. If the proper altitude/range/velocity conditions have been met, a return-to-launch-site 'Split-S' maneuver may be attempted. Otherwise, a down-range abort to an equilibrium glide and subsequent crew bailout is performed.

  19. Fine particle and organic vapor emissions from staged tests of an in-use aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presto, Albert A.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Ranjan, Manish; Reeder, Aaron J.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Miracolo, Marissa A.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-07-01

    Staged tests were conducted to measure the particle and vapor emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135T Stratotanker airframe at different engine loads. Exhaust was sampled using a rake inlet installed 1-m downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft and a dilution sampler and portable smog chamber were used to investigate the particulate matter (PM) emissions. Total fine PM mass emissions were highest at low (4%) and high (85%) load and lower at intermediate loads (7% and 30%). PM mass emissions at 4% load are dominated by organics, while at 85% load elemental carbon is dominant. Quantifying the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions is complicated by substantial filter sampling artifacts. Partitioning experiments reveal that the majority of the POA is semivolatile; for example, the POA emission factor changed by a factor of two when the background organic aerosol concentration was increased from 0.7 to 4 ?g m -3. Therefore, one cannot define a single non-volatile PM emission factor for aircraft exhaust. The gas- and particle-phase organic emissions were comprehensively characterized by analyzing canister, sorbent and filter samples with gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Vapor-phase organic emissions are highest at 4% load and decrease with increasing load. Low-volatility organics (less volatile than a C 12n-alkane) contributed 10-20% of the total organic emissions. The low-volatility organic emissions contain signatures of unburned fuel and aircraft lubricating oil but are dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of presumably branched and cyclic alkanes. Emissions at all loads contain more low-volatility organic vapors than POA; thus secondary organic aerosol formation in the aging plume will likely exceed POA emissions.

  20. Evaluation of the dosimetric impact of applying flattening filter-free beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage upper thoracic carcinoma of oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wuzhe; Lin, Zhixiong; Yang, Zhining; Fang, Weisheng; Lai, Peibo; Lu, Jiayang; Wu, Vincent WC

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Flattening filter-free (FFF) radiation beams have recently become clinically available on modern linear accelerators in radiation therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the dosimetric impact of using FFF beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early-stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer. Methods Eleven patients with primary stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer were recruited. For each patient, two IMRT plans were computed using conventional beams (Con-P) and FFF beams (FFF-P), respectively. Both plans employed a five-beam arrangement and were prescribed with 64 Gy to (planning target volume) PTV1 and 54 Gy to PTV2 in 32 fractions using 6 MV photons. The dose parameters of the target volumes and organs at risks (OARs), and treatment parameters including the monitor units (MU) and treatment time (TT) for Con-P and FFF-P were recorded and compared. Results The mean D5 of PTV1 and PTV2 were higher in FFF-P than Con-P by 0.4 Gy and 0.3 Gy, respectively. For the OARs, all the dose parameters did not show significant difference between the two plans except the mean V5 and V10 of the lung in which the FFF-P was lower (46.7% vs. 47.3% and 39.1% vs. 39.6%, respectively). FFF-P required 54% more MU but 18.4% less irradiation time when compared to Con-P. Conclusion The target volume and OARs dose distributions between the two plans were comparable. However, FFF-P was more effective in sparing the lung from low dose and reduced the mean TT compared with Con-P. Long-term clinical studies are suggested to evaluate the radiobiological effects of FFF beams.

  1. The theory and a technique for an efficiency enhancing two stage bottoming cycle for piston/cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Zeh, D. [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    While there is now much interest in electric vehicles or various hybrids, the most benefit may result from a revolutionary modification and efficiency improvement of the conventional internal combustion Otto cycle engine, by recovering a large portion of the availability that exists at the end of the power stroke. This paper will describe the theory and a potentially practical method for achieving a 50% improvement in power output and fuel efficiency. While the topping cycle will remain the internal combustion piston/cylinder engine, a two stage bottom cycle will be used. The first bottom stage is a single process consisting of a turbine installed in the exhaust stream to extract power from the excess pressure that exists when the engine exhaust valve opens. The second bottom stage is a complete external combustion gas turbine cycle consisting of a compressor, exhaust gas to compressed air heat exchanger and a turbine. Such a two stage bottoming cycle can be practical and may increase the power output by about 50%. This means that a car that achieves 30 mpg without a bottoming cycle can achieve 45 mpg with this bottoming cycle. Alternatively if the performance of cars can be improved to 66 mpg by means of decreasing the power requirements with smaller size and frontal area, better aerodynamics, lower rolling resistance tires and better transmission and drive trains, this vehicle can be extended to 100 mpg with this combined cycle engine.

  2. A Technique of Two-Stage Clustering Applied to Environmental and Civil Engineering and Related Methods of Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, S.; Nakayama, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method of two-stage clustering of literature based on citation frequency is applied to 5,065 articles from 57 journals in environmental and civil engineering. Results of related methods of citation analysis (hierarchical graph, clustering of journals, multidimensional scaling) applied to same set of articles are compared. Ten references are…

  3. Engineering geology criteria for dredged material disposal in upper Laguna Madre, Texas

    E-print Network

    Stinson, James Edmellaire

    1977-01-01

    Committee: Dr, C. C. Mathewson Channels in Murdock Basin, Upper Laguna Madre, fill with sediment dispersed from adjacent subaqueous dredged materia I disposal sites. Original dredging placed the material in a series of disposal mounds close... to and parallel to the channel. Three disposal sites in different water depths, revealed varying conditions of sediment dispersion and island erosion. Water depth at the different sites varies from 0 to 1. 5 feet in the wind tidal flats, I to 3 feet...

  4. Deciphering tectonic, climatic-induced and hydrothermal signals in the late-stage exhumation history of the upper Rhône valley (Swiss Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre; Rahn, Meinert; Shuster, David; van der Beek, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Neogene exhumation of the European Alps is understood as the interplay between tectonics and climatic-induced erosion. While the former has been influenced by a decrease in plate convergence, the latter has been suggested to be affected by climatic variation and the onset of Plio-Quaternary glaciations, leading to relief amplification. However, even though geomorphologic and sedimentologic studies both suggest topographic relief change and transition from fluvial to oscillations between glacial/fluvial conditions, precise quantification on both the timing and magnitude of this transition are yet sparse. Our study focuses on the upper Rhône valley (Swiss Central Alps) within the Visp-Brig area (Aar massif). This area encompasses some of the most spectacular reliefs within the Alps with several nearby summits around or above 4000 m crosscut by the glacially overdeepened Rhône valley. It also shows among the highest late Neogene exhumation rates within the Western-Central European Alps, influenced by tectonic activity along the major Simplon-Rhône extensional fault system. Moreover, the upper Rhône valley has experienced enhanced glacial erosion associated with strong relief development during the Pliocene-Quaternary period. Finally, structural inheritance, late-stage tectonics and rapid exhumation may have promoted recent hydrothermal activity in this region, although timing of its onset and its precise causes remain poorly understood. We investigated the late-stage cooling history by using different low-temperature thermochronometers along a pseudo-vertical bedrock profile (elevation between 600 and 2900 m) and additional samples from an on-site 500-m geothermal well, resulting in a total elevation difference of nearly 3 km. Apatite fission-track (AFT) ages and track-length data have been added to previously published and new apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) and 4He/3He data. Our results confirm high-exhumation rates (0.6 to 0.9 km/Myr) within late-Cenozoic to Pliocene times. Combined with AFT data from the literature, our age pattern reveals no exhumation difference across the Simplon fault system during the last 6-8 Ma, suggesting only strike-slip detachment activity of the structure during that period. Thermal modelling using HeFTy confirms rapid exhumation and evidences a late-stage cooling contrast between high-elevation and valley-bottom/geothermal well samples, in agreement with previous 4He/3He data. This late-stage exhumation is associated to the onset of major Alpine glaciation triggering the Rhône valley carving at ~1 Ma. Apatite track length measurements suggest that the well samples have been affected by recent hydrothermal activity. This agrees well with the present-day observation of high geothermal activity below the Rhône valley floor, whose origin has been primarily linked to structural inheritance (Simplon-Rhône extensional fault system). Our thermochronology data helps to put constrain on the onset timing of this geothermal activity, which we propose to be concordant with the onset of major alpine glaciations, glacial erosion and bedrock-fracture development promoting localized fluid circulation and hydrothermal activity below the Rhône valley floor.

  5. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests. [Upper Surface Blowing for YC-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive-lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  6. Influence of oceanographic processes on the early life stages of the blue shrimp ( Litopenaeus stylirostris) in the Upper Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon-Aguilera, L. E.; Marinone, S. G.; Aragón-Noriega, E. A.

    2003-02-01

    The possible relationship between circulation patterns and the recruitment of early stages of penaeid shrimp in the Upper Gulf of California was explored by collecting postlarvae (mesh size 0.505 mm) simultaneously in two locations, one off the coast of Sonora (Golfo de Santa Clara: 31°44'49?N-114°33'12?W) and the other off the Baja California peninsula (San Felipe: 31°11'8.3? N-114°53'13.9?W) during two complete fortnightly cycles (July 12-27, 1995 and June 30-July 16, 1996). Individuals with cephalothoracic length from 0.8 to 3.91 mm without a clear size-increasing pattern were found throughout the sampling period, suggesting continuous recruitment to the area. The circulation in the study area was simulated with a three-dimensional baroclinic model forced with tides and climatological hydrography at the mouth of the Gulf of California, and winds and heat and freshwater fluxes at the sea-air interface. Spawning stock surveys have shown that maximum concentration of mature females is near the coast of Sonora (mainland Mexico). The model predicts surface currents of about 8 cm s -1 and suggests that postlarvae found off the coast of the peninsula may come from a different reproductive unit than those found off the mainland coast. This may explain why postlarvae found in Golfo de Santa Clara (mainland) are larger (and, presumably, older) than those found in San Felipe (Baja California). Possible relationships among circulation patterns, lunar cycle, former Colorado River runoffs and time of spawning are discussed.

  7. From Concept to Design: Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with national policy and NASA's Global Exploration Strategy, the Ares Projects Office is embarking on development of a new launch vehicle fleet to fulfill the national goals of replacing the space shuttle fleet, returning to the moon, and exploring farther destinations like Mars. These goals are shaped by the decision to retire the shuttle fleet by 2010, budgetary constraints, and the requirement to create a new fleet that is safer, more reliable, operationally more efficient than the shuttle fleet, and capable of supporting long-range exploration goals. The present architecture for the Constellation Program is the result of extensive trades during the Exploration Systems Architecture Study and subsequent refinement by the Ares Projects Office at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  9. Transition of Benthic Nutrient Sources after Engineered Levee Breaches Adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, J. S.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Parchaso, F.; Cameron, J. M.; Asbill, J. R.; Carlson, R. A.; Fend, S. V.; Engelstad, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during four sampling trips between November 2007 and July 2009 after engineered levee breaches on 30 October 2007, hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Centimeter-scale measurements of the vertical dissolved-nutrient concentration gradients from the profilers served as the basis for diffusive-flux determinations. Wetland areas undergoing restoration and those being used for water storage around these lakes function very differently than nearby established wetlands within the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. Consistent with previous results from Upper Klamath Lake, benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the wetlands was consistently positive, and when areally and seasonally averaged over the 13 km2 newly restored wetlands, an SRP flux to the overlying water column (~87,000 kg over the 3-month cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA)) exceeded the magnitude of riverine inputs (42,000 kg for that season). SRP benthic flux at a site within the restored wetland area ~0.5 km from the breach was elevated relative to all other lake and wetland sites (including another wetland site <0.1 km from the breached levee) in 2009 suggests that the restored wetlands, at least chemically, remain in a transition period following the hydrologic reconnection of the lake and wetland environments. Ammonium fluxes to the water column remained consistently positive throughout the sampling period, generating a toxicological concern for endangered fish populations at elevated summer pH. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were lower than detection limits (<0.03 mg-P/L) at all lake and wetland sites following the levee breaches. As indicated in previous studies, SRP concentrations for 2009 sampling trips indicated higher concentrations at the end of the annual AFA bloom relative to its beginning, suggesting a limiting factor or factors other than SRP. Our results indicated that benthic flux of iron and manganese may serve as a significant source of these essential micronutrients to the lake water column. However, for other trace metals, including those that could retard algal growth (for example, dissolved copper and zinc), water-column and porewater concentrations were low and relatively constant across the sediment-water interface. The lake and wetland benthos substantively contribute to both macro- and micronutrients in the water column. It may therefore be prudent, in terms of developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin, to examine the dynamics of this transition toward seasonal function that is typical of established wetlands in the vicinity with regard to nutrient (both metal and ligand) fluxes. Funding support : U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Klamath Falls, Oregon; U.S.G.S. Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

  10. Humans as the third evolutionary stage of biosphere engineering of rivers

    E-print Network

    Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Davies, Neil; Mazzini, Ilaria; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Kane, Stephanie

    2015-03-20

    ‘reverse engineering’ of the terrestrial biosphere include deforestation, irrigation and agriculture. Sediment retention has been encouraged by the construction of dams. Modern river systems are associated with extensive human trace fossils that show a...

  11. A review of findings of a study of rocket based combined cycle engines applied to extensively axisymmetric single stage to orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    Extensively axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are considered. The information is presented in viewgraph form and the following topics are presented: payload comparisons; payload as a percent of dry weight - a system hardware cost indicator; life cycle cost estimations; operations and support costs estimation; selected engine type; and rocket engine specific impulse calculation.

  12. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration The J2X Engine

    E-print Network

    by a small, internal combustion chamber separate from the primary combustion chamber producing engine thrustNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts The J­2X Engine NASA's New Upper Stage Engine The next generation of space exploration has begun with the development of NASA's Space Launch

  14. Opportunity of Deliberation on Mental Attitude for One?s Life, Necessary for Engineering Students and Engineers at Earlier Stage of One?s Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Wataru

    Opportunity to deliberate mental attitude for one?s life, is necessary for engineering students and engineers at earlier stage of one?s life, in order to have more solid value and purpose of one?slife in unsteady and diverse era. In order to realize the above demands, the effective training system is proposed, in which two opportunities are effectively combined just as follows ; 1) opportunity to deliberate and to confirm both value and purpose of one?s life, at about 20 years old, when one?s basic personality is formed, and 2) opportunity to deliberate and to contemplate one?slife, at about 40 years old, when one reaches a half of one?s life. In order to improve the effect of the training system, not only 1) ‘Memo System?, to deepen one?s deliberation of life through making clear a latent part of a phenomenon, but also 2) ‘Assent-Dissent Discussion?, that creates a new concept through ‘Sublation-Aufheben? of disagreement opinions between different fields, are very effective. Furthermore, opportunity of experience to social contribution at one?sown risk, together with this training system, will bring more practicable ability and will to the students and engineers.

  15. Cold-air investigation of a 31/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 2: Performance of 2-, 3- and 3 1/2-stage configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The stage work distribution among the three stages was very close to the design value. The specific work output-mass flow characteristics of the three stages were closely matched. The efficiency of the 3 1/2 stage turbine at design specific work output and design speed was within 0.008 of the estimated value, and this agreement was felt to demonstrate the adequacy of the prediction method in the high stage loading factor regime.

  16. Stratigraphy and stage boundaries in reference sections of the Upper Cretaceous Chalk in the east of the Paris Basin: the “Craie 700” Provins boreholes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Robaszynski; Bernard Pomerol; Edwige Masure; Jean-Pierre Bellier; Jean-François Deconinck

    2005-01-01

    The Provins boreholes (Poigny: Craie 701, and Sainte-Colombe: Craie 702) drilled in 1999 as part of the “Craie 700” project initiated by the Paris Basin Geologists' Association provide reference sections for the Upper Cretaceous of the eastern part of the Paris Basin. The lithology of the Cretaceous drilled at Poigny and Sainte-Colombe is presented in two logs displaying major litho-events

  17. Analysis of the capabilities of a two-stage turbocharging system to fulfil the US2007 anti-pollution directive for heavy duty diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Serrano; F. J. Arnau; V. Dolz; A. Tiseira; M. Lejeune; N. Auffret

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a two-stage turbocharged heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine designed to fulfil the US2007 anti-pollution\\u000a directive. This directive imposes very restrictive limits on the NOx and particle emissions of HDD engines. In this work,\\u000a the possibility of combining particle traps in the exhaust line to reduce soot emissions with very high EGR rates to reduce\\u000a NOx emissions is considered.

  18. Comparison of NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products with constraints from high quality and density of raingauge networks in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Xie; X. Wang

    2006-01-01

    NEXRAD's Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) product replaced the Stage III product started in October 2003 at the West Gulf River Forecast Center (WGRFC) where includes most of the Texas and New Mexico. The MPE is an integrated product of rain gauge, NEXRAD, and satellite (GOES) precipitation estimates. The main objective of MPE is to reduce both areal-mean bias error and

  19. Upper cylinder area lubrication system

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.A.

    1988-05-24

    An upper cylinder area lubrication system for an internal combustion engine, comprising: conduit means connected to the upper cylinder area of an internal combustion engine for introducing lubricant thereto, lubricant supply means including a reservoir for containing a lubricant suitable for introduction to the upper cylinder area of the internal combustion engine, and an electric pump connected to the reservoir and the conduit means, and timer means for automatically and alternately operating the pump on for relatively short periods of time and off for relatively long periods of time while the internal combustion engine is running.

  20. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper State Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program s transportation system.

  1. Stage Separation Performance Analysis Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Zhang, Sijun; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    Stage separation process is an important phenomenon in multi-stage launch vehicle operation. The transient flowfield coupled with the multi-body systems is a challenging problem in design analysis. The thermodynamics environment with burning propellants during the upper-stage engine start in the separation processes adds to the complexity of the-entire system. Understanding the underlying flow physics and vehicle dynamics during stage separation is required in designing a multi-stage launch vehicle with good flight performance. A computational fluid dynamics model with the capability to coupling transient multi-body dynamics systems will be a useful tool for simulating the effects of transient flowfield, plume/jet heating and vehicle dynamics. A computational model using generalize mesh system will be used as the basis of this development. The multi-body dynamics system will be solved, by integrating a system of six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with high accuracy. Multi-body mesh system and their interactions will be modeled using parallel computing algorithms. Adaptive mesh refinement method will also be employed to enhance solution accuracy in the transient process.

  2. Post-disposal orbital evolution of satellites and upper stages used by the GPS and GLONASS navigation constellations: The long-term impact on the Medium Earth Orbit environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    The long-term evolution and environmental impact in MEO of all the abandoned spacecraft and upper stages associated with the GPS and GLONASS navigation constellations were analyzed. The orbits of the disposed objects, as of 1 May 2011, were propagated for 200 years and snapshots of their evolving distribution were obtained, together with an estimation of the changing collision probability with the spacecraft of the operational navigation systems existing or planned in MEO, i.e., GLONASS, GPS, Beidou and Galileo. The probability that the abandoned objects considered will collide with the operational spacecraft of the navigation constellations is very low, even taking into account the intrinsic eccentricity instability of the disposal orbits. Assuming the present or envisaged configuration of the constellations in MEO, the probability of collision, integrated over 200 years, would be <1/300 with a GLONASS spacecraft, <1/15,000 with a GPS or Beidou spacecraft, and <1/250,000 with a Galileo spacecraft. The worst disposal strategy consists in abandoning satellites and upper stages close to the altitude of the operational constellation (GLONASS), while a re-orbiting a few hundred km away (GPS) is able to guarantee an effective long-term dilution of the collision risk, irrespective of the eccentricity instability due to geopotential and luni-solar perturbations. The disposal strategies applied so far to the GPS satellites should be able to guarantee for at least a few centuries a sustainable MEO environment free of collisions among intact objects. Consequently, there would be no need to adopt disposal schemes targeting also the optimal value of the eccentricity vector. However, it should be pointed out that the GPS disposal strategy was devised well in advance of the Beidou constellation announcement, so most of the abandoned satellites were re-orbited fairly close to the altitude of the new Chinese system. A new re-orbiting approach will be therefore needed in the future.

  3. Performance of a 13-Stage Development Compressor for the J40-WE-24 Engine at Equivalent Speeds from 30 to 112 Percent of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatch, James E.; Lucas, James G.; Finger, Harold B.

    1953-01-01

    The performance of a 13-stage development comressor for the J40-WE-24 engine has been determined at equivalent speeds from 30 to 112 percent of design. The design total-pressure ratio of 6.0 and the design weight flow of 164 pounds per second were not attained, An analysis was conducted to determine the reasons for the poor performance at the design and over-design speed. The analysis indicated that most of the difficulty could be attributed to the fact that the first stage was overcompromised to favor part-speed performance,

  4. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization is progressing. Data on reservoir production rate and pressure history at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been tabulated, and porosity data from core analysis has been correlated with porosity as observed from well log response. Data integration is on schedule, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database for reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation for the reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs for each of these fields.

  5. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been essentially completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The model represents an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic model served as the framework for the simulations. A technology workshop on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields was conducted to transfer the results of the project to the petroleum industry.

  6. Combustion Engineering two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow coal-gasification-process development-unit program. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Darling; R. W. Koucky; M. C. Tanca

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design, construct and operate a two-stage, atmospheric-pressure, entrained-flow, low-Btu coal-gasification-process development unit (PDU) having a capacity of 5 tons\\/h of coal. The program was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. The objectives of the program were: (1) to demonstrate the capability and suitability of

  7. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parchaso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

  8. Towards a standard upper ontology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Niles; Adam Pease

    2001-01-01

    The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) is an upper levelontology that has been proposed as a starter document for TheStandard Upper Ontology Working Group, an IEEE-sanctioned workinggroup of collaborators from the fields of engineering, philosophy,and information science. The SUMO provides definitions forgeneral-purpose terms and acts as a foundation for more specificdomain ontologies. In this paper we outline the strategy used

  9. SLS Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Holladay, Jon; Jones, Davey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Provide an overview of SLS DUUS type capability requirements to provide context for possible International Partner collaboration. Addition of a DUUS would greatly increase exploration mission capture and performance margin for cis-Lunar and Near Earth System exploration campaigns.

  10. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  11. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, S. K.; Sefcik, R. J.; Fittje, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B. G; Werner, J.; Weitzberg, A.; Joyner, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In FY'11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program A strategy was outlined by GRC and NASA HQ that included 2 key elements -"Foundational Technology Development" followed by specific "Technology Demonstration" projects. The "Technology Demonstration "element proposed ground technology demonstration (GTD) testing in the early 2020's, followed by a flight technology demonstration (FTD) mission by approx. 2025. In order to reduce development costs, the demonstration projects would focus on developing a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 -16.5 klb(f)) engine that utilizes a "common" fuel element design scalable to the higher thrust (approx. 25 klb(f)) engines used in NASA's Mars DRA 5.0 study(NASA-SP-2009-566). Besides reducing development costs and allowing utilization of existing, flight proven engine hard-ware (e.g., hydrogen pumps and nozzles), small, lower thrust ground and flight demonstration engines can validate the technology and offer improved capability -increased payloads and decreased transit times -valued for robotic science missions identified in NASA's Decadal Study.

  12. Two stage turbine for rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  13. Parametric and exergetic analysis of a two-stage transcritical combined organic Rankine cycle used for multiple grades waste heat recovery of diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H.; Zhang, J.; Xu, X. F.; Shu, G. Q.; Wei, H. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel engine has multiple grades of waste heat with different ratios of combustion heat, exhaust is 400 °C with the ratio of 21% and coolant is 90 °C with 19%. Few previous publications investigate the recovery of multiple grades waste heat together. In this paper, a two-stage transcritical combined organic rankine cycle (CORC) is presented and analyzed. In the combined system, the high and low temperature stages transcritical cycle recover the high grades waste heat, and medium to low grades waste heat respectively, and being combined efficiently. Meanwhile, the suitable working fluids for high stage are chosen and analyzed. The cycle parameters, including thermal efficiency (?th), net power output (Pnet), energy efficiency (?exg) and global thermal efficiency of DE-CORC(?glo) have also been analyzed and optimized. The results indicate that this combined system could recover all the waste heat with a high recovery ratio (above 90%) and obtain a maximum power output of 37kW for a DE of 243kW. The global thermal efficiency of DE-CORC can get a max value of 46.2% compared with 40% for single DE. The results also indicate that all the energy conversion process have a high exergy efficiency.

  14. Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Parreiras, Lucas S; Breuer, Rebecca J; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B; Bice, Benjamin D; Bonfert, Brandi L; Pinhancos, Rebeca C; Balloon, Allison J; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T; Simmons, Blake A; Hodge, David B; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P; Sato, Trey K

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

  15. J-2 Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Smokeless flame juts from the diffuser of a unique vacuum chamber in which the upper stage rocket engine, the hydrogen fueled J-2, was tested at a simulated space altitude in excess of 60,000 feet. The smoke you see is actually steam. In operation, vacuum is established by injecting steam into the chamber and is maintained by the thrust of the engine firing through the diffuser. The engine was tested in this environment for start, stop, coast, restart, and full-duration operations. The chamber was located at Rocketdyne's Propulsion Field Laboratory, in the Santa Susana Mountains, near Canoga Park, California. The J-2 engine was developed by Rocketdyne for the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC engine model. HYFIM performs the aerodynamic analysis of forebodies and inlet characteristics of RBCC powered SSTO launch vehicles. HYFIM is applicable to the analysis of the ramjet/scramjet engine operations modes (Mach 3-12), and provides estimates of parameters such as air capture area, shock-on-lip Mach number, design Mach number, compression ratio, etc., based on a basic geometry routine for modeling axisymmetric cones, 2-D wedge geometries. HYFIM also estimates the variation of shock layer properties normal to the forebody surface. The thermal protection system (TPS) is directly linked to determination of the vehicle moldline and the shaping of the trajectory. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. The need to analyze vehicle forebody and engine inlet is critical to be able to design the RBCC vehicle. To adequately determine insulation masses for an RBCC vehicle, the hypersonic aerodynamic environment and aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to reduce the TPS mass.

  17. Stage Separation Failure: Model Based Diagnostics and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Kulikov, Igor; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Hanson, John; Hill, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Safety of the next-generation space flight vehicles requires development of an in-flight Failure Detection and Prognostic (FD&P) system. Development of such system is challenging task that involves analysis of many hard hitting engineering problems across the board. In this paper we report progress in the development of FD&P for the re-contact fault between upper stage nozzle and the inter-stage caused by the first stage and upper stage separation failure. A high-fidelity models and analytical estimations are applied to analyze the following sequence of events: (i) structural dynamics of the nozzle extension during the impact; (ii) structural stability of the deformed nozzle in the presence of the pressure and temperature loads induced by the hot gas flow during engine start up; and (iii) the fault induced thrust changes in the steady burning regime. The diagnostic is based on the measurements of the impact torque. The prognostic is based on the analysis of the correlation between the actuator signal and fault-induced changes in the nozzle structural stability and thrust.

  18. Frequently asked questions about rocket engine reliability programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Silke; T. Jackson

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the Atlas Reliability Enhancement Program (AREP) was to improve the reliability of the Atlas IIA Launch Vehicle without degrading its performance. This objective was achieved by developing an electronically enhanced rocket engine, the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) RL1OE-1, for the Centaur Upper Stage. Less than three years after AREP began, the USAF terminated the program halfway through

  19. Cancer Staging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over time. They continue to change as scientists learn more about cancer. Some staging systems cover many ... cancer treatment summaries that describe the staging of adult and childhood cancers. Information about cancer staging can ...

  20. Static and wind-on tests of an upper-surface-blown jet-flap nozzle arrangement for use on the Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, A. E., III

    1977-01-01

    The internal aerodynamic performance, the static turning characteristics, and the forward-speed characteristics of two 1/12-scale upper surface-blown jet-flap exhaust-nozzle arrangements designed for use on the Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) were investigated. The nozzles were equipped with interchangeable area-control side doors in the aft sidewalls of the nozzle so that the effective nozzle area could be varied over a wide range. A simulated wing was used to evaluate installation losses for the nozzles. A smoothly curved flap was attached to the trailing edge of the simulated wing to allow an evaluation of the static turning characteristics of the nozzle arrangement. Forward-speed effects on the jet turning characteristics of the QCSEE nozzles were evaluated by mounting a single engine on a semispan wing designed to be representative of a four-engine STOL transport configuration.

  1. Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theil, Elvira

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

  2. Surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Vincent G.; Kanagarajah, Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Upper tract urothelial cell carcinoma accounts for 5% of all urothelial tumors. Compared to lower urinary tract tumors, upper tract urothelial carcinoma is diagnosed more frequently at advanced stages. Open radical nephroureterectomy remains the gold standard treatment option for upper tract tumors. However, with the advancement of minimally invasive techniques and the benefits of these procedures regarding perioperative morbidity, cosmesis, and earlier convalescence, these options have shown promise in managing the patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Despite the perioperative advantages, concerns exist on the oncological safety after minimally invasive surgery. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. PMID:21716884

  3. One-stage tissue engineering of bladder wall patches for an easy-to-use approach at the surgical table.

    PubMed

    Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Zeiai, Said; Rojas, Ramiro; Fossum, Magdalena; Hilborn, Jöns

    2013-09-01

    We present a method for producing a cell-scaffold hybrid construct at the bedside. The construct is composed of plastic-compressed collagen together with a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)-knitted mesh that yields an integrated, natural-synthetic scaffold. This construct was evaluated by seeding of minced bladder mucosa, followed by proliferation in vitro. High mechanical strength in combination with a biological environment suitable for tissue growth was achieved through the creation of a hybrid construct that showed an increased tensile strength (17.9 ± 2.6?MPa) when compared to plastic-compressed collagen (0.6 ± 0.12?MPa). Intimate contact between the collagen and the PCL fabric was required to ensure integrity without delamination of the construct. This contact was achieved by surface alkaline hydrolysis of the PCL, followed by adsorption of poly(vinyl) alcohol. The improvement in hydrophilicity of the PCL-knitted mesh was confirmed through water contact angle measurements, and penetration of the collagen into the mesh was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particles of minced bladder mucosa tissue were seeded onto this scaffold, and the proliferation was followed for 6 weeks in vitro. Results obtained from phase contrast microscopy, SEM, and histological staining indicated that cells migrated from the minced tissue particles and reorganized on the scaffold. Cells were viable and proliferative, with morphological features characteristic of urothelial cells. Proliferation reached the point at which a multilayer with a resemblance to stratified urothelium was achieved. This successful method could potentially be used for in vivo applications in reconstructive urology as an engineered autologous tissue transplant without the requirement for in vitro culture before transplantation. PMID:23327166

  4. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  5. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ding, Shi-You; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Yang, Shihui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has led to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, ?-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/?-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional ?-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (?-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. The implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed. PMID:26029221

  6. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ding, Shi-You; Ciesielski, Peter N; Yang, Shihui; Tucker, Melvin P; Himmel, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has led to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, ?-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/?-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional ?-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (?-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. The implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed. PMID:26029221

  7. Cardiovascular risk and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis: sleep study, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life: a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. Methods/Design A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height2; circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. Discussion CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC RBR-7yhr4w and World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number UTN: U1111-1127-9390 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-7yhr4w/]). PMID:24103561

  8. Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Pook

    \\u000a Pendulums are an essential component of some engineering structures. Three of these are described in this chapter. These are\\u000a the Watt steam governor, cable cars, and tension leg platforms. The Watt steam governor was invented by James Watt to regulate\\u000a the supply of steam to his steam engines and hence keep the speed reasonably constant, irrespective of the load. It

  9. Conceptual design of two-stage-to-orbit hybrid launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The object of this design class was to design an earth-to orbit vehicle to replace the present NASA space shuttle. The major motivations for designing a new vehicle were to reduce the cost of putting payloads into orbit and to design a vehicle that could better service the space station with a faster turn-around time. Another factor considered in the design was that near-term technology was to be used. Materials, engines and other important technologies were to be realized in the next 10 to 15 years. The first concept put forth by NASA to meet these objectives was the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The NASP is a single-stage earth-to-orbit air-breathing vehicle. This concept ran into problems with the air-breathing engine providing enough thrust in the upper atmosphere, among other things. The solution of this design class is a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The first stage is air-breathing and the second stage is rocket-powered, similar to the space shuttle. The second stage is mounted on the top of the first stage in a piggy-back style. The vehicle takes off horizontally using only air-breathing engines, flies to Mach six at 100,000 feet, and launches the second stage towards its orbital path. The first stage, or booster, will weigh approximately 800,000 pounds and the second stage, or orbiter will weigh approximately 300,000 pounds. The major advantage of this design is the full recoverability of the first stage compared with the present solid rocket booster that are only partially recoverable and used only a few times. This reduces the cost as well as providing a more reliable and more readily available design for servicing the space station. The booster can fly an orbiter up, turn around, land, refuel, and be ready to launch another orbiter in a matter of hours.

  10. Metallurgical Investigation of Cracked Adaptor Welded to Cryogenic Dump Coolant Line of Engine Test Stand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhay K. Jha; K. Sreekumar; P. P. Sinha

    2010-01-01

    In the upper stages of satellite launch vehicles, a cryogenic propulsion system is used because of its high specific impulse.\\u000a Such stages were tested for qualification using ground hot test facility. During one of the hot tests, the stainless steel\\u000a adaptor welded to the engine dump coolant line, and used for accommodating temperature sensors, broke away from the tube.\\u000a The

  11. CIVIL ENGINEERING PREREQUISITE SUMMARY Note: BSCE candidate means that you have been admitted to upper division. CE enrolled means you are listed

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    cand. CE 4256 Design of Water & Waste Water Treatment Plants CE 3025 CE 4257 Municipal Waste Management and 1154, CE 3221, BSCE cand. CE 3026 Project Management None CE 3027 Infrastructure Materials CE 2017 4126, 4115 CE 4215 Hydraulic Design CE 3225 CE 4226 Water Resources Engineering CE 3225 CE 4237 Water

  12. Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Steidel, R.F. Jr.

    1984-05-07

    Progress in the demonstration of the feasibility of hybrid staging in geothermal energy conversion is described, particularly processes involving the Lysholm engine. The performance limitations of the Lysholm engine were studied. (MHR)

  13. Combustion model for staged circulating fluidized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jianhua; Lu, Qinggang; Wang, Bo; Pan, Zhonggang; Wang, Dasan

    1997-03-01

    A mathematical model for atmospheric staged circulating fluidized bed combustion, which takes fluid dynamics, combustion, heat transfer, pollutants formation and retention, into account was developed in the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics (IET) recently. The model of gas solid flow at the bottom of the combustor was treated by the two-phase theory of fluidized bed and in the upper region as a core-annulus flow structure. The chemical species CO, CO2, H2, H2O, CH4, O2 and N2 were considered in the reaction process. The mathematical model consisted of sub-models of fluid namics, coal heterogeneous and gas homogeneous chemical reactions, heat transfer, particle fragmentation and attrition, mass and energy balance etc. The developed code was applied to simulate an operating staged circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler of early design and the results were in good agreement with the operating data. The main submodels and simulation results are given in this paper.

  14. Engineering Engineering

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

  15. Engine Gimbal Requirements for Ground Testing of J-2X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalcik, Julia; Leahy, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Apollo-era J-2 that powered the second and third stages of the Saturn V, the current J-2X is the liquid hydrogen and oxygen high-altitude rocket engine in development for both the Ares I Upper Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage. During my summer 2009 internship, J-2X was at a stage in its design maturity where verification testing needed to be considered for the benefit of adequate test facility preparation. My task was to focus on gimbal requirements and gimbal related hot-fire test plans. Facility capabilities were also of interest, specifically for hot-fire testing slated to occur at test stands A-1, A-2, and A-3 at Stennis Space Center(SSC) in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Gimbal requirements and stage interface conditions were investigated by applying a top-to-bottom systems engineering approach, which involved system level requirements, engine level requirements from both government and engine contractor perspectives, component level requirements, and the J-2X to Upper Stage and Earth Departure Stage interface control documents. Previous hydrogen and oxygen liquid rocket engine gimbal verification methods were researched for a glimpse at lessons learned. Discussion among the J-2X community affected by gimballing was organized to obtain input relative to proper verification of their respective component. Implementing suggestions such as gimbal pattern, angulated dwell time, altitude testing options, power level, and feed line orientation, I was able to match tests to test stands in the A Complex at SSC. Potential test capability gaps and risks were identified and pursued. The culmination of all these efforts was to coordinate with SSC to define additional facility requirements for both the A-3 altitude test stand that is currently under construction and the A-1 sea level test stand which is being renovated

  16. System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

  17. Intertonguing of the Lower Part of the Uinta Formation with the Upper Part of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin During the Late Stages of Lake Uinta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnell, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During most of middle Eocene time, a 1,500-mi2 area between the Colorado and White Rivers in northwestern Colorado was occupied by the Piceance lobe of Lake Uinta. This initially freshwater lake became increasingly saline throughout its history. Sediments accumulating in the lake produced mostly clay shale, limestone, and dolomite containing varying concentrations of organic matter. At the time of the maximum extent of the lake, the organic-rich Mahogany bed of the Green River Formation was deposited throughout the area. Shortly after its deposition, stream deposits began infilling the lake from the north through a series of contractions interspersed with minor expansions. This fluctuation of the shoreline resulted in the intertonguing of the stream sediments of the lower part of the overlying Uinta Formation with the lacustrine sediments of the upper part of the Green River over a distance of about 40 mi; construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections show the pattern of intertonguing in considerable detail. The data utilized in this study, which covered parts of Rio Blanco, Garfield, and Mesa counties, was derived from (1) geologic mapping of thirty-four 7 1/2-minute quadrangles and stratigraphic studies by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey, and (2) shale-oil assay information from numerous cores. As a result of this previous work and the additional effort involved in the compilation here presented, more than a dozen Green River Formation tongues have been named, some formally, others informally. Middle Eocene strata above the Mahogany bed in the northern part of the study area are dominantly coarse clastics of the Uinta Formation. The sedimentary sequence becomes more calcareous and organic-rich to the south where, in a 400-mi2 area, a 250 ft-thick sequence of oil shale above the Mahogany bed contains an average of 16 gallons of oil per ton of shale and is estimated to contain 73 billion barrels of oil.

  18. Transfer orbit stage (TOS) guidance and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Stuart; Marshall H. Kaplan; Randall E. Coffey; Thomas W. White

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the strap-down, ring laser gyro-based guidance and control system of the current Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) family of orbital transfer vehicles being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation. The paper begins with a summary review of the key features and guidance and control approaches used by that employed by the TOS family of upper stages. The TOS system

  19. Determining criteria for single stage to orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    The criteria for single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles are determined. The Saturn 5 launch vehicle and Space Shuttle are examined to validate the assumptions and results. This velocity is then used to determine if the selected vehicle can achieve orbit and calculate its payload capacity. The Saturn 5 launch vehicle with the following stages is examined: (1) second stage (S2) with Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME); (2) second stage (S2) with J2 engines; (3) third stage (S4B) with SSME; and (4) third stage (S4B) with J2 engines. The Space Shuttle with the following configurations is examined: (1) external tank with SSME; (2) external tank with J2 engines; and (3) Atlas rocket booster (current configuration).

  20. Reliability analysis of forty-five strain-gage systems mounted on the first fan stage of a YF-100 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, R.; Frause, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of 45 state-of-the-art strain gage systems under full scale engine testing was investigated. The flame spray process was used to install 23 systems on the first fan rotor of a YF-100 engine; the others were epoxy cemented. A total of 56 percent of the systems failed in 11 hours of engine operation. Flame spray system failures were primarily due to high gage resistance, probably caused by high stress levels. Epoxy system failures were principally erosion failures, but only on the concave side of the blade. Lead-wire failures between the blade-to-disk jump and the control room could not be analyzed.

  1. Multiple angle single stage scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Ostlie, L.

    1982-02-02

    A scrubber for cleansing flue gases is disclosed. The scrubber includes a housing which defines a channel. The channel includes a scrubber stage wherein vertically spaced rows of deflecting members of l-shaped cross-section are disposed. In a given row of deflecting members, a plurality of flow paths are defined between horizontally adjacent deflecting members. Each deflecting member has an upper arm and a lower arm. The lowermost edge of the lower arms of the deflecting members in one row are disposed between vertical projections from the uppermost edges of upper arms of deflecting members in a row below the last mentioned row.

  2. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  3. Quantum Adversary (Upper) Bound

    E-print Network

    Kimmel, Shelby

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for upper bounding the general adversary bound for certain boolean functions. Due to the the tightness of query complexity and the general adversary bound \\cite{Lee2010}, this gives an upper bound on the quantum query complexity of those functions. We give an example where this upper bound is smaller than the query complexity of any known quantum algorithm.

  4. Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Koukourakis, Michael; Pistevou-Gobaki, Kiriaki; Papaloukas, Christos; Kostakopoulos, Athanasios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract represents only 5% of all urothelial cancers. The 5-year cancer-specific survival in the United States is roughly 75% with grade and stage being the most powerful predictors of survival. Nephroureterectomy with excision of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice and bladder cuff en bloc remains the gold standard treatment of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, while endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches are rapidly evolving as reasonable alternatives of care depending on grade and stage of disease. Several controversies remain in their management, including a selection of endoscopic versus laparoscopic approaches, management strategies on the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the value of chemotherapy in upper tract disease. Aims of this paper are to critically review the management of such tumors, including endoscopic management, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and management of the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the emerging role of chemotherapy in their treatment. PMID:19096525

  5. Multi-stage Continuous Culture Fermentation of Glucose-Xylose Mixtures to Fuel Ethanol using Genetically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-stage continuous (chemostat) culture fermentation (MCCF) with variable fermentor volumes was carried out to study utilizing glucose and xylose for ethanol production by means of mixed sugar fermentation (MSF). Variable fermentor volumes were used to enable enhanced sugar u...

  6. Mountain Stage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

  7. J STAGE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by the Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), J-STAGE (The Japan Science and Technology Aggregator, Electronic) is a recently launched electronic journal center that publishes and disseminates Japanese electronic scientific journals. At present, the site hosts four journals (one of which is Japanese only), but expects to add over a hundred in the near future. The three available English-language journals include the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, the Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, and SHIGEN-TO-SOZAI, a journal of the Mining and Materials Processing Institute of Japan. The full-text articles are available free of charge with searchable back issues also available.

  8. Advantages of using the Ate A 20 kN high performance storable propellant engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmnas, Ulf; Hanneback, Thomas

    This paper tries with simple examples to point out the benefits of a turbopump fed storable engine/stage for low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous transfer orbit/geosynchronous Earth orbit (GTO/GEO) missions. A comparison is made between pump/pressure fed storable, cryogenic, and solid stages. A table is also presented with mass benefits based on Ariane 5, Titan 4, H-II and a 'spaceplane' performance in LEO orbit. Volvo has studied such a turbopumpfed storable engine/stage called ATE (Advanced Technology Engine) with other European companies. The thrust of this engine is 20 kN and the ISP is 345 s. Volvos contribution has been on the engine system level as well as on design of the turbopump and nozzle. Typical applications for the ATE and similar engines (XLR-132) for an Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OPM, OTV) or for long duration scientific missions with large propulsion needs. For Europe, the ATE is also a possible choice for a new upper stage for the Ariane 5. If the ATE is used for LEO to GEO missions instead of pressurefed engine, the payload gain would be about 800 kg for both the Ariane 5 and Titan IV class. There is also a 20% returned mass increase for using the ATE for the scientific mission of returning a sample from a comet. The second part in this paper highlights the design of the ATE engine.

  9. Non-Toxic Orbital Maneuvering System Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Christopher; Claflin, Scott; Maeding, Chris; Butas, John

    1999-01-01

    Recent results using the Aestus engine operated with LOx/ethanol propellant are presented. An experimental program at Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power is underway to adapt this engine for the Boeing Reusable Space Systems Division non-toxic Orbital Maneuvering System/Reaction control System (OMS/RCS) system. Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace designed the Aestus as an nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) upper-stage engine for the Ariane 5. The non-toxic OMS/RCS system's preliminary design requires a LOx/ethanol (O2/C2H5OH) engine that operates with a mixture ratio of 1.8, a specific impulse of 323 seconds, and fits within the original OMS design envelope. This paper describes current efforts to meet these requirements including, investigating engine performance using LOx/ethanol, developing the en-ine system sizing package, and meeting the vehicle operation parameters. Data from hot-fire testing are also presented and discussed.

  10. Let the Volgian stage stay in the Jurassic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Zakharov; M. A. Rogov

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 the Volgian Stage was divided into the Jurassic and Cretaceous units, removed from the Geological Time Scale, and substituted by the Tithonian Stage according to the guidelines of the Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Committee of the Russian Federation (ISC RF). Consequently, the Upper Volgian Substage including three zones (five subzones) was placed into the Berriasian Stage (the Cretaceous) proceeding from

  11. Design and analysis report for the RL10-2B breadboard low thrust engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. R.; Foust, R. R.; Galler, D. E.; Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.; Limerick, C. D.; Peckham, R. J.; Swartwout, T.

    1984-01-01

    The breadboard low thrust RL10-2B engine is described. A summary of the analysis and design effort to define the multimode thrust concept applicable to the requirements for the upper stage vehicles is provided. Baseline requirements were established for operation of the RL10-2B engine under the following conditions: (1) tank head idle at low propellant tank pressures without vehicle propellant conditioning or settling thrust; (2) pumped idle at a ten percent thrust level for low G deployment and/or vehicle tank pressurization; and (3) full thrust (15,000 lb.). Several variations of the engine configuration were investigated and results of the analyses are included.

  12. Engineering Engineering

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    of global poverty and sustainability". An ESW course, offered by Civil & Environmental Engineering, teaches pride in us- ing a systems engineering approach. Contributions from students in CS, ECE, and MAE of Engineering and offers two undergrad degrees there: Computer Science and Information Science, Systems

  13. 19. UPPER PART OF WEST SIDE, AND WESTERNMOST PART OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. UPPER PART OF WEST SIDE, AND WESTERNMOST PART OF SOUTH SIDE, FROM A BOOM LIFT. (PANORAMA 1/2) - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  14. 20. UPPER PART OF SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. UPPER PART OF SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST TO THE OAKLAND HILLS. (PANORAMA 2 OF 2). - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  15. Inertial Upper Stage Redundant Inertial Measurement Unit space performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, R. A.; Morrison, G. E. S.; Peters, R. C.

    Hardware and software on the redundant inertial navigation system (RINS) and redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU) for the IUS are detailed. The system carries sufficient redundancy so that the failure of any specific component cannot jeopardize successful functioning. Malfunctions or erroneous measurements are detected by a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which reroutes processing pathways away from the defective area. Inertial measurements sensors have quintuple redundance, and the RIMU monitors performance by means of a series of threshold checks on the magnitude of parity vectors formed by gyroscope and accelerometer data. The parity is checked 50 times/sec. Failure of a sensor to reach parity with other sensors causes removal of the sensor's signals from control pathways.

  16. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy is required. a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point. the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating, boil-off losses.

  17. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    2001-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space, and would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray-bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray-bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger, and a spray-bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses.

  18. SolSTUS: Solar Source Thermal Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper was written by members of the Utah State University (USU) Space Systems Design class, fall quarter 1993. The class is funded by NASA and administered by the University Space Research Association (USRA). The focus of the class is to give students some experience in design of space systems and as a source of original ideas for NASA. This paper is a summary of the work done by members of the Space Systems Design class during the opening phase of the course. The class was divided into groups to work on different areas of the Solar Thermal Rocket (STR) booster in order to produce a design reference mission that would identify the key design issues. The design reference mission focused upon a small satellite mission to Mars. There are several critical components in a Solar Thermal Rocket. STR's produce a very low thrust, but have a high specific impulse, meaning that they take longer to reach the desired orbit, but use a lot less fuel in doing it. The complexity of the rocket is discussed in this paper. Some of the more critical design problems discussed are: (1) the structural and optical complexity of collecting and focusing sunlight onto a specific point, (2) long term storage of fuel (liquid hydrogen), (3) attitude control while thrusting in an elliptical orbit and orienting the mirrors to collect sunlight, and (4) power and communications for the rocket and it's internal systems. The design reference mission discussed here is a very general mission to Mars. A first order trajectory design has been done and a possible basic science payload for Mars has been suggested. This paper summarizes the design reference mission (DRM) formulated by the USU students during fall quarter and identifies major design challenges that will confront the design team during the next two quarters here at USU.

  19. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Ravex; Robin Flachbart; Barney Holt

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid\\/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical

  20. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6.89 kPa (1psi) band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Complete destratification of the liquid and ullage was achieved at these fill levels. The axial jet was effective in providing tank pressure control within the same pressure control band at the 90% fill level. However, at the 50% level, the system reached a point at which it was unable to extract enough energy to keep up with the heat leak into the tank. Due to a hardware problem, the recirculation pump operated well below the axial jet design flow rate. Therefore, it is likely that the performance of the axial jet would have improved had the pump operated at the proper flow rate. A CFD model is being used to determine if the desired axial jet performance would be achieved if a higher pump flow rate were available. Testing conducted thus far has demonstrated that both TVS concepts can be effective in destratifying a propellant tank, rejecting stored heat energy, and thus, controlling tank pressure.

  1. Upper Yosemite Falls

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In this image, Upper Yosemite Falls may be seen. Upper Yosemite Falls is the highest of the three sectiosn of Yosemite Falls. It is about 1,430 ft (440 m) high. Yosemite Falls is one of the most famous waterfalls within Yosemite National Park....

  2. A transient model of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    RL10A-3-3A rocket engines have served as the main propulsion system for Centaur upper stage vehicles since the early 1980's. This hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine continues to play a major role in the American launch industry. The Space Propulsion Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center has created a computer model of the RL10 engine, based on detailed component analyses and available test data. This RL10 engine model can predict the performance of the engine over a wide range of operating conditions. The model may also be used to predict the effects of any proposed design changes and anticipated failure scenarios. In this paper, the results of the component analyses are discussed. Simulation results from the new system model are compared with engine test and flight data, including the start and shut-down transient characteristics.

  3. Orbiter Trajectory Analysis for a Two-Stage Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowling, Adam L.

    2011-01-01

    Trajectory analysis performed on NASA's reference two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle upper stage will be presented. The work was completed in support of the Hypersonics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization effort for the NASA-Air Force Joint System Study. Three degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) untrimmed trajectory analysis was performed for the orbiter ascent, closure and re-entry. An iterative closure process resulted in a 333,000 lb initial mass for the orbiter. The re-entry trajectory satisfied heating constraints for all payload out cases and met the constraints with reduced margins for payload in cases. Abort trajectories for engine out at staging, engine out during ascent, and failure to circularize in orbit, gave insight to the robustness of the orbiter. A trimmed ascent trajectory defined an engine gimbal location and the body flap angle best suited for maximizing injected mass. A trimmed re-entry trajectory revealed a need to update the trim routine to accommodate full flap aerodynamic data.

  4. The upper intertidal zone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-04

    The upper intertidal zone is exposed most of the time and will become submerged only during high tide. This zone is least abundant of the intertidal zones but contains some mollusks, barnacles, and other animals adapted to avoid drying out.

  5. The upper intertidal zone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

    2007-06-08

    The upper intertidal zone is exposed most of the time and will become submerged only during high tide. This zone is least abundant of the intertidal zones but contains some mollusks, barnacles, and other animals adapted to avoid drying out.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

  7. Upper Airway Mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan A. Verbraecken; Wilfried A. De Backer

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiological aspects of sleep-disordered breathing, with focus on upper airway mechanics in obstructive and central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. These disorders constitute the end points of a spectrum with distinct yet interrelated mechanisms that lead to substantial pathology, i.e. increased upper airway collapsibility, control of breathing instability, increased work of breathing, disturbed

  8. 49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  9. 50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  10. Draft Inventory Upper Snake Province

    E-print Network

    Draft Inventory Upper Snake Province Submitted To The Northwest Power and Conservation Council ...........................................................................................................1 Bonneville Power Administration Funded Projects within the Upper Snake Province Needed Future Actions within the Upper Snake Subbasin.........................22 Needed Future Actions

  11. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. PMID:23101609

  12. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 121 Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEE)

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 121 Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEE) *Available for general education credit. The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers an upper- division curriculum which leads to a B.S. in mechanical engineering. The curriculum is based on a strong foundation of fundamental

  13. 114 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEE)

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    114 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEE) *Available for general education credit. The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers an upper- division curriculum which leads to a B.S. in mechanical engineering. The curriculum is based on a strong foundation of fundamental

  14. Mathematics and Engineering

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    foundation makes them versatile, adaptable, and confident in tackling new problems. Mathematics the globe. The upper-level undergraduate courses in the applied mathematics curriculum put me on parMathematics and Engineering Applied Mechanics Computing and Communications Control

  15. Esophageal Cancer Staging

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer. PMID:26078921

  16. Staging of neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters and 10 case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: Metastatic Disease to the Thorax, CT Staging of Esophageal Carcinoma, CT Staging of Renal Carcinoma, CT Staging of Lymphoma, Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Initital Experience with MRI Staging of Neoplasms.

  17. Transfer orbit stage (TOS) guidance and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, James R.; Kaplan, Marshall H.; Coffey, Randall E.; White, Thomas W.

    This paper describes the strap-down, ring laser gyro-based guidance and control system of the current Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) family of orbital transfer vehicles being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation. The paper begins with a summary review of the key features and guidance and control approaches used by that employed by the TOS family of upper stages. The TOS system design overview is presented, covering the major subsystems and flight operations. The major components and functions of the TOS avionics system are described, highlighting the Laser Inertial Navigation System (LINS). The LINS components, operations, performance and reliability are discussed. The hardware and software redundancy and built-in-test failure detection techniques are examined. Finally, the paper discusses some future developments for the LINS and TOS family of upper stages.

  18. Progressive upper limb prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lake, Chris; Dodson, Robert

    2006-02-01

    The field of upper extremity prosthetics is a constantly changing arena as researchers and prosthetists strive to bridge the gap between prosthetic reality and upper limb physiology. With the further development of implantable neurologic sensing devices and targeted muscle innervation (discussed elsewhere in this issue), the challenge of limited input to control vast outputs promises to become a historical footnote in the future annals of upper limb prosthetics. Soon multidextrous terminal devices, such as that found in the iLimb system(Touch EMAS, Inc., Edinburgh, UK), will be a clinical reality (Fig. 22). Successful prosthetic care depends on good communication and cooperation among the surgeon, the amputee, the rehabilitation team, and the scientists harnessing the power of technology to solve real-life challenges. If the progress to date is any indication, amputees of the future will find their dreams limited only by their imagination. PMID:16517345

  19. Application of the integrated modular engine (IME) to space vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, John M.; Wakefield, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of integrated modular engines (IME) in space vehicles offers attractive benefits which include improved system reliability and fault tolerance, increased I(sp) and thrust/weight ratio, and improved operability and maintainability. This paper summarizes a study that was performed to define concepts for three cryogenic space vehicles incorporating the IME: a trans-lunar injection stage, a lunar lander, and an upper stage for a launch vehicle. The goals of the study were to quantify potential IME benefits, identify issues that must be addressed, and define the technical and programmatic actions required to develop the IME.

  20. Upper Level Engineering (ULE) Courses Electrical and Computer Engineering

    E-print Network

    Wong, Philip

    .326 Introduction to Optical Instrumentation (3) 520.401 Basic Communication (3) 520.410 Fiber Optics and Devices (3 Other Focus Area Courses (non-ULE) 110.405 Introduction to Real Analysis (4) 110.443 Fourier Analysis (4 Categories COURSE CATEGORIES Courses within the Imaging Focus Area are broadly categorized as: MEDICAL

  1. Upper atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, K. H.

    From 1960 until 1977 the Weapons Research Establishment (WRE) undertook research into determining the properties of the upper atmosphere by the use of sounding rockets fired from the Woomera rocket range. This Monograph describes the experiments which were conducted. The experiments were aimed at measuring the temperature, density, constituents, ionization, and motions of the upper atmosphere between 60 and 200 km, about which at that time little was known. Many of the experiments were conducted in collaboration with Australian and overseas universities and research institutes, this work is also described.

  2. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it important to know the stage of my lung cancer? Finding out the stage of your lung cancer ... you. How does staging differ between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)? ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA View/Download: Small: 612x612 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVB View/Download: Small: 594x640 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical Cancer Stage IA View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing shows a cross-section of the ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVA View/Download: Small: 756x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; ...

  7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE FIRST STAGE OF THE SATURN I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE FIRST STAGE OF THE SATURN I ROCKET, SHOWING A DETAIL VIEW OF THE ENGINE CLUSTER. THE SATURN I ROCKET WAS THE FIRST UNITED STATES ROCKET TO HAVE MULTIPLE ENGINES ON A SINGLE STAGE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. Kerosene ignition in a two-stage combustion process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Gruzdev; M. D. Tavger

    1985-01-01

    Two-stage combustion is widely used in technology - industrial equipment utilizing waste products of the petrochemical industry use the technique as do aircraft engine afterburners, igniters and pilot lights, forechamber automotive engines, etc. In designing equipment using twostage combustion each stage of the combustion is usually considered by the same method, the only difference being that combustion in the second

  9. Upper Atmosphere Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Friedman

    1970-01-01

    We are able to construct three-dimensional global models of the upper atmosphere (120 to 800 km) by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. We show that variation of conditions at the lower boundary, 120 km, affects the atmosphere only to about 200-km altitude. Differing results obtained by in situ satellite or rocket measurements in the 120- to

  10. 42. VIEW OF STAGE RECORDER AT END OF UPSTREAM GUIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF STAGE RECORDER AT END OF UPSTREAM GUIDE WALL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. (Several hours after this view was taken, the stage recorder was hit a~d heavily damaged by a grain barge.) - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  11. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  12. [Lymphedema of the lower limbs: CT staging].

    PubMed

    Marotel, M; Cluzan, R V; Pascot, M; Alliot, F; Lasry, J L

    2002-06-01

    Routinely performed, CT is useful and reliable for staging lower limb lymphedema. We describe methods we utilized. We found in frequency order: skin thickening, subcutaneous tissues area increase in regard the safe limb, perimuscular aponevrosis thickening, fat infiltration: lines parallel to the skin, edematous areas along perimuscular aponevrosis, lines perpendicular to the skin. The lowest fat density is increased on the pathologic side. Subfascial compartment is slightly fattened. We found huge differences between primary and secondary lymphedema for the thigh. Same images may be generated by old or young lymphedema. Rarely useful for positive diagnosis, CT is indispensable for secondary lymphedema staging (initial staging or after a recent increase). It seems us indispensable for any pretherapeutic staging (whole objectively disorders, exact upper limit, infraclinic bilaterality). PMID:12162203

  13. High Head Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert W.; Skelley, Stephen E.; Stewart, Eric T.; Droege, Alan R.; Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung; Williams, Morgan; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A team of engineers at NASA/MSFC and Boeing, Rocketdyne division, are developing unshrouded impeller technologies that will increase payload and decrease cost of future reusable launch vehicles. Using the latest analytical techniques and experimental data, a two-stage unshrouded fuel pump is being designed that will meet the performance requirements of a three-stage shrouded pump. Benefits of the new pump include lower manufacturing costs, reduced weight, and increased payload to orbit.

  14. ProteinEngineering:NewApproachesandApplications Protein Engineering: New

    E-print Network

    Regan, Lynne

    ProteinEngineering:NewApproachesandApplications Protein Engineering: New Approaches 06511, U.S.A. Abstract Protein engineering is at an exciting stage because designed protein trials. Although there have been many successes over the last decade, protein engineering still faces

  15. Altitude Testing of Large Liquid Propellant Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Bryon T.; Raines, Nickey G.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration entered a new age on January 14, 2004 with President Bush s announcement of the creation the Vision for Space Exploration that will take mankind back to the Moon and on beyond to Mars. In January, 2006, after two years of hard, dedicated labor, engineers within NASA and its contractor workforce decided that the J2X rocket, based on the heritage of the Apollo J2 engine, would be the new engine for the NASA Constellation Ares upper stage vehicle. This engine and vehicle combination would provide assured access to the International Space Station to replace that role played by the Space Shuttle and additionally, would serve as the Earth Departure Stage, to push the Crew Excursion Vehicle out of Earth Orbit and head it on a path for rendezvous with the Moon. Test as you fly, fly as you test was chosen to be the guiding philosophy and a pre-requisite for the engine design, development, test and evaluation program. An exhaustive survey of national test facility assets proved the required capability to test the J2X engine at high altitude for long durations did not exist so therefore, a high altitude/near space environment testing capability would have to be developed. After several agency concepts the A3 High Altitude Testing Facility proposal was selected by the J2X engine program on March 2, 2007 and later confirmed by a broad panel of NASA senior leadership in May 2007. This facility is to be built at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center located near Gulfport, Mississippi. 30 plus years of Space Shuttle Main Engine development and flight certification testing makes Stennis uniquely suited to support the Vision For Space Exploration Return to the Moon. Propellant handling infrastructure, engine assembly facilities, a trained and dedicated workforce and a broad and varied technical support base will all ensure that the A3 facility will be built on time to support the schedule needs of the J2X engine and the ultimate flight of the first Ares I vehicle. The A3 facility will be able to simulate pre-ignition altitude from sea-level to 100,000 feet and maintain it up to 650 seconds. Additionally the facility will be able to accommodate initial ignition, shutdown and then restart test profiles. A3 will produce up to 5000 lbm/sec of superheated steam utilizing a Chemical Steam generation system. Two separate inline steam ejectors will be used to produce a test cell vacuum to simulate the 100,000 ft required altitude. Operational capability will ensure that the facility can start up and shutdown without producing adverse pressure gradients across the J2X nozzle. The facility will have a modern thrust measurement system for accurate determination of engine performance. The latest advances in data acquisition and control will be incorporated to measure performance parameters during hotfire testing. Provisions are being made in the initial design of the new altitude facility to allow for testing of other, larger engines and potential upper stage launch vehicles that might require vacuum start testing of the engines. The new facility at Stennis Space Center will be complete and ready for hotfire operations in late 2010.

  16. Upper bound multigraphs for posets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry A. McKee

    1989-01-01

    The study of upper bound graphs of posets can be extended naturally to multigraphs. This paper characterizes such upper bound multigraphs, shows they determine the associated posets up to isomorphism, and extends results of D. Scott to characterize posets having chordal or interval upper bound multigraphs.

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows cancer in the cervix, the vagina, and ... that connect the kidneys to the bladder). The drawing shows the ureter on the right blocked by ...

  18. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  19. How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stage grouping to determine the stage, expressed in Roman numerals from stage I (the least advanced stage) ... adding letters and sometimes additional numbers to the Roman numerals. Stage I The cancer is only within ...

  20. Single stage rankine and cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, J.J.

    1981-10-13

    The specification describes a Rankine cycle power plant of the single stage type energized by gasified freon, the latter being derived from freon in the liquid state in a boiler provided in the form of a radio frequency heating cell adapted at low energy input to effect a rapid change of state from liquid freon at a given temperature and pressure to gaseous freon of relatively large volume, thereby to drive a Rankine cycle type of engine recognized in the prior art as a steam engine type of engine of the piston or turbine type.

  1. A technology data base for the design of 500 to 5000-lb thrust class liquid rocket engines utilizing hydrogen and oxygen as propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of experimental evaluations of candidate designs for igniters, injectors, and propellant-cooled thrust chambers applicable to restartable high-performance, high-reliability upper-stage engines and to pulsing-type reaction control engines (RCE). Injection element types best suited for liquid, gas, and liquid/gas phase propellant supply are identified. The resulting interactions between element type, combustion efficiency, and chamber wall heating are compared. The distinction between thrust chamber design requirements for upper stage vs RCE applications as measured by cycle life requirements is translated into design configurations consisting of all-film-cooled, all-regeneratively-cooled, and composites of the two cooling approaches. The validity of the design approaches is confirmed by data from engine durability testing involving over 90,000 starts and 9,000 thermal cycles on RCE-type designs and multiple long-duration burns (up to 2,000 sec) on regeneratively cooled upper-stage designs.

  2. Engineering Electrical &

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  3. Engineering Electrical &

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  4. Accurate Upper Bound Efficiency for Solar Thermal Power Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viorel Badescu

    2000-01-01

    A class of accurate upper bounds for the efficiency of converting solar energy into work was derived in this paper by taking into account (i) the irreversibilities associated with the heat transfer inside the heat engine and (ii) details about the system considered, as the geometric (view) factor of the Sun, the dilution factors of solar and ambient radiation and

  5. TBCC Fan Stage Operability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. Studies performed under NASA s NGLT and the NASP High Speed Propulsion Assessment (HiSPA) program indicated a variable cycle turbofan/ramjet was the best configuration to satisfy access-to-space mission requirements because this configuration maximizes the engine thrust-to-weight ratio while minimizing frontal area. To this end, NASA and GE teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10X), fan speed (7X), inlet mass flow (3.5X), inlet pressure (8X), and inlet temperature (3X). The primary goal of the fan stage was to provide a high pressure ratio level with good efficiency at takeoff through the mid range of engine operation, while avoiding stall and losses at the higher flight Mach numbers, without the use of variable inlet guide vanes. Overall fan performance and operability therefore requires major consideration, as competing goals at different operating points and aeromechanical issues become major drivers in the design. To mitigate risk of meeting the unique design requirements for the fan stage, NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57% engine scaled fan stage to be tested in NASA s transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test are to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off, 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio, 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet, and 4) fan windmilling operation at high Mach flight conditions. In addition, the fan stage design was validated by performing pre-test CFD analysis using both GE proprietary and NASA s APNASA codes. Herein we will discuss 1) the fan stage design, 2) the experiment including the unique facility and instrumentation, and 3) the comparison of pre-test CFD analysis to initial aerodynamic test results for the baseline fan stage configuration. Measurements and pre-test analysis will be compared at 37%, 50%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of design speed to assess the ability of state-of-the-art design and analysis tools to meet the fan stage performance and operability requirements for turbine based propulsion for access to space.

  6. Internal combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Perrin; H. Bergmann

    1984-01-01

    An externally auto-ignited four-stroke internal combustion engine which includes a combustion chamber disposed in an upper surface of a piston such that, in an upper dead-center position of the piston, the combustion chamber receives almost all of the fuel-air mixture. The combustion chamber includes a planar bottom portion and has a cross-sectional shape of a truncated cone expanding in a

  7. Engineering Engineering Education

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    E School of Engineering Engineering Education in a University Setting 292 Degree Programs in Engineering 294 Special Programs 296 Honors 298 Academic Regulations 300 Courses of Study 305 Engineering of Engineering is the largest and oldest private engineering school in the South. Classes offering engineering

  8. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  9. Upper carboniferous conodont zones of Russia and their global correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goreva, N. V.; Alekseev, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    The last decade has been marked by significant progress in the study of the stratigraphic ranges of the conodonts characteristic of the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages in shallow-water sediments of the type sections in the Moscow Basin and the deeper facies of the South Urals. This paper discusses the history of studies of the Upper Carboniferous conodont zonation in Russia and abroad, and proposes a refined zonal conodont scale for the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages, which may be included, as a standard, into the general Carboniferous scale of Russia. In this scale, the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages correspond respectively to six ( subexcelsus, makhlinae, sagittalis, cancellosus, toretzianus, firmus) and five ( simulator, vitali, virgilicus, bellus, wabaunsensis) zones. The proposed scale works for the entire East European Platform and the Urals from the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in the north to the Mugodzhary Mountains in the south. These regions of Russia are occupied by Upper Carboniferous marine facies. At several levels (especially in the Gzhelian Stage), the scale reliably correlates with zones of the Missourian and Virgilian stages in North America and also Dalaun and Mapingian stages in China.

  10. Characterization of Section 404 Permit Mitigation Plans, Coastal Margin and Associated Watersheds, Upper Texas Coast 

    E-print Network

    Conkey, April A.

    2010-01-14

    A predicted loss of agricultural rice-wetlands and increasing urbanization and development threatens the remaining freshwater wetlands along the upper Texas coast. To avoid, minimize, and mitigate wetland loss, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  11. Characterization of Section 404 Permit Mitigation Plans, Coastal Margin and Associated Watersheds, Upper Texas Coast

    E-print Network

    Conkey, April A.

    2010-01-14

    A predicted loss of agricultural rice-wetlands and increasing urbanization and development threatens the remaining freshwater wetlands along the upper Texas coast. To avoid, minimize, and mitigate wetland loss, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  12. Stage hippocampe Physique 2011

    E-print Network

    Vermet, Franck

    Stage hippocampe Physique 2011 L'ENERGIE Thème: Contacts: IREM (irem@univ-brest.fr) LSOL (matthieu physique et électronique) Nous proposons d'encadrer des élèves de 1ère S lors d'un stage de physique au... Plusieurs notions de la Physique fondamentale interviennent donc dans ce thème. Durant le stage, les élèves

  13. [Pathomimia in upper limb].

    PubMed

    Maalla, Riadh; Bensalma, Hichem; Hamdi, Lamia; Assel, Salem; Bahri, Hichem; Hamdi, Abdelaziz

    2005-03-01

    Pathomimia, or factitious disorders, are characterized by producing symptoms voluntarily with the intention of playing the role of the patient. Inspite of being considerd as a psychatric disorder, pathomimuia is often encountered in the daily professional life of doctors without being recognized or diagnosed. There are various clinical aspects of pathomimia. The items that decide the orientation of the diagnosis are essentially the uncommon and odd expression of the reported symptoms, A capricious evolution as well as the multiplicity of the past medical cases. We report a group of five patients who were followed and treated between the years 2000 and 2003. This group was composed of three men and two women with an average age of 30 years. In three cases, we found the notion of skin injury. In one case, we noted a median nerve lesion in the elbow and once in the right upper member. The evolution was performed towards recidives of the initial symptomatology with more or less long periods of improvements. PMID:15929447

  14. Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

  15. Upper Hudson Dredging Debate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeff Chiarenzelli

    In preparation for the activity a lecture is given on the properties and history of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. Each student is assigned to one of six groups with an interest in the outcome of the debate. The teams must meet and prepare a position paper on the proposed environmental dredging in the Upper Hudson River. Each team must represent the interests of its assigned constituency. Data and background information is found on the world wide web and from the instructor's collection of related articles. On the day of the debate the student's orally present their position paper (some make posters or powerpoint presentations). After each group has made their opening statement the invited guest senators on the panel (other faculty, myself, interested students, those who were absent for the preparation) ask each group a series of questions related to their stance. After this a general debate begins with detailed and sometimes heated discussions between the groups and the panel. A few moments are saved at the end of class and everyone is allowed to drop their assumed affiliation and speak their mind on what should be done. Before leaving the class is give a series of big picture topics to think about over the weekend and these are discussed during the next class.

  16. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them. PMID:20567720

  17. Chemical equilibration of the Earth's core and upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1984-01-01

    The oxygen fugacity (fO2) of the Earth's upper mantle appears to lie somewhat above that of the iron-wu??stite buffer, its fO2 is assumed to have been similar to the present value at the time of core formation. In the upper mantle, the Fe-rich liquid protocore that would form under such conditions of fO2 at elevated temperatures would lie predominantly in the system Fe-S-O. Distribution coefficients for Co, Cu, Ni, Ir, Au, Ir, W, Re, Mo, Ag and Ga between such liquids and basalt are known and minimum values are known for Ge. From these coefficients, upper mantle abundances for the above elements can be calculated by assuming cosmic abundances for the whole Earth and equilibrium between the Fe-S-O protocore and upper mantle. These calculated abundances are surprisingly close to presently known upper mantle abundances; agreements are within a factor of 5, except for Cu, W, and Mo. Therefore, siderophile element abundances in the upper mantle based on known distribution coefficients do not demand a late-stage meteoritic bombardment, and a protocore formed from the upper mantle containing S and O seems likely. As upper mantle abundances fit a local equilibrium model, then either the upper mantle has not been mixed with the rest of the mantle since core formation, or else partition coefficients between protocore and mantle were similar for the whole mantle regardless of P, T, and fO2. The latter possibility seems unlikely over such a P-T range. ?? 1984.

  18. Five Stages of Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation which shows the stages that molecules go through as they move from the turbulent stage of viscous flow, transition into laminar flow, and then transition again into molecular flow. You may pause this animation between stages. Objective: Identify the five stages of flow. This simulation is from Module 98 of the Vacuum Technology and Gas Control Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). You can find this animation under the section "Vacuum Technology & Gas Controls." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

  19. Ergonomic stressors and upper extremity disorders in vehicle manufacturing: cross sectional exposure-response trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Punnett

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between upper extremity soft tissue disorders and exposure to preventable ergonomic stressors in vehicle manufacturing operations. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in one vehicle stamping plant and one engine assembly plant. A standardised physical examination of the upper extremities was performed on all subjects. An interviewer administered questionnaire obtained data on demographics, work

  20. MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING Manufacturing engineering

    E-print Network

    MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING Manufacturing engineering transforms raw materials, parts, and operations, following a well- organized plan for each activity. Manufacturing engineering involves designing assuring a competitive level of productivity. The manufacturing engineering curriculum at WSU focuses

  1. A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

    2014-01-01

    A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

  2. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the probability of program success, including a redefinition of what success means. The key objective is to come to broad agreement on a program approach that will result in a suitable repository, performing better than required, with the flexibility to adapt to experience and be prepared to change or even reverse direction if conditions merit. The step-wise and transparent approach is intended to foster implementer and regulator behavior that earns the trust and confidence of the many diverse stakeholders and the public by proceeding in a manner that makes it clear that the program is striving to meet their needs and fully address their concerns.

  3. ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology

    E-print Network

    ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology Program The Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technology (BSET) is a hands-on program based upon engineering technology fundamentals, engineering for employment or further education. The focus is on current engineering technology issues and applications used

  4. Diagnosis and Staging

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer can cause many different symptoms. The doctor will order tests to determine if symptoms are caused by cancer or some other problem. If cancer is diagnosed, the doctor will run tests to determine the stage. Knowing the stage helps the doctor plan treatment and discuss prognosis.

  5. Electrical and Computer Engineering The George R. Brown School of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    166 Electrical and Computer Engineering The George R. Brown School of Engineering Chair Behnaam). The BA degree provides a basic foundation in electrical and computer engineering that the student can. This may be #12;Electrical and Computer Engineering 167 Specialization Area Courses Upper-level ECE courses

  6. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Computer Engineering Catalog 2014

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Computer Engineering Catalog 2014 Fall hours Prereq- ECE 401 Cultures and Civilizations Social Science *Among the five Computer Engineering of electives that may be taken to satisfy the upper division electives for the Computer Engineering major

  7. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  8. Rotorcraft convertible engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Mar, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Rotorcraft Convertible Engine Study was to define future research and technology effort required for commercial development by 1988 of convertible fan/shaft gas turbine engines for unconventional rotorcraft transports. Two rotorcraft and their respective missions were defined: a Fold Tilt Rotor aircraft and an Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) rotorcraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted with these rotorcraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size, mission fuel requirements, and direct operating costs (DOC). The two rotorcraft were flown with conventional propulsion systems (separate lift/cruise engines) and with convertible propulsion systems to determine the benefits to be derived from convertible engines. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine the optimum engine cycle and staging arrangement for a convertible engine. Advanced technology options applicable to convertible engines were studied. Research and technology programs were identified which would ensure technology readiness for commercial development of convertible engines by 1988.

  9. Upper Airway Obstruction in Children.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Anirban; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2015-08-01

    Children with upper airway obstruction are both unique and variable in their presentation and management, often posing a challenge to the pediatrician. Several anatomical and physiologic peculiarities make a child vulnerable to develop an obstruction of upper airways. The characteristic finding in upper airway obstruction is stridor-inspiratory, biphasic or expiratory. The etiologies vary widely throughout the age groups and according to the mode of presentation. The approach starts with suspicion, mandates careful clinical evaluation of the degree of obstruction and many a times emergency measures precede any investigation or even precise diagnosis. Maintaining an open and stable airway is of the utmost importance, often requiring a team approach of emergency physician, pediatrician, otorhinolaryngologist and pediatric pulmonologist. The commonest condition presenting with upper airway obstruction in pediatric population is viral croup. Croup is a clinical diagnosis in a febrile child, with barking cough and stridor preceded by upper respiratory infection. It is treated with systemic or inhaled steroids and nebulized epinephrine. Epiglottitis and bacterial tracheitis are acute bacterial infections of upper airways, presenting as true airway emergencies. Though the mainstay of therapy is IV antibiotics, the prime concern is maintenance of airway, which frequently requires endotracheal intubation. Rigid bronchoscopy is the procedure of choice for airway foreign bodies, a common cause of upper airway obstruction in children below 3 y of age. Airway malacias are the commonest cause of chronic stridor and are mostly managed conservatively. PMID:26104110

  10. 120. STAGE RECORDER WELLS & HOUSES HOUSE DETAILS (ML877/4FS) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. STAGE RECORDER WELLS & HOUSES - HOUSE DETAILS (ML-8-77/4-FS) August 1936 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  11. [Blepharoplasty and upper eyelid malposition].

    PubMed

    Delas, J; Lagier, J

    2010-01-01

    Upper eyelid blepharoplasties are sometimes performed for functional purposes, but more often for cosmetic reasons. Upper eyelid malpositions, such as ptosis or lid retraction, are frequent and of varying causes. It is not rare for patients to present upper lid malposition, with or without functional consequences, associated with myocutaneous excess. Both functional and cosmetic outcomes are important. This article explores the etiologies of these pathologies and current surgical procedures. Furthermore we will discuss the advantages of combined procedures and different approaches to treat these concomitant pathologies. PMID:21284232

  12. Upper mantle material in the Brazilian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbert, C. O.; Svisero, D. P.; Sial, A. N.; Meyer, H. O. A.

    1981-04-01

    Information on the nature of the upper mantle can be obtained from nodules in kimberlites and basalt and from mantle-derived magmas, mineral inclusions in diamonds, as well as from the fields of geodesy, seismology, geothermy, geomagnetism and petrological models for the upper mantle. In Brazil studies of these kinds are still in the stage of data gathering. This article intends to present some of this data related to the alpine peridotites, nodules in basalts, mineral inclusions in diamonds, and kimberlites, without any pretension of deeper-going interpretation. Alpine peridotites are found all over Brazil and are grouped in three main classes: the serpentinized dunites-peridotites of small and medium size; the gabbro-pyroxenite-peridotite association in large complexes, the latter described only in the central part of Brazil; and the pyroxenite-gabbroic gneisses of the Goianira-Trindade type. Kimberlites have been described in Minas Gerais and Piaui states, but they also exist in Mato Grosso and possibly in Rondonia, Goiás, Roraima and Bahia. Inclusions in diamonds studied from Minas Gerais, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Sa˜o Paulo and Goiás include olivine, pyroxene, garnet, chromite, sulphides, ilmenite, zircon and rutile. Ultramafic nodules in basalts and basanites from Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba states and Fernando de Noronha Island are essentially Iherzolites, like the ones described from Paraguay.

  13. Uprated OMS engine status and future applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. C.; Brasher, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    The baseline Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) of the Space Shuttle has the potential for significant performance uprating, leading to increased Shuttle performance capability. The approach to uprating that is being pursued at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center is the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump to increase OME operating pressure. A higher pressure engine can have a greater nozzle expansion ratio in the same envelope and at the same thrust level, giving increased engine Isp. The results of trade studies and analyses that have led to the preferred uprated OME configuration are described. The significant accomplishments of a pre-development component demonstration program are also presented, including descriptions of test hardware and discussion of test results. It is shown that testing to date confirms the capability of the preferred uprated OME configuration to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Potential future activities leading up to a full-scale development program are described, and the capability for the uprated OME to be used in future storable propellant upper stages is discussed.

  14. Life Stages Cards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-09-26

    All animals develop and grow over time. The animals in this document undergo one of the most dramatic developmental processes known: metamorphosis. See if you can place the developmental stages in their proper order.

  15. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  16. Stages of Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Vaginal Cancer Key Points Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... to the pelvis . Stages of Vaginal Cancer Key Points After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  17. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Thyroid Cancer Key Points Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... recurred (come back). Stages of Thyroid Cancer Key Points After thyroid cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  18. Stages of Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your baby in these three stages. First trimester (week 1-week 12) First trimester See how your baby is ... is each pregnancy. Return to top Second trimester (week 13-week 28) Second trimester See how your ...

  19. Staging Bipolar Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduard Vieta; M. Reinares; A. R. Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence supporting a staging model for bipolar disorder. The authors conducted\\u000a an extensive Medline and Pubmed search of the published literature using a variety of search terms (staging, bipolar disorder,\\u000a early intervention) to find relevant articles, which were reviewed in detail. Only recently specific proposals have been made\\u000a to apply clinical

  20. MX stage I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilden, J. G.; Dykstra, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    The MX stage I program is addressed in summary fashion. It is noted that the MX first stage is now entering development after an extended period of System Definition. Consideration is given to the fact that the design baseline is a selection of technology that represents a balance of risks between performance, cost and schedule. Further, as the largest solid propulsion unit ever developed for ballistic missiles, the design is considered to be of general interest.

  1. Stage Two Enhancements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Khushf

    In this essay I consider two kinds of human enhancement technologies. Stage 1 enhancements are discrete, medical enhancements;\\u000a they involve a modest augmentation of some specific function or capacity, and have quantifiable harms and benefits that are\\u000a amenable to conventional study designs. Examples of these enhancements include psychopharmaceuticals for enhanced cognitive\\u000a function, cosmetic surgery, and sports doping. Stage 2 enhancements

  2. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA); Silva, Leonard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  3. A Mechanism for Upper Airway Stability during Slow Wave Sleep

    PubMed Central

    McSharry, David G.; Saboisky, Julian P.; DeYoung, Pam; Matteis, Paul; Jordan, Amy S.; Trinder, John; Smales, Erik; Hess, Lauren; Guo, Mengshuang; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: The severity of obstructive sleep apnea is diminished (sometimes markedly) during slow wave sleep (SWS). We sought to understand why SWS stabilizes the upper airway. Increased single motor unit (SMU) activity of the major upper airway dilating muscle (genioglossus) should improve upper airway stability. Therefore, we hypothesized that genioglossus SMUs would increase their activity during SWS in comparison with Stage N2 sleep. Design: The activity of genioglossus SMUs was studied on both sides of the transition between Stage N2 sleep and SWS. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Twenty-nine subjects (age 38 ± 13 yr, 17 males) were studied. Intervention: SWS. Measurement and Results: Subjects slept overnight with fine-wire electrodes in their genioglossus muscles and with full polysomnographic and end tidal carbon dioxide monitors. Fifteen inspiratory phasic (IP) and 11 inspiratory tonic (IT) units were identified from seven subjects and these units exhibited significantly increased inspiratory discharge frequencies during SWS compared with Stage N2 sleep. The peak discharge frequency of the inspiratory units (IP and IT) was 22.7 ± 4.1 Hz in SWS versus 20.3 ± 4.5 Hz in Stage N2 (P < 0.001). The IP units also fired for a longer duration (expressed as a percentage of inspiratory time) during SWS (104.6 ± 39.5 %TI) versus Stage N2 sleep (82.6 ± 39.5 %TI, P < 0.001). The IT units fired faster during expiration in SWS (14.2 ± 1.8 Hz) versus Stage N2 sleep (12.6 ± 3.1 Hz, P = 0.035). There was minimal recruitment or derecruitment of units between SWS and Stage N2 sleep. Conclusion: Increased genioglossus SMU activity likely makes the airway more stable and resistant to collapse throughout the respiratory cycle during SWS. Citation: McSharry DG; Saboisky JP; DeYoung P; Matteis P; Jordan AS; Trinder J; Smales E; Hess L; Guo M; Malhotra A. A mechanism for upper airway stability during slow wave sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(4):555-563. PMID:23565001

  4. Resistivity sections, upper Arkansas River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hershey, Lloyd A.; Emery, Philip A.; Stanley, William D.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of ground-water resources in the upper Arkansas River basin from Pueblo to Leadville is being made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southeastern Colorado Water Conservancy District, and the Colorado Division of Water Resources, Colorado State Engineer. As part of the investigation, surface geophysical electrical resistivity surveys were made during the summer and fall of 1970 near Buena Vista and Westcliffe, Colo. (p1.1). The resistivity surveys were made to verify a previous gravity survey and to help locate areas where ground-water supplies might be developed. This report presents the results of the surveys in the form of two resistivity sections.

  5. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL WALLS OF DIFFERING MATERIALS. NOTE DOORWAY TO MTR TO RIGHT OF CHOPPER BUILDING'S CLIPPED CORNER. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.

  7. Two-stage coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Mitchell, T.O.; Whitehurst, D.D.

    1982-08-31

    Two-stage coal liquefaction is improved by separating a light fraction from the first (dissolving) stage effluent, hydrogenating that fraction and reblending the hydrogenated light fraction with the material passed from the first stage to the second stage reactor operating at higher temperature than the first stage.

  8. Tripropellant engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. B.; Kirby, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    The potential for converting the space shuttle main engine (SSME) to a dual-fuel, dual-mode engine using LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in mode 1 and LOX/H2 in mode 2 was examined. Various engine system concepts were formulated that included staged combustion and gas generator turbine power cycles, and LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 mode 1 propellants. Both oxidizer and fuel regenerative cooling were considered. All of the SSME major components were examined to determine their adaptability to the candidate dual-fuel engines.

  9. 33engineering EnginEEring and

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Stephan

    33engineering EnginEEring and ThE builT EnvironmEnT www.wits.ac.za/ebe #12;34 guide for applicants 2015 The study of Engineering Career opportunities for engineers are limitless and extend beyond the formal engineering sector. A career in engineering requires special talents ­ engineers need

  10. Depositional environments of Pennsylvanian Upper Strawn Group in McCulloch and San Saba Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, W.H. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    Upper Strawn Group (Desmoinesean) represents a transition to fluvial facies from progradational deltaic facies. The lower part of the upper Strawn is composed mostly of horizontally bedded, fine-grained sandstones and shales of a distal delta-front origin. These sandstones and shales exhibit foreset bed dips of up to 15/sup 0/. In addition to the dipping foreset beds, the delta-front facies on occasion contain small listric normal faults, resulting from periodic higher rates of sedimentation. The middle parts of the upper Strawn consist predominantly of massive, fine to medium-grained, mature sandstones which represent distributary-mouth-bar deposits, as well as other proximal delta-front deposits such as distributary channels. The upper part of the upper Strawn consists of fluvial trough cross-bedded sandstones and chert-pebble conglomerates. These overlie the deltaic facies and indicate the final stages of upper Strawn deposition. The upper Strawn is overlain by the Adams Branch limestone and shales which represent marine transgression and subsequent shallow-marine deposition. The upper Strawn Group in McCulloch and San Saba Counties, Texas, represents continued filling of the Fort Worth basin during Desmoinesean time. The upper Strawn overlies the lower Strawn, an older, deeper water facies, in most parts of the study area. The upper Strawn overlies the Atokan age Marble Falls Limestone in an isolated section of the study area due to its position there on the Concho arch.

  11. Investigation of Turbines Suitable for Use in a Turbojet Engine Wtih High Compressor Pressure Ratio and Low Compressor-tip Speed V : Experimental Performance of Two-stage Turbine with Downstream Stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Elmer H; Petrash, Donald A; Schum, Harold J

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a highly loaded two-stage turbine with a downstream stator revealed that (1) at equivalent design work and speed the brake internal efficiency was 0.81 and the maximum efficiency obtained was 0.85, and (2) the downstream stator left very little energy in the form of tangential velocity in the gas and, in general, performed well with 0.78 recovery being obtained at equivalent design work and speed.

  12. Optical engine initiation: multiple compartment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Modern day propulsion systems are used in aerospace applications for different purposes. The aerospace industry typically requires propulsion systems to operate in a rocket mode in order to drive large boost vehicles. The defense industry generally requires propulsion systems to operate in an air-breathing mode in order to drive missiles. A mixed system could use an air-breathing first stage and a rocket-mode upper stage for space access. Thus, propulsion systems can be used for high mass payloads and where the payload is dominated by the fuel/oxidizer mass being used by the propulsion system. The pulse detonation wave engine (PDWE) uses an alternative type of detonation cycle to achieve the same propulsion results. The primary component of the PDWE is the combustion chamber (or detonation tube). The PDWE represents an attractive propulsion source since its engine cycle is thermodynamically closest to that of a constant volume reaction. This characteristic leads to the inference that a maximum of the potential energy of the PDWE is put into thrust and not into flow work. Consequently, the volume must be increased. The technical community has increasingly adopted the alternative choice of increasing total volume by designing the engine to include a set of banks of smaller combustion chambers. This technique increases the complexity of the ignition subsystem because the inter-chamber timing must be considered. Current approaches to igniting the PDWE have involved separate shock or blast wave initiators and chemical additives designed to enhance detonatibility. An optical ignition subsystem generates a series of optical pulses, where the optical pulses ignite the fuel/oxidizer mixture such that the chambers detonate in a desired order. The detonation system also has an optical transport subsystem for transporting the optical pulses from the optical ignition subsystem to the chambers. The use of optical ignition and transport provides a non-toxic, small, lightweight, precisely controlled detonation system.

  13. Jose L. Pons c08.tex V1 -22nd November 2007 11:34 A.M. Page 259 Case Study: An Upper Limb Powered Exoskeleton 259

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jacob

    Study: An Upper Limb Powered Exoskeleton 259 Figure 8.14 The first version of the NEUROExos 8.5 CASE STUDY: AN UPPER LIMB POWERED EXOSKELETON J. C. Perry and J. Rosen Department of Electrical Engineering generation of an upper limb powered exoskeleton. Previous generations included a 1 DoF system (elbow joint

  14. electrical, engineering

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    engineering materials science and engineering mechanical engineering solar energy engineering and Sustainable Solar Technologies (QESST), works with students building solar cars in Fulton Engineering's BEST of Engineering for distribution to selected alumni, industry partners and colleagues worldwide. Contributing

  15. Stage Management & Technology 

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, Madison D

    2013-02-04

    are already in hardcopy format one can save them as printed documents or choose to scan them into the computer and save them as an electronic file. 29 If you choose to scan these images into a document then they can easily be saved as photos or PDFs... for each movement or significant action that changes the image on stage. Most stage managers develop their own shorthand or key that they use for noting this in the blocking script. It is also necessary for someone to be on book, which is following along...

  16. [Orthodontics and the upper airway].

    PubMed

    Cobo Plana, J; de Carlos Villafranca, F; Macías Escalada, E

    2004-03-01

    One of the general aims of orthodontic treatment and of the combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is to achieve good occlusion and aesthetic improvement, especially in cases of severe dentoskeletal deformities. However, on many occasions, the parameters of the upper airways are not taken into account when the aims of conventional treatment are fulfilled. Patients with obstructive alterations during sleep represent for the orthodontist a type of patient who differs from the normal; for them, treatment should include the objective of improving oxygen saturation. Here, functional considerations should outweigh purely aesthetic ones. It is important, when making an orthodontic, surgical or combined diagnosis for a patient, to bear in mind the impact that treatment may have on the upper airways. Good aesthetics should never be achieved for some of our patients at the expense of diminishing the capacity of their upper airways. PMID:15301356

  17. A cascade thermoacoustic engine.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D L; Swift, G W

    2003-10-01

    A cascade thermoacoustic engine is described, consisting of one standing-wave stage plus two traveling-wave stages in series. Most of the acoustic power is produced in the efficient traveling-wave stages. The straight-line series configuration is easy to build and allows no Gedeon streaming. The engine delivers up to 2 kW of acoustic power, with an efficiency (the ratio of acoustic power to heater power) of up to 20%. An understanding of the pressure and volume-velocity waves is very good. The agreement between measured and calculated powers and temperatures is reasonable. Some of the measured thermal power that cannot be accounted for by calculation can be attributed to Rayleigh streaming in the two thermal buffer tubes with the largest aspect ratios. A straightforward extension of this work should yield cascade thermoacoustic engines with efficiencies of around 35-40% of the Carnot efficiency. PMID:14587591

  18. Lung cancer staging now and in the future.

    PubMed

    Liam, Chong-Kin; Andarini, Sita; Lee, Pyng; Ho, James Chung-Man; Chau, Ngo Quy; Tscheikuna, Jamsak

    2015-05-01

    For a long time lung cancer was associated with a fatalistic approach by healthcare professionals. In recent years, advances in imaging, improved diagnostic techniques and more effective treatment modalities are reasons for optimism. Accurate lung cancer staging is vitally important because treatment options and prognosis differ significantly by stage. The staging algorithm should include a contrast computed tomography (CT) of the chest and the upper abdomen including adrenals, positron emission tomography/CT for staging the mediastinum and to rule out extrathoracic metastasis in patients considered for surgical resection, endosonography-guided needle sampling procedure replacing mediastinoscopy for near complete mediastinal staging, and brain imaging as clinically indicated. Applicability of evidence-based guidelines for staging of lung cancer depends on the available expertise and level of resources and is directly impacted by financial issues. Considering the diversity of healthcare infrastructure and economic performance of Asian countries, optimal and cost-effective use of staging methods appropriate to the available resources is prudent. The pulmonologist plays a central role in the multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer diagnosis, staging and management. Regional respiratory societies such as the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology should work with national respiratory societies to strive for uniform standards of care. For developing countries, a minimum set of care standards should be formulated. Cost-effective delivery of optimal care for lung cancer patients, including staging within the various healthcare systems, should be encouraged and most importantly, tobacco control implementation should receive an absolute priority status in all countries in Asia. PMID:25682805

  19. Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Extended neoteny and late stage allometric growth increase morphological disparity between growth stages in at least some dinosaurs. Coupled with relatively low dinosaur density in the Upper Cretaceous of North America, ontogenetic transformational representatives are often difficult to distinguish. For example, many hadrosaurids previously reported to represent relatively small lambeosaurine species were demonstrated to be juveniles of the larger taxa. Marginocephalians (pachycephalosaurids + ceratopsids) undergo comparable and extreme cranial morphological change during ontogeny. Methodology/Principal Findings Cranial histology, morphology and computer tomography reveal patterns of internal skull development that show the purported diagnostic characters for the pachycephalosaurids Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer are ontogenetically derived features. Coronal histological sections of the frontoparietal dome of an adult Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis reveal a dense structure composed of metaplastic bone with a variety of extremely fibrous and acellular tissue. Coronal histological sections and computer tomography of a skull and frontoparietal dome of Stygimoloch spinifer reveal an open intrafrontal suture indicative of a subadult stage of development. These dinosaurs employed metaplasia to rapidly grow and change the size and shape of their horns, cranial ornaments and frontoparietal domes, resulting in extreme cranial alterations during late stages of growth. We propose that Dracorex hogwartsia, Stygimoloch spinifer and Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis are the same taxon and represent an ontogenetic series united by shared morphology and increasing skull length. Conclusions/Significance Dracorex hogwartsia (juvenile) and Stygimoloch spinifer (subadult) are reinterpreted as younger growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis (adult). This synonymy reduces the number of pachycephalosaurid taxa from the Upper Cretaceous of North America and demonstrates the importance of cranial ontogeny in evaluating dinosaur diversity and taxonomy. These growth stages reflect a continuum rather than specific developmental steps defined by “known” terminal morphologies. PMID:19859556

  20. From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

  1. Engineering analysis and test results of the pre-stage planetary gear trains for wrist rotation and pitch assembly and azimuth and elevation assembly of the extendable stiff arm manipulator kit assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    In order to improve the performance capability of the Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM) it was necessary to increase the overall gear ratio by a factor of approximately four. This is accomplished with minimum effect to existing hardware by the interposition of a planetary gear transmission between the respective drive motors and the harmonic drive transmissions. The engineering analysis in support of this design approach and the subsequent no-load test results are reported.

  2. Industrial Engineering Education: A Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an overview of the origin of the industrial engineering discipline and how the subject was taught in the early stages of its development. Describes current changes in the curricula to meet new requirements in industry. (Author/CCM)

  3. Decomposition and (importance) sampling techniques for multi-stage stochastic linear programs

    SciTech Connect

    Infanger, G.

    1993-11-01

    The difficulty of solving large-scale multi-stage stochastic linear programs arises from the sheer number of scenarios associated with numerous stochastic parameters. The number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of stages and problems get easily out of hand even for very moderate numbers of stochastic parameters per stage. Our method combines dual (Benders) decomposition with Monte Carlo sampling techniques. We employ importance sampling to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of both expected future costs and gradients and right-hand sides of cuts. The method enables us to solve practical large-scale problems with many stages and numerous stochastic parameters per stage. We discuss the theory of sharing and adjusting cuts between different scenarios in a stage. We derive probabilistic lower and upper bounds, where we use importance path sampling for the upper bound estimation. Initial numerical results turned out to be promising.

  4. Stage cementing valve

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, H.E.; Adams, R.W.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a method for stage cementing a string of pipe in a well bore. The string of pipe includes a stage valve having a tubular valve collar intermediate of its length and has a tubular sleeve valve member slidably received in the stage collar for movement between first and second longitudinal positions relative to the stage collar and where the sleeve valve member has a flange in engagement with an engagement surface on the valve collar in the first longitudinal position. The sleeve valve member has a piston portion located in an annular chamber between the sleeve valve member and the valve collar and where the sleeve valve member has a sleeve valve port with access to one surface of the piston portion in the annular chamber for placing the one surface in fluid communication with the bore of the sleeve valve member. The valve collar has a valve collar port with access to the other surface of the of the piston portion in the annular chamber for placing the other surface in fluid communication with the exterior of the valve collar. The piston portion separates the sleeve valve port from the valve collar in a the first longitudinal position and permits the ports to be in fluid communication with one another in an the second longitudinal position.

  5. Staging for rhinosinusitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VALERIE J. LUND; DAVID W. KENNEDY

    1997-01-01

    Interest in the surgical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis has increased, primarily because rigid endoscopy and, more particularly, computed tomographic scanning have facilitated the visualization of disease. At the same time it has become both scientifically and financially imperative to audit therapeutic outcome. Consequently, a staging system for nonneoplastic sinus disease is needed. It is clear that any assessment of medical

  6. Data Staging on NFS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunqing Chen; Jian Wu; Cong Yu

    2002-01-01

    Due to the storage limitation and imperfect predic- tion, mobile computing devices may experience large delays when accessing data on the distributed file systems. Flinn et al. (4) have proposed a novel ar- chitecture, called Data Staging, in which nearby un- trusted and unmanaged surrogates are used as the secondary file cache for the client to reduce the re- mote

  7. College of Engineering and Computer Science Computer Science Name

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    College of Engineering and Computer Science Computer Science Name Fall 2009 SUID Erie Community (33 cr) 3.0 GPA & Minimum Grade C- CIS252 Intro. to Computer Science CS 131 4 CIS275 Intro credits of Upper Division MUST be in Computer Science E Upper Div ______________ 3 N Upper Div

  8. College of Engineering College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    College of Engineering College of Engineering Office in Engineering Building, Room 202 (970) 491 UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental Engineering Mechanical Engineering

  9. Investigation of Turbines Suitable for Use in a Turbojet Engine with High Compressor Pressure Ratio and Low Compressor-tip Speed VI: Experimental Performance of Two-stage Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Elmer H; Schum, Harold J; Petrash, Donald A

    1956-01-01

    The brake internal efficiency of the highly loaded two-stage turbine was 0.79 equivalent design work and speed. The maximum brake internal efficiency was 0.84. A radial survey revealed these major defects: (1) the first-rotor throat area was too large, and a large area of underturned flow existed near the tip;(2) considerable underturning existed at the second-stator outlet; and (3) tangential components of velocity at the turbine outlet amounted to 2.5 points in turbine efficiency.

  10. Investigation of Turbines Suitable for Use in a Turbojet Engine with High Compressor Pressure Ratio and Low Compressor-tip Speed VII : Experimental Performance of Modified Two-stage Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Elmer H; Petrash, Donald A; Schum, Harold J

    1956-01-01

    Modifying the original turbine by closing down the first-rotor throat area and shrouding the first and second rotors resulted in an over-all increase in in efficiency of 3.5 percentage points. At equivalent design work and speed the rating and aerodynamic efficiences of the modified turbine were 0.825 and 0.846, respectively. The maximum rating and erodynamic efficiencies were 0.875 and 0.906, respectively. A radial survey indicated improved firstively. A radial survey indicated improved first and second-stage efficiencies but showed that the effective throat areas of the second stator and rotor were too large.

  11. UPPER-ATMOSPHERE HELIUM IONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Hanson

    1962-01-01

    An experimental measurement of the ion concentration in the upper ; ionosphere is examined in light of a suggestion that helium is an important ; constituent of the high atmosphere. An isothermal region of helium ions at l600 ; deg K is found above approximately 1200 km. Consideration of the loss mechanism ; for helium ions by ion-atom interchange with

  12. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Airbreathing Hypersonic Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Bityurin, Valentine A.; Lineberry, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Established analyses of conventional ramjet/scramjet performance characteristics indicate that a considerable decrease in efficiency can be expected at off-design flight conditions. This can be explained, in large part, by the deterioration of intake mass flow and limited inlet compression at low flight speeds and by the onset of thrust degradation effects associated with increased burner entry temperature at high flight speeds. In combination, these effects tend to impose lower and upper Mach number limits for practical flight. It has been noted, however, that Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy management techniques represent a possible means for extending the flight Mach number envelope of conventional engines. By transferring enthalpy between different stages of the engine cycle, it appears that the onset of thrust degradation may be delayed to higher flight speeds. Obviously, the introduction of additional process inefficiencies is inevitable with this approach, but it is believed that these losses are more than compensated through optimization of the combustion process. The fundamental idea is to use MHD energy conversion processes to extract and bypass a portion of the intake kinetic energy around the burner. We refer to this general class of propulsion system as an MHD-bypass engine. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass airbreathing hypersonic engines using ideal gasdynamics and fundamental thermodynamic principles.

  13. Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald A.; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    A thermal/fluids analysis of a direct gain solar thermal upper stage engine is presented and the results are discussed. The engine has been designed and constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for ground testing in a facility that can provide about 10 kilowatts of concentrated solar energy to the engine. The engine transfers that energy to a coolant (hydrogen) that is heated and accelerated through a nozzle to produce thrust. For the nominal design values and a hydrogen flowrate of 2 lb/hr., the results of the analysis show that the hydrogen temperature in the chamber (nozzle entrance) reaches about 3800 F after 30 minutes of heating and about 3850 F at steady-state (slightly below the desired design temperature of about 4100 F). Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be relatively insensitive to the values used for the absorber surface infrared emissivity and the convection coefficient within the cooling ducts but very sensitive to the hydrogen flowrate. Decreasing the hydrogen flowrate to 1 lb/hr. increases the hydrogen steady-state chamber temperature to about 4700 F, but also causes an undesirable decrease in thrust.

  14. Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald A.; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1999-01-01

    A thermal/fluids analysis of a direct gain solar thermal upper stage engine is presented and the results are discussed. The engine was designed and constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for ground testing in a facility that can provide about 10 kilowatts of concentrated solar energy to the engine. The engine transfers energy to a coolant (hydrogen) that is heated and accelerated through a nozzle to produce thrust. For the nominal design values and a hydrogen flowrate of 2 lb./hr., the results of the analysis show that the hydrogen temperature in the chamber (nozzle entrance) reaches about 3800 F after 30 minutes of heating and about 3850 F at steady-state (slightly below the desired design temperature of about 4100 F. Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be relatively insensitive to the values used for the absorber surface infrared emissivity and the convection coefficient within the cooling ducts but very sensitive to the hydrogen flowrate. Decreasing the hydrogen flowrate to 1 lb./hr. increases the hydrogen steady-state chamber temperature to about 4700 F, but also of course causes a decrease in thrust.

  15. The Chemical Engineering Ph.D. Program Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    The Chemical Engineering Ph.D. Program Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware formal stage of academic training for an engineer, and can lead to a variety of careers in industry of chemical engineering fundamentals and their application. The requirements set out below represent

  16. Staging Dynamic Programming Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kedar Swadi; Walid Taha; Oleg Kiselyov

    2005-01-01

    Applications of dynamic programming (DP) algorithms are numerous, and include genetic engineering and operations research problems. At a high level, DP algorithms are specified as a system of recursive equations implemented using memoization. The recursive nature of these equations suggests that they can be written naturally in a functional language. However, the requirement for memoization poses a subtle challenge: memoization

  17. Orthogonal experimental study on high frequency cascade thermoacoustic engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Jun Hu; Qing Li; Zheng Yu Li; Qiang Li

    2008-01-01

    Orthogonal experiment design and variance analysis were adopted to investigate a miniature cascade thermoacoustic engine, which consisted of one standing wave stage and one traveling wave stage in series, operating at about 470Hz, using helium as the working gas. Optimum matching of the heater powers between stages was very important for the performance of a cascade thermoacoustic engine, which was

  18. Low energy stage study. Volume 3: Conceptual design, interface analysis, flight and ground operations. [launching space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Low energy conceptual stage designs and adaptations to existing/planned shuttle upper stages were developed and their performance established. Selected propulsion modes and subsystems were used as a basis to develop airborne support equipment (ASE) design concepts. Orbiter installation and integration (both physical and electrical interfaces) were defined. Low energy stages were adapted to the orbiter and ASE interfaces. Selected low energy stages were then used to define and describe typical ground and flight operations.

  19. Web Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  20. Engineering organs.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    Applications of regenerative medicine technology may offer novel therapies for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical problems. Currently, patients suffering from diseased and injured organs can be treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a severe shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and new cases of organ failure increase. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, opening new avenues for this type of therapy. For example, therapeutic cloning and cellular reprogramming may one day provide a potentially limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors have already entered the clinical setting successfully, indicating the promise regenerative medicine holds for the future. PMID:19896823

  1. Spinning solid perigee stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, H. A.; Bronstein, L. M.; Jones, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    If the Space Transportation System is to serve in the 1980's for launching geostationary satellites that presently use the Delta and Centaur boosters, the cost of STS launches must be competitive. This can be accomplished through the provision of a multiple-launch capability in the orbiter, combined with the design of a low cost, spinning solid perigee kick motor (PKM). The PKM will be attached to the spacecraft and function essentially as the Delta third stage does today.

  2. Staged depressurization system

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump.

  3. Staged depressurization system

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-02

    A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump. 4 figures.

  4. The Art and Science of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established in 1958, and its Marshall Space Flight Center was founded in 1960, as space-related work was transferred from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, where Marshall is located. With this heritage, Marshall contributes almost 50 years of systems engineering experience with human-rated launch vehicles and scientific spacecraft to fulfill NASA's mission exploration and discovery. These complex, highly specialized systems have provided vital platforms for expanding the knowledge base about Earth, the solar system, and cosmos; developing new technologies that also benefit life on Earth; and opening new frontiers for America's strategic space goals. From Mercury and Gemini, to Apollo and the Space Shuttle, Marshall's systems engineering expertise is an unsurpassed foundational competency for NASA and the nation. Current assignments comprise managing Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; developing environmental control and life support systems and coordinating science operations on the International Space Station; and a number of exploration-related responsibilities. These include managing and performing science missions, such as the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter slated to launch for the Moon in April 2009, to developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and integrating the vehicle stack in house, as well as designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle and contributing to the development of the Altair Lunar Lander and an International Lunar Network with communications nodes and other infrastructure.

  5. Prognostic factors in stage IB gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Toru; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Fujikawa, Hirohito; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yamada, Takanobu; Hasegawa, Shinichi; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Yukawa, Norio; Oshima, Takashi; Oba, Mari S; Morita, Satoshi; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To identify the subset of patients with stage IB gastric cancer with an unfavorable prognosis. METHODS: Overall survival (OS) rates were examined in 103 patients with stage IB (T1N1M0 and T2N0M0) gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The OS rates of patients with T1N1 and T2N0 cancer were 89.2% and 94.1% at 5-years, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that tumor location was the only significant prognostic factor. The OS rate was 81.8% at 5-years when the tumor was located in the upper third of the stomach and was 95.5% at 5-years when the tumor was located in the middle or lower third of the stomach (P = 0.0093). CONCLUSION: These data may suggest that tumor location is associated with survival in patients with stage IB gastric cancer. PMID:24914380

  6. Engine construction

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, C.L.

    1984-03-06

    An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured to the cylinder head and the side of the piston opposite from the connecting rod, the motion producing member having a heat treated high temperature extended shape memory position and a low temperature low energy compressed position, the Nitinol member being of hollow tubular form and having pressure and return hoses connected thereto for supplying and removing cooling fluid into and from the Nitinol member, an electrical heating device connected to the Nitinol member, whereby the Nitinol member is easily compressed with relatively little force from the extended shape memory position to the compressed position when cooling fluid is supplied thereto to reduce the temperature of the Nitinol member to or below the lower limit of the transformation temperature range and the Nitinol member is automatically extended with relatively great force from the compressed position to the shape memory position when heated by the heating device to or above the upper limit of the transformation temperature range.

  7. 4. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL; AS SEEN FROM THE UPPER LEVEL BRIDGE CRANE, THIS ENGINE WAS THE DIRECT DRIVE TO THE 40" BLOOMING MILL LOCATED IN THE ADJACENT ROOM TO THE LEFT. THE UNITED-TOD ENGINE, A TWIN TANDEM COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE, WAS RATED AT 20,000 MP. IN 1946 NEW HIGH PRESSURE CYLINDERS WERE INSTALLED AND THE ENGINE RAN ON 200 PSI STEAM, WITH A 44"X76"X60" STROKE, TO A BUILT-UP COUNTER-BALANCED CENTER CRANK. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering enve.cornell.edu 2013-2014 #12;Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 1 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT

  9. Study on the orbital maneuvering capability of H-2A kick stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenaga, Toshinori; Utashima, Masayoshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Hiraiwa, Tetsuo; Noda, Atsushi

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a concept study of an optional kick stage system named "PLUS (for Planetary mission, Long-duration small-thrust Upper Stage)" equipped with a relatively small-thrust engine for interplanetary missions. The thrust force of PLUS assumed in this study is a maximum 29.4 kN, which is relatively small, used to inject a payload into interplanetary orbit with sufficiently low gravity loss i.e. less than 2%, although two split delta-Vs such as the Russian Proton/Breeze-M will improve performance efficiency (Proton Launch System Mission Planner's Guide, 2009 [1]). The orbital maneuvering capability of PLUS system is evaluated through Mars orbital maneuvering simulations. In this study, two types of PLUS systems are assumed. First, a 29.4 kN thrust force kicks stage system designated as "PLUS1" to inject the 3000 kg main payload into Mars transfer orbit. Second, a 9.8 kN thrust force small PLUS system designated as "PLUS2" to inject a 500 kg secondary payload into Mars transfer orbit. In the first case, the above-mentioned split delta-Vs are conducted to inject the main payload into Mars transfer orbit with sufficiently low gravity loss. In the second case, on the other hand, PLUS2 attached to the secondary payload is dual launched together with a primary payload into a geostationary transfer orbit, GTO, whereupon PLUS2 is initiated slightly before perigee to inject the secondary payload into Mars transfer orbit utilizing Electric delta-V Earth Gravity Assist, EDVEGA scheme via the on-board Ion Electric propulsion System, IES (Kawaguchi, 2001 [2,3]). Throughout the simulations, some optimized configurations of PLUS system covering a wide variety of space missions are suggested in this paper.

  10. Upper bounds in quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, David; Tcheremchantsev, Serguei

    2007-07-01

    We develop a general method to bound the spreading of an entire wavepacket under Schroedinger dynamics from above. This method derives upper bounds on time-averaged moments of the position operator from lower bounds on norms of transfer matrices at complex energies. This general result is applied to the Fibonacci operator. We find that at sufficiently large coupling, all transport exponents take values strictly between zero and one. This is the first rigorous result on anomalous transport. For quasi-periodic potentials associated with trigonometric polynomials, we prove that all lower transport exponents and, under a weak assumption on the frequency, all upper transport exponents vanish for all phases if the Lyapunov exponent is uniformly bounded away from zero. By a well-known result of Herman, this assumption always holds at sufficiently large coupling. For the particular case of the almost Mathieu operator, our result applies for coupling greater than two.

  11. UPPER PRIEST ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Denton, D.K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Upper Priest Roadless Area in northern Idaho indicates that the roadless area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Small amounts of zinc, lead, silver, tin, and tungsten were detected in pan concentrates of stream-sediment samples, but these metals probably were derived from weathering of scattered, sparsely mineralized quartz veins common to the region and no resource potential was identified.

  12. Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Charles E; Taysom, Danielle A; Rosenthal, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    The patient was a 34-year-old man currently serving in the military who was referred to a physical therapist by his primary care physician for a chief complaint of worsening right shoulder pain and paresthesias of the first, second, and third digits of his right hand, as well as right upper extremity swelling. Doppler ultrasonography was performed, and the presence of an occlusive thrombus in the right distal subclavian and axillary veins was revealed. PMID:24684195

  13. Upper bounds for Ramsey numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingsheng Shi

    2003-01-01

    The Ramsey number R(G1,G2,…,Gk) is the least integer p so that for any k-edge coloring of the complete graph Kp, there is a monochromatic copy of Gi of color i. In this paper, we derive upper bounds of R(G1,G2,…,Gk) for certain graphs Gi. In particular, these bounds show that R(9,9)?6588 and R(10,10)?23556 improving the previous best bounds of 6625 and

  14. J-2 Engine Assembly Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    J-2 engines for the Saturn IB/Saturn V launch vehicles are lined up in the assembly area at Rocketdyne's manufacturing plant in Canoga Park, California. Five J-2 engines provided more than 1,000,000 pounds of thrust to accelerate the second stage toward a Moon trajectory.

  15. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  16. Turbine Design and Analysis for the J-2X Engine Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Tran, Ken; Dorney, Daniel J.; Schmauch, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center are developing the advanced upper stage J-2X engine based on the legacy design of the J-2/J-2S family of engines which powered the Apollo missions. The cryogenic propellant turbopumps have been denoted as Mark72-F and Mark72-0 for the fuel and oxidizer side, respectively. Special attention is focused on preserving the essential flight-proven design features while adapting the design to the new turbopump configuration. Advanced 3-D CFD analysis has been employed to verify turbine aero performance at current flow regime boundary conditions and to mitigate risks associated with stresses. A limited amount of redesign and overall configuration modifications allow for a robust design with performance level matching or exceeding requirement.

  17. The upper atmosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Yelle, Roger V.; Shemansky, Donald E.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager measurements of the upper atmosphere of Uranus are analyzed and developed. The upper atmosphere of Uranus is predominantly H2, with at most 10 percent He by volume, and the dominant constituent of the exosphere is H. The thermosphere is warm, with an asymptotic isothermal temperature of about 800 K. Atomic hydrogen at this temperature forms an extensive thermal corona and creates gas drag that severely limits the lifetime of small ring particles. The upper atmosphere emits copious amounts of UV radiation from pressures greater than 0.01 microbar. The depth of this emission level imposes a powerful constraint on permissible emission mechanisms. Electron excitation from a thin layer near the exobase appears to violate this constraint. Solar fluorescence is consistent with the observed trend in solar zenith-angle variation of the emissions and is absent from the night side of the planet. On Uranus, it accounts for the observed Lyman beta to H2 bands intensity ratio and an important fraction of the observed intensity (about 55 percent).

  18. Mechanical engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Mechanical engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering CollegeofEngineering Engineering Entrepreneur Certificate Program is a great addition to a mechanical engineering degree. The EDGE.wayne.edu/advising t engadmissions@wayne.edu Learn more online t engineering.wayne.edu/me #12;What is Mechanical Engineering? Harness

  19. Development and Applications of a Stage Stacking Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Celestina, Mark L.; Adamczyk, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The preliminary design of multistage axial compressors in gas turbine engines is typically accomplished with mean-line methods. These methods, which rely on empirical correlations, estimate compressor performance well near the design point, but may become less reliable off-design. For land-based applications of gas turbine engines, off-design performance estimates are becoming increasingly important, as turbine plant operators desire peaking or load-following capabilities and hot-day operability. The current work develops a one-dimensional stage stacking procedure, including a newly defined blockage term, which is used to estimate the off-design performance and operability range of a 13-stage axial compressor used in a power generating gas turbine engine. The new blockage term is defined to give mathematical closure on static pressure, and values of blockage are shown to collapse to curves as a function of stage inlet flow coefficient and corrected shaft speed. In addition to these blockage curves, the stage stacking procedure utilizes stage characteristics of ideal work coefficient and adiabatic efficiency. These curves are constructed using flow information extracted from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of groups of stages within the compressor. Performance estimates resulting from the stage stacking procedure are shown to match the results of CFD simulations of the entire compressor to within 1.6% in overall total pressure ratio and within 0.3 points in overall adiabatic efficiency. Utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated by estimation of the minimum corrected speed which allows stable operation of the compressor. Further utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated with a bleed sensitivity study, which estimates a bleed schedule to expand the compressors operating range.

  20. Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

  1. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the upcoming MRO aerobraking exercises in 2006. A Michigan website, containing MTGCM output fields from previous climate simulations, is being expanded to include new MGCM-MTGCM simulations addressing planetary wave influences upon thermospheric aerobraking fields (densities and temperatures). In addition, similar MTGCM output fields have been supplied to the MSFC MARSGRAM - 200X empirical model, which will be used in mission operations for conducting aerobraking maneuvers.

  2. Chimpanzee sleep stages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freemon, F. R.; Mcnew, J. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram of two unrestrained juvenile chimpanzees was monitored for 7 consecutive nights using telemetry methods. Of the sleeping time, 23% was spent in the rapid eye movement of REM type of sleep, whereas 8, 4, 15, and 10% were spent in non-REM stages 1 through 4, respectively. Seven to nine periods of REM sleep occurred per night. The average time from the beginning of one REM period to the beginning of the next was approximately 85 min.

  3. Two stages splicing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani

    2015-05-01

    The study of the biological process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) splicing system in a translucent approach was investigated in 2012 by Yusof under the framework of formal language theory. In this work, the concepts of splicing system in two stages as well as splicing languages are mathematically and biologically discussed. Additionally, some theorems based on recognition site factor of initial strings at the existence of two initial strings and two rules are provided via Yusof-Goode (Y-G) approach. Besides, an example is also given in showing the biological meaning of the introduced concept.

  4. Dual stage check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, D. E. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    A dual stage seat valve head arrangement is described which consists of a primary sealing point located between a fixed orifice seat and a valve poppet, and a secondary sealing point between an orifice poppet and a valve poppet. Upstream of the valve orifice is a flexible, convoluted metal diaphragm attached to the orifice poppet. Downstream of the valve orifice, a finger spring exerts a force against the valve poppet, tending to keep the valve in a closed position. The series arrangement of a double seat and poppet is able to tolerate small particle contamination while minimizing chatter by controlling throttling or metering across the secondary seat, thus preserving the primary sealing surface.

  5. MATHEMATICAL ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REPORTS

    E-print Network

    Murota, Kazuo

    MATHEMATICAL ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REPORTS An Energy-Preserving Exponentially-Fitted Continuous 2013­11 July 2013 DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL INFORMATICS GRADUATE SCHOOL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE holder. #12;An Energy-Preserving Exponentially-Fitted Continuous Stage Runge­Kutta Method for Hamiltonian

  6. Respirometry in environmental engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mahendraker; T. Viraraghavan

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of respirometric techniques in the environmental engineering filed. The development of the instrument, and its uses from early stages have been chronicled. This technique can be used in the determination of BOD, and the biodegradability of wastewaters. The measurement of the oxygen uptake of a biomass in a sample wastewater contained in a batch reactor,

  7. Endoscopic mucosal resection in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Anis; Draganov, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a technique used to locally excise lesions confined to the mucosa. Its main role is the treatment of advanced dysplasia and early gastrointestinal cancers. EMR was originally described as a therapy for early gastric cancer. Recently its use has expanded as a therapeutic option for ampullary masses, colorectal cancer, and large colorectal polyps. In the Western world, the predominant indication for EMR in the upper gastrointestinal tract is the staging and treatment of advance dysplasia and early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. This review will describe the basis, indications, techniques, and complications of EMR, and its role in the management of Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:18395896

  8. Biological Survey of the Upper Purgatoire Watershed

    E-print Network

    Biological Survey of the Upper Purgatoire Watershed Las Animas County, CO John Carney Colorado....................................................................................................................14 Designate Target Inventory Areas (TIAs

  9. Study of blade aspect ratio on a compressor front stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behlke, R. F.; Brooky, J. D.; Canal, E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A single stage, low aspect ratio, compressor with a 442.0 m/sec (1450 ft/sec) tip speed and a 0.597 hub/tip ratio typical of an advanced core compressor front stage was tested. The test stage incorporated an inlet duct which was representative of an engine transition duct between fan and high pressure compressors. At design speed, the rotor stator stage achieved a peak adiabatic efficiency of 86.6 percent at a flow of 44.35 kg/sec (97.8 lbm/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.8. Surge margin was 12.5 percent from the peak stage efficiency point.

  10. How Is Bone Cancer Staged?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer Previous Topic How is bone cancer diagnosed? Next Topic Survival statistics for bone cancer How is bone cancer staged? Staging is a process that tells the doctor how widespread a cancer ...

  11. Planning for Plume Diagnostics for Ground Testing of J-2X Engines at the SSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintCyr, William W.; Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; SaintCyr, William W.

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is the premier test facility for liquid rocket engine development and certification for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Therefore, it is no surprise that the SSC will play the most prominent role in the engine development testing and certification for the J-2X engine. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine has been selected by the Constellation Program to power the Ares I Upper Stage Element and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage in NASA s strategy of risk mitigation for hardware development by building on the Apollo program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. Accordingly, J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development and testing efforts. In order to leverage SSC s successful and innovative expertise in the plume diagnostics for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) health monitoring,1-10 this paper will present a blueprint for plume diagnostics for various proposed ground testing activities for J-2X at SSC. Complete description of the SSC s test facilities, supporting infrastructure, and test facilities is available in Ref. 11. The A-1 Test Stand is currently being prepared for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions. The A-2 Test Stand is currently being used for testing the SSME and may also be used for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions in the future. Very recently, ground-breaking ceremony for the new A-3 rocket engine test stand took place at SSC on August 23, 2007. A-3 is the first large - scale test stand to be built at the SSC since the A and B stands were constructed in the 1960s. The A-3 Test Stand will be used for testing J-2X engines under vacuum conditions simulating high altitude operation at approximately 30,480 m (100,000 ft). To achieve the simulated altitude environment, chemical steam generators using isopropyl alcohol, LOX, and RELEASED - Printed documents may be obsolete; validate prior to use. water would run for the duration of the test and would generate approximately 2096 Kg/s of steam to reduce pressure in the test cell and downstream of the engine. The testing at the A-3 Test Stand is projected to begin in late 2010, meanwhile the J-2X component testing on A-1 is scheduled to begin later this year.

  12. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  13. Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  14. How Is Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma Staged?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... described using the number 0 (zero) and the Roman numerals I through IV. This staging system describes ... determine the stage. The stage is expressed in Roman numerals from stage I (the least advanced stage) ...

  15. Microorganisms of the Upper Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, John D.

    1966-01-01

    The relationship between frontal activity and the micropopulation of the atmosphere at altitude is described. It is shown that certain of the meteorological events associated with frontal activity quantitatively modify the micropopulation of the atmosphere. Precipitation associated with frontal passage reduces the micropopulation at altitude, whereas frontal activity with high levels of associated surface and atmospheric turbulence results in great increases in micropopulations of the upper atmosphere—particularly in those situations where surface conditions are conductive to the development of dust. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6006418

  16. The upper ionosphere of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Capone, L. A.; Mcculley, L.; Michelson, P. F.

    1977-01-01

    Photoionization of the upper atmosphere of Titan by sunlight is expected to produce a substantial ionospheric layer. One-dimensional forms of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for ions and electrons have been solved along with electron number densities of about 1000/cu cm, using various model atmospheres. The significant ions in a CH4-H2 atmosphere are H(+), H3(+), CH5(+), CH3(+), and C2H5(+). Electron temperatures may be as high as 1000 K, depending on the abundance of hydrogen in the high atmosphere. Interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere is also discussed.

  17. College of Engineering College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    College of Engineering _______________ 2.8 Page 1 College of Engineering Office in Engineering Professor Thomas Siller, Associate Dean UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental

  18. College of Engineering College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    College of Engineering _______________ 2.7 Page 1 College of Engineering Office in Engineering Siller, Associate Dean UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental

  19. Effects of upper-surface blowing and thrust vectoring on low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale supersonic transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Mclemore, H. C.; Shivers, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale arrow-wing supersonic transport configured with engines mounted above the wing for upper surface blowing, and conventional lower surface engines with provisions for thrust vectoring. A limited number of tests were conducted for the upper surface engine configuration in the high lift condition for beta = 10 in order to evaluate lateral directional characteristics, and with the right engine inoperative to evaluate the engine out condition.

  20. Staged immediate breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zenn, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing popularity and acceptance of nipple-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction comes an associated higher complication rate of nipple and skin necrosis. Historically, management of this risk has been addressed by predictive technologies or staged surgery with placement of an initial tissue expander. Certain high-risk patients, such as those with large cup size, previous surgery, or previous radiation, may not even be considered for an immediate nipple-sparing mastectomy approach due to even higher rates of complications. This report details a delay technique that allows safe preservation of the nipple-sparing mastectomy tissues, even in high-risk individuals, and facilitates straight-to-implant reconstruction without the need for tissue expansion. The aesthetic benefits, time savings, and acceptable complication profile in this series are presented. PMID:25811563

  1. Nonmarine upper cretaceous rocks, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); Griesbach, F.B.; Egbert, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    A section of Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) nonmarine sandstone, conglomerate, and siltstone with associated coal is exposed near Saddle mountain on the northwest flank of Cook Inlet basin, the only known surface exposure of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks in the Cook Inlet area. The section, at least 83.3 m thick, unconformably overlies the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation and is unconformably overlain by the lower Tertiary West Foreland Formation. These upper Cretaceous rocks correlate lithologically with the second or deeper interval of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks penetrated in the lower Cook Inlet COST 1 well.

  2. Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

  3. Introduction Engineering

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    processing technology etc. Mechanical Engineering Thermo-Fluid and Dynamics Mechanics and Physics of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, and Department of Computer Science Spatial Design Architectural Planning, History and Theory Engineering of Building Structures Architectural

  4. Engineering Prestigious

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Engineering Studious Prestigious Adventurous Curious Ambitious Ingenious #12;TheCollegeof Engineering We are committed to innovation in all aspects of engineering education and research. We deliver an accredited professional education program that effectively prepares our students to become engineering

  5. 55. Photocopy of Fcsle & Upper Deck, Booklet of General ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photocopy of Fcsle & Upper Deck, Booklet of General Plans, U.S.C.G.C. White Heath, WLM-545. U.S. Coast Guard Naval Engineering Department, U.S.C.G. Headquarters, Washington, D.C. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-0103-019 C. sheet 5 of 7, dated May 1967; revised June 1971, December 1976, and April 1989. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. Turbopump design studies for the 20 KN ATE engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanneback, T.; Palmnas, U.

    1992-08-01

    Studies of a turbopump fed storable propellant engine/stage called the Advanced Technology Engine, ATE are presented. These studies have been performed under contracts from both the Swedish Space Agency and ESA. The engine thrust requirement is 20 kN and the specific impulse is 345 s. The paper focuses on turbopump design and component performance for the ATE engine application, starting from engine system aspects, such as mission, reliability and reusability requirements. The requirements regarding high chamber pressure and low propellant mass flows means that special attention has to be paid to the turbopump design. Layouts for two different engine cycle turbopumps are presented, the Gas Generator and Stage Combustion cycles. Component design data and performance estimates are presented for the Stage Combustion cycle, preferred by ESA based on engine cycle trade-off studies. The development of a Stage Combustion cycle turbopump can be achieved in 8 years with in total about 150 engine tests.

  7. AJ26 Rocket Engine Test - Duration: 85 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASAâ??s John C. Stennis Space Center conducts the second in a series of verification tests on an Aerojet AJ26 engine that will power the first stage of the Orbital Sciences Corporatio...

  8. Design the Cost Approach in Trade-Off's for Structural Components, Illustrated on the Baseline Selection of the Engine Thrust Frame of Ariane 5 ESC-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appolloni, L.; Juhls, A.; Rieck, U.

    2002-01-01

    Designing for value is one of the very actual upcoming methods for design optimization, which broke into the domain of aerospace engineering in the late 90's. In the frame of designing for value two main design philosophies exist: Design For Cost and Design To Cost. Design To Cost is the iterative redesign of a project until the content of the project meets a given budget. Designing For Cost is the conscious use of engineering process technology to reduce life cycle cost while satisfying, and hopefully exceeding, customer demands. The key to understanding cost, and hence to reducing cost, is the ability to measure cost accurately and to allocate it appropriately to products. Only then can intelligent decisions be made. Therefore the necessity of new methods as "Design For Value" or "Design For Competitiveness", set up with a generally multidisciplinary approach to find an optimized technical solution driven by many parameters, depending on the mission scenario and the customer/market needs. Very often three, but not more than five parametric drivers are sufficient. The more variable exist, the higher is in fact the risk to find just a sub-optimized local and not the global optimum, and the less robust is the found solution against change of input parameters. When the main parameters for optimization have been identified, the system engineer has to communicate them to all design engineers, who shall take care of these assessment variables during the entire design and decision process. The design process which has taken to the definition of the feasible structural concepts for the Engine Thrust Frame of the Ariane 5 Upper Cryogenic Stage ESC-B follows these most actual design philosophy methodologies, and combines a design for cost approach, to a design to cost optimization loop. Ariane 5 is the first member of a family of heavy-lift launchers. It aims to evolve into a family of launchers that responds to the space transportation challenges of the 21st century. New upper stages, along with modifications to the main cryogenic stage and solid boosters, will increase performance and meet demands of a changing market. A two-steps approach was decided for future developments of the launcher upper stage, in order to increase the payload lift capability of Ariane 5. The first step ESC-A is scheduled for first launch in 2002. As later step ESC-B shall grow up to 12 tons in GTO orbit, with multiple restart capability, i.e. re-ignitable engine. Ariane 5 ESC-B first flight is targeted for 2006. It will be loaded with 28 metric tons of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen and powered by a new expander cycle engine "Vinci". The Vinci engine will be connected to the tanks of the ESC-B stage via the structure named from the designers ETF, or Engine Thrust Frame. In order to develop a design concept for the ETF component a trade off was performed, based on the most modern system engineering methodologies. This paper will describe the basis of the system engineering approach in the design to cost process, and illustrate such approach as it has been applied during the trade off for the baseline selection of the Engine Thrust Frame of Ariane 5 ESC-B.

  9. CLV First Stage Design, Development, Test and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Richard K.; Brasfield, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is an integral part of NASA's Exploration architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Currently in the system definition phase, the CLV is planned to replace the Space Shuttle for crew transport in the post 2010 time frame. It is comprised of a solid rocket booster first stage derived from the current Space Shuttle SRB, a LOX/hydrogen liquid fueled second stage utilizing a derivative of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for propulsion, and a Crew Exploration Vehicle (GEV) composed of Command and Service Modules. This paper deals with current DDT&E planning for the CLV first stage solid rocket booster. Described are the current overall point-of-departure design and booster subsystems, systems engineering approach, and milestone schedule requirements.

  10. [Diagnosis of nitrogen content in upper and lower corn leaves based on hyperspectral data].

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Hu, Ke-Lin; Tian, Ming-Ming; Wei, Dan; Li, Hong; Bai, You-Lu; Zhang, Jun-Zheng

    2013-04-01

    Based on the spectral characters of corn leaf nitrogen content in the space, the spectral models for rapid estimating crop nitrogen content were set up, which is practically meaningful to effectively providing the guidance in fertilization. Spectral technology was applied to explore corn leaves nitrogen content distribution regularity and the relationship between the nitrogen content and plant index was analysed and then the estimation models were built. The results showed N content in upper leaves is higher than that in lower leaves in four growing stages; lower leaves at tassel emerge stage are sensitive to nitrogen losses, which could be used in guiding fertilization in grain production; optimum estimation models were built atjointing stage, the full-grown stage and tasseling stage, The research results provided the proof of crop nutrient analysis and rational fertilization. PMID:23841423

  11. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer

  12. Management of severe musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Levin, L S; Goldner, R D; Urbaniak, J R; Nunley, J A; Hardaker, W T

    1990-01-01

    Limb salvage was successful in 25 patients treated for severe grade III upper extremity injuries. In a retrospective review of 20 men and five women, follow-up time averaged 26 months. These high-energy injuries were characterized by massive soft-tissue injury, highly comminuted fractures, and significant neurovascular injury. Farm, industrial, and vehicular accidents accounted for 80% of the cases. Over 50% of the patients had concomitant systemic and/or other significant extremity injuries. Initial treatment consisted of irrigation and debridement and fracture stabilization using external and/or internal fixation. An average of four additional surgical procedures was required to provide soft-tissue coverage and maximum possible functional recovery. Forty-eight percent of the extremities underwent free vascularized or pedicular flaps for coverage or reconstruction. At final follow-up observation, 12% of the extremities rated excellent, 20% rated good, 52% fair, and 16% were poor. Experience gained in managing these severe upper extremity fractures supports the following observations. (a) Grade III open fractures of the upper extremities are frequently associated with significant neural, vascular, and musculotendon injuries. (b) External fixation plays an important role in the stabilization of grossly contaminated fractures. (c) Residual functional disability is common, and most patients do not return to their previous occupation. (d) Staged reconstruction directed toward maximum functional return may take several years. PMID:2266450

  13. Advanced two-stage compressor program design of inlet stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryce, C. A.; Paine, C. J.; Mccutcheon, A. R. S.; Tu, R. K.; Perrone, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of an inlet stage for a two-stage, 10/1 pressure ratio, 2 lb/sec flow rate compressor is discussed. Initially a performance comparison was conducted for an axial, mixed flow and centrifugal second stage. A modified mixed flow configuration with tandem rotors and tandem stators was selected for the inlet stage. The term conical flow compressor was coined to describe a particular type of mixed flow compressor configuration which utilizes axial flow type blading and an increase in radius to increase the work input potential. Design details of the conical flow compressor are described.

  14. Commercial Actors Stage Strike

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    On May 1, 2000, 75,000 members of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists staged a walk-out in protest of advertisers's proposed changes to the ways in which actors get paid for work in commercials. According to the current pay scheme, principle on-screen actors appearing in network commercials earn $479 in base pay as well as a residual payment ranging from $47 to $123. Over a standard thirteen-week run, actors earn an average of $13,000 per commercial. However, actors in cable commercials make a flat fee of $479 to $1,014 for the same thirteen-week run. SAG and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists are demanding a fourteen percent pay raise for both types of commercials. However, the advertisers would like to pay the actors only $2,575 for an unlimited thirteen-week network run. While this amount may seem like a lot of money, the average income for members of the SAG members is only $7000 a year, reflecting the possibility that actors may only appear in one or two commercials a year. This is the first major strike in the entertainment industry since 1988.

  15. School of Engineering: Induction 2014

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    & Mechanical Engineering - Aeronautical Engineering - Aerospace Systems - Mechanical Design Engineering Biomedical Engineering; Civil Engineering & Electronics & Electrical Engineering - Biomedical Engineering - Civil Engineering - Civil Engineering with Architecture - Audio Visual Engineering - Electronic

  16. Terry Fuller Engineering

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering Engineering Center Engineering Center Computer

  17. COMPUTER ENGINEERING CURRICULUM GUIDE Fall 2012 Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    COMPUTER ENGINEERING CURRICULUM GUIDE Fall 2012 ­ Spring 2013 ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS 1. REQUIRED TOTAL CREDITS Computer Engineering Degree, 127 A minimum of 42 upper-division semester credits (300 by the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. 2. GRADE REQUIREMENTS University ­ 2.00 GPA College

  18. Preparation of a biphasic scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoping Chen; Takashi Sato; Junzo Tanaka; Tetsuya Tateishi

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been developed as a prospective approach for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Engineered osteochondral implants can facilitate the fixation and integration with host tissue, and therefore promote the regeneration of osteochondral defects. A biphasic scaffold with a stratified two-layer structure for osteochondral tissue engineering was developed from biodegradable synthetic and naturally derived polymers. The upper layer

  19. 23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, UPPER FLOOR PLANS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  20. Work in progress — Mathematics preparation for a modern engineering program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohra Z. Manseur; Adrian Ieta; Rachid Manseur

    2010-01-01

    This work in progress report discusses aspects of the modernization of lower and upper division mathematics courses within an electrical and computer engineering curriculum under development. The justifications for reform are presented and a few initiatives for reform are proposed. Mathematics education in engineering curricula has undergone very little progress within the past century, while the field of engineering and

  1. 44. DETAIL VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN UPPER WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. DETAIL VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN UPPER WEST WALL CONTROL STATION, LOOKING EAST. UPPER INTERMEDIATE WALL AND UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATIONS IN BACKGROUND - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  2. The control system for the X-33 linear aerospike engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Jackson; E. Espenschied; J. Klop

    1998-01-01

    The linear aerospike engine is being developed for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) applications. The primary advantages of a linear aerospike engine over a conventional bell nozzle engine include altitude compensation, which provides enhanced performance, and lower vehicle weight resulting from the integration of the engine into the vehicle structure. A feature of this integration is the ability to provide thrust vector control

  3. Multi-stage complex contagions.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A; Gleeson, James P; Porter, Mason A

    2013-03-01

    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages-which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea-exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades-and hence collective action-can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers. PMID:23556961

  4. Multi-stage complex contagions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Gleeson, James P.; Porter, Mason A.

    2013-03-01

    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages—which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea—exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades—and hence collective action—can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.

  5. Redescription of Paraliparis holomelas Gilbert, 1896 (Teleostei: Liparidae), with a description of early life history stages

    E-print Network

    of early life history stages Morgan S. Busby* and Rachael L. Cartwright National Oceanic and Atmospheric and Conservation Engineering Division, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Building 4, Seattle, WA 98115, USA (e-mail: Morgan.Busby

  6. ``Physical Concepts in Cell Biology,'' an upper level interdisciplinary course in cell biophysics\\/mathematical biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Vavylonis

    2009-01-01

    I will describe my experience in developing an interdisciplinary biophysics course addressed to students at the upper undergraduate and graduate level, in collaboration with colleagues in physics and biology. The students had a background in physics, biology and engineering, and for many the course was their first exposure to interdisciplinary topics. The course did not depend on a formal knowledge

  7. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Charley; J. A. Stiman

    2008-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall

  8. Integrative Recovery: A Stage Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George De Leon

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines a 10-stage recovery paradigm (6 pretreatment and 4 treatment stages), based upon the clinical and research experience with those treated in residential therapeutic communities. Various recovery-stage formulations have been described for alcoholic abusers and smokers, largely from middle- and working-class backgrounds. However, the relevance of these formulations for other chemically dependent subgroups such as those seen in

  9. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING AND

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Engineering, Civil Engineer- ing, Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and solve engineering problems ·design and conduct experiments and analyze data · design systems86 College of Engineering and Science 86 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College

  10. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING AND

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    and Materials Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineer- ing, Computer Engineering, Electrical, and solve engineering problems ·design and conduct experiments and analyze data · design systems87 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering

  11. Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the spray bar configuration is that pressure reduction is achieved independent of liquid and vapor location, thereby enhancing the applicability of normal gravity test data to zero gravity conditions. The in-tank components are minimized with the proposed TVS design. Because the recirculation pump is external to the tank, no electrical power penetration of the tank is required for pump or valve operation. This is especially desirable for L02 tanks since the presence of an electrical ignition source in oxygen represents a critical failure mode. Also, since the critical components (pump, motor, valve, orifice) are external to the tank, system checkout and ground servicing/replacement are easier. For zero-g operation, component replacement external to the tank may be a significant benefit. In addition to satisfying the zero g TVS design objectives, the TVS concept tested offers additional benefits to the integrated subcritical cryogenic storage and launch system.

  12. Design and performance of a multi-stage cylindrical reconnection launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Brawley, E.L.; Duggin, B.W.; Cnare, E.C.; Rovang, D.C.; Widner, M.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A multi-stage, cylindrical reconnection launcher is being tested to demonstrate electrically-contactless, induction-launch technology for solenoidal coil geometry. A 6-stage launcher system is being developed to accelerate a 5 kg mass from rest to 300 m/s with a stored energy of {ge}200 kJ per coil stage. This launcher will provide data fro model verification and the engineering basis for proceeding with larger multistage systems. This paper describes the design of the multi-stage, discrete-coil launcher. Integration of coils, projectile, power systems, and real-time fire control are discussed. Results of multi-stage firings are presented.

  13. Non-Toxic Reaction Control System for the Reusable First Stage Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, E. L.; Rothschild, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Boeing Reusable Space Systems vision of a Reaction Control System (RCS) for the Reusable First Stage (RFS) being considered as a replacement for the Solid Rocket Booster for the Space Shuttle. The requirement is to,achieve reliable vehicle control during the upper atmospheric portion of the RFS trajectory while enabling more efficient ground operations, unhindered by constraints caused by operating with highly toxic RCS propellants. Boeing's objective for this effort is to develop a safer, more efficient and environmentally friendly RCS design approach that is suitable for the RFS concept of operations, including a low cost, efficient turnaround cycle. The Boeing RCS concept utilizes ethanol and liquid oxygen in place of the highly toxic, suspected carcinogen, ozone- depleting mono-methyl-hydrazine and highly toxic nitrogen tetroxide. The Space Shuttle Upgrade program, under the leadership of the NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, is currently developing liquid oxygen and ethanol (ethyl alcohol) technology for use as non-toxic orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and RCS. The development of this liquid oxygen and ethanol technology for the Space Shuffle offers a significant leverage to select much of the same technology for the RFS program. There are significant design and development issues involved with bringing this liquid oxygen and ethanol technology to a state of maturity suitable for an operational RCS, The risks associated with a new LOX and Ethanol RCS are mitigated by maintaining kerosene and hydrogen peroxide RCS technology as an alternative. These issues, presented within this paper, include managing the oxygen supply and achieving reliable ignition in the short pulse mode of engine operation. Performance, reliability and operations requirements are presented along with a specific RCS design concept to satisfying these requirements. The work reported in this paper was performed under NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Contract to define Reusable First Stage design concepts for the Space Shuttle.

  14. Non-Toxic Reaction Control System for the Reusable First Stage Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, E. L.; Rothschild, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Boeing Reusable Space Systems vision of a Reaction Control System (RCS) for the Reusable First Stage (RFS) being considered as a replacement for the Solid Rocket Booster for the Space Shuttle. The requirement is to achieve reliable vehicle control during the upper atmospheric portion of the RFS trajectory while enabling more efficient ground operations, unhindered by constraints caused by operating with highly toxic RCS propellants. Boeing's objective for this effort is to develop a safer, more efficient and environmentally friendly RCS design approach that is suitable for the RFS concept of operations, including a low cost, efficient turnaround cycle. The Boeing RCS concept utilizes ethanol and liquid oxygen in place of the highly toxic, suspected carcinogen, ozone-depleting mono-methyl-hydrazine and highly toxic nitrogen tetroxide. The Space Shuttle Upgrade program, under the leadership of the NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, is currently developing liquid oxygen and ethanol (ethyl alcohol) technology for use as non-toxic orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and RCS. The development of this liquid oxygen and ethanol technology for the Space Shuttle offers a significant leverage to select much of the same technology for the RFS program. There are significant design and development issues involved with bringing this liquid oxygen and ethanol technology to a state of maturity suitable for an operational RCS. The risks associated with a new LOX and Ethanol RCS are mitigated by maintaining kerosene and hydrogen peroxide RCS technology as an alternative. These issues, presented within this paper, include managing the oxygen supply and achieving reliable ignition in the short pulse mode of engine operation. Performance, reliability and operations requirements are presented along with a specific RCS design concept to satisfying these requirements. The work reported in this paper was performed under NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Contract Number NAS8-97272 to define Reusable First Stage design concepts for the Space Shuttle.

  15. Definition of stage-discharge relation in natural channels by step-backwater analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, James F.; Ray, H.A.

    1967-01-01

    The step-backwater method was investigated as a technique for defining the upper part of stage-discharge relation in a natural channel. State-discharge relations at 28 sites were computed by using this technique and compared with corresponding stage-discharge relations defined by current-meter measurements. In general, the agreement is remarkably good, and the step-backwater method should prove useful at many sites where current-meter measurements are not obtained.

  16. Phosphorus uptake rates of cotton roots at different growth stages from different soil layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nayakekorala; H. M. Taylor

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine P uptake at different growth stages by cotton plants from upper and lower\\u000a 30 cm layers of 60 cm deep uniform soil columns. A radioisotope tracer technique was used to separate uptake from the two\\u000a soil layers. Root lengths were measured in both layers at each growth stage. P fluxes were calculated for

  17. Parallel-coupled microstrip filters with over-coupled end stages for suppression of spurious responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Tsai Kuo; Sin-Ping Chen; Meshon Jiang

    2003-01-01

    In a parallel-coupled microstrip filter, end stages with over-coupling are designed to suppress the unwanted responses at twice the passband frequency (2f0). The inherent transmission zero of an over-coupled input\\/output stage is shown tunable. It is found that increasing the image impedance of the filter sections can further enhance the suppression. The designed bandpass filters thus have a wide upper

  18. Dynamic Modeling of Starting Aerodynamics and Stage Matching in an Axi-Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Kevin; OBrien, Walter F.; Owen, A. Karl

    1996-01-01

    A DYNamic Turbine Engine Compressor Code (DYNTECC) has been modified to model speed transients from 0-100% of compressor design speed. The impetus for this enhancement was to investigate stage matching and stalling behavior during a start sequence as compared to rotating stall events above ground idle. The model can simulate speed and throttle excursions simultaneously as well as time varying bleed flow schedules. Results of a start simulation are presented and compared to experimental data obtained from an axi-centrifugal turboshaft engine and companion compressor rig. Stage by stage comparisons reveal the front stages to be operating in or near rotating stall through most of the start sequence. The model matches the starting operating line quite well in the forward stages with deviations appearing in the rearward stages near the start bleed. Overall, the performance of the model is very promising and adds significantly to the dynamic simulation capabilities of DYNTECC.

  19. Overview of Transonic to Hypersonic Stage Separation Tool Development for Multi-Stage-to-Orbit Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Bunning, Pieter G.; Pamadi, Bandu N.; Scallion, William I.; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of research efforts at NASA in support of the stage separation and ascent aerothermodynamics research program is presented. The objective of this work is to develop a synergistic suite of experimental, computational, and engineering tools and methods to apply to vehicle separation across the transonic to hypersonic speed regimes. Proximity testing of a generic bimese wing-body configuration is on-going in the transonic (Mach numbers 0.6, 1.05, and 1.1), supersonic (Mach numbers 2.3, 3.0, and 4.5) and hypersonic (Mach numbers 6 and 10) speed regimes in four wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. An overset grid, Navier-Stokes flow solver has been enhanced and demonstrated on a matrix of proximity cases and on a dynamic separation simulation of the bimese configuration. Steady-state predictions with this solver were in excellent agreement with wind tunnel data at Mach 3 as were predictions via a Cartesian-grid Euler solver. Experimental and computational data have been used to evaluate multi-body enhancements to the widely-used Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System, an engineering methodology, and to develop a new software package, SepSim, for the simulation and visualization of vehicle motions in a stage separation scenario. Web-based software will be used for archiving information generated from this research program into a database accessible to the user community. Thus, a framework has been established to study stage separation problems using coordinated experimental, computational, and engineering tools.

  20. Marketing toys by developmental stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Szymanski

    2002-01-01

    Describes the types of toys needed by children of different developmental stages, their appeal for the parent, and the marketing implications. Outlines the developmental stages from infants to pre-teens. Discusses toys for children with special needs, family games, toy collecting, and safety and care issues. Focuses on a research approach to discovering what toys meet these requirements; this is based

  1. Data Staging on Untrusted Surrogates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Flinn; Shafeeq Sinnamohideen; Niraj Tolia; Mahadev Satyanarayanan

    2003-01-01

    We show how untrusted computers can be used to facili- tate secure mobile data access. We discuss a novel archi- tecture, data staging, that improves the performance of distributed file systems running on small, storage-limited pervasive computing devices. Data staging opportunis- tically prefetches files and caches them on nearby sur- rogate machines. Surrogates are untrusted and unman- aged: we use

  2. 5, 14791509, 2008 Staged cost

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluationHESSD 5, 1479­1509, 2008 Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al

  3. Collaborative Stage Manual Part II

    Cancer.gov

    SEER Program Coding and Staging Manual 2004, Revision 1 Appendix C Site-Specific Coding Modules C-299 Collaborative Staging Codes Nasal Cavity C30.0 C30.0 Nasal cavity (excludes nose, NOS C76.0) Note: Laterality must be coded for this site,

  4. The edge of the stage

    E-print Network

    Purdie, Catherine

    1984-01-01

    The edge of the stage is not only the point where the mask is removed but also the line where performance enters daily life . The film, The Edge of the Stage, revolves around this point through the lives of five performers. ...

  5. The Theatre Student: Stage Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Albert M.

    Stage violence is a complex art which, when conceived inventively, approached with professional care and respect, and practiced with patience and energy, can be the highlight of a scene or of an entire play. This book is designed for amateurs who have not had the benefit of formal training in stage violence. Chapters discuss falling (the…

  6. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E), Maniyara Fort (23°28'05?N; 68°37'E) Rakhdi Dam (23°27'26?N; 68°40'10?E) and Waior (23°25'05?N; 68°41'37?E) with a view to highlight the entombed bivalve taxa. Authors have encountered 53 species of which 23 are restricted to the Ramanian Stage.

  7. Discover Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The opening quote on the Discover Engineering Homepage reads: "Engineering has been called the invisible profession or the stealth profession because most people have no clue what engineers do. This Website, provided by the National Engineers Week and Discover Engineering team, is a Website dedicated to showing just what engineers do. Sections at the site include About Engineers, Cool Stuff!, Games, Idea Center, FAQs, Downloads, and Links. The Idea Center contains various forums where users can post open-ended questions and reply to posted messages. While the content of this site is intended for non-engineers, engineers will find this a good resource, as well.

  8. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  9. Design and performance of a multi-stage cylindrical reconnection launcher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Kaye; B. W. Duggin; E. C. Cnare; D. C. Rovang; M. M. Widner; E. L. Brawley

    1989-01-01

    A multi-stage, cylindrical, reconnection launcher is being tested to demonstrate electrically-contactless, induction-launch technology for solenoidal coil geometry. A 6-stage launcher system is being developed to accelerate a 5 kg mass from rest to 300 m\\/s with a stored energy of â¥200 kJ per coil stage. This launcher will provide data for model verification and the engineering basis for proceeding with

  10. Engineering Careers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource, created by Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing Education (TIME Center), examines the various careers available to engineers. Engineers work in many fields including design and development, testing, production, and maintenance. This page contains links to many engineering related websites such as A Sightseerâ??s Guide to Engineering, Cyberchase Online, NASAâ??s Education Website, and Discover Engineering.

  11. Neural Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin He

    2005-01-01

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal

  12. Discover Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from the National Engineers Week Foundation features a collection of materials and activities on engineering. Topics like environmental sustainability, computer engineering and renewable energy are included on the site. Interactive activities help students learn how engineering impacts our world. Different branches of engineering are also described in detail.

  13. Slavin Yar: a new Upper Cenozoic reference section in the Tunka rift valley (Southwestern Baikal region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Filinov, I. A.; Shibanova, I. V.; Mashchuk, I. M.; Sizov, A. V.

    2009-08-01

    The biostratigraphic study of a new Upper Cenozoic reference section in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal region) accompanied by radiocarbon measurements made it possible to date its lithological units. It is established that the section is largely composed of Upper Pleistocene fluvial sediments resting with distinct angular unconformity uapon Pliocene conglomerates. The revealed structural features of the section confirm the views that the directed development of the Tunka depressions was complicated by local inversions, when the sedimentation area became reduced. The main sedimentation features during the Late Cenozoic and its stages are reconstructed for the studied area.

  14. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ?0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  15. Terry Fuller Engineering

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Building Terry Fuller Petroleum Engineering Research Marsha Sharp Center for Student Athletics Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Construction Engineering and Engineering Technology Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering Engineering

  16. Testing for Upper Outliers in Gamma Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirpeksh Kumar; S. Lalitha

    2012-01-01

    The problem of multiple upper outlier detection in gamma sample is considered. Balasooriya and Gadag (1994) proposed a location and scale invariant test based on the test statistic Zk for testing the k upper outliers in two-parameter exponential sample. In this article, the test statistic is extended for gamma sample and the null distribution of the statistic is obtained. A

  17. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  18. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  19. The Statistical Upper Mantle Assemblage Anders Meibom*

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Don L.

    1 The Statistical Upper Mantle Assemblage Anders Meibom* and Don L. Anderson * Geological: 14 pages #12;2 Abstract A fundamental challenge in modern mantle geochemistry is to link geochemical scale regions in the mantle, such as the "convective" (i.e. well-stirred, homogeneous) upper mantle, sub

  20. Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model Jared the Thermosphere · We model the upper atmosphere from 500 km up to 1500 km. · Use the Titan Global Ionosphere, Titan (and now Jupiter and Saturn). ­ Details in Ridley et al. [2006], Bell et al. [2010a, 2010b

  1. Upper extremity function in spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jette Jansen; Karen Taudorf; Hans Pedersen; Kirsten Jensen; Åse Seitzberg; Torben Smith

    1991-01-01

    Poor upper extremity function is often recorded in meningomyelocele patients. Only 2 of the 25 patients we assessed, 5 to 19 years old, showed normal upper extremity function in the clinical neurological examination and a timed hand function test simulating daily activities. Slow performance with unsystematic variability was typical. Poor hand function correlated strongly with hydrocephalus. A trend towards better

  2. Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 APPENDIX 4-1--UPPER SNAKE PROVINCE PROJECT INVENTORY

    E-print Network

    Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 1 APPENDIX 4-1--UPPER SNAKE PROVINCE PROJECT INVENTORY both had major planning projects for the water resources and land management in the Snake River is just protected from development. #12;Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 2 Table 1. Snake

  3. Cupulate seed plants from the Upper Devonian Upper Old Red Sandstone at Taffs Well, South Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Hilton

    2006-01-01

    Two kinds of cupulate seed plants are described from the Upper Devonian aged Upper Old Red Sandstone at Taffs Well near Cardiff, South Wales. The first conforms to the characters of Xenotheca devonica (Arber and Goode) Hilton and Edwards previously recognised from the Upper Devonian of North Devon, to which it is assigned. The Taffs Well specimens provide additional information

  4. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-09

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Personal watercraft vehicle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, E.H.

    1991-12-17

    This paper describes a personal watercraft vehicle engine. It comprises: a crankcase having an upper portion and a lower portion a crankshaft operatively mounted in the crankcase, the crankshaft residing in a substantially horizontal orientation, the crankshaft having a longitudinal axis; a sealed flywheel housing, the sealed flywheel housing being axially aligned with the crankshaft; a flywheel cooperatively connected to the crankshaft, the flywheel residing in the flywheel housing, the flywheel housing being rigidly affixed to the crankcase; the flywheel having a plurality of gear teeth around its periphery; and a starter mounted in an opening defined in a plane parallel to the crankshaft and perpendicular to the starter axis, the starter being perpendicular to the crankshaft, in an upper-most portion of the sealed flywheel housing, the starter having a pinion gear, the pinion gear being engagable with the plurality of gear teeth on the periphery of the flywheel, whereby the starter is not as adversely affected by water.

  6. Congenital midline sinus of the upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Denise; Kua, Ee Hsiang Jonah; Por, Yong Chen

    2015-01-01

    A congenital lip sinus is a rare condition that has been reported to occur in both the upper and lower lips, either in isolation or in association with congenital deformities such as a cleft lip and palate in Van der Woude syndrome. The prevalence of lower lip sinuses has been estimated to be about 0.00001% of the white population. Upper lip sinuses are even more uncommon. To date, there have been several case reports of upper lip sinuses and fistulas, but no similar cases have been described in Singapore. We herein report a case of congenital upper lip sinus presenting as a recurring upper lip abscess and review the current literature on this condition. PMID:26106248

  7. Engineer Girl

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This engineering website is geared towards girls and young women to encourage and inspire them to pursue careers in engineering. The site includes articles, links, contests, and biographies of current women engineers.

  8. ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Fall 2013 #12;Name: ____________________________________________________ E-mail: ____________________________________________________ College of Engineering Cornell University ABET Accredited Programs for 2013­14 ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

  9. Electrical, Engineering

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    water and clean air; restore and improve urban infrastructure. Computing, Informatics & Decision Systems Systems Engineering (William Ditto) Bioengineering Health Care ­ treatments and cures for human diseases Sustainable Engineering ­ advance theory and practice of sustainable engineering; provide access to clean

  10. Current operational practice for the Delta second stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Almon A., Jr.

    At the end of operation for the Delta launch vehicle's second-stage propellant tankage, 250 lb of propellants remain. Analyses of on-orbit breakups that may have been caused by fuel tank overpressurization have led to the adoption of a restart operational policy in which the engine is fired for as long as necessary to ensure that as much oxidizer as possible is vented from the tank; tank pressures are thereby reduced to about 75 psi. None of the 12 experimentally restarted stages have broken up since 1981.

  11. College of Engineering Engineering in

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    College of Engineering Engineering in Social Context Jonathan Wickert Dean of Engineering #12;College of Engineering Game changers of the 20th century ... · Electrification · Automobile · Airplane optics · Nuclear technologies · High-performance materials #12;College of Engineering ... and of the 21st

  12. Preliminary battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle first stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masahiro; Kazama, Hiroo; Nakatsuji, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Isao; Maemura, Takashi; Atsumi, Masahiro

    The development, objectives, facilities, and results of a preliminary battleship tank firing test series of the first stage propulsion system of the H-II rocket are discussed. The test series included two engine chilldown tests and 12 short-duration hot firing tests. The results verify the basic compatibility of the tank system and the LE-7 engine.

  13. 40 CFR 1033.630 - Staged-assembly and delegated assembly exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...exemptions. (a) Staged assembly. You may ask us to provide a temporary exemption...is required to ship the engine. You may ask for this exemption if you do all of the...is required to ship the engine. You may ask for this exemption under 40 CFR...

  14. Upper gastrointestinal issues in athletes.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Jason J; Kapur, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are common among athletes with rates in the range of 30% to 70%. Both the intensity of sport and the type of sporting activity have been shown to be contributing factors in the development of GI symptoms. Three important factors have been postulated as contributing to the pathophysiology of GI complaints in athletes: mechanical forces, altered GI blood flow, and neuroendocrine changes. As a result of those factors, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), nausea, vomiting, gastritis, peptic ulcers, GI bleeding, or exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) may develop. GERD may be treated with changes in eating habits, lifestyle modifications, and training modifications. Nausea and vomiting may respond to simple training modifications, including no solid food 3 hours prior to an athletic event. Mechanical trauma, decreased splanchnic blood flow during exercise, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) contribute to gastritis, GI bleeding, and ulcer formation in athletes. Acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors may be useful in athletes with persistence of any of the above symptoms. ETAP is a common, poorly-understood, self-limited acute abdominal pain which is difficult to treat. ETAP incidence increases in athletes beginning a new exercise program or increasing the intensity of their current exercise program. ETAP may respond to changes in breathing patterns or may resolve simply with continued training. Evaluation of the athlete with upper GI symptoms requires a thorough history, a detailed training log, a focused physical examination aimed at ruling out potentially serious causes of symptoms, and follow-up laboratory testing based on concerning physical examination findings. PMID:22410703

  15. Esophageal cancer: staging system and guidelines for staging and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Survival of esophageal cancer is improving but remains poor. Esophageal cancer stage is based on depth of tumor invasion, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and the presence or absence of metastatic disease. Appropriate work-up is critical to identify accurate pre-treatment staging so that both under-treatment and unnecessary treatment is avoided. Treatment strategy should follow guideline recommendations, and generally should be developed after multidisciplinary evaluation. PMID:24876933

  16. 44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  17. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

  18. Carcinoma of the cervix: the staging anomaly.

    PubMed

    Bond, W H

    1985-11-01

    An analysis of 3625 carcinomas of the cervix treated in Birmingham between 1960 and 1974 showed FIGO staging to be anomalous. State 2B and 3B each contain two subgroups with differing prognosis, depending on whether one or both parametria are involved. Unilateral Stage 2B disease has a prognosis identical with Stage 2A. Bilateral Stage 2B, Stage 3A and unilateral Stage 3B disease have identical survival figures. Stages 1A, 1B and 4 and bilateral Stage 3B disease have unique survival characteristics. A system of staging combining FIGO clinical stages with prognosis facilitates interpretation of treatment results, survival figures and comparisons of series. PMID:4064548

  19. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    - cal Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Digital in systems integration and vehicle systems engineering and the ability to work globally. Graduates35 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering

  20. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Engineering, Chemi- cal Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science for master's and doctoral-level expertise in systems integration and vehicle systems engineering58 College of Engineering and Science 58 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College

  1. Plunging cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tailer, P.L.; West, J.H.

    1987-06-30

    A Stirling engine is described comprising, in combination, cylinders having tops and open lower ends, tanks containing hot and cold fluid, with a means plunging the cylinders out of phase into the hot and cold fluid. There is at least one connecting tube providing a passage between the upper portions of the cylinders. A working gas provided in the upper portion of the cylinders and the connecting tube.

  2. The SCSE Organic Rankine engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Boda

    1981-01-01

    The engine is the heart of a Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS) located at the focal point of a sun-tracking parabolic dish concentrator. The ORC engine employs a single-stage axial-flow turbine driving a high speed alternator to produce up to 25 kW electrical output at the focus of each dish. The organic working fluid is toluene, circulating in a closed-loop system

  3. Sensitivity of the Early Life Stages of Macroalgae from the Northern Hemisphere to Ultraviolet Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Y. Roleda; Christian Wiencke; Dieter Hanelt; Kai Bischof

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive cells of macroalgae are regarded as the life history stages most susceptible to various environmental stresses, including UV radiation (UVR). UVR is proposed to determine the upper depth distribution limit of macroalgae on the shore. These hypotheses were tested by UV-exposure experiments, using spores and young thalli of the eulittoral Rhodophyceae Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus and various

  4. Performance evaluation of a two-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle with different mass ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Hamamoto; K. C. Amanul Alam; Atsushi Akisawa; Takao Kashiwagi

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a two-stage adsorption chiller with different mass allocation between upper and bottom beds has been investigated numerically. It is found that the chiller can be driven effectively by the waste heat of temperature 55°C with the heat sink at environment temperature. Results show that cooling capacity can be improved with the optimum allocation of adsorbent mass to

  5. Contribution of cervical ultrasound and ultrasound fineneedle aspiration biopsy to the staging of thoracic oesophageal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bonvalot; N. Bouvard; P. Lothaire; J. Maurel; F. Galateau; P. Ségol; M. Gignoux

    1996-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the use of cervical ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pretherapeutic staging of oesophageal cancer. 50 patients with a thoracioesophageal cancer (upper third = 8, middle = 36, lower = 6), previously untreated, underwent cervical ultrasonography to detect supraclavicular lymph node metastases (LN). An ultrasound fine-needle aspiration biopsy was attempted in 12 cases of

  6. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  7. A systems design study of a microturbine jet engine for model applications

    E-print Network

    Jacox, John Oliver

    1974-01-01

    Centrifugal 4. 1:1 2-stage Fan 6 3-stage Axial Compressor 8:1 (O. A. ) Annular Folded Annular 1-stage Axial 1750 3-stage Axial 1750 121 N. A. 19. 00 11. 00 30. 00 N. A. Turbojet 430 N. A. 24. 00 12. 00 61. 00 68 Turbofan Table I (continued...1onal, internal combustion engine, (2) the ducted fan engine, and (3) the pulse-jet engine. Of the numerous configurations for internal combustion engines available to the propulsion engineer, only reciprocating and rotary piston power plants...

  8. Starting low compression ratio rotary Wankel diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kamo, R.; Yamada, T.Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The single stage rotary Wankel engine is difficult to convert into a diesel version having an adequate compression ratio and a compatible combustion chamber configuration. Past efforts in designing a rotary-type Wankel diesel engine resorted to a two-stage design. Complexity, size, weight, cost and performance penalties were some of the drawbacks of the two-stage Wankel-type diesel designs. This paper presents an approach to a single stage low compression ratio Wankel-type rotary engine. Cold starting of a low compression ratio single stage diesel Wankel becomes the key problem. It was demonstrated that the low compression single stage diesel Wankel type rotary engine can satisfactorily be cold started with a properly designed combustion chamber in the rotor and a variable heat input combustion aid.

  9. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and staging

    PubMed Central

    Borley, Nigel; Feneley, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents an increasing health burden. The past 20 years, with the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), has seen prostate cancer move increasingly from a condition that presented with locally advanced disease or metastases to one that is found upon screening. More is also known about the pathology of pre-malignant lesions. Diagnosis relies on trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) to obtain biopsies from throughout the prostate, but TRUS is not useful for staging. Imaging for staging, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, still has a low accuracy compared with pathological specimens. Current techniques are also inaccurate in identifying lymph node and bony metastases. Nomograms have been developed from the PSA, Gleason score and clinical grading to help quantify the risk of extra-capsular extension in radical prostatectomy specimens. Improved clinical staging modalities are required for more reliable prediction of pathological stage and for monitoring of response to treatments. PMID:19050692

  10. The stages of nonprofit advocacy

    E-print Network

    Nicholson-Crotty, Jill Denise

    2007-04-25

    This dissertation argues that advocacy is a two-stage decision in which organizations must first decide whether or not to undertake political activity through advocacy or lobbying and then choose between the set of strategic actions that, based...

  11. DNA Extraction & Staging Laboratory (DESL)

    Cancer.gov

    As part of the Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR), the DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL) located in Frederick, MD, is responsible for the preparation of samples for investigators at NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

  12. Third Stage - Duration: 17 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

  13. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for the orbit transfer vehicle engine were examined. Engine performance/weight sensitivities, the effect of a service life of 300 start/shutdown cycles between overalls on the maximum engine operating pressure, and the sensitivity of the engine design point (i.e., thrust chamber pressure and nozzle area ratio) to the performance requirements specified are among the factors studied. Preliminary engine systems analyses were conducted on the stage combustion, expander, and gas generator engine cycles. Hydrogen and oxygen pump discharge pressure requirements are shown for various engine cycles. Performance of the engine cycles is compared.

  14. Melanocytic Neoplasms II: Molecular Staging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Murphy; J. Andrew Carlson

    \\u000a The TNM staging categories and groupings of the updated 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Staging System\\u000a are outlined in Tables 6.1 and 6.2 [1]. “T ?” parameters are defined by primary tumor thickness, ulceration, and mitotic status; “N” parameters by the number of lymph nodes with metastatic disease and extent of metastatic burden; and “M” parameters by

  15. Staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ullrich G. Mueller-Lisse; Ulrike L. Mueller-Lisse; Thomas Meindl; Eva Coppenrath; Christoph Degenhart; Anno Graser; Michael Scherr; Maximilian F. Reiser

    2007-01-01

    As in other malignant tumors, prognosis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends on tumor extent and metastasis at the time of\\u000a primary diagnosis. Staging systems formalize the way in which the extent of RCC is being described and classified. Primary\\u000a staging of RCC aims at evaluating surgical options. Since surgical excision, which is the mainstay of therapy in non-metastatic\\u000a RCC,

  16. Rehabilitation using single stage implants

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Jumshad B.; Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K. V.; Shivakumar, B.

    2009-01-01

    Implant related prosthesis has become an integral part of rehabilitation of edentulous areas. Single stage implant placement has become popular because of its ease of use and fairly predictable results. In this paper, we present a series of cases of single stage implants being used to rehabilitate different clinical situations. All the implants placed have been successfully restored and followed up for up to one year. PMID:20376239

  17. Acquired Hemochromatosis with Pronounced Pigment Deposition of the Upper Eyelids

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian; Hu, Shasa

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis may be classified into two groups: primary (hereditary) or secondary (acquired). The acquired type most commonly occurs after massive intake of iron supplements or blood transfusions and is also known as transfusional iron overload. In the past, hemochromatosis was usually recognized at an advanced stage by the classic triad of hyperpigmentation, diabetes mellitus (“bronze diabetes”), and hepatic cirrhosis. Cutaneous hyperpigmentation is present in 70 percent of patients due to two different mechanisms: (1) hemosiderin deposition resulting in diffuse, slate-gray darkening and (2) increased production of melanin in the epidermis. A 47-year-old woman who receives regular transfusions due to low iron and chronic, unresolving anemia and who subsequently developed pronounced hyperpigmentation of the upper eyelids is described. The presentation, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment options of hyperpigmentation due to secondary hemochromatosis are discussed. PMID:24155994

  18. Engine piston having an insulating air gap

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrett, Mark Wayne (Washington, IL); Hunold,Brent Michael (Apex, NC)

    2010-02-02

    A piston for an internal combustion engine has an upper crown with a top and a bottom surface, and a lower crown with a top and a bottom surface. The upper crown and the lower crown are fixedly attached to each other using welds, with the bottom surface of the upper crown and the top surface of the lower crown forming a mating surface. The piston also has at least one centrally located air gap formed on the mating surface. The air gap is sealed to prevent substantial airflow into or out of the air gap.

  19. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  20. Flap noise measurements for STOL configurations using external upper surface blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Reshotko, M.; Olsen, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Screening tests of upper surface blowing on externally blown flaps configurations were conducted. Noise and turning effectiveness data were obtained with small-scale, engine-over-the-wing models. One large model was tested to determine scale effects. Nozzle types included circular, slot, D-shaped, and multilobed. Tests were made with and without flow attachment devices. For STOL applications the particular multilobed mixer and the D-shaped nozzles tested were found to offer little or no noise advantage over the round convergent nozzle. High aspect ratio slot nozzles provided the quietest configurations. In general, upper surface blowing was quieter than lower surface blowing for equivalent EBF models.