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1

Ares I Upper Stage Subscale Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

2

J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

Buzzell, James C.

2009-01-01

3

Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

Buzzell, James C.

2010-01-01

4

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

1999-01-01

5

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA selected an evolved variant of the proven Saturn/Apollo J-2 upper stage engine to power the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle Earth departure stage (EDS) for the Constellation Program. Any design changes needed by the new engine would be based where possible on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial launchers, and other programs. In addition to the thrust and efficiency requirements needed for the Constellation reference missions, it would be an order of magnitude safer than past engines. It required the J-2X government/industry team to develop the highest performance engine of its type in history and develop it for use in two vehicles for two different missions. In the attempt to achieve these goals in the past five years, the Upper Stage Engine team has made significant progress, successfully passing System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of spring 2010, more than 100,000 experimental and development engine parts have been completed or are in various stages of manufacture. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings have been released for manufacturing. This progress has been due to a combination of factors: the heritage hardware starting point, advanced computer analysis, and early heritage and development component testing to understand performance, validate computer modeling, and inform design trades. This work will increase the odds of success as engine team prepares for powerpack and development engine hot fire testing in calendar 2011. This paper will provide an overview of the engine development program and progress to date.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

6

Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

2006-01-01

7

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

8

Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

Zachary, A. T.

1973-01-01

9

A 20k Payload Launch Vehicle Fast Track Development Concept Using an RD-180 Engine and a Centaur Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A launch vehicle concept to deliver 20,000 lb of payload to a 100-nmi orbit has been defined. A new liquid oxygen/kerosene booster powered by an RD-180 engine was designed while using a slightly modified Centaur upper stage. The design, development, and test program met the imposed 40-mo schedule by elimination of major structural testing by increased factors of safety and concurrent engineering concepts. A growth path to attain 65,000 lb of payload is developed.

Toelle, Ronald (compiler)

1995-01-01

10

The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

Byrd, Thomas

2010-01-01

11

CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

12

Computational Modelling of the Preflow Phase during Start-Up of AN Upper-Stage Rocket Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational analysis of the oxidiser preflow during start-up of a storable propellant upper-stage rocket engine is presented. To account for flash-evaporation of the superheated liquid oxidiser new physical models and numerical solution techniques are developed and implemented into the framework of an iterative Euler-Lagrange method. The computed three-dimensional two-phase flow field and spray deposit distribution in combustion chamber and nozzle extension is analysed. The influence of liquid injection temperature, initial droplet sizes and wall temperature on the preflow is assessed by detailed parametric studies. Validated by experimental data, the results are used to derive transfer functions describing the preflow dynamics on a system level.

Steelant, J.; Schmehl, R.

2005-02-01

13

Ares I Upper Stage Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

Davis, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

14

Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and discussed in light of the various missions. For each mission there are several trajectory options and each will be discussed in terms of delta-v required and transit duration. Each propulsion system will be modeled, sized, and judged based on their applicability to the whole range of beyond LEO missions. Criteria for scoring will include the resulting dry mass of the stage, resulting propellant required, time to destination, and an assessment of key enabling technologies. In addition to the larger metrics, this paper will present the results of several coupled sensitivity studies. The ultimate goals of these tools and studies are to provide NASA with the most mass-, technology-, and cost-effective in-space stage for its future exploration missions.

Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

2014-01-01

15

Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

1981-01-01

16

Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), a key component of NASA's blueprint for the next generation of spacecraft to take humans back to the moon, is being designed and built by engineers at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The vehicle s design is based on the results of NASA's 2005 Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which called for development of a crew-launch system to reduce the gap between Shuttle retirement and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Initial Operating Capability, identification of key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance these reference exploration systems, and a reprioritization of near- and far-term technology investments. The Upper Stage Element (USE) of the CLV is a clean-sheet approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115' long and 216" in diameter, consisting of the following subsystems: Primary Structures (LOX Tank, LH2 Tank, Intertank, Thrust Structure, Spacecraft Payload Adaptor, Interstage, Forward and Aft Skirts), Secondary Structures (Systems Tunnel), Avionics and Software, Main Propulsion System, Reaction Control System, Thrust Vector Control, Auxiliary Power Unit, and Hydraulic Systems. The ESAS originally recommended a CEV to be launched atop a four-segment Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) CLV, utilizing an RS-25 engine-powered upper stage. However, Agency decisions to utilize fewer CLV development steps to lunar missions, reduce the overall risk for the lunar program, and provide a more balanced engine production rate requirement prompted engineers to switch to a five-segment design with a single Saturn-derived J-2X engine. This approach provides for single upper stage engine development for the CLV and an Earth Departure Stage, single Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) development for the CLV and a Cargo Launch Vehicle, and single core SSME development. While the RSRB design has changed since the CLV Project's inception, the USE design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system. Because consideration was given in the ESAS to both clean-sheet and modified USE designs, this paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and provide a detailed discussion of trades/selections made that led to the final upper stage configuration.

Davis, Daniel J.; Coook, Jerry R.

2006-01-01

17

Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

2007-01-01

18

Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

1979-01-01

19

ARES I Upper Stage Subsystems Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 2005 through early 2011, NASA conducted concept definition, design, and development of the Ares I launch vehicle. The Ares I was conceived to serve as a crew launch vehicle for beyond-low-Earth-orbit human space exploration missions as part of the Constellation Program Architecture. The vehicle was configured with a single shuttle-derived solid rocket booster first stage and a new liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage, propelled by a single, newly developed J-2X engine. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle was to be mated to the forward end of the Ares I upper stage through an interface with fairings and a payload adapter. The vehicle design passed a Preliminary Design Review in August 2008, and was nearing the Critical Design Review when efforts were concluded as a result of the Constellation Program s cancellation. At NASA Glenn Research Center, four subsystems were developed for the Ares I upper stage. These were thrust vector control (TVC) for the J-2X, electrical power system (EPS), purge and hazardous gas (P&HG), and development flight instrumentation (DFI). The teams working each of these subsystems achieved 80 percent or greater design completion and extensive development testing. These efforts were extremely successful representing state-of-the-art technology and hardware advances necessary to achieve Ares I reliability, safety, availability, and performance requirements. This paper documents the designs, development test activity, and results.

Frate, David T.; Senick, Paul F.; Tolbert, Carol M.

2011-01-01

20

Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test article, leading to a potential ISUS flight test in 2002.

Jaworske, Donald A.

1998-01-01

21

Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

Schallhorn, Paul; Campbell, D. Michael; Chase, Sukhdeep; Piquero, Jorge; Fortenberry, Cindy; Li, Xiaoyi; Grob, Lisa

2006-01-01

22

Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

2010-01-01

23

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

McArthur, J. Craig

2008-01-01

24

The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

25

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

2008-01-01

26

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DuPont (TM) Vespel (R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750 F during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

Wingard, Doug

2013-01-01

27

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) to Help Characterize Vespel SP-211 Polyimide Material for Use as a 750 F Valve Seal on the Ares I Upper Stage J-2X Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DuPont(tm) Vespel(R) SP-211 polyimide was selected as the top candidate seal material for use in the Oxidizer Turbine Bypass Valve (OTBV) on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage J-2X engine. In the OTBV, the seal material would get exposed to temperatures up to 750degF for approx 10 minutes at a time. Although the J-2X engine is not reusable, the valve material could be exposed to multiple temperature cycles up to 750degF during engine operation. The Constellation Program that included the Ares I rocket was eventually cancelled, but the J-2X engine was chosen for continued use for development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will have capability of taking astronauts and hardware to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was one of several test techniques used to characterize Vespel SP-211 to help prove its worthiness for use on the OTBV of the J-2X engine.

Wingard, Doug

2013-01-01

28

Upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additive. These propellants increase the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other Earth-orbital transfer missions. However, using metallized propellants for planetary missions can deliver great reductions in flight time with a single-stage, upper-stage system. Tradeoff studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with nonmetallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages, launched from the STS and STS-C, are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to high altitude orbits and onto interplanetary trajectories that are unattainable with only the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C). The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the STS and STS-C launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1992-01-01

29

United States upper stages for the next decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

United States (U.S.) upper stage development is approaching another crossroads. In the 1970 s the decision was made to fly all future payloads on the space shuttle. Work on high performance shuttle upper stages was halted after the Challenger accident, because of heightened safety concerns about liquid stages in the payload bay. The centaur G' was ultimately developed as the centaur upper stage for use with the Titan IV launch system. In the last two decades upper stage development decisions and requirements were driven by increased payload performance demands. As we look forward to the next decade it is apparent that the situation has changed. Significant effort is underway to downsize payloads. The best mission model projections indicate that the payload performance demands have reached a maximum with current or near-term missions, and that maximum weight requirements will generally decrease in the near future. Thus the current fleet of launch systems and upper stages are expected to be able to meet all projected performance requirements through the next one to two decades. The impetus for development of a new upper stage will have to come from somewhere other than increased performance requirements. A driving need for a new upper stage is emerging from the concept and technology development work currently underway in the U.S. on the evolved expendable vehicle (EELV) and reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The key EELV upper stage requirements are cost, operability and reliability. Clearly the EELV presents a performance challenge for a single upper stage to operate with a booster family over the complete mission model payload weight and destination range. The design requirements and trade-off considerations are quite different for a stage to operate with an RLV. In this case, manned safety and payload bay packaging become significant additional considerations which must be addressed, and reusability, with or without space basing, is an option. This paper covers the need and prospects of U.S. upper stages for the next decade by tracing the history of development and planned improvements, and identifying new requirements and challenges expected to be imposed by emerging EELV and RLV requirements. Trade-off factors, design considerations and sensitivities, as well as cost and reliability benchmarks, are highlighted through the use of representative design solutions.

Goldstein, A.; Woods, F.

30

Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger  

DOEpatents

A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA)

2006-05-09

31

Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger  

DOEpatents

A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA)

2011-11-01

32

Reusable Agena study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [space shuttle Agena upper stage tug concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shuttle Agena upper stage interim tug concept is based on a building block approach. These building block concepts are extensions of existing ascent Agena configurations. Several current improvements, have been used in developing the shuttle/Agena upper stage concepts. High-density acid is used as the Agena upper stage oxidizer. The baffled injector is used in the main engine. The DF-224 is a fourth generation computer currently in development and will be flight proven in the near future. The Agena upper stage building block concept uses the current Agena as a baseline, adds an 8.5-inch (21.6 cm) extension to the fuel tank for optimum mixture ratio, uses monomethyl hydrazine as fuel, exchanges a 150:1 nozzle extension for the existing 45:1, exchanges an Autonetics DF-224 for the existing Honeywell computer, and adds a star sensor for guidance update. These modifications to the current Agena provide a 5-foot (1.52m) diameter shuttle/Agena upper stage that will fly all Vandenberg Air Force Base missions in the reusable mode without resorting to a kick motor. The delta V velocity of the Agena is increased by use of a strap-on propellant tank option. This option provides a shuttle/Agena upper stage with the capability to place almost 3900 pounds (1769 kg) into geosynchronous orbit (24 hour period) without the aid of kick motors.

1974-01-01

33

New upper stage propulsion concept for future launchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure-fed system is leading to a stage easy to operate, reliable, needing no costly solutions (expander engine, boost pumps).On the other hand, many R&D programs are going on all ceramic liquid engines, engines cooled by “effusion” (DLR), Transpiration (PTAH-SOCAR from MBDA), Film or Trim (Astrium, Snecma), so very light engine may be offered on the market in the close

Max Calabro; Christophe Talbot

2008-01-01

34

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOEpatents

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01

35

Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

2014-01-01

36

Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's

J. P. Geddes

1983-01-01

37

Comparative evaluation of existing expendable upper stages for space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of existing expendable upper stages in the space shuttle during its early years of operation is evaluated. The Burner 2, Scout, Delta, Agena, Transtage, and Centaur were each studied under contract by their respective manufacturers to determine the extent and cost of the minimum modifications necessary to integrate the stage with the shuttle orbiter. A comparative economic analysis of thirty-five different families of these stages is discussed. Results show that the overall transportation system cost differences between many of the families are quite small. However, by considering several factors in addition to cost, it is possible to select one family as being representative of the capability of the minimum modification existing stage approach. The selected family meets all of the specified mission requirements during the early years of shuttle operation.

Weyers, V. J.; Sagerman, G. D.; Borsody, J.; Lubick, R. J.

1974-01-01

38

Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

Fisher, Mark F.

1997-01-01

39

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D.

1998-01-01

40

Overview of the Main Propulsion System for the NASA Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A functional overview of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage is provided. In addition to a simple overview of the key MPS functions and design philosophies, major lessons learned are discussed. The intent is to provide a technical overview with enough detail to allow engineers outside of the MPS Integrated Product Team (IPT) to develop a rough understanding of MPS operations, components, design philosophy, and lessons learned.

Quinn, Jason E.; Swanson, Luke A.

2009-01-01

41

Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

Mueller, Mark

42

Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

2008-01-01

43

Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion for Spacecraft and Upper Stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to 'push' against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant. The groundwork has been laid for this type of propulsion. Important recent milestones include retrieval of a tether in space (TSS-1, 1992), successful deployment of a 20-km-long tether in space (SEDS-1, 1993), and operation of an electrodynamic tether with tether current driven in both directions (PMG, 1993). The planned Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a 5 km bare copper tether from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4 N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of the endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. The flight experiment is a precursor to utilization of the technology on the International Space Station for reboost and the electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes, all using electrodynamic thrust. In addition, the use of this type of propulsion may be attractive for future missions at Jupiter.

Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Rnrico; Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Sanmartin, Juan

1998-01-01

44

Optimization, an Important Stage of Engineering Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of leaders in technology education have indicated that a major difference between the technological design process and the engineering design process is analysis and optimization. The analysis stage of the engineering design process is when mathematical models and scientific principles are employed to help the designer predict design…

Kelley, Todd R.

2010-01-01

45

Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

Adams, Alan M.

1995-01-01

46

Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's reliance on novel propulsion and avionics technology. Its two solid rocket motors, which were selected on the basis of their inherent safety for use on the Space Shuttle, have the longest burn time extant. A three-dimensional carbon/carbon nozzle throat had to be developed to sustain this long burn, as were lightweight composite wound cases and shirts, insulation, igniters, and electromechanical thrust vector control.

Geddes, J. P.

47

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

48

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are subjected to confidence panel tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

49

Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

2007-01-01

50

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification \\/ Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested

A. Rittweger; W. Beuchel; K. Eckhardt

2002-01-01

51

Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

Anderson, Joel M.

2011-01-01

52

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

53

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

54

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building on the heritage of the Saturn and Space Shuttle Programs for the Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT and E) of avionics and software for NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the Ares I Upper Stage Element is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. The Upper Stage Element's Avionics Subsystem is actively proceeding toward its objective of delivering a flight-certified Upper Stage Avionics System for the Ares I CLV.

Nola, Charles L.; Blue, Lisa

2008-01-01

55

Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Avionics and Software Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overall description of the avionics and software functions of the Ares I Upper Stage Crew Launch Vehicle. The contents include: 1) IUA Team - Development Approach Roadmap; 2) Ares I US Avionics and Software Development Approach; 3) NDT Responsibilities; 4) Ares I Upper Stage Avionics Locations; 5) Ares I Overall Avionics & Software Functions; 6) Block Diagram Version of Avionics Architecture; 7) Instrument Unit Avionics Preliminary Design; and 8) Upper Stage Avionics External Interfaces.

Nola, Charles L.

2008-01-01

56

Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing and Analytical Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for solar thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.

Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.

2012-01-01

57

Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

1975-01-01

58

IUS/SPINSIM - INERTIAL UPPER STAGE SPIN STAGE SIX DEGREE OF FREEDOM SIMULATION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUS/SPINSIM was written to evaluate a proposed spinning third stage for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Jupiter Mission. The third stage of the IUS was not to have altitude control during the solid motor burn for this mission. IUS was to be spun up about its principle thrust axis in the desired attitude prior to ignition of its solid motor. IUS/SPINSIM can also be used to evaluate the performance of other spinning stages that utilize a fixed burn motor. IUS/SPINSIM is a Six-Degree-of-Freedom simulation for exo-atmospheric flight of an IUS. It assumes the stage is released in orbit at or near its desired inertial attitude, and is spinning slowly. The code models three phases: a coast phase in which further spin-up may occur, a burn stage during which a solid rocket motor (SRM) burn injects the space craft into a transfer trajectory, and a final coast phase. IUS/SPINSIM takes into account the effects of the following: a reaction control system (RCS) spinning the vehicle; SRM thrust buildup, decay, and misalignment; changing mass, center of gravity, principle moments of inertia, cross products of inertia, time derivatives of inertia; jet damping moments; and an oblate gravity model. Numerical integration of the equations of motion using a Runge-Kutta fourth order integrator and small step sizes is used to track the vehicle's position, velocity, attitude and spin rates. Instead of using Euler angles or the Direction Cosine Matrix, Quarternions are used to model the attitude and spinning of the vehicle. This eliminates the renormalization difficulties associated with either of the other methods. Program input is taken from a file, and output is to a print file and a data file suitable for use in plotting. The IUS/SPINSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 9track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This program was developed in 1992.

Dauro, V. A.

1994-01-01

59

Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

2013-01-01

60

Classification of Gas-Dust Structures in the Upper Atmosphere Associated with the Exhausts of Rocket-Engine Combustion Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of investigating optical phenomena in the upper atmosphere that accompany rocket launches and are associated with specific features of the structure and dynamics of gas-dust formations in the upper atmosphere. The most intense, large-scale, and dynamic phenomena are induced by specific operation modes of rocket engines, in particular, by the staging and thrust cutoff in

Yu. V. Platov; G. N. Kulikova; S. A. Chernouss

2003-01-01

61

Effect of Gimbal friction modeling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper-stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

Graham, Ronald E.

1987-01-01

62

Effect of gimbal friction modelling technique on control stability and performance for Centaur upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The powered-phase autopilot for the Centaur upper stage rocket uses an autopilot forward loop gain scheduler that decreases the proportional gain as propellant mass is depleted. Nonlinear time response simulation studies revealed that Centaur vehicles with low-gain autopilots would have large attitude error limit cycles. These limit cycles were due to the assumed presence of Coulomb friction in the engine gimbals. This situation could be corrected through the use of an harmonic dither, programmed into the on-board digital computer and added to the engine command signal. This would introduce impending motion to the engines, allowing control of the engines even under small commands. Control authority was found to be restored when dither was used. A concern arose that the Centaur could be unacceptably excited at resonances near the dither frequency, if the dither amplitude was to be chosen on the basis of friction level present, a test was conducted to measure this level. Dither characteristics were to be based on the test results. The test results showed that the gimbal friction characteristic was actually hysteretic rather than the assumed Coulomb friction. The simulation results showed that, using this new model of gimbal friction, dither would no longer be necessary.

Graham, Ronald E.

1987-01-01

63

Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1990-01-01

64

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

65

Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

Graham, Scott R.

2014-01-01

66

NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Reaction Control System (ReCS) Cold Flow Development Test Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Ares I launch vehicle, consisting of a five segment solid rocket booster first stage and a liquid bi-propellant J2-X engine Upper Stage, is the vehicle that s been chosen to launch the Orion Crew Module, which will return humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. After First Stage booster separation, the Reaction Control System (ReCS), a monopropellant hydrazine system, will provide the Upper Stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. This paper provides an overview of the system level development testing that has taken place on the Ares I launch vehicle Upper Stage ReCS. The ReCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) was built as a flight representative water flow test article whose primary test objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate the integrate system performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Water is the industry standard for cold flow testing of hydrazine systems, because the densities are very close and the speeds of sound are well characterized. The completion of this development level test program was considered necessary to support the ReCS Critical Design Review. This paper will address the design approach taken in building the test article, the objectives of the test program, types of testing completed, general results, the ability of the program to meet the test objectives, and lessons learned

Dervan, Melanie; Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Sivak, Amy; Morris, Jon D.

2010-01-01

67

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (EE)/COMPUTER ENGINEERING (CMPE) UPPER DIVISION HONORS PROGRAM  

E-print Network

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (EE)/COMPUTER ENGINEERING (CMPE) UPPER DIVISION HONORS PROGRAM Deadlines the website at http://www.honors.uconn.edu. EE/CMPE Honors Program The Electrical/Computer Engineering and Computer Engineering Design I and II. No other honors thesis is required for the Honors Program if you

Zhou, Shengli

68

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site of upper airway obstruction in obstructive apnoea and influence of sleep stage. A.N. Boudewyns, P.H. Van de Heyning, W.A. De Backer. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Various sites along the upper airway (UA) are prone to narrow and collapse in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep stages may even- tually alter these sites. The present study was designed

A. N. Boudewyns; P. H. Van de Heyning; W. A. De Backer

1997-01-01

69

Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2010-01-01

70

Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton capability boundary for the upper stage, such that if the combined first stage and boosters can achieve any one staging point on that surface, then the design is identified as feasible. With the surrogate model created, design and analysis of advanced booster concepts is streamlined, as optimization of the upper stage trajectory is no longer required in every design loop.

Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

2012-01-01

71

Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

2003-01-01

72

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (EE)/COMPUTER ENGINEERING (CMPE) UPPER DIVISION HONORS PROGRAM  

E-print Network

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (EE)/COMPUTER ENGINEERING (CMPE) UPPER DIVISION HONORS PROGRAM Deadlines the website at http://www.honors.uconn.edu. EE/CMPE Honors Program The Electrical/Computer Engineering as to the student's qualifications for Honors work in the major. For information about the Honors Program, visit

Zhou, Shengli

73

Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan Hunter

74

NASA Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Element of NASA s Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The USE concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 115 long and 216" in diameter. While the Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system.

Cook, Jerry R.

2006-01-01

75

Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

2010-01-01

76

Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

Burchett, Bradley T.

2008-01-01

77

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (EE)/COMPUTER ENGINEERING (CMPE) UPPER DIVISION HONORS PROGRAM  

E-print Network

Program, visit the website at http://www.honors.uconn.edu. EE/CMPE Honors Program The Electrical/ComputerELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (EE)/COMPUTER ENGINEERING (CMPE) UPPER DIVISION HONORS PROGRAM Deadlines Fall Admission--Early: Feb. 13, Regular: June 1 Rising Juniors Students with a grade

Zhou, Shengli

78

Validating NEXRAD MPE and Stage III precipitation products for uniform rainfall on the Upper Guadalupe  

E-print Network

models (Jayakrishnan et al., 2004). Problems with gauge rainfall measurements were documented in severalValidating NEXRAD MPE and Stage III precipitation products for uniform rainfall on the Upper-area representativeness error of gauge rainfall is a major concern in assessment of radar rainfall estimation, this study

Texas at San Antonio, University of

79

Robotic Planetary Science Missions Enabled with Small NTR Engine/Stage Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a LOX/LH2-fueled injection stage. The paper discusses NTR technology and mission characteristics, shows NTR stage and payload accommodations within the 26.2 m long Titan IV payload fairing, and discusses NTR stage performance as a function of assumed cryogenic tank technology.

Borowski, Stanley K.

1995-01-01

80

Lessons Learnt from the Dynamic Identification / Qualification Tests on the ESC-A Upper stage Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic qualification of the new cryogenic upper stage ESC-A of the ARIANE 5 is supported by several tests in order to verify the assumptions and the modelling approach made at the beginning of the development. The upper composite of the ARIANE 5, consisting of upper stage, vehicle equipment bay, payload carrying structures, payload dummies and fairing, was modal tested to validate the mathematical model of the launcher. Additionally, transfer functions were measured for Pogo investigations. Validated mathematical launcher models are the basis to predict the launcher global responses in the low frequency domain with sufficient confidence. The predicted global axial and lateral responses for selected sections at the stage represent the flight loads for these sections. The stage contains a large amount of equipment such as propellant lines, acceleration rockets, batteries, fluid control equipment etc. The verification of the equipment responses in the integrated state was done by a sine vibration test, excited to levels representing the predicted flight loads including a qualification factor. Acoustic tests with the upper stage were performed to verify the random vibration responses in the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. To verify the shock response level induced by stage separation (pyro shock) a stage separation test was performed. All the equipment was qualified separately for its dynamic (sine, random and shock excitation) and thermal environment to proof its structural and functional integrity. The paper concentrates on the experience made with the modal identification and sine-vibration test of the stage. For the sine vibration test an electrodynamic multi-shaker table was used. It was able to produce the required input precisely up to 150 Hz as specified, not an easy task for a test set-up of 20 tons weight. The paper presents the approach how the dynamic qualification was reached successfully and highlights the experiences which were made - the comparison between prediction and test results shows the ability and good quality of analysis but - the advantage of combined analysis of shaker table and stage model for test prediction - local effects observed in test - the dependency of damping on the load level - the efficiency of the so called SARO-Damping Device

Rittweger, A.; Beuchel, W.; Eckhardt, K.

2002-01-01

81

Infusing Training into the Documentation and Culture of Ares I Upper Stage Design and Manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 2) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can grow their own training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, and 3) possibilities for interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

82

Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

Scott, David W.

2009-01-01

83

Preburner of Staged Combustion Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A regeneratively cooled LOX/hydrogen staged combustion assembly system with a 400:1 expansion area ratio nozzle utilizing an 89,000 Newton (20,000 pound) thrust regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and 175:1 tubular nozzle was analyzed, assembled, and tested. The components for this assembly include two spark/torch oxygen-hydrogen igniters, two servo-controlled LOX valves, a preburner injector, a preburner combustor, a main propellant injector, a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber, a regeneratively cooled tubular nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 175:1, an uncooled heavy-wall steel nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 400:1, and interconnecting ducting. The analytical effort was performed to optimize the thermal and structural characteristics of each of the new components and the ducting, and to reverify the capabilities of the previously fabricated components. The testing effort provided a demonstration of the preburner/combustor chamber operation, chamber combustion efficiency and stability, and chamber and nozzle heat transfer.

Yost, M. C.

1978-01-01

84

Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

Williams, Jonathan H.

2010-01-01

85

Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

2008-01-01

86

Engineering insect flight metabolics using immature stage implanted microfluidics  

E-print Network

Engineering insect flight metabolics using immature stage implanted microfluidics Aram J. Chung Article on the web 24th November 2008 DOI: 10.1039/b814911a Small-scale insect inspired aircraft represent microsystems to exert direct control over insect flight. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, a method

Erickson, David

87

Characterization of the 2012-044C Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 6 August, 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to use specialized radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper will describe the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud, and presents the results of the analysis of the data. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, J.; Horstman, M.; Papanyan, V.

2013-01-01

88

Non-toxic propulsion for spaceplane ``pop-up'' upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military spaceplane operations scenarios envision using the ``Pop-Up'' employment profile to significantly increase the payload to orbit capability of the vehicle. Previous studies have investigated a range of propulsion system and stage design options for a pop-up upper stage (Cotta 1996). Operationally it is desirable to have the upper stage and payload stored as a wooden round that is quickly loaded on the spaceplane when needed. The current study therefore focuses on non-toxic (less-toxic), storable propellant options. These are compared to the use of conventional (toxic) storable bi-propellant, Nitrogen Tetroxide/Monomethyl Hydrazine (N2O4/MMH), and cryogenic oxidizer bi-propellant, (LO2/RP1), options. The non-toxic oxidizers investigated include Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Hydroxyammonium Nitroformate (HANF). The non-toxic fuels include hydrocarbon jet fuel (JP-4), Quadricyclane (C7H8), and Methylcubane (C9H10). The impact of H2O2 purity (90% to 100%) and various fuel blends are also evaluated. The comparison includes payload delivery performance, propellant handling issues and technology development needs. The results show that there are propellant combinations that are less toxic than N2O4/MMH and yet deliver comparable payload delivery performance. However, there are propellant handling issues and technology development needs that must be addressed. These are discussed.

Eckmann, James B.; Wiswell, Robert L.; Haberman, Eugene G.

1998-01-01

89

Design and test of a small two stage counter-rotating turbine for rocket engine application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for application in an advanced upper stage rocket engine turbopump. This engine will employ an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low flow rates result in very small airfoil diameter, height and chord. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The unconventional approach employed to meet this challenge is described, along with the detailed design process and resulting airfoil configurations. The method and results of full scale aerodynamic performance evaluation testing of both one and two stage configurations, as well as operation without the secondary stage stator are presented. The overall results of this effort illustrate that advanced aerodynamic design tools and hardware fabrication techniques have provided improved capability to produce small high performance turbines for advanced rocket engines.

Huber, F. W.; Branstrom, B. R.; Finke, A. K.; Johnson, P. D.; Rowey, R. J.; Veres, J. P.

1993-01-01

90

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

91

Operations analysis (study 2.1): Shuttle upper stage software requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of software costs related to space shuttle upper stage operations with emphasis on the additional costs attributable to space servicing was conducted. The questions and problem areas include the following: (1) the key parameters involved with software costs; (2) historical data for extrapolation of future costs; (3) elements of the basic software development effort that are applicable to servicing functions; (4) effect of multiple servicing on complexity of the operation; and (5) are recurring software costs significant. The results address these questions and provide a foundation for estimating software costs based on the costs of similar programs and a series of empirical factors.

Wolfe, R. R.

1974-01-01

92

An electrically propelled upper stage for the launch of small satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The baseline design of an ion thruster upper stage used for launching small satellites to orbit altitudes of between 500 km and 2,000 km is described. The design philosophy of the vehicle is for a low-cost spacecraft bus which will serve the low-cost small satellite market. The ion propulsion subsystem employed uses a low-thrust orbit transfer strategy, and is considered to be at least competitive and generally better than chemical propulsion alternatives for LEO missions. Thermal control, attitude and orbit control, and power conditioning subsystems are covered, along with a communications subsystem, antenna, reaction control propellant requirements, and mission duration.

Watson, S. D.; Martin, A. R.; Latham, P. M.; Bond, A.; Preest, A. A.

1990-07-01

93

Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

2011-01-01

94

A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian Stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three palynological biozones are proposed for the Maastrichtian Stage of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, the biozones are the Carolinapollis triangularis (Ct) Interval Biozone, the Holkopollenites chemardensis (Hc) Interval Biozone, and the Sparganiaceaepollenites uniformis (Su) Interval Biozone. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithologic and geophysical log data suggests that within the study area, the upper and lower boundaries of each zone are bounded by regional unconformities, and that a three-fold subdivision of the Maastrichtian Stage is warranted. The biozonation is based on the analysis of 114 samples from 24 subsurface and three outcrop sections from the Coastal Plain of South Carolina; samples from an additional seven subsurface and 18 outcrop sections from North Carolina and Georgia were examined to evaluate the geographic extent of the biozones. One new genus and five new species of pollen are described, and emendations are presented for two genera and one species of pollen. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

2002-01-01

95

Dinoflagellates: Fossil motile-stage tests from the upper cretaceous of the Northern New Jersey coastal plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fossil dinoflagellate tests have been considered to represent encysted, nonmotile stages. The discovery of flagellar porelike structures and probable trichocyst pores in the Upper Cretaceous genus Dinogymnium suggests that motile stage tests are also preserved as acid-resistant, organic-walled microfossils.

May, F.E.

1976-01-01

96

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

Holland, L.E.

1986-01-01

97

Modeling and Simulation of the ARES UPPER STAGE Transportation, Lifting, Stacking and Mating Operations Within the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the modeling and simulation of the Ares Upper Stage Transportation, lifting, stacking, and mating operations within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An aerial view of KSC Launch Shuttle Complex, two views of the Delmia process control layout, and an upper stage move subroutine and breakdown are shown. An overhead image of the VAB and the turning basin along with the Pegasus barge at the turning basin are also shown. This viewgraph presentation also shows the actual design and the removal of the mid-section spring tensioners, the removal of the AFT rear and forward tensioners tie downs, and removing the AFT hold down post and mount. US leaving the Pegasus Barge, the upper stage arriving at transfer aisle, upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle, and an overhead view of upper stage receiving/inspection in transfer aisle are depicted. Five views of the actual connection of the cabling to the upper stage aft lifting hardware are shown. The upper stage transporter forward connector, two views of the rotation horizontal to vertical, the disconnection of the rear bolt ring cabling, the lowering of the upper stage to the inspection stand, disconnection of the rear bolt ring from the upper stage, the lifting of the upper stage and inspection of AFT fange, and the transfer of upper stage in an integrated stack are shown. Six views of the mating of the upper stage to the first stage are depicted. The preparation, inspection, and removal of the forward dome are shown. The upper stage mated on the integrated stack and crawler is also shown. This presentation concludes with A Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) utilizing male and female models for assessing risk factors to the upper extremities of human beings in an actual physical environment.

Kromis, Phillip A.

2010-01-01

98

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

2011-01-01

99

IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

1975-01-01

100

Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers check the lower fittings of the fairing installed around the Stardust spacecraft and upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, the spacecraft is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

101

Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers begin placing the fairing around the Stardust spacecraft and upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon- based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

102

Fairing installed around Stardust and upper stage of Boeing Delta II rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Stardust spacecraft waits for installation of the fairing (behind, right) that will enclose the spacecraft and the upper stage of the Boeing Delta II rocket. Targeted for launch at 4:06:42 p.m. on Feb. 6, Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre- solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

1999-01-01

103

A palynological biozonation for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five palynological biozones are proposed for the uppermost Santonian and Campanian Stages of South Carolina. In ascending stratigraphic order, these highest-occurrence interval zones are the Osculapollis vestibulus (Ov) Biozone, the Holkopollenites propinquus (Hp) Biozone, the Holkopollenites forix (Hf) Biozone, the Complexiopollis abditus (Ca) Biozone, and the Osculapollis aequalis (Oa) Biozone. These biozones are based on an analysis of more than 400 subsurface and outcrop samples throughout the Coastal Plain Province of South Carolina, and the adjacent states of Georgia and North Carolina. Integration of the biostratigraphy with lithostratigraphy and geophysical log data suggests that the lower and upper boundaries of each biozone are bounded by regional unconformities. Five new species are described, and an emendation is presented for one additional species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Christopher, R.A.; Prowell, D.C.

2010-01-01

104

Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

2008-01-01

105

Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket, 1958-2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During its maiden voyage in May 1962, a Centaur upper stage rocket, mated to an Atlas booster, exploded 54 seconds after launch, engulfing the rocket in a huge fireball. Investigation revealed that Centaur's light, stainless-steel tank had split open, spilling its liquid-hydrogen fuel down its sides, where the flame of the rocket exhaust immediately ignited it. Coming less than a year after President Kennedy had made landing human beings on the Moon a national priority, the loss of Centaur was regarded as a serious setback for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). During the failure investigation, Homer Newell, Director of Space Sciences, ruefully declared: "Taming liquid hydrogen to the point where expensive operational space missions can be committed to it has turned out to be more difficult than anyone supposed at the outset." After this failure, Centaur critics, led by Wernher von Braun, mounted a campaign to cancel the program. In addition to the unknowns associated with liquid hydrogen, he objected to the unusual design of Centaur. Like the Atlas rocket, Centaur depended on pressure to keep its paper-thin, stainless-steel shell from collapsing. It was literally inflated with its propellants like a football or balloon and needed no internal structure to give it added strength and stability. The so-called "pressure-stabilized structure" of Centaur, coupled with the light weight of its high- energy cryogenic propellants, made Centaur lighter and more powerful than upper stages that used conventional fuel. But, the critics argued, it would never become the reliable rocket that the United States needed.

Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

2004-01-01

106

Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

Carter, Robert W.

2011-01-01

107

Seal Joint Analysis and Design for the Ares-I Upper Stage LOX Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sealing capability of the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank-to-sump joint is assessed by analyzing the deflections of the joint components. Analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models and the ABAQUS commercial finite element software. For the pressure loads and feedline interface loads, the analyses employ a mixed factor of safety approach to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirements. Naflex pressure-assisted seals are considered first because they have been used successfully in similar seal joints in the Space Shuttle External Tank. For the baseline sump seal joint configuration with a Naflex seal, the predicted joint opening greatly exceeds the seal design specification. Three redesign options of the joint that maintain the use of a Naflex seal are studied. The joint openings for the redesigned seal joints show improvement over the baseline configuration; however, these joint openings still exceed the seal design specification. RACO pressure-assisted seals are considered next because they are known to also be used on the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the joint opening allowable is much larger than the specification for the Naflex seals. The finite element models for the RACO seal analyses are created by modifying the models that were used for the Naflex seal analyses. The analyses show that the RACO seal may provide sufficient sealing capability for the sump seal joint. The results provide reasonable data to recommend the design change and plan a testing program to determine the capability of RACO seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid oxygen tank sump seal joint.

Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

2011-01-01

108

Attitude Dynamics of Debris Resulting From Upper Stage Fragmentation in Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the analysis of the attitude dynamics of pieces of space debris that could result from the fragmentation of a spent upper stage in low Earth orbit (LEO). Up to now only whole objects of axisymmetric shape have been studied with the purpose of estimating their tumbling rates in LEO. Three shapes have been considered to be representative for the purpose of the study: a thin plate, a monocoque shell, an half conical shell and a spherical shell, and it has been assumed that they are fabricated from aluminum alloy. The motion of conducting body in a magnetic field generates eddy currents which create a torque in the opposite direction of the change in the magnetic flux and thus reduce the rotational rate of the body. The eddy currents that generate torques are described by Maxwell's equations. and the generalized Ohm's law is set up a Poisson problem with Neumann boundary conditions. The electrical potential, solution of Poisson problem and calculated by a finite element solver, defines the density current in the body and thus determines the torque applied on the debris. The results presented here can be used for the analysis of the initial propagation of a cloud of orbital debris resulting from the explosion of an upper stage or a satellite as well as for orbital debris remediation. Analysis of the attitude dynamics of space debris shows that, for a reasonable initial angular rate, the object is partially stabilized in less than 70 days for the thin plate and totally stabilized in less than 60 days for the monocoque shell, 12 days for the half conical shell, 30 days for an one fourth spherical shell and 90 days an one eighth spherical shell.

Marie, Killian

109

Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

110

Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

AIM: To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. CONCLUSION: Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT. PMID:25320538

Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

2014-01-01

111

Study of the anabranch dynamics for different sinuosity stages in the Upper Amazon River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Peruvian Amazon River is characterized by a sequence of anabranching structures, which are composed by several channels behaving as non-developed and quasy-freely meandering channels. The widest channel in these anabranching structures is considered as the main channel or main anabranch while the other channels are secondary anabranches. Based on satellite imagery, it is observed that the main channels show different sinuosities along the Upper Peruvian Amazon River valley. Little is known about the effects of the planform characteristics of the main channel into the morphodynamics of the secondary anabranches. Thus, two study sites were selected to characterize anabranching structures with low and medium-high sinuosity main channels. For the low sinuosity main channel case, an area at the tri-point boundary between Colombia-Brazil and Peru was selected. For the medium-high sinuosity main channel case, an area upstream of Iquitos City (the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest) was selected. A field campaign was carried out on 2010 and 2011 for the medium-high and low sinuosity stages respectively. On this field campaign velocity measurement, bathymetry and water surface elevations were obtained. With the field data it was possible to develop and validate a two dimensional shallow water numerical model to study the hydrodynamics on both sites. This allows us to discuss the effects of the current planform configuration of the anabranching structures into the short-term behavior of individual channels. In past studies, temporal analysis of the Amazon River planform have been carried out using satellite imagery with special focus into the floodplain, main channel, number of islands and valley slope. However, the dynamics in these anabranching structures containing multiple channels have not been studied in detailed. The metrics obtained for this study were sinuosity, channel width and annual migration rates. It was confirmed that in a medium to high sinuosity stage, the secondary anabranches behave as non-developed meanders. Also, it was concluded that the planform for secondary anabranches in all main channel sinuosity stages are controlled by the main anabranch migration.

Frias, C. E.; Mendoza, A.; Dauer, K.; Abad, J. D.; Montoro, H.; Paredes, J.; Vizcarra, J.

2013-12-01

112

Operations analysis (study 2.1). Contingency analysis. [of failure modes anticipated during space shuttle upper stage planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future operational concepts for the space transportation system were studied in terms of space shuttle upper stage failure contingencies possible during deployment, retrieval, or space servicing of automated satellite programs. Problems anticipated during mission planning were isolated using a modified 'fault tree' technique, normally used in safety analyses. A comprehensive space servicing hazard analysis is presented which classifies possible failure modes under the catagories of catastrophic collision, failure to rendezvous and dock, servicing failure, and failure to undock. The failure contingencies defined are to be taken into account during design of the upper stage.

1974-01-01

113

Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

2008-01-01

114

Reusable Centaur study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [development costs of Centaur launch vehicle as upper stage for space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the Reusable Centaur for use as an initial upper stage with the space shuttle was conducted. The currently operative Centaur stage, with modifications for space shuttle orbiter compatibility and for improved performance, represents a cost effective development solution. The performance needs and available development funds are discussed. The main features of three Reusable Centaur configurations with increasing capability at increasing development costs are summarized.

Heald, D. A.

1974-01-01

115

Performance of the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility During Altitude Firing Tests of the Delta 3 Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station was reactivated in order to conduct flight simulation ground tests of the Delta 3 cryogenic upper stage. The tests were a cooperative effort between The Boeing Company, Pratt and Whitney, and NASA. They included demonstration of tanking and detanking of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and helium pressurant gas as well as 12 engine firings simulating first, second, and third burns at altitude conditions. A key to the success of these tests was the performance of the primary facility systems and their interfaces with the vehicle. These systems included the structural support of the vehicle, propellant supplies, data acquisition, facility control systems, and the altitude exhaust system. While the facility connections to the vehicle umbilical panel simulated the performance of the launch pad systems, additional purge and electrical connections were also required which were unique to ground testing of the vehicle. The altitude exhaust system permitted an approximate simulation of the boost-phase pressure profile by rapidly pumping the test chamber from 13 psia to 0.5 psia as well as maintaining altitude conditions during extended steady-state firings. The performance of the steam driven ejector exhaust system has been correlated with variations in cooling water temperature during these tests. This correlation and comparisons to limited data available from Centaur tests conducted in the facility from 1969-1971 provided insight into optimizing the operation of the exhaust system for future tests. Overall, the facility proved to be robust and flexible for vehicle space simulation engine firings and enabled all test objectives to be successfully completed within the planned schedule.

Meyer, Michael L.; Dickens, Kevin W.; Skaff, Tony F.; Cmar, Mark D.; VanMeter, Matthew J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

1998-01-01

116

Utility of palmatolepids and icriodontids in recognizing Upper Devonian Series, Stage, and possible substage boundaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conodonts are accepted internationally to define Devonian Series and Stage boundaries. Hence, the evolution and taxonomy of pelagic palmatolepids, primarily Palmatolepis and its direct ancestor Mesotaxis, and shallow-water icriodontids, Icriodus, Pelekysgnathus, and "Icriodus", are the major tools for recognizing subdivisions of the Upper Devonian. Palmatolepids are the basis for the Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation (ZIEGLER & SANDBERG 1990), whereas icriodontids are the basis for the alternative, integrated shallow-water zonation (SANDBERG & DREESEN 1984). However, an alternative palmatolepid taxonomy for some Frasnian species has been employed recently by some conodont workers using the Montagne Noire (M.N.) zonation, shape analyses of Pa elements, and multielement reconstructions of KLAPPER (1989), KLAPPER & FOSTER (1993); and KLAPPER et al. (1996). Herein, the evolution of palmatolepids and icriodontids is summarized in terms of our zonation and some of the taxonomic differences with the alternative M.N. zonation are exemplified. One of the problems in relating the Standard and M.N. zonations arises from previous errors of interpretation and drafting of the Martenberg section in Germany. This section was designated the reference section for the Frasnian transitans through jamieae Zones by ZIEGLER & SANDBERG (1990). Herein, the early and middle Frasnian zonal boundaries at Martenberg are improved by re-study of our old and recent collections from three profiles, spaced only 4 m apart. Serious problems exist with the Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's), selected by the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, following the paleontologic definition of the bases of the Frasnian, Famennian, and Tournaisian Stages, because of the difficulty in making global correlations from these GSSP's. Our summary of these problems should be helpful if future workers decide to relocate these GSSP's.

Ziegler, W.; Sandberg, C.A.

2000-01-01

117

Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions.' These personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. Currently, only three spacefaring nations have this distinction, including the United States, Russia, and, more recently, China. The U.S. National Space Policy of2006 directs that NASA provide the means to travel to space, and the NASA Appropriations Act of2005 provided the initial funding to begin in earnest to replace the Shuttle after the International Space Station construction is complete in 20 IO? These and other strategic goals and objectives are documented in NASA's 2006 Strategic Plan.3 In 2005, a team of NASA aerospace experts conducted the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, which recommended a two-vehicle approach to America's next space transportation system for missions to the International Space Station in the next decade and to explore the Moon and establish an outpost around the 2020 timeframe.4 Based on this extensive study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle configuration and the heavy-lift Ares V cargo launch vehicle (fig 1). This paper will give an overview of NASA's approach to integrating the Ares I vehicle stack using capabilities and assets that are resident in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, working in partnership with other NASA Centers and the U.S. aerospace industry. It also will provide top-level details on the progress of the in-house design of the Ares I vehicle's upper stage element.

Lyles, Garry; Otte, Neil E.

2008-01-01

118

Composite engines for application to a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven composite engines were designed for application to a reusable single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The engine designs were variations of the supercharged ejector ramjet engine. The resulting performance, weight, and drawings of each engine form a data base for establishing a potential of this class of composite engine to various missions, including the single-stage-to-orbit application. The impact of advanced technology in the design of the critical fan turbine was established.

Bendot, J. G.; Brown, P. N.; Piercy, T. G.

1975-01-01

119

Flight Results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Inertial Upper Stage Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA, a specially configured version of the Boeing developed Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster was provided by Boeing to deliver NASA's 1.5 billion dollar Chandra X-Ray Observatory satellite into a highly elliptical transfer orbit from a Shuttle provided circular park orbit. Subsequently, the final orbit of the Chandra satellite was to be achieved using the Chandra Integral Propulsion System (IPS) through a series of IPS burns. On 23 July 1999 the Shuttle Columbia (STS-93) was launched with the IUS/Chandra stack in the Shuttle payload bay. Unfortunately, the Shuttle Orbiter was unexpectantly inserted into an off-nominal park orbit due to a Shuttle propulsion anomaly occurring during ascent. Following the IUS/Chandra on-orbit deployment from the Shuttle, at seven hours from liftoff, the flight proven IUS GN&C system successfully injected Chandra into the targeted transfer orbit, in spite of the off-nominal park orbit. This paper describes the IUS GN&C system, discusses the specific IUS GN&C mission data load development, analyses and testing for the Chandra mission, and concludes with a summary of flight results for the IUS part of the Chandra mission.

Tillotson, R.; Walter, R.

2000-01-01

120

Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

2009-12-15

121

ARIANE 5 upper-stage ignition conditions improvement, and return to operation with ''Envisat'' payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARIANE 5 experienced a flight anomaly with the 10 th model mission (F 510), having placed its both satellites in a lower orbit than the planned GTO. Only one satellite (Artemis) could be retrieved due to its own propulsion systems. Arianespace, CNES and Astrium-GmbH (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) immediately set up a recovery team, combining forces for carrying deep and schedule-driven investigations, and later qualifying recovery measures. A failure in such an important program: is immediately triggering a large "post-shock" reaction from the ARIANE community implied in the relevant business and technology. The investigation fields are summarised in the following chapters, showing how failure analysis, engineering investigations and basic research have been combined in order to have a schedule and methodic efficient approach. The combination of all available European resources in space vehicle design has been implemented, involving industry, agency technical centers and research laboratories. The investigation methodology applied has been driven by the particular situation of a flight anomaly investigation, which has to take into account the reduced amount of measurement available in flight and the necessary combination with ground test data for building a strategy to reach identification of possible failure scenario. From the investigations and from extensive sensitivity characterisation test of EPS engine (AESTUS) ignition transient, stability margins have been deeply investigated and introduced in the post-anomaly upgraded stage design. The identification and implementation of recovery measures, extended as well to - potential ignition margin reduction factors even beyond the observed flight anomaly allowed to establish a robust complementary qualification status, thus allowing resuming of operational flight, starting with the valuable "Envisat" payload of European Space Agency, dedicated to earth and climate monitoring, on flight 511, the 28/02/2002, from Kourou Spaceport.

Dutheil, J. Ph.; Langel, G.

2003-08-01

122

Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid-life Evolution (A5-ME) program track the progress of these technology developments and analyze their applicability in time for A5-ME. In order to approximate A5-ME concerned preconditions, activities are initiated aiming at harmonization of the available specifications. Hence, a look-out towards a further technology step approaching TRL6 in a subsequent phase is given, briefly addressing topics of full scale manufacture and appropriate thermo-mechanical testing of an entire sandwich common bulkhead.

Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

2012-12-01

123

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power, ISUS uses a single collection, storage, and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis, design, and integration (SADI) effort, and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy, transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations, and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing, and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland, OH.

Westerman, Kurt O.; Miles, Barry J.

1998-01-01

124

28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. ENGINE CLUSTER OF 1ST STAGE OF A SATURN I ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

125

Development of the arterial pattern in the upper limb of staged human embryos: normal development and anatomic variations  

PubMed Central

A total of 112 human embryos (224 upper limbs) between stages 12 and 23 of development were examined. It was observed that formation of the arterial system in the upper limb takes place as a dual process. An initial capillary plexus appears from the dorsal aorta during stage 12 and develops at the same rate as the limb. At stage 13, the capillary plexus begins a maturation process involving the enlargement and differentiation of selected parts. This remodelling process starts in the aorta and continues in a proximal to distal sequence. By stage 15 the differentiation has reached the subclavian and axillary arteries, by stage 17 it has reached the brachial artery as far as the elbow, by stage 18 it has reached the forearm arteries except for the distal part of the radial, and finally by stage 21 the whole arterial pattern is present in its definitive morphology. This differentiation process parallels the development of the skeletal system chronologically. A number of arterial variations were observed, and classified as follows: superficial brachial (7.7%), accessory brachial (0.6%), brachioradial (14%), superficial brachioulnar (4.7%), superficial brachioulnoradial (0.7%), palmar pattern of the median (18.7%) and superficial brachiomedian (0.7%) arteries. They were observed in embryos belonging to stages 17–23 and were not related to a specific stage of development. Statistical comparison with the rates of variations reported in adults did not show significant differences. It is suggested that the variations arise through the persistence, enlargement and differentiation of parts of the initial network which would normally remain as capillaries or even regress. PMID:11693301

RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; BURTON, G. J.; DEU, J.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

2001-01-01

126

Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were discussed. The three burn transfer was found to be a viable, arguably preferable, alternative to the two burn transfer.

Williams, Craig H.

2014-01-01

127

Engineering human hepatic tissue for modeling liver-stage malaria  

E-print Network

The Plcsmodium liver stage is an attractive target for the development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines, as it provides an opportunity to interrupt the life cycle of the parasite at a critical early stage. However, ...

Ng, Shengyong

2014-01-01

128

Evolutionary stages of a mid-Proterozoic carbonate basin as inferred from the upper marble, Adirondack Lowlands, New York  

SciTech Connect

Mineral abundances for Upper Marble protoliths, obtained through least-squares multiple regression calculations, and trace element concentrations for 112 samples from two drill cores, exhibit stratigraphic variations that are interpretable in terms of stages in the development of the original carbonate basin. Factor analysis with varimax rotation reveals three dominant factors; dolomite, calcite + Sr, and quartz; and five minor factors: clastics, anhydrite + Sr, magnesite, ore + Sr, and illite. When the factor affiliations of samples are considered with respect to their stratigraphic arrangement, the result can be interpreted in terms of a seven-stage model of basin evolution that possesses elements common to both Proterozoic and Phanerozoic carbonate basins. According to this model, stage 1 was dominated by widespread penecontemporaneous dolomitization punctuated by brief periods of increased basin restriction. Stage 2 involved increasing basin restriction during which dolomitization was progressively inhibited by increasing Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 3 was characterized by further basin restriction and episodes of anhydrite precipitation during which dolomitization resumed briefly because of lowered Ca[sup 2+] and/or sulfate levels. Stage 4 and 5 involved decreasing restriction and brine concentrations which allowed large-scale dolomitization to resume during stage 5, and abundant chert was formed in these sediments subsequent to dolomitization. Stage 6 was characterized by increasing restriction and progressive inhibition of dolomitization. Finally, stage 7 saw rapid increases in aluminosilicate sedimentation that ended further carbonate deposition. Sr abundances throughout the cores reflect control by carbonate mineralogy, which was in turn controlled by the degree of basin restriction.

Hauer, K.L.; Grant, N.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

129

Design and implementation of upper layer computer network in marine engine room simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a key technique and a trend in ship automation development to marine engine room simulator. The available products used for monitoring and control usually consist of many distributed microcomputer units and one management personal computer. The functions are performed not on an upper layer monitoring and control in a computer network but in an independent personal computer. To

Hui Cao; Jundong Zhang

2011-01-01

130

WEB BASED DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES THAT ENHANCE UPPER-DIVISION ENGINEERING STUDENT LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation (CE 376) is a required upper division course taught for civil engineering students at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. This survey course is tasked with introducing the students to all phases of transportation. Class participation is important for student learning, though in-class discussions are wrought with issues such as dominant students and time limitations. An Internet based discussion component was

Greg Luttrell

2002-01-01

131

Influence of River Stage on Shoreline Electrofishing Catches in the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of fish and fish species caught per unit of electrofishing effort along main-channel shorelines in pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River were inversely related to water level. Four species contributed predominantly to the relation between catch rate and water level: Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens; white bass Morone chrysops; and sauger Stizostedion canadense. There was

Rodney B. Pierce; Daniel W. Coble; Scott D. Corley

1985-01-01

132

Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the Upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in

Leslie E. Holland

1986-01-01

133

Feeding ecology of canvasbacks staging on Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Foods consumed by canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria), food availability, and energetic relationships were studied on Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Canvasbacks fed primarily upon winter buds of American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) and tubers of stiff arrowhead (Sagittaria rigida). In 1980, waterfowl consumed 40% of 380,160 kg of wildcelery winter buds on a portion of Pool 7 referred to as Lake Onalaska. Daily energy expenditure based on estimates from the literature suggests that individual canvasbacks require a minimum of 125 g (dry wt) of wildcelery winter buds each day. Extrapolation of use-days and the daily energy requirement suggests that 3,470 ha of wildcelery are required to support a canvasback population represented by 5 million use-days.

Korschgen, C.E.; George, L.S.; Green, W.L.

1988-01-01

134

Impact of variable river water stage on the simulation of groundwater-river interactions over the Upper Rhine Graben hydrosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Rhine alluvial aquifer is an important transboundary water resource which is particularly vulnerable to pollution from the rivers due to anthropogenic activities. A realistic simulation of the groundwater-river exchanges is therefore of crucial importance for effective management of water resources, and hence is the main topic of the NAPROM project financed by the French Ministry of Ecology. Characterization of these fluxes in term of quantity and spatio-temporal variability depends on the choice made to represent the river water stage in the model. Recently, a couple surface-subsurface model has been applied to the whole aquifer basin. The river stage was first chosen to be constant over the major part of the basin for the computation of the groundwater-river interactions. The present study aims to introduce a variable river water stage to better simulate these interactions and to quantify the impact of this process over the simulated hydrological variables. The general modeling strategy is based on the Eau-Dyssée modeling platform which couples existing specialized models to address water resources and quality in regional scale river basins. In this study, Eau-Dyssée includes the RAPID river routing model and the SAM hydrogeological model. The input data consist in runoff and infiltration coming from a simulation of the ISBA land surface scheme covering the 1986-2003 period. The QtoZ module allows to calculate river stage from simulated river discharges, which is then used to calculate the exchanges between aquifer units and river. Two approaches are compared. The first one uses rating curves derived from observed river discharges and river stages. The second one is based on the Manning's formula. Manning's parameters are defined with geomorphological parametrizations and topographic data based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM). First results show a relatively good agreement between observed and simulated river water height. Taking into account a variable river stage seems to increase the amount of water exchanged between groundwater and river. Systematic biases are nevertheless found between simulated and observed mean river stage elevation. They show that the primary source of errors when simulating river stage - and hence groundwater-river interactions - is the uncertainties associated with the topographic data used to define the riverbed elevation. Thus, this study confirms the need to access to more accurate DEM for estimating riverbed elevation and studying groundwater-river interactions, at least at regional scale.

Habets, F.; Vergnes, J.

2013-12-01

135

Development of Weld Inspection of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is designing a new crewed launch vehicle called Ares I to replace the Space Shuttle after its scheduled retirement in 2010. This new launch vehicle will build on the Shuttle technology in many ways including using a first stage based upon the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, advanced aluminum alloys for the second stage tanks, and friction stir welding to assemble the second stage. Friction stir welding uses a spinning pin that is inserted in the joint between two panels that are to be welded. The pin mechanically mixes the metal together below the melting temperature to form the weld. Friction stir welding allows high strength joints in metals that would otherwise lose much of their strength as they are melted during the fusion welding process. One significant change from the Space Shuttle that impacts NDE is the implementation of self-reacting friction stir welding for non-linear welds on the primary metallic structure. The self-reacting technique differs from the conventional technique because the load of the pin tool pressing down on the metal being joined is reacted by a nut on the end of the tool rather than an anvil behind the part. No spacecraft has ever flown with a self-reacting friction stir weld, so this is a major advancement in the manufacturing process, bringing with it a whole new set of challenges for NDE to overcome. The metal microstructure and possible defects are different from other weld processes. Friction plug welds will be used to close out the hole remaining in the radial welds when friction stir welded. This plug welding also has unique challenges in inspection. The current state of development of these inspections will be presented, along with other information pertinent to NDE of the Ares I.

Russell, Sam; Ezell, David

2010-01-01

136

On prediction of re-entry time of an upper stage from GTO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of objects in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is determined by a complex interplay of atmospheric drag and luni-solar gravity. These orbits are highly eccentric (eccentricity >0.7) and have large variations in velocity and perturbations during a revolution. The periodic changes in the perigee altitudes of these orbits are mainly due to the gravitational perturbations of the Sun and the Moon. The re-entry time of the objects in such orbits is sensitive to the initial conditions. The aim of this paper is to study the re-entry time of the cryogenic stage of the Indian geo-synchronous launch vehicle, GSLV-F04/CS, which has been decaying since 2 September 2007 from initial orbit with eccentricity equal to 0.706. Two parameters, initial eccentricity and ballistic coefficient, are chosen for optimal estimation. It is known that the errors are more in eccentricity for the observations based on two line elements (TLEs). These two parameters are computed with response surface method using a genetic algorithm for the selected eight different zones, based on rough linear variation of the mean apogee altitude during 200 days orbit evolution. The study shows that the GSLV-F04/CS will re-enter between 5 December 2010 and 7 January 2011. The methodology is also applied to study the re-entry of six decayed objects (cryogenic stages of GSLV and Molniya satellites). Good agreement is noticed between the actual and the predicted re-entry times. The absolute percentage error in re-entry prediction time for all the six objects is found to be less than 7%. The present methodology is being adopted at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) to predict the re-entry time of GSLV-F04/CS.

Mutyalarao, M.; Sharma, Ram Krishan

2011-06-01

137

An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

2003-01-01

138

Thrust-vector control of a three-axis stabilized upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with fuel slosh dynamics. The dynamics of a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a single partially-filled fuel tank are formulated and the sloshing propellant is modeled as a multi-mass-spring system, where the oscillation frequencies of the mass-spring elements represent the prominent sloshing modes. The equations of motion are expressed in terms of the three-dimensional spacecraft translational velocity vector, the attitude, the angular velocity, and the internal coordinates representing the slosh modes. A Lyapunov-based nonlinear feedback control law is proposed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while attenuating the sloshing modes characterizing the internal dynamics. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the control law.

Rubio Hervas, Jaime; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

139

Computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper-stage on-off reaction control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a FORTRAN IV coded computer program for post-flight evaluation of a launch vehicle upper stage on-off reaction control system. Aerodynamic and thrust misalignment disturbances are computed as well as the total disturbing moments in pitch, yaw, and roll. Effective thrust misalignment angle time histories of the rocket booster motor are calculated. Disturbing moments are integrated and used to estimate the required control system total inpulse. Effective control system specific inpulse is computed for the boost and coast phases using measured control fuel useage. This method has been used for more than fifteen years for analyzing the NASA Scout launch vehicle second and third-stage reaction control system performance. The computer program is set up in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 175 system. With slight modification it can be used on other machines having a FORTRAN compiler. The program has optional CALCOMP plotting output. With this option the program requires 19K words of memory and has 786 cards. Running time on a CDC CYBER 175 system is less than three (3) seconds for a typical problem.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

140

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

PubMed Central

Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained by a historical collecting bias influenced by facies and taphonomic factors. The limited discovery of postcranial elements may also depend on how extensive a fossil quarry is expanded after a skull is collected. PMID:21347420

Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

2011-01-01

141

Regenerative therapy and tissue engineering for the treatment of end-stage cardiac failure  

PubMed Central

Regeneration of myocardium through regenerative therapy and tissue engineering is appearing as a prospective treatment modality for patients with end-stage heart failure. Focusing on this area, this review highlights the new developments and challenges in the regeneration of myocardial tissue. The role of various cell sources, calcium ion and cytokine on the functional performance of regenerative therapy is discussed. The evolution of tissue engineering and the role of tissue matrix/scaffold, cell adhesion and vascularisation on tissue engineering of cardiac tissue implant are also discussed. PMID:23507781

Finosh, G.T.; Jayabalan, Muthu

2012-01-01

142

Computer program for prediction of capture maneuver probability for an on-off reaction controlled upper stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program which computes the capture transient of a launch vehicle upper stage at the ignition and/or separation event is presented. It is for a single degree-of-freedom on-off reaction jet attitude control system. The Monte Carlo method is used to determine the statistical value of key parameters at the outcome of the event. Aerodynamic and booster induced disturbances, vehicle and control system characteristics, and initial conditions are treated as random variables. By appropriate selection of input data pitch, yaw and roll axes can be analyzed. Transient response of a single deterministic case can be computed. The program is currently set up on a CDC CYBER 175 computer system but is compatible with ANSI FORTRAN computer language. This routine has been used over the past fifteen (15) years for the SCOUT Launch Vehicle and has been run on RECOMP III, IBM 7090, IBM 360/370, CDC6600 and CDC CYBER 175 computers with little modification.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

143

Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

2010-01-01

144

Study on the eddy current damping of the spin dynamics of space debris from the Ariane launcher upper stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the topic of damping of the spin dynamics of a spatial debris orbiting around the Earth. Such debris, which can consist of parts of heavy launchers such as the Ariane rocket under consideration in this article, are impacted by torques generated by eddy currents as their conducting non-ferromagnetic body orbits through the Earth magnetosphere. Several previous works have focused on describing this induction phenomenon and have proposed analysis of empirical observations of this particular and important effect which has attracted much attention since the number of spatial debris has emerged as a problem for the future of space programs, especially in low orbits. In this paper, we present a relatively comprehensive modeling of the induction phenomenon, by means of Maxwell's equations inside the conducting and non-ferromagnetic body. Through the generalized Ohm's law, we show how one can obtain a partial differential equation with Neumann's boundary conditions problem that, once solved, e.g. through a finite elements method, yields the values of induced currents and braking torques. The case of a depleted upper stage of a heavy launcher, having a cylindrical shape and thin walls is particularly studied. We show a methodology to estimate the decay-rate of the spinning velocity, which is proven to satisfy a first-order asymptotically stable linear dynamics. Special cases consisting of typical orbit of space debris are treated.

Praly, N.; Hillion, M.; Bonnal, C.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Petit, N.

2012-07-01

145

Morphological description of the developmental stages of Parauchenipterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae) on the floodplain of the upper Paraná River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide morphological and morphometric descriptions of the developmental stages of Parauche- nipterus galeatus, from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River. Specimens were obtained by induced spawning. The species has large adhesive eggs with a double membrane. The incubation period is long, 65 hours at 27°C. The larvae are well developed at hatching, with relatively rapid larval develop- ment.

P. V. SANCHES; K. NAKATANI; A. BIALETZKI

1999-01-01

146

Engineering Science--Raising Awareness of Engineering through Key Stage 3 (Age 11-14) Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 2011, a team from the Centre for Science Education (CSE) worked with four local schools and five Sheffield city region engineering organisations on a project to identify ways to increase the input into young people's awareness of engineering that comes from activities they do in school science. The project also tested an hypothesis that…

Mannion, Ken

2012-01-01

147

Advanced Development Program for a 625 lbf thrust engine for Ares First Stage Roll Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's new Ares Launch Vehicle will require twelve thrusters to provide roll control of the vehicle during the first stage firing. All twelve roll control thrusters will be located at the inter-stage segment that separates the solid rocket booster first stage from the second stage. NASA selected a mono propellant hydrazine solution and as a result awarded Aerojet-General a contract in 2007 for an advanced development program for an MR-80- series 625 Ibf vacuum thrust monopropellant hydrazine thruster. This thruster has heritage dating back to the 1976 Viking Landers and most recently for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory. Prior to the Ares application, the MR-80-series thrusters had been equipped with throttle valves and not typically operated in pulse mode. The primary objective of the advanced development program was to increase the technology readiness level and retire major technical risks for the future flight qualification test program. Aerojet built on their heritage MR-80 rocket engine designs to achieve the design and performance requirements. Significant improvements to cost and lead-time were achieved by applying Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) principles. AerojetGeneral has completed Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews, followed by two successful rocket engine development test programs. The test programs included qualification random vibration and firing lite that significantly exceed the flight qualification requirements. This paper discusses the advanced development program and the demonstrated capability of the MR-80C engine. Y;

Dawson, Matt; Chenevert, Blake; Brewster, Gerry; Frei, Tom; Bullard, Brad; Fuller, Ray

2009-01-01

148

Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the motivation for the study, the numerical method used, the numerical simulations of the vaneless diffuser and vaned diffuser. It also reviews the conclusions from the study

Dorney, D.; Rothermel, J.; Griffin, L.; Thornton, R.; Forbes, J.; Skelley, S.; Huber, F.

2006-01-01

149

Joining of Materials - An Upper Level Undergraduate Course in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering A Progress Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An upper level undergraduate course: Joining of Materials, has been designed to require that students perform at the higher level of Blooms Taxonomy1. Students are required to synthesize the subject matter from several prerequisite core engineering courses (applied materials science, thermal sciences, chemistry, and mathematics) in order to best determine the means to join two materials. To make these engineering decisions the students also must consider non-technical issues such as economics, safety, and human resources. Effective communication is critical. This ten-week course introduces the students to the following joining methods: welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding. After completing the course the students should be able to differentiate between the methods, and based on this knowledge decide the best method to join two materials. Because most texts focus on only one of the four methods listed above, and then tend to focus on either scientific background or technique (not both), it was necessary to develop a series of learning modules for this course. These modules include classroom presentation, webbased notes and exercises, laboratory experiences (joining, physical testing, and metalography), and assignments. This progress report will focus on all aspects of this newly developed course including pedagogy, course content, and course structure. Results of course assessments and continuous improvement will also be presented.

Palmer, Mark A.

150

Analytical study of thermal barrier coated first-stage blades in an F100 engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat transfer and stress analyses were performed on two sections of a thermal barrier coated (TBC) F100 1st-stage turbine blade. Results of the analyses indicate that the TBC on the leading edges of both sections experience the highest elastic strain ranges and these occur during transient engine operation. Further study is recommended to determine the effects of plastic deformation (creep) and creep-fatigue interaction on coating life.

Andress, D. E.

1978-01-01

151

Failure analysis of a second stage blade in a gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of a second stage blade in a gas turbine was investigated by metallurgical and mechanical examinations of the failed blade. The blade was made of a nickel-base alloy Inconel 738LC. The turbine engine has been in service for about 73,500h before the blade failure at 5:50 PM on 14 August 2004. Due to the blade failure, the turbine

E. Poursaeidi; M. Aieneravaie; M. R. Mohammadi

2008-01-01

152

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. BME-30, NO. 1, JANUARY 1983 Upper Extremity Limb Function Discrimination  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. BME-30, NO. 1, JANUARY 1983 Upper Extremity Limb limb function probabilities. These probabilities are the sufficient statistics for the problem. This technique should be useful in generating control signals for prosthetic devices. I. INTRODUCTION I N

Willsky, Alan S.

153

Wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale upper surface blown-flap transport model having two engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale subsonic jet transport model with an upper surface blowing flap system that would augment lift. The model had a 25 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 7.89 and two turbofan engines with the engine centerline located at 0.256 of the wing semispan. The lift of the flap system was augmented by turbofan exhaust impingement on the Coanda surface. Results were obtained for several flap deflections and engine nozzle configurations at jet momentum coefficients from 0 to 4.0. Three-component longitudinal data are presented with two engines operating. Limited longitudinal and lateral data are presented with an engine out. In addition, limited exhaust and flap pressure data are presented.

Aoyagi, K.; Falarski, M. D.; Koenig, D. G.

1973-01-01

154

Experience of curing serious obstruction of advanced-stage upper digestive tract tumor using laser under endoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patients who suffer from upper digestive tract tumor, such as cancer of esophagus, cancer of cardia, all have serious obstruction and fail to get nutrition and can not bear the strike of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In order to reduce the obstruction symptom and suffering of the patients and to prolong their life time, since 1989, our hospital used the laser to cure the upper digestive tract tumor 11 cases with serious obstruction and got remarkable curative effect.

Mu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Man-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Feng-Qiu; Kong, De-Jia; Tang, Li-Bin

1998-11-01

155

Changing the facial features of patients with Treacher Collins syndrome: protocol for 3-stage treatment of hard and soft tissue hypoplasia in the upper half of the face.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome is a disorder characterized by various congenital soft tissue anomalies involving hypoplasia of the zygoma, maxilla, and mandible. A variety of treatments have been reported to date. These treatments can be classified into 2 major types. The first type involves osteotomy for hard tissue such as the zygoma and mandible. The second type involves plastic surgery using bone grafting in the malar region and soft tissue repair of eyelid deformities. We devised a new treatment to comprehensively correct hard and soft tissue deformities in the upper half of the face of Treacher Collins patients. The aim was to "change facial features and make it difficult to tell that the patients have this disorder." This innovative treatment strategy consists of 3 stages: (1) placement of dermal fat graft from the lower eyelid to the malar subcutaneous area, (2) custom-made synthetic zygomatic bone grafting, and (3) Z-plasty flap transposition from the upper to the lower eyelid and superior repositioning and fixation of the lateral canthal tendon using a Mitek anchor system. This method was used on 4 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome who had moderate to severe hypoplasia of the zygomas and the lower eyelids. Facial features of these patients were markedly improved and very good results were obtained. There were no major complications intraoperatively or postoperatively in any of the patients during the series of treatments. In synthetic bone grafting in the second stage, the implant in some patients was in the way of the infraorbital nerve. Thus, the nerve was detached and then sutured under the microscope. Postoperatively, patients had almost full restoration of sensory nerve torpor within 5 to 6 months. We devised a 3-stage treatment to "change facial features" of patients with hypoplasia of the upper half of the face due to Treacher Collins syndrome. The treatment protocol provided a very effective way to treat deformities of the upper half of the face in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23511742

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Satoh, Kaneshige

2014-07-01

156

Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin; Nathan Myhrvold; Peter Roopnarine

2011-01-01

157

Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

1982-01-01

158

Assessment of a multi-stage underwater vehicle concept using a fossil-fuel Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling Engine because of its inherent closed-cycle operation can be readily modified to work in an airless environment even if the primary source of energy is a fossil fuel. Thus, Stirling engines are well suited for use in the underwater environment and have been operated successfully in manned military submarines since the early 1980s. In recent years fossil fueled Stirling systems have been also proposed for use in small unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). However, in this case the need to carry an onboard oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design difficulties. These are identified in the paper. However, if the oxidant supply to the engine is provided by the membrane extraction of dissolved oxygen from seawater and/or disposable fuel/oxidant pods are used then the UUV Stirling system becomes more attractive. If this latter concept is extended to include multi-stage vehicles then it can be shown that fossil fueled Stirlings could also be put to effective use in long range-long endurance underwater vehicular operations.

Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

159

Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

Schoenman, L.

1981-01-01

160

The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.

VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.

2007-01-01

161

Single-stage surgery combining nerve and tendon transfers for bilateral upper limb reconstruction in a tetraplegic patient: case report.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old tetraplegic patient had paralysis of elbow, thumb, and finger extension and thumb and finger flexion. We transferred axillary nerve branches to the triceps long and upper medial head motor branches, supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve, and brachioradialis tendon to the flexor pollicis longus and flexor superficialis of the index finger. Surgery was performed bilaterally 18 months after spinal cord injury. At 12 months after surgery, we performed bilateral distal radioulnar arthrodesis percutaneously. By 22 months postoperatively, we observed triceps strength scoring M3 bilaterally and full metacarpophalangeal joint extension scoring M4 bilaterally. The thumb span was 53 and 66 mm from the proximal index phalanx on the right and left sides, respectively. Pinch strength measured 1.5 kg on the left side and 2.0 kg on the right. Before surgery, the patient was incapable of grasping; after surgery, a useful grasp had been restored bilaterally. PMID:23751324

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

2013-07-01

162

Fine particle and organic vapor emissions from staged tests of an in-use aircraft engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Staged tests were conducted to measure the particle and vapor emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135T Stratotanker airframe at different engine loads. Exhaust was sampled using a rake inlet installed 1-m downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft and a dilution sampler and portable smog chamber were used to investigate the particulate matter (PM) emissions. Total fine PM mass emissions were highest at low (4%) and high (85%) load and lower at intermediate loads (7% and 30%). PM mass emissions at 4% load are dominated by organics, while at 85% load elemental carbon is dominant. Quantifying the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions is complicated by substantial filter sampling artifacts. Partitioning experiments reveal that the majority of the POA is semivolatile; for example, the POA emission factor changed by a factor of two when the background organic aerosol concentration was increased from 0.7 to 4 ?g m -3. Therefore, one cannot define a single non-volatile PM emission factor for aircraft exhaust. The gas- and particle-phase organic emissions were comprehensively characterized by analyzing canister, sorbent and filter samples with gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Vapor-phase organic emissions are highest at 4% load and decrease with increasing load. Low-volatility organics (less volatile than a C 12n-alkane) contributed 10-20% of the total organic emissions. The low-volatility organic emissions contain signatures of unburned fuel and aircraft lubricating oil but are dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of presumably branched and cyclic alkanes. Emissions at all loads contain more low-volatility organic vapors than POA; thus secondary organic aerosol formation in the aging plume will likely exceed POA emissions.

Presto, Albert A.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Ranjan, Manish; Reeder, Aaron J.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Miracolo, Marissa A.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2011-07-01

163

A Technique of Two-Stage Clustering Applied to Environmental and Civil Engineering and Related Methods of Citation Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of two-stage clustering of literature based on citation frequency is applied to 5,065 articles from 57 journals in environmental and civil engineering. Results of related methods of citation analysis (hierarchical graph, clustering of journals, multidimensional scaling) applied to same set of articles are compared. Ten references are…

Miyamoto, S.; Nakayama, K.

1983-01-01

164

Design of a 3-stage voltage controller for EMV actuation in SI engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was proven that variable valve timing used in the SI engines could have obvious benefits on high fuel economy, low exhaust emission, and good engine performance. Electromagnetic valve (EMV) offers very high flexibility in valve timing. With EMV system in an SI engine, the valve timing can then be adjusted adaptively according to any engine operating situations, and each

Yaojung Shiao; Wei-Da Pan

2011-01-01

165

Core compressor exit stage study. Volume 1: Blading design. [turbofan engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A baseline compressor test stage was designed as well as a candidate rotor and two candidate stators that have the potential of reducing endwall losses relative to the baseline stage. These test stages are typical of those required in the rear stages of advanced, highly-loaded core compressors. The baseline Stage A is a low-speed model of Stage 7 of the 10 stage AMAC compressor. Candidate Rotor B uses a type of meanline in the tip region that unloads the leading edge and loads the trailing edge relative to the baseline Rotor A design. Candidate Stator B embodies twist gradients in the endwall region. Candidate Stator C embodies airfoil sections near the endwalls that have reduced trailing edge loading relative to Stator A. Tests will be conducted using four identical stages of blading so that the designs described will operate in a true multistage environment.

Wisler, D. C.

1977-01-01

166

Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 7: High pressure fuel turbo-pump third stage impeller analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume summarizes the analysis used to assess the structural life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbo-Pump (HPFTP) Third Stage Impeller. This analysis was performed in three phases, all using the DIAL finite element code. The first phase was a static stress analysis to determine the mean (non-varying) stress and static margin of safety for the part. The loads involved were steady state pressure and centrifugal force due to spinning. The second phase of the analysis was a modal survey to determine the vibrational modes and natural frequencies of the impeller. The third phase was a dynamic response analysis to determine the alternating component of the stress due to time varying pressure impulses at the outlet (diffuser) side of the impeller. The results of the three phases of the analysis show that the Third Stage Impeller operates very near the upper limits of its capability at full power level (FPL) loading. The static loading alone creates stresses in some areas of the shroud which exceed the yield point of the material. Additional cyclic loading due to the dynamic force could lead to a significant reduction in the life of this part. The cyclic stresses determined in the dynamic response phase of this study are based on an assumption regarding the magnitude of the forcing function.

Pool, Kirby V.

1989-01-01

167

Arcjet Stage Investigation and Inductive Hydrogen Heating in the TIHTUS Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water-cooled laboratory model of the two-stage hybrid thruster TIHTUS is briey explained and results of investigations of each stage are presented. Thrust measurements of the arcjet stage yield a maximum thrust of 3.3 N and a maximum specic impulse of 1430 s with the curves showing no sign of saturation. Hydrogen operation at the induc- tively coupled stage is

Hannah Bohrk; Dejan Petkow; Georg Herdrich; Monika Auweter-Kurtz; Helmut Kurtz

2005-01-01

168

Parallel 3D Multi-Stage Simulation of a Turbofan Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3D multistage simulation of each component of a modern GE Turbofan engine has been made. An axisymmetric view of this engine is presented in the document. This includes a fan, booster rig, high pressure compressor rig, high pressure turbine rig and a low pressure turbine rig. In the near future, all components will be run in a single calculation for a solution of 49 blade rows. The simulation exploits the use of parallel computations by using two levels of parallelism. Each blade row is run in parallel and each blade row grid is decomposed into several domains and run in parallel. 20 processors are used for the 4 blade row analysis. The average passage approach developed by John Adamczyk at NASA Lewis Research Center has been further developed and parallelized. This is APNASA Version A. It is a Navier-Stokes solver using a 4-stage explicit Runge-Kutta time marching scheme with variable time steps and residual smoothing for convergence acceleration. It has an implicit K-E turbulence model which uses an ADI solver to factor the matrix. Between 50 and 100 explicit time steps are solved before a blade row body force is calculated and exchanged with the other blade rows. This outer iteration has been coined a "flip." Efforts have been made to make the solver linearly scaleable with the number of blade rows. Enough flips are run (between 50 and 200) so the solution in the entire machine is not changing. The K-E equations are generally solved every other explicit time step. One of the key requirements in the development of the parallel code was to make the parallel solution exactly (bit for bit) match the serial solution. This has helped isolate many small parallel bugs and guarantee the parallelization was done correctly. The domain decomposition is done only in the axial direction since the number of points axially is much larger than the other two directions. This code uses MPI for message passing. The parallel speed up of the solver portion (no 1/0 or body force calculation) for a grid which has 227 points axially.

Turner, Mark G.; Topp, David A.

1998-01-01

169

Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 ?g L?1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 ?g L?1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 ?g L?1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 ?g L?1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

2014-01-01

170

Development and Lab-Scale Testing of a Gas Generator Hybrid Fuel in Support of the Hydrogen Peroxide Hybrid Upper Stage Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a NASA funded contract to develop and demonstrate a gas generator cycle hybrid rocket motor for upper stage space motor applications, the development and demonstration of a low sensitivity, high performance fuel composition was undertaken. The ultimate goal of the development program was to demonstrate successful hybrid operation (start, stop, throttling) of the fuel with high concentration (90+%) hydrogen peroxide. The formulation development and lab-scale testing of a simple DOT Class 1.4c gas generator propellant is described. Both forward injected center perforated and aft injected end burner hybrid combustion behavior were evaluated with gaseous oxygen and catalytically decomposed 90% hydrogen peroxide. Cross flow and static environments were found to yield profoundly different combustion behaviors, which were further governed by binder type, oxidizer level and, significantly, oxidizer particle size. Primary extinguishment was accomplished via manipulation of PDL behavior and oxidizer turndown, which is enhanced with the hydrogen peroxide system. Laboratory scale combustor results compared very well with 11-inch and 24-inch sub-scale test results with 90% hydrogen peroxide.

Lund, Gary K.; Starrett, William David; Jensen, Kent C.; McNeal, Curtis (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

171

Turbopumps for cryogenic upper stage engines. [fabrication and evaluation of turbine pumps for liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small, high-performance LO2 and LH2 turbopump assembly configurations were selected, detail designs were prepared and two of each unit were fabricated with each unit consisting of pump, turbine gas generator, and appropriate controls. Following fabrication, development testing was conducted on each type to demonstrate performance, durability, transient characteristics, and heat transfer under simulated altitude conditions. Following successful completion of development effort, the two LO2 turbopump units and one LH2 turbopump unit were acceptance tested as specified. Inspection of the units following development testing revealed no deleterious effects of testing. The test results of LO2 turbopump assembly testing correlated well with predicted performance while the LH2 turbopump test results, though generally consistent with predicted values, did show lower than anticipated developed head at the design point and in the high flow range of operation.

Zachary, A. T.; Csomor, A.; Tignac, L. L.

1973-01-01

172

From Concept to Design: Progress on the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Ares Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with national policy and NASA's Global Exploration Strategy, the Ares Projects Office is embarking on development of a new launch vehicle fleet to fulfill the national goals of replacing the space shuttle fleet, returning to the moon, and exploring farther destinations like Mars. These goals are shaped by the decision to retire the shuttle fleet by 2010, budgetary constraints, and the requirement to create a new fleet that is safer, more reliable, operationally more efficient than the shuttle fleet, and capable of supporting long-range exploration goals. The present architecture for the Constellation Program is the result of extensive trades during the Exploration Systems Architecture Study and subsequent refinement by the Ares Projects Office at Marshall Space Flight Center.

Byrd, Thomas

2008-01-01

173

Service Sector Systems Engineering: The Early Stages of an Innovative Degree Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This past year the College of Engineering at Michigan Technological University has initiated a study to develop a new degree program which we are calling Service Sector Systems Engineering. An industrial advisory group has met and we are convening a panel of experts from industry and academia for a Delphi study to reach consensus on the curricular requirements for this

Robert O. WARRINGTON

174

The influence of immersion and presence in early stage engineering designing and building  

E-print Network

This paper explores the role of a designer's sense of engagement in early stage design. In the field of virtual reality, presence and immersion are standard measures of an individual's sense of engagement and involvement ...

Faas, Daniela

175

Influence of oceanographic processes on the early life stages of the blue shrimp ( Litopenaeus stylirostris) in the Upper Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible relationship between circulation patterns and the recruitment of early stages of penaeid shrimp in the Upper Gulf of California was explored by collecting postlarvae (mesh size 0.505 mm) simultaneously in two locations, one off the coast of Sonora (Golfo de Santa Clara: 31°44'49?N-114°33'12?W) and the other off the Baja California peninsula (San Felipe: 31°11'8.3? N-114°53'13.9?W) during two complete fortnightly cycles (July 12-27, 1995 and June 30-July 16, 1996). Individuals with cephalothoracic length from 0.8 to 3.91 mm without a clear size-increasing pattern were found throughout the sampling period, suggesting continuous recruitment to the area. The circulation in the study area was simulated with a three-dimensional baroclinic model forced with tides and climatological hydrography at the mouth of the Gulf of California, and winds and heat and freshwater fluxes at the sea-air interface. Spawning stock surveys have shown that maximum concentration of mature females is near the coast of Sonora (mainland Mexico). The model predicts surface currents of about 8 cm s -1 and suggests that postlarvae found off the coast of the peninsula may come from a different reproductive unit than those found off the mainland coast. This may explain why postlarvae found in Golfo de Santa Clara (mainland) are larger (and, presumably, older) than those found in San Felipe (Baja California). Possible relationships among circulation patterns, lunar cycle, former Colorado River runoffs and time of spawning are discussed.

Calderon-Aguilera, L. E.; Marinone, S. G.; Aragón-Noriega, E. A.

2003-02-01

176

Transition of Benthic Nutrient Sources after Engineered Levee Breaches Adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during four sampling trips between November 2007 and July 2009 after engineered levee breaches on 30 October 2007, hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Centimeter-scale measurements of the vertical dissolved-nutrient concentration gradients from the profilers served as the basis for diffusive-flux determinations. Wetland areas undergoing restoration and those being used for water storage around these lakes function very differently than nearby established wetlands within the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. Consistent with previous results from Upper Klamath Lake, benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the wetlands was consistently positive, and when areally and seasonally averaged over the 13 km2 newly restored wetlands, an SRP flux to the overlying water column (~87,000 kg over the 3-month cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA)) exceeded the magnitude of riverine inputs (42,000 kg for that season). SRP benthic flux at a site within the restored wetland area ~0.5 km from the breach was elevated relative to all other lake and wetland sites (including another wetland site <0.1 km from the breached levee) in 2009 suggests that the restored wetlands, at least chemically, remain in a transition period following the hydrologic reconnection of the lake and wetland environments. Ammonium fluxes to the water column remained consistently positive throughout the sampling period, generating a toxicological concern for endangered fish populations at elevated summer pH. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were lower than detection limits (<0.03 mg-P/L) at all lake and wetland sites following the levee breaches. As indicated in previous studies, SRP concentrations for 2009 sampling trips indicated higher concentrations at the end of the annual AFA bloom relative to its beginning, suggesting a limiting factor or factors other than SRP. Our results indicated that benthic flux of iron and manganese may serve as a significant source of these essential micronutrients to the lake water column. However, for other trace metals, including those that could retard algal growth (for example, dissolved copper and zinc), water-column and porewater concentrations were low and relatively constant across the sediment-water interface. The lake and wetland benthos substantively contribute to both macro- and micronutrients in the water column. It may therefore be prudent, in terms of developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin, to examine the dynamics of this transition toward seasonal function that is typical of established wetlands in the vicinity with regard to nutrient (both metal and ligand) fluxes. Funding support : U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Klamath Falls, Oregon; U.S.G.S. Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

Kuwabara, J. S.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Parchaso, F.; Cameron, J. M.; Asbill, J. R.; Carlson, R. A.; Fend, S. V.; Engelstad, A. C.

2010-12-01

177

Three-stage autoignition of gasoline in an HCCI engine: An experimental and chemical kinetic modeling investigation  

SciTech Connect

The alternative HCCI combustion mode presents a possible means for decreasing the pollution with respect to conventional gasoline or diesel engines, while maintaining the efficiency of a diesel engine or even increasing it. This paper investigates the possibility of using gasoline in an HCCI engine and analyzes the autoignition of gasoline in such an engine. The compression ratio that has been used is 13.5, keeping the inlet temperature at 70 C, varying the equivalence ratio from 0.3 to 0.54, and the EGR (represented by N{sub 2}) ratio from 0 to 37 vol%. For comparison, a PRF95 and a surrogate containing 11 vol% n-heptane, 59 vol% iso-octane, and 30 vol% toluene are used. A previously validated kinetic surrogate mechanism is used to analyze the experiments and to yield possible explanations to kinetic phenomena. From this work, it seems quite possible to use the high octane-rated gasoline for autoignition purposes, even under lean inlet conditions. Furthermore, it appeared that gasoline and its surrogate, unlike PRF95, show a three-stage autoignition. Since the PRF95 does not contain toluene, it is suggested by the kinetic mechanism that the benzyl radical, issued from toluene, causes this so-defined ''obstructed preignition'' and delaying thereby the final ignition for gasoline and its surrogate. The results of the kinetic mechanism supporting this explanation are shown in this paper. (author)

Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert (France)

2008-12-15

178

A three stage model for the inner engine of GRBs: Prompt emission and early afterglow  

E-print Network

We describe a model within the ``Quark-nova'' scenario to interpret the recent observations of early X-ray afterglows of long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) with the Swift satellite. This is a three-stage model within the context of a core-collapse supernova. STAGE 1 is an accreting (proto-) neutron star leading to a possible delay between the core collapse and the GRB. STAGE 2 is accretion onto a quark-star, launching an ultrarelativistic jet generating the prompt GRB. This jet also creates the afterglow as the jet interacts with the surrounding medium creating an external shock. Slower shells ejected from the quark star (during accretion), can re-energize the external shock leading to a flatter segment in the X-ray afterglow. STAGE 3, which occurs only if the quark-star collapses to form a black-hole, consists of an accreting black-hole. The jet launched in this accretion process interacts with the preceding quark star jet, and could generate the flaring activity frequently seen in early X-ray afterglows. Alternatively, a STAGE 2b can occur in our model if the quark star does not collapse to a black hole. The quark star in this case can then spin down due to magnetic braking, and the spin down energy may lead to flattening in the X-ray afterglow as well. This model seems to account for both the energies and the timescales of GRBs, in addition to the newly discovered early X-ray afterglow features.

Jan Staff; Brian Niebergal; Rachid Ouyed

2007-12-11

179

A review of findings of a study of rocket based combined cycle engines applied to extensively axisymmetric single stage to orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensively axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are considered. The information is presented in viewgraph form and the following topics are presented: payload comparisons; payload as a percent of dry weight - a system hardware cost indicator; life cycle cost estimations; operations and support costs estimation; selected engine type; and rocket engine specific impulse calculation.

Foster, Richard W.

1992-01-01

180

Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

2015-01-01

181

A retrospective analysis of the use of brachytherapy in relation to early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and its relationship to second primary respiratory and upper digestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate brachytherapy for early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCO) in relation to second primary respiratory and upper digestive tract cancers (RUDT). Between 1976 and 2001, 111 previously untreated patients with stage I or II SCO were treated with Au-198 seed brachytherapy alone (36 cases) or Au-198 seed brachytherapy plus external irradiation (75 cases). Of the 111 patients, 28 patients had stage I disease and 83 patients had stage II disease. Each patient was evaluated for therapeutic efficacy, post-treatment quality of life (QOL) and a second cancer. The 5-year and 10-year cause-specific actuarial survival rates for stage I and II SCO were 87% and 86%, respectively. We found that the 5-year and 10-year survival rates for all SCOs combined with second primary RUDT cancers were 71% and 45%, respectively. 51 second primary RUDT cancers occurred successively in 41 patients following treatment for early stage oropharyngeal cancer and this was the sole prognostic factor by the multivariate analysis. Au-198 seed brachytherapy with or without ipsilateral external irradiation of up to 30 Gy was associated with fewer late complications in the oral cavity and salivary gland. We concluded that our treatment policy of brachytherapy with or without external irradiation for patients with early stage SCO was effective and acceptable from the standpoint of tumour control and post-treatment QOL. PMID:17092957

Kishino, M; Shibuya, H; Yoshimura, R; Miura, S M; Watanabe, H

2007-02-01

182

Opportunity of Deliberation on Mental Attitude for One?s Life, Necessary for Engineering Students and Engineers at Earlier Stage of One?s Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Opportunity to deliberate mental attitude for one?s life, is necessary for engineering students and engineers at earlier stage of one?s life, in order to have more solid value and purpose of one?slife in unsteady and diverse era. In order to realize the above demands, the effective training system is proposed, in which two opportunities are effectively combined just as follows ; 1) opportunity to deliberate and to confirm both value and purpose of one?s life, at about 20 years old, when one?s basic personality is formed, and 2) opportunity to deliberate and to contemplate one?slife, at about 40 years old, when one reaches a half of one?s life. In order to improve the effect of the training system, not only 1) ‘Memo System?, to deepen one?s deliberation of life through making clear a latent part of a phenomenon, but also 2) ‘Assent-Dissent Discussion?, that creates a new concept through ‘Sublation-Aufheben? of disagreement opinions between different fields, are very effective. Furthermore, opportunity of experience to social contribution at one?sown risk, together with this training system, will bring more practicable ability and will to the students and engineers.

Shimada, Wataru

183

National Aeronautics and Space Administration The J2X Engine  

E-print Network

by a small, internal combustion chamber separate from the primary combustion chamber producing engine thrustNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts The J­2X Engine NASA's New Upper Stage Engine The next generation of space exploration has begun with the development of NASA's Space Launch

184

Diesel engine smoke reduction by controlling early thermal cracking process and activation later stage combustion  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation, extensive soot reduction was attempted with two parallel approaches: blending of oxygenated fuel and generation of strong turbulence during the combustion process. In the early stage of usual diesel combustion, the droplets in the spray are thermally cracked to low boiling point components as C2 to C5 due to the shortage of oxygen, and these components result in the formation of soot. To control the thermal cracking process, the addition of oxygenated additives to the fuel was attempted. As a result, remarkable soot reduction was obtained by adding small amounts of oxygen to the fuel. To generate strong turbulence, a small chamber connected to the main combustion chamber was added and small amount of fuel were injected into the chamber, resulting in significant soot reduction. Additionally, a clearly apparent NO{sub x}reduction was obtained by the mixing control.

Murayama, T. [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering Coll., Sapporo (Japan); Chikahisa, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Fujiwara, Y. [Hokkaido Inst. of Tech., Sapporo (Japan)

1998-07-01

185

Diesel engine smoke reduction by controlling early thermal cracking process and activating later stage combustion  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation, extensive soot reduction was attempted with two parallel approaches: blending of oxygenated fuel and generation of strong turbulence during the combustion process. In the early stage of usual diesel combustion, the droplets in the spray are thermally cracked to low boiling point components as C{sub 2} to C{sub 5} due to the shortage of oxygen, and these components result in the formation of soot. To control the thermal cracking process, the addition of oxygenated additives to the fuel was attempted. As a result, remarkable soot reduction was obtained by adding small amounts of oxygen to the fuel. To generate strong turbulence, a small chamber connected to the main combustion chamber was added and small amounts of fuel were injected into the chamber, resulting in significant soot reduction. Additionally, a clearly apparent NOx reduction was obtained by the mixing control.

Murayama, Tadashi [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering Coll., Sapporo (Japan); Chikahisa, Takemi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Fujiwara, Yasuhiro [Hokkaido Inst. of Tech., Sapporo (Japan)

1996-12-31

186

Cold-air investigation of a 3 1/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 1: Turbine design and performance of first stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the 3 1/2-stage turbine is described, and the cold-air performance of the first stage, modified for axial inlet conditions, is presented. The performance of the modified single-stage turbine and of two comtemporary high-stage-loading-factor turbines is compared with that estimated with a reference prediction method.

Whitney, W. J.; Schum, H. J.; Behning, F. P.

1975-01-01

187

Cold-air investigation of a 31/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 2: Performance of 2-, 3- and 3 1/2-stage configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stage work distribution among the three stages was very close to the design value. The specific work output-mass flow characteristics of the three stages were closely matched. The efficiency of the 3 1/2 stage turbine at design specific work output and design speed was within 0.008 of the estimated value, and this agreement was felt to demonstrate the adequacy of the prediction method in the high stage loading factor regime.

Whitney, W. J.

1977-01-01

188

Energy efficient engine. Fan and quarter-stage component performance report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fan configuration for the general Electric/NASA Energy Efficient Engine was selected following an extensive preliminary design study. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flowrate of 208.9 Kg/sec/sq. m (42.8 1bm/sec/sq. ft). The design corrected tip speed is 411.5 m/sec (1350 ft/sec) producing a bypass flow total-pressure ratio of 1.65 and a core flow total-pressure ratio of 1.6. The design bypass ratio is 6.8. The aerodynamic design point corresponds to the maximum climb power setting at Mach 0.8 and 10.67 Km (35,000 ft) altitude. The fully-instrumented fan component was tested in the Lynn Large Fan Test Facility in 1981. The overall performance results, reported herein, showed excellent fan performance with the fan meeting all of its component test goals of flow, efficiency and stall margin.

Cline, S. J.; Halter, P. H.; Kutney, J. T., Jr.; Sullivan, T. J.

1983-01-01

189

Effect of Three Modifications on Performance of Auxiliary-Stage Supercharger for V-1710-93 Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three modifications of the auxiliary-stage supercharger for the V-1710-93 engine were designed and tested as part of an investigation to improve the power output and the altitude performance of the engine. A 12-vane diffuser was substituted for the standard 11-vane diffuser, and a vaneless discharge passage and a modified scroll were designed to increase the flow capacity of the supercharger and thereby to increase the performance at the high volume flows required by the engine. With the 12-vane diffuser installed and the carburetor replaced by an adapter, the equivalent volume flow at the peak efficiency point was increased 25 percent at the lowest speed investigated and 9.5 percent at the highest speed. When the carburetor was used, any increase in equivalent volume flow was masked by choking in the carburetor. A small decrease in the peak adiabatic efficiency resulted from using the 12-vane diffuser. At the high volume flows where the supercharger is required to operate, the performance was improved by the 12-vane diffuser. With the vaneless discharge passage, the surge-free range of the supercharger was increased 35 percent at the lowest tip speed investigated by increasing the maximum air flow. The maximum air flow at high tip speeds was again limited by choking in the carburetor, which masked the effect of the vaneless discharge passage on the maximum air flow. At the high volume flows near the operating point of the supercharger, the performance with the vaneless discharge passage was better than that with the standard 11-vane diffuser. At the low volume flows when the standard 11-vane diffuser gave better performance. The modified scroll gave performance characteristics that were practically the same as those of the standard scroll except at high tip speeds, where the peak performance was improved.

Downing, Richard M.; Finger, Harold B.

1946-01-01

190

Poststroke upper limb recovery.  

PubMed

Upper limb recovery after a stroke is suboptimal. Only a few individuals achieve full functional use of the hemiparetic arm. Complex primary and secondary impairments may affect recovery of upper limb function in stroke survivors. In addition, multiple personal, social, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors may interact to positively or negatively influence recovery during the different stages of rehabilitation. The current management of upper limb dysfunction poststroke has become more evidence based. In this article, we review the standard of care for upper limb poststroke rehabilitation, the evidence supporting the treatment modalities that currently exist and the exciting new developments in the therapeutic pipeline. PMID:25520020

Tsu, Adelyn P; Abrams, Gary M; Byl, Nancy N

2014-11-01

191

Advanced expander test bed engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

Mitchell, J. P.

1992-01-01

192

Rocket Engine Clustering and Vehicle Integration as Influenced by Base Thermal Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clustered rocket engines create severe thermal environments in the base of rocket vehicle stages. Boosters burning hydrocarbon fuels experience severe radiant heating early in flight; as the plumes interact at higher altitudes, convective heating becomes significant. For hydrogen-fueled upper stages radiation is not important, but convective heating is severe during the entire stage operation. Predicted and measured heating rates are discussed. The base region thermal environments of stages with clustered engines present a variety of engine/vehicle interaction problems. Components and structures in the base region, including the rocket engines, cannot survive radiant and convective heating from engine exhausts without such remedies as protective insulation, shielding, air-scooping, and proper disposal of the fuel-rich turbine exhaust gases. Different thermal protection concepts evolve for booster and upper stages due to the differences in ground test and flight environments. Solutions to the engine/vehicle interaction and design integration problems are described.

Hopson, George D.; McAnelly, William B.

1966-01-01

193

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom

Joseph N. Cannon; David E. De Lucia; William M. Jackson; James H. Porter

1984-01-01

194

Performance of a 13-Stage Development Compressor for the J40-WE-24 Engine at Equivalent Speeds from 30 to 112 Percent of Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a 13-stage development comressor for the J40-WE-24 engine has been determined at equivalent speeds from 30 to 112 percent of design. The design total-pressure ratio of 6.0 and the design weight flow of 164 pounds per second were not attained, An analysis was conducted to determine the reasons for the poor performance at the design and over-design speed. The analysis indicated that most of the difficulty could be attributed to the fact that the first stage was overcompromised to favor part-speed performance,

Hatch, James E.; Lucas, James G.; Finger, Harold B.

1953-01-01

195

Cold-air investigation of a turbine for high-temperature-engine application. 4: Two-stage turbine performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficiency of a two-stage turbine is discussed. The turbine efficiency was 0.932 for equivalent design operating conditions (speed) and specific work, which compares closely to the value of 0.929 that would be estimated using the first-stage efficiency. The mass flow obtained with the two-stage configuration indicated that the mass flow characteristics of the two stages were closely matched at design operating conditions. The stage work split at these conditions was 0.505-0.495, which was close to the design work split of 0.515-0.485.

Whitney, W. J.; Schum, H. J.; Behning, F. P.

1972-01-01

196

Interaction between Gastric and Upper Small Intestinal Hormones in the Regulation of Hunger and Satiety: Ghrelin and Cholecystokinin Take the Central Stage  

PubMed Central

Several peptides are produced and released from endocrine cells scattered within the gastric oxyntic and the small intestinal mucosa. These peptide hormones are crucially involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions and food intake by conveying their information to central regulatory sites located in the brainstem as well as in the forebrain, such as hypothalamic nuclei. So far, ghrelin is the only known hormone that is peripherally produced in gastric X/A-like cells and centrally acting to stimulate food intake, whereas the suppression of feeding seems to be much more redundantly controlled by a number of gut peptides. Cholecystokinin produced in the duodenum is a well established anorexigenic hormone that interacts with ghrelin to modulate food intake indicating a regulatory network located at the first site of contact with nutrients in the stomach and upper small intestine. In addition, a number of peptides including leptin, urocortin 2, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 interact synergistically with CCK to potentiate its satiety signaling effect. New developments have led to the identification of additional peptides in X/A-like cells either derived from the pro-ghrelin gene by alternative splicing and posttranslational processing (obestatin) or a distinct gene (nucleobindin2/nesfatin-1) which have been investigated for their influence on food intake. PMID:21428875

Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

2013-01-01

197

NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper State Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program s transportation system.

Davis, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

198

Stage Separation Performance Analysis Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stage separation process is an important phenomenon in multi-stage launch vehicle operation. The transient flowfield coupled with the multi-body systems is a challenging problem in design analysis. The thermodynamics environment with burning propellants during the upper-stage engine start in the separation processes adds to the complexity of the-entire system. Understanding the underlying flow physics and vehicle dynamics during stage separation is required in designing a multi-stage launch vehicle with good flight performance. A computational fluid dynamics model with the capability to coupling transient multi-body dynamics systems will be a useful tool for simulating the effects of transient flowfield, plume/jet heating and vehicle dynamics. A computational model using generalize mesh system will be used as the basis of this development. The multi-body dynamics system will be solved, by integrating a system of six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with high accuracy. Multi-body mesh system and their interactions will be modeled using parallel computing algorithms. Adaptive mesh refinement method will also be employed to enhance solution accuracy in the transient process.

Chen, Yen-Sen; Zhang, Sijun; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Ten-See

2001-01-01

199

Ariane-5 - The H155 cryogenic main stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower stage configuration of the Ariane 5 launcher, which will be carried by all launchers irrespective of differences among upper stages, consists of two solid rocket motors with 230 tonnes of propellant and the H155 cryogenic-fueled and Vulcain-engine propelled main stage, to which the solid rockets are attached. An account is presently given of the design features, component technologies and performance capabilities of the H155, which encompasses a LOX/LH2 cryotank, thrust frame, and forward skirt. Details of the production/assembly and launch site erection processes are also presented.

Guillard, P.; de Boisheraud, H.

1993-02-01

200

Post-disposal orbital evolution of satellites and upper stages used by the GPS and GLONASS navigation constellations: The long-term impact on the Medium Earth Orbit environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term evolution and environmental impact in MEO of all the abandoned spacecraft and upper stages associated with the GPS and GLONASS navigation constellations were analyzed. The orbits of the disposed objects, as of 1 May 2011, were propagated for 200 years and snapshots of their evolving distribution were obtained, together with an estimation of the changing collision probability with the spacecraft of the operational navigation systems existing or planned in MEO, i.e., GLONASS, GPS, Beidou and Galileo. The probability that the abandoned objects considered will collide with the operational spacecraft of the navigation constellations is very low, even taking into account the intrinsic eccentricity instability of the disposal orbits. Assuming the present or envisaged configuration of the constellations in MEO, the probability of collision, integrated over 200 years, would be <1/300 with a GLONASS spacecraft, <1/15,000 with a GPS or Beidou spacecraft, and <1/250,000 with a Galileo spacecraft. The worst disposal strategy consists in abandoning satellites and upper stages close to the altitude of the operational constellation (GLONASS), while a re-orbiting a few hundred km away (GPS) is able to guarantee an effective long-term dilution of the collision risk, irrespective of the eccentricity instability due to geopotential and luni-solar perturbations. The disposal strategies applied so far to the GPS satellites should be able to guarantee for at least a few centuries a sustainable MEO environment free of collisions among intact objects. Consequently, there would be no need to adopt disposal schemes targeting also the optimal value of the eccentricity vector. However, it should be pointed out that the GPS disposal strategy was devised well in advance of the Beidou constellation announcement, so most of the abandoned satellites were re-orbited fairly close to the altitude of the new Chinese system. A new re-orbiting approach will be therefore needed in the future.

Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

2012-08-01

201

INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization is progressing. Data on reservoir production rate and pressure history at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been tabulated, and porosity data from core analysis has been correlated with porosity as observed from well log response. Data integration is on schedule, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database for reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation for the reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs for each of these fields.

Ernest A. Mancini

2001-09-14

202

Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic performance, steady amd vibratory loads, surface temperatures, and acoustic characteristics of a large-scale twin-engine upper-surface blown jet-flap configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static and wind-on tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of and the effects of jet impingement on the wing of a large scale upper surface blown configuration powered with an actual turbine engine. The wing and flaps were instrumented with experimental dual-sensing transducer units consisting of a fluctuating pressure gage, a vibratory accelerometer, and a surface mounted alumel thermocouple. Noise directivity and spectral content measurements were obtained for various flap configurations and various engine thrust settings to provide baseline noise data for other upper surface blown configurations.

1976-01-01

203

78 FR 35747 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine; Withdrawal AGENCY...turbofan engine mounted partially in the upper aft fuselage. The single turbofan engine is mounted on the upper aft fuselage, not in the pilot's line of...

2013-06-14

204

INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The models represent an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic models served as the framework for the simulations. The geologic-engineering models of the Appleton and Vocation Field reservoirs have been developed. These models are being tested. The geophysical interpretation for the paleotopographic feature being tested has been made, and the study of the data resulting from drilling of a well on this paleohigh is in progress. Numerous presentations on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been made at professional meetings and conferences and a short course on microbial reservoir characterization and modeling based on these fields has been prepared.

Ernest A. Mancini

2003-09-25

205

Effect of Modifications to Induction System on Altitude Performance of V-1710-93 Engine III : Use of Parabolic Rotating Guide Vanes and NACA Designed Auxiliary-stage Inlet Elbow and Interstage Duct  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bench runs of a modified V-1710-93 engine equipped with a two-stage supercharger, interstage carburetor, aftercooler assembly, and backfire screens have been made at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet to determine the effect of several induction-system modifications on the engine and supercharger performance. The standard guide vanes on the auxiliary- and engine-stage superchargers were replaced by rotating guide vanes with a parabolic blade profile. The auxiliary-stage inlet elbow and interstage duct were replaced with new units of NACA design. These modifications were made one at a time and data were obtained after each change to determine the effect of each modification. All runs were made at a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm at a simulated altitude of 29,000 feet and all changes in engine power were made by varying the speed of the auxiliary-stage supercharger.

Standahar, Ray M; Mccarty, James S

1947-01-01

206

Congenital upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most causes of upper airway obstruction are rare in the neonatal period and during infancy. They may, however, cause major respiratory problems either initially or during the first few weeks of life. It is important to recognise these problems at an early stage so that appropriate measures to overcome airway obstruction can be initiated, thus avoiding significant hypoxia-related complications. Specific

Robert Dinwiddie

2004-01-01

207

Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the lake and wetland benthic environments substantively contribute to macro- and micronutrients in the water column. Wetland areas undergoing restoration, and those being used for water storage, function very differently relatively to the established wetland within the Upper Klamath Lake National Wildlife Refuge, adjacent Upper Klamath Lake. Developing long-term management strategies for water quality in the Upper Klamath Basin requires recognition of the multi-year time scales associated with restoring wetlands that provide natural, seasonal ecosystem function and services.

Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parchaso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

2012-01-01

208

Ares 1 First Stage Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is an integral part of NASA s exploration architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Currently in the system definition phase, the CLV is planned to replace the Space Shuttle for crew transport in the post 2010 time frame. It is comprised of a solid rocket booster (SRB) first stage derived from the current Space Shuttle SRB, a liquid oxygen/hydrogen fueled second stage utilizing a derivative of the Apollo upper stage engine for propulsion, and a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) composed of command and service modules. This paper deals with current design, development, test, and evaluation planning for the CLV first stage SRB. Described are the current overall point-of-departure design and booster subsystems, systems engineering approach, and milestone schedule requirements.

Williams, Tom; Cannon, Scott

2006-01-01

209

First Stage Acceptance Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the intense smoke and fire created by the five F-1 engines from a test firing of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) in the S-1C test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1960-01-01

210

Planar LIF observation of unburned fuel escaping the upper ring-land crevice in an SI engine  

SciTech Connect

PLIF has been used to observe the in-cylinder transport of unburned fuel that, while trapped in the ring-land and ring-groove crevices, survives combustion in the propagating flame. Away from the top-ring gap, we detect a wall-jet comprised of unburned charge exiting the top ring-land crevice opening. At the location of the top-ring gap, we observed unburned fuel lying in the cool boundary layer along the cylinder wall during the later stages of the expansion stroke. This layer is scraped into the roll-up vortex during the exhaust stroke. These data lead us to conclude that away from the end gap, unburned, high pressure charge, trapped between the two compression rings escapes as a wall jet after ring-reversal near the bottom center. Conversely, at the ring gap, when the cylinder pressure drops below the pressure between the compression rings, the trapped charge escapes through the gap and forms a thin layer on the cylinder wall.

Green, R.M.; Cloutman, L.D.

1997-01-01

211

Towards a standard upper ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) is an upper levelontology that has been proposed as a starter document for TheStandard Upper Ontology Working Group, an IEEE-sanctioned workinggroup of collaborators from the fields of engineering, philosophy,and information science. The SUMO provides definitions forgeneral-purpose terms and acts as a foundation for more specificdomain ontologies. In this paper we outline the strategy used

Ian Niles; Adam Pease

2001-01-01

212

INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on reservoir architecture and geographic distribution of Smackover reservoirs is the fabric and texture of the depositional lithofacies, diagenesis (chiefly dolomitization) is a significant factor that preserves and enhances reservoir quality. The evaporative pumping mechanism is favored to explain the dolomitization of the thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone reservoir flow units at Appleton and Vocation Fields. Geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and the testing and applying the resulting integrated geologic-engineering models have shown that little oil remains to be recovered at Appleton Field and a significant amount of oil remains to be recovered at Vocation Field through a strategic infill drilling program. The drive mechanisms for primary production in Appleton and Vocation Fields remain effective; therefore, the initiation of a pressure maintenance program or enhanced recovery project is not required at this time. The integrated geologic-engineering model developed for a low-relief paleohigh (Appleton Field) was tested for three scenarios involving the variables of present-day structural elevation and the presence/absence of potential reef thrombolite lithofacies. In each case, the predictions based upon the model were correct. From this modeling, the characteristics of the ideal prospect in the basement ridge play include a low-relief paleohigh associated with dendroidal/chaotic thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone that has sufficient present-day structural relief so that these carbonates rest above the oil-water contact. Such a prospect was identified from the modeling, and it is located northwest of well Permit No. 3854B (Appleton Field) and south of well No. Permit No.11030B (Northwest Appleton Field).

Ernest A. Mancini

2004-02-25

213

Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of Department of Energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 2: Stage performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE upgraded gas turbine engine was determined in low temperature air. The as-received cast rotor blading had a significantly thicker profile than design and a fairly rough surface finish. Because of these blading imperfections a series of stage tests with modified rotors were made. These included the as-cast rotor, a reduced-roughness rotor, and a rotor with blades thinned to near design. Significant performance changes were measured. Tests were also made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance. Comparisons are made between this turbine and the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas turbine engine.

Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

1982-01-01

214

SLS Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objective: Provide an overview of SLS DUUS type capability requirements to provide context for possible International Partner collaboration. Addition of a DUUS would greatly increase exploration mission capture and performance margin for cis-Lunar and Near Earth System exploration campaigns.

Creech, Steve; Holladay, Jon; Jones, Davey

2013-01-01

215

Toroidal Tank Development for Upper-stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages, development, and fabrication of toroidal propellant tanks are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. Several images are included of independent research and development (IR&D) of toroidal propellant tanks at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Other images in the presentation give a brief overview of Thiokol conformal tank technology development. The presentation describes Thiokol's approach to continuous composite toroidal tank fabrication in detail. Images are shown of continuous and segmented toroidal tanks fabricated by Thiokol.

DeLay, Tom; Roberts, Keith

2003-01-01

216

Low speed inducers for cryogenic upper stages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Briefing charts are presented, which were used in an oral presentation of the results and recommendations for the design and analysis of low speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers and their drive systems applicable to the space tug. A discussion of the design of the 15K and RL-10 inducers is included.

King, J. A.

1973-01-01

217

Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the predicted and measured flight data. Future assessment will incorporate hybrid methods in VAOne analysis (i.e., boundary element methods, BEM and finite element methods, FEM). These hybrid methods will enable the ability to import NASTRAN models providing much more detailed modeling of the underlying beams and support structure of the ARES 1-X test vehicle. Measured acoustic data will be incorporated into these analyses to improve correlation for additional post flight analysis.

Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

2010-01-01

218

Assessment of crack growth in a space shuttle main engine first-stage, high-pressure fuel turbopump blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional finite element fracture mechanics analysis of a space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbine blade firtree was performed using the MARC finite element code. The analysis was conducted under combined effects of thermal and mechanical loads at steady-state conditions. Data from a typical engine stand cycle of the SSME were used to run a heat transfer analysis and, subsequently, a thermal structural fracture mechanics analysis. Temperature and stress contours for the firtree under these operating conditions were generated. High stresses were found at the firtree lobes where crack initiation was triggered. A life assessment of the firtree was done by assuming an initial and a final crack size.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali

1993-01-01

219

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

220

Parametric and exergetic analysis of a two-stage transcritical combined organic Rankine cycle used for multiple grades waste heat recovery of diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel engine has multiple grades of waste heat with different ratios of combustion heat, exhaust is 400 °C with the ratio of 21% and coolant is 90 °C with 19%. Few previous publications investigate the recovery of multiple grades waste heat together. In this paper, a two-stage transcritical combined organic rankine cycle (CORC) is presented and analyzed. In the combined system, the high and low temperature stages transcritical cycle recover the high grades waste heat, and medium to low grades waste heat respectively, and being combined efficiently. Meanwhile, the suitable working fluids for high stage are chosen and analyzed. The cycle parameters, including thermal efficiency (?th), net power output (Pnet), energy efficiency (?exg) and global thermal efficiency of DE-CORC(?glo) have also been analyzed and optimized. The results indicate that this combined system could recover all the waste heat with a high recovery ratio (above 90%) and obtain a maximum power output of 37kW for a DE of 243kW. The global thermal efficiency of DE-CORC can get a max value of 46.2% compared with 40% for single DE. The results also indicate that all the energy conversion process have a high exergy efficiency.

Tian, H.; Zhang, J.; Xu, X. F.; Shu, G. Q.; Wei, H. Q.

2013-12-01

221

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

DOEpatents

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

1984-01-01

222

Engineering and Two-Stage Evolution of a Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate-Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain for Anaerobic Fermentation of Xylose from AFEX Pretreated Corn Stover  

PubMed Central

The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

Parreiras, Lucas S.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J.; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Bonfert, Brandi L.; Pinhancos, Rebeca C.; Balloon, Allison J.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M.; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Hodge, David B.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H.; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P.; Sato, Trey K.

2014-01-01

223

J-2 Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smokeless flame juts from the diffuser of a unique vacuum chamber in which the upper stage rocket engine, the hydrogen fueled J-2, was tested at a simulated space altitude in excess of 60,000 feet. The smoke you see is actually steam. In operation, vacuum is established by injecting steam into the chamber and is maintained by the thrust of the engine firing through the diffuser. The engine was tested in this environment for start, stop, coast, restart, and full-duration operations. The chamber was located at Rocketdyne's Propulsion Field Laboratory, in the Santa Susana Mountains, near Canoga Park, California. The J-2 engine was developed by Rocketdyne for the Marshall Space Flight Center.

1963-01-01

224

Two stage turbine for rockets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

Veres, Joseph P.

1993-11-01

225

Two stage turbine for rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

Veres, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

226

Engineering characterisation of a shaken, single-use photobioreactor for early stage microalgae cultivation using Chlorella sorokiniana.  

PubMed

This work describes the characterisation and culture performance of a novel, orbitally shaken, single-use photobioreactor (SUPBr) system for microalgae cultivation. The SUPBr mounted on an orbitally shaken platform was illuminated from below. Investigation of fluid hydrodynamics indicated a range of different flow regimes and the existence of 'in-phase' and 'out-of-phase' conditions. Quantification of the fluid mixing time (tm) indicated a decrease in tm values with increasing shaking frequency up to 90 rpm and then approximately constant tm values in the range 15-40 s. For batch cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana, the highest biomass concentration achieved was 6.6 g L(-1) at light intensity of 180 ?mol m2 s(-1). Doubling the total working volume resulted in 35-40% reduction in biomass yield while shaking frequency had little influence on culture kinetics and fatty methyl esters composition. Overall this work demonstrates the utility of the SUPBr for early stage development of algal cultivation processes. PMID:25314667

Ojo, E O; Auta, H; Baganz, F; Lye, G J

2014-12-01

227

Static and wind-on tests of an upper-surface-blown jet-flap nozzle arrangement for use on the Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The internal aerodynamic performance, the static turning characteristics, and the forward-speed characteristics of two 1/12-scale upper surface-blown jet-flap exhaust-nozzle arrangements designed for use on the Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) were investigated. The nozzles were equipped with interchangeable area-control side doors in the aft sidewalls of the nozzle so that the effective nozzle area could be varied over a wide range. A simulated wing was used to evaluate installation losses for the nozzles. A smoothly curved flap was attached to the trailing edge of the simulated wing to allow an evaluation of the static turning characteristics of the nozzle arrangement. Forward-speed effects on the jet turning characteristics of the QCSEE nozzles were evaluated by mounting a single engine on a semispan wing designed to be representative of a four-engine STOL transport configuration.

Phelps, A. E., III

1977-01-01

228

Stage Separation Failure: Model Based Diagnostics and Prognostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety of the next-generation space flight vehicles requires development of an in-flight Failure Detection and Prognostic (FD&P) system. Development of such system is challenging task that involves analysis of many hard hitting engineering problems across the board. In this paper we report progress in the development of FD&P for the re-contact fault between upper stage nozzle and the inter-stage caused by the first stage and upper stage separation failure. A high-fidelity models and analytical estimations are applied to analyze the following sequence of events: (i) structural dynamics of the nozzle extension during the impact; (ii) structural stability of the deformed nozzle in the presence of the pressure and temperature loads induced by the hot gas flow during engine start up; and (iii) the fault induced thrust changes in the steady burning regime. The diagnostic is based on the measurements of the impact torque. The prognostic is based on the analysis of the correlation between the actuator signal and fault-induced changes in the nozzle structural stability and thrust.

Luchinsky, Dmitry; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Kulikov, Igor; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Hanson, John; Hill, Ashley

2010-01-01

229

Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

Theil, Elvira

1997-01-01

230

CIVIL ENGINEERING PREREQUISITE SUMMARY Note: BSCE candidate means that you have been admitted to upper division. CE enrolled means you are listed  

E-print Network

cand. CE 4256 Design of Water & Waste Water Treatment Plants CE 3025 CE 4257 Municipal Waste Management Engineering CE 3025 or grad student CE 5251 Design in Water Treatment CE 4256 or instructor consent or grad 4126, 4115 CE 4215 Hydraulic Design CE 3225 CE 4226 Water Resources Engineering CE 3225 CE 4237 Water

Levinson, David M.

231

Stennis engineer part of LCROSS moon mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karma Snyder, a project manager at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, was a senior design engineer on the RL10 liquid rocket engine that powered the Centaur, the upper stage of the rocket used in NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in October 2009. Part of the LCROSS mission was to search for water on the moon by striking the lunar surface with a rocket stage, creating a plume of debris that could be analyzed for water ice and vapor. Snyder's work on the RL10 took place from 1995 to 2001 when she was a senior design engineer with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Years later, she sees the project as one of her biggest accomplishments in light of the LCROSS mission. 'It's wonderful to see it come into full service,' she said. 'As one of my co-workers said, the original dream was to get that engine to the moon, and we're finally realizing that dream.'

2009-01-01

232

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

Maroncelli, Mark

233

Integrated geological and engineering characterization of an Upper Permian, carbonate reservoir, South Cowden unit, Ector County Texas -- a work in progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Cowden Unit, located on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform, has produced 35 million barrels of oil since initial development in the late 1940`s. The Unit, under waterflood since 1965, has been proposed for a COâ flood using horizontal injection wells. A team of geologists and engineers was formed to characterize the reservoir. The early and complete

M. G. Gerard; J. V. Johnson; S. C. Snow

1995-01-01

234

Cardiovascular risk and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis: sleep study, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life: a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. Methods/Design A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height2; circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. Discussion CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC RBR-7yhr4w and World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number UTN: U1111-1127-9390 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-7yhr4w/]). PMID:24103561

2013-01-01

235

Engine Gimbal Requirements for Ground Testing of J-2X  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on the Apollo-era J-2 that powered the second and third stages of the Saturn V, the current J-2X is the liquid hydrogen and oxygen high-altitude rocket engine in development for both the Ares I Upper Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage. During my summer 2009 internship, J-2X was at a stage in its design maturity where verification testing needed to be considered for the benefit of adequate test facility preparation. My task was to focus on gimbal requirements and gimbal related hot-fire test plans. Facility capabilities were also of interest, specifically for hot-fire testing slated to occur at test stands A-1, A-2, and A-3 at Stennis Space Center(SSC) in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Gimbal requirements and stage interface conditions were investigated by applying a top-to-bottom systems engineering approach, which involved system level requirements, engine level requirements from both government and engine contractor perspectives, component level requirements, and the J-2X to Upper Stage and Earth Departure Stage interface control documents. Previous hydrogen and oxygen liquid rocket engine gimbal verification methods were researched for a glimpse at lessons learned. Discussion among the J-2X community affected by gimballing was organized to obtain input relative to proper verification of their respective component. Implementing suggestions such as gimbal pattern, angulated dwell time, altitude testing options, power level, and feed line orientation, I was able to match tests to test stands in the A Complex at SSC. Potential test capability gaps and risks were identified and pursued. The culmination of all these efforts was to coordinate with SSC to define additional facility requirements for both the A-3 altitude test stand that is currently under construction and the A-1 sea level test stand which is being renovated

Kovalcik, Julia; Leahy, Joe

2009-01-01

236

System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

Ballard, Richard O.

2012-01-01

237

Reliability analysis of forty-five strain-gage systems mounted on the first fan stage of a YF-100 engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reliability of 45 state-of-the-art strain gage systems under full scale engine testing was investigated. The flame spray process was used to install 23 systems on the first fan rotor of a YF-100 engine; the others were epoxy cemented. A total of 56 percent of the systems failed in 11 hours of engine operation. Flame spray system failures were primarily due to high gage resistance, probably caused by high stress levels. Epoxy system failures were principally erosion failures, but only on the concave side of the blade. Lead-wire failures between the blade-to-disk jump and the control room could not be analyzed.

Holanda, R.; Frause, L. M.

1977-01-01

238

Third Stage (S-IVB) At KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA technician is dwarfed by the gigantic Third Stage (S-IVB) as it rests on supports in a facility at KSC. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1960-01-01

239

Multi-stage Continuous Culture Fermentation of Glucose-Xylose Mixtures to Fuel Ethanol using Genetically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A  

EPA Science Inventory

Multi-stage continuous (chemostat) culture fermentation (MCCF) with variable fermentor volumes was carried out to study utilizing glucose and xylose for ethanol production by means of mixed sugar fermentation (MSF). Variable fermentor volumes were used to enable enhanced sugar u...

240

CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

1999-01-01

241

Blockage of upper airway  

MedlinePLUS

Airway obstruction - acute upper ... Prevention depends on the cause of the upper airway obstruction. The following methods may help prevent an obstruction: Eat slowly and chew food completely. Do not drink too much alcohol before or while ...

242

Stages of Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... I Stage II Stage III Stage IV After colon cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find ... lung cancer . The following stages are used for colon cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) Stage 0 (colon ...

243

Multiple angle single stage scrubber  

SciTech Connect

A scrubber for cleansing flue gases is disclosed. The scrubber includes a housing which defines a channel. The channel includes a scrubber stage wherein vertically spaced rows of deflecting members of l-shaped cross-section are disposed. In a given row of deflecting members, a plurality of flow paths are defined between horizontally adjacent deflecting members. Each deflecting member has an upper arm and a lower arm. The lowermost edge of the lower arms of the deflecting members in one row are disposed between vertical projections from the uppermost edges of upper arms of deflecting members in a row below the last mentioned row.

Ostlie, L.

1982-02-02

244

Competitive and Cooperative Inventory Policies in a Two-Stage Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a two-stage serial supply chain with stationary stochastic demand and fixed transportation times. Inventory holding costs are charged at each stage, and each stage may incur a consumer backorder penalty cost, e.g. the upper stage (the supplier) may dislike backorders at the lower stage (the retailer). We consider two games. In both, the stages independently choose base stock

Gérard P. Cachon; Paul H. Zipkin

1999-01-01

245

Acquired upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired upper airway obstruction is a common cause of respiratory emergencies in children. Most pathologic processes that result in upper airway compromise are a consequence of infection, trauma or aspiration. Today, many of the infectious causes of upper airway obstruction have lost their threat as a result of the progress made in preventing and treating these infections. Prompt recognition and

Jürg Hammer

2004-01-01

246

Ares I and Ares I-X Stage Separation Aerodynamic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamics of the Ares I crew launch vehicle (CLV) and Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) during stage separation was characterized by testing 1%-scale models at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s (AEDC) von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility (VKF) Tunnel A at Mach numbers of 4.5 and 5.5. To fill a large matrix of data points in an efficient manner, an injection system supported the upper stage and a captive trajectory system (CTS) was utilized as a support system for the first stage located downstream of the upper stage. In an overall extremely successful test, this complex experimental setup associated with advanced postprocessing of the wind tunnel data has enabled the construction of a multi-dimensional aerodynamic database for the analysis and simulation of the critical phase of stage separation at high supersonic Mach numbers. Additionally, an extensive set of data from repeated wind tunnel runs was gathered purposefully to ensure that the experimental uncertainty would be accurately quantified in this type of flow where few historical data is available for comparison on this type of vehicle and where Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational simulations remain far from being a reliable source of static aerodynamic data.

Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.

2011-01-01

247

Cold-air investigation of a turbine for high temperature-engine application. 5: Two-stage turbine performance as affected by variable stator area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stator areas of the design two-stage turbine were both decreased and increased by nominally 30 percent, and the performances of the two turbines are compared with that of the design stator area turbine. Turbine efficiency decreased with stator area changes. Closing the stator area resulted in the more severe efficiency loss. The decrease in efficiency for both turbines is attributable to rotor incidence, off-design blade-surface velocities, and adverse reaction changes across the blade rows.

Behning, F. P.; Schum, H. J.; Szanca, E. M.

1974-01-01

248

Two stage sorption type cryogenic refrigerator including heat regeneration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lower stage chemisorption refrigeration system physically and functionally coupled to an upper stage physical adsorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Waste heat generated by the lower stage cycle is regenerated to fuel the upper stage cycle thereby greatly improving the energy efficiency of a two-stage sorption refrigerator. The two stages are joined by disposing a first pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a first refrigerant for the lower stage refrigeration cycle within a second pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a second refrigerant for the upper stage refrigeration cycle. The first pressurization chamber is separated from the second pressurization chamber by a gas-gap thermal switch which at times is filled with a thermoconductive fluid to allow conduction of heat from the first pressurization chamber to the second pressurization chamber.

Jones, Jack A. (inventor); Wen, Liang-Chi (inventor); Bard, Steven (inventor)

1989-01-01

249

J STAGE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), J-STAGE (The Japan Science and Technology Aggregator, Electronic) is a recently launched electronic journal center that publishes and disseminates Japanese electronic scientific journals. At present, the site hosts four journals (one of which is Japanese only), but expects to add over a hundred in the near future. The three available English-language journals include the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, the Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, and SHIGEN-TO-SOZAI, a journal of the Mining and Materials Processing Institute of Japan. The full-text articles are available free of charge with searchable back issues also available.

250

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

251

Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

2012-01-01

252

Engineering Engineering  

E-print Network

Phillip McClay Principal Analog Engineer Primarion Wally Meinell Group Manager Texas Instruments Robert Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 - 11 Feature Story AND SIDEBAR STORIES Faculty Bios

Zhang, Junshan

253

Design and analysis report for the RL10-2B breadboard low thrust engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The breadboard low thrust RL10-2B engine is described. A summary of the analysis and design effort to define the multimode thrust concept applicable to the requirements for the upper stage vehicles is provided. Baseline requirements were established for operation of the RL10-2B engine under the following conditions: (1) tank head idle at low propellant tank pressures without vehicle propellant conditioning or settling thrust; (2) pumped idle at a ten percent thrust level for low G deployment and/or vehicle tank pressurization; and (3) full thrust (15,000 lb.). Several variations of the engine configuration were investigated and results of the analyses are included.

Brown, J. R.; Foust, R. R.; Galler, D. E.; Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.; Limerick, C. D.; Peckham, R. J.; Swartwout, T.

1984-01-01

254

Stages of Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... IIIA Stage IIIB Stage IIIC Stage IV After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find ... bone cancer . The following stages are used for breast cancer: This section describes the stages of breast cancer . ...

255

Condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the jet exhausts of rocket engines: 1. Model calculation of the physical conditions in a jet exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model calculations have been performed for the temperature and pressure of combustion products in the jet exhaust of rocket engines of last stages of Proton, Molniya, and Start launchers operating in the upper atmosphere at altitudes above 120 km. It has been shown that the condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide can begin at distances of 100-150 and 450-650 m away from the engine nozzle, respectively.

Platov, Yu. V.; Alpatov, V. V.; Klyushnikov, V. Yu.

2014-01-01

256

High/variable mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A LOX/LH2 high/variable mixture ratio booster upper stage is described. The engine has high thrust-weight ratio as a booster and high specific impulse as an upper stage engine. Operation at high mixture ratio utilizes the propellants at high bulk density. The engine may use multiple turbopump-preburners for higher thrust ratings. The engine uses the full flow cycle to obtain minimum turbine inlet temperatures for a given chamber pressure and to avoid interpropellant shaft seals and other single point failure modes. A portion of the liquid hydrogen is used to regeneratively cool the thrust chamber assembly. The warmed hydrogen coolant is then used to drive the fuel boost turbopump. All propellants arrive at the gas-gas injector ready to burn. Shear mixing of the parallel flowing high velocity, low density fuel-rich gases with the high density, low velocity oxidizer-rich gases provides complete combustion with a modest chamber volume. Combustion stability is assured by the injection of the heated fuel-rich gases and the comparatively low volume ratio of the propellants before and after combustion. The high area ratio nozzle skirt is fitted with a low area ratio nozzle skirt insert for optimum low altitude performance. The overall engine characteristics make it a candidate for ALS, Shuttle-C, LRB, and SSTO applications.

Knuth, William H.; Beveridge, John H.

1988-01-01

257

Electrical Engineering UNDERGRADUATE  

E-print Network

447 Electrical Engineering UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS The bachelor of science program in electrical advising office. Requirements for BS Degree in Electrical Engineering To receive the BS degree in electrical engineer- ing, students must complete a minimum of 65 credit hours in the upper-division program

Suzuki, Masatsugu

258

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid\\/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical

Alain Ravex; Robin Flachbart; Barney Holt

1999-01-01

259

Upper stage flight experiment (USFE) integral structure development effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicle Directorate (AFRL\\/VS) has established a customer focused composite tankage development program that is targeted to existing and future aerospace applications. AFRL\\/VS is developing a wide range of tank concepts that include linerless cryogenic tankage, self-healing cryogenic tankage, hydrogen peroxide compatible tankage, volumetrically efficient toroidal (donut shaped) geometries, and more.This paper will summarize the

Jim Guerrero; Brent Hamilton; Randy Burton; Dave Crockett; Zach Taylor

2004-01-01

260

SolSTUS: Solar Source Thermal Upper Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper was written by members of the Utah State University (USU) Space Systems Design class, fall quarter 1993. The class is funded by NASA and administered by the University Space Research Association (USRA). The focus of the class is to give students some experience in design of space systems and as a source of original ideas for NASA. This paper is a summary of the work done by members of the Space Systems Design class during the opening phase of the course. The class was divided into groups to work on different areas of the Solar Thermal Rocket (STR) booster in order to produce a design reference mission that would identify the key design issues. The design reference mission focused upon a small satellite mission to Mars. There are several critical components in a Solar Thermal Rocket. STR's produce a very low thrust, but have a high specific impulse, meaning that they take longer to reach the desired orbit, but use a lot less fuel in doing it. The complexity of the rocket is discussed in this paper. Some of the more critical design problems discussed are: (1) the structural and optical complexity of collecting and focusing sunlight onto a specific point, (2) long term storage of fuel (liquid hydrogen), (3) attitude control while thrusting in an elliptical orbit and orienting the mirrors to collect sunlight, and (4) power and communications for the rocket and it's internal systems. The design reference mission discussed here is a very general mission to Mars. A first order trajectory design has been done and a possible basic science payload for Mars has been suggested. This paper summarizes the design reference mission (DRM) formulated by the USU students during fall quarter and identifies major design challenges that will confront the design team during the next two quarters here at USU.

1994-01-01

261

Let the Volgian stage stay in the Jurassic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 the Volgian Stage was divided into the Jurassic and Cretaceous units, removed from the Geological Time Scale, and substituted by the Tithonian Stage according to the guidelines of the Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Committee of the Russian Federation (ISC RF). Consequently, the Upper Volgian Substage including three zones (five subzones) was placed into the Berriasian Stage (the Cretaceous) proceeding from

V. A. Zakharov; M. A. Rogov

2008-01-01

262

Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This cutaway illustration shows the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage with detailed callouts of the components. The S-IC Stage is 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, producing 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through five F-1 engines that are powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines are mounted on an outer ring and gimbal for control purposes. The fifth engine is rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equals the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

2004-01-01

263

Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US) EO, assuming a reference launch vehicle with 5 RP engines on the CS and 3 LOX/LH2 engines on the US. The benefit of adding both CS and US engine-out capability is significant. When adding EOC for either first or second stages, there is less than a 20% benefit. Performance analysis has shown that if the vehicle is not protected for EO during the first part of the flight and only protected in the later part of the flight, there is a diminishing performance penalty, as indicated by failures occurring in the first stage at different times. This work did not consider any options to abort. While adding an engine for EOC drives cost upward, the impact depends on the number of needed engines manufactured per year and the launch manifest. There is a significant cost savings if multiple flights occur within one year. Flying two flights per year would cost approximately $4,000 per pound less than the same configuration with one flight per year, assuming both CS and US EOC. The cost is within 15% of the cost of one flight per year with no engine-out capability for the same vehicle. This study can be extended to other launch vehicles. While the numbers given in this paper are specific to a certain vehicle configuration, the process requires only a high level of data to allow an analyst to draw conclusions. The weighting of each of the identified parameters will determine the optimization of each launch vehicle. The results of this engine-out assessment provide a means to understand this optimization while maintaining an unbiased perspective.

Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

2012-01-01

264

Upper Yosemite Falls  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, Upper Yosemite Falls may be seen from the Yosemite Falls Trail. Upper Yosemite Falls has a total plunge of 1,430 ft (440 m). Yosemite Falls is one of the most famous waterfalls within Yosemite National Park....

265

Upper Yosemite Falls Detail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In this image, a detailed view Upper Yosemite Falls may be seen from the Yosemite Falls Trail. Upper Yosemite Falls has a total plunge of 1,430 ft (440 m). Yosemite Falls is one of the most famous waterfalls within Yosemite National Park....

266

Establishment of Design Method for Liquid Hydrogen Regenerative Cooling Combustor of LOX/Hydrogen Rocket Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimum method for design of a liquid hydrogen regenerative cooling combustor for the LOX/hydrogen engine was constructed using the author’s previous empirical correlation of C* efficiency and calculation model for combustion characteristics, and the present calculation model for the heat load characteristics for LOX/hydrogen combustion. Using this method, the atomization characteristics of the injected LOX jet, the combustion performance including combustion stability, and the heat load on the combustor were evaluated for LOX/hydrogen upper-stage engines such as the LE-5, RL-10 and HM-7. This method was then applied to the LE-5B engine, which is the derivative engine of the LE-5 and has been used as the second stage of the H-2A launcher, to improve combustion stability and to optimize configuration of the injector and combustor. A reduction of about 30% in chamber length of it with sufficient combustion performance was achieved by such optimization.

Yatsuyanagi, Nobuyuki

267

EARLY PROCESS DESIGN EXPERIENCES FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically traditional engineering schools emphasize design in the upper level engineering courses. Students experience open-ended engineering design in their senior capstone course. The College of Engineering at Rowan University has integrated engineering design at all levels of the curriculum. Students are exposed to the study of engineering design as early as their freshman year. In the first semester of the

Kauser Jahan; Stephanie Farrell; Robert P. Hesketh

2002-01-01

268

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

269

A transient model of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RL10A-3-3A rocket engines have served as the main propulsion system for Centaur upper stage vehicles since the early 1980's. This hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine continues to play a major role in the American launch industry. The Space Propulsion Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center has created a computer model of the RL10 engine, based on detailed component analyses and available test data. This RL10 engine model can predict the performance of the engine over a wide range of operating conditions. The model may also be used to predict the effects of any proposed design changes and anticipated failure scenarios. In this paper, the results of the component analyses are discussed. Simulation results from the new system model are compared with engine test and flight data, including the start and shut-down transient characteristics.

Binder, Michael P.

1995-06-01

270

A transient model of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RL10A-3-3A rocket engines have served as the main propulsion system for Centaur upper stage vehicles since the early 1980's. This hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine continues to play a major role in the American launch industry. The Space Propulsion Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center has created a computer model of the RL10 engine, based on detailed component analyses and available test data. This RL10 engine model can predict the performance of the engine over a wide range of operating conditions. The model may also be used to predict the effects of any proposed design changes and anticipated failure scenarios. In this paper, the results of the component analyses are discussed. Simulation results from the new system model are compared with engine test and flight data, including the start and shut-down transient characteristics.

Binder, Michael P.

1995-01-01

271

Roadmap: Engineering Technology 2+2 Integrated Engineering Technology Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Engineering Technology ­ 2+2 Integrated Engineering Technology ­ Bachelor of Science [RE Electives (upper division) 3 Engineering Technology Core Electives 3 See note 2 on page 2 Kent Core Electives (upper division) 3 Engineering Technology Core Electives 3 See note 2 on page 2 Kent Core

Sheridan, Scott

272

Stages of Anal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Anal Cancer Key Points for This Section After anal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out ... II Stage IIIA Stage IIIB Stage IV After anal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

273

Stages of Pancreatic Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Pancreatic Cancer Key Points for This Section Tests and procedures to stage pancreatic cancer are usually done at the same ... III Stage IV Tests and procedures to stage pancreatic cancer are usually done at the same time as ...

274

Stages of Esophageal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer cells. The following stages are used for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Stage 0 (High-grade Dysplasia) ... is also called high-grade dysplasia. Stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus Stage I is divided into ...

275

Orbiter Trajectory Analysis for a Two-Stage Reusable Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trajectory analysis performed on NASA's reference two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle upper stage will be presented. The work was completed in support of the Hypersonics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization effort for the NASA-Air Force Joint System Study. Three degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) untrimmed trajectory analysis was performed for the orbiter ascent, closure and re-entry. An iterative closure process resulted in a 333,000 lb initial mass for the orbiter. The re-entry trajectory satisfied heating constraints for all payload out cases and met the constraints with reduced margins for payload in cases. Abort trajectories for engine out at staging, engine out during ascent, and failure to circularize in orbit, gave insight to the robustness of the orbiter. A trimmed ascent trajectory defined an engine gimbal location and the body flap angle best suited for maximizing injected mass. A trimmed re-entry trajectory revealed a need to update the trim routine to accommodate full flap aerodynamic data.

Cowling, Adam L.

2011-01-01

276

Family Life Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual life stages happen within the context of family life. This article describes Betty Carter's and Monica McGoldrick's Family Life Cycle stages as a context for Eric Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Daniel Levinson's Stages of a Man's Life, and Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive development. The author juxtaposes the tasks of each family life stage with the individual life

M. A. Armour

1995-01-01

277

Upper respiratory tract (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

278

Upper Endoscopy for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... basis for diagnosis or treatment in any particular case. It is very important that you consult your doctorabout your specific condition. Upper Endoscopy SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS: NASPGHAN •PO BOX 6 •Flourtown, PA 19031 • ...

279

Draft Inventory Upper Snake Province  

E-print Network

Draft Inventory Upper Snake Province Submitted To The Northwest Power and Conservation Council ...........................................................................................................1 Bonneville Power Administration Funded Projects within the Upper Snake Province Needed Future Actions within the Upper Snake Subbasin.........................22 Needed Future Actions

280

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

281

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

282

Second stage of Saturn V being assembled with the first stage.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydrogen-powered second stage is being lowered into place during the final phase of fabrication of the Saturn V moon rocket at North American's Seal Beach, California facility. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1965-01-01

283

A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

2010-01-01

284

Stages of Neuroblastoma  

MedlinePLUS

... of neuroblastoma is based on risk groups. After neuroblastoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find ... liver cancer. The following stages are used for neuroblastoma: Stage 1 In stage 1 , the tumor is ...

285

Staging of Lung Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... it important to know the stage of my lung cancer? Finding out the stage of your lung cancer ... you. How does staging differ between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)? ...

286

Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4 View/Download: Small: 533x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4 Description: Stage IV pancreatic cancer; drawing ...

287

Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing ...

288

CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE FIRST STAGE OF THE SATURN I ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE FIRST STAGE OF THE SATURN I ROCKET, SHOWING A DETAIL VIEW OF THE ENGINE CLUSTER. THE SATURN I ROCKET WAS THE FIRST UNITED STATES ROCKET TO HAVE MULTIPLE ENGINES ON A SINGLE STAGE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

289

Two technicians apply insulation to S-II second stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two technicians apply insulation to the outer surface of the S-II second stage booster for the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1964-01-01

290

Upper airway obstruction and resultant growth factors influencing malocclusions.  

PubMed

Upper airway obstruction is associated with many dental and skeletal malocclusions. Recognizing and removing the problems at an early age is encouraged. However, the malocclusions caused by upper airway obstruction can be addressed and corrected at different stages of dentitions using various types of appliances and orthodontic techniques. This article reports several cases, which were treated with the help of medical experts and otolaryngologists. PMID:25881385

Nguyen, Thai Vinh; Loudon, Merle E

2015-01-01

291

Listening: Upper Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of a good listening program in the upper-elementary grades was emphasized. Perhaps the biggest listening problem with these students, the author said, is to teach them to read as they listen. Suggestions were offered as to how to build listening skills. The separate communicative skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing…

Anderson, Lorena

292

Upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes principles of rehabilitation, according to the ‘international classification of functioning’ model, for people who either required upper limb amputation or have a congenital absence. It also provides a description of current clinical practice at one of the largest prosthetic service providers in the UK.The aim is to provide an overview for any health professional who may work

Sachin Watve; Greg Dodd; Ruth MacDonald; Elizabeth R. Stoppard

2011-01-01

293

Supersonic Air-Breathing Stage For Commercial Launch Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concept proposed to expand use of air-breathing, reusable stages to put more payload into orbit at less cost. Stage with supersonic air-breathing engines added to carry expendable stages from subsonic airplane to supersonic velocity. Carry payload to orbit. Expendable stages and payload placed in front of supersonic air-breathing stage. After releasing expendable stages, remotely piloted supersonic air-breathing stage returns to takeoff site and land for reuse. New concept extends use of low-cost reusable hardware and increases payload delivered from B-52.

Martin, James A.

1993-01-01

294

Understand Centrifugal Compressor stage curves  

SciTech Connect

Multistage Centrifugal Compressor Performance is generally presented in the form of a composite curve showing discharge pressure and bhp plotted as a function of capacity. This composite curve represents the cumulative performance of each stage performance curve. A simple yet quite accurate means of measuring compressor total performance is to test each stage as a single-stage compressor, usually on air with atmospheric inlets. Stage curves are then generated from the test data and three important variables are plotted: head coefficient, work coefficient and adiabatic efficiency. These variables are plotted against a normalized flow coefficient, Q/N, which is inlet volume flow (cfm) divided by impeller speed (rpm). The nomenclature used to define these stage variables changes from manufacturer to manufacturer; however, the parameters presented are the same. An understanding of each parameter's theoretical derivation and determination from test data will help the engineer reviewing test curves to be more cognizant of the interrelationships between these variables; specifically, how they affect overall machine pressure rise and power consumption.

Stadler, E.L.

1986-08-01

295

User Testing: The Heuristic Advantages at the Draft Stage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how college students in an upper-division professional writing course respond to user input at the draft stage of writing computer documentation. Finds that writers perceive user input in different ways and suggests that draft-stage user testing produces better documentation. (PRA)

Sullivan, Patricia A.; Porter, James E.

1990-01-01

296

Isotopic compositions of gangue versus ore minerals in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four successive stages of gangue calcite occur after sulfide mineralization in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district. These are commonly interpreted to represent the waning stage of MTV mineralization, because of spatial association and a smooth transition of decreasing fluid inclusion temperatures from late stage sphalerite through calcites 2 to 4. U-Pb systematics in two calcite 2 crystals suggests an

J. C. Brannon; F. A. Podosek; R. K. McLimans

1993-01-01

297

Altitude Testing of Large Liquid Propellant Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration entered a new age on January 14, 2004 with President Bush s announcement of the creation the Vision for Space Exploration that will take mankind back to the Moon and on beyond to Mars. In January, 2006, after two years of hard, dedicated labor, engineers within NASA and its contractor workforce decided that the J2X rocket, based on the heritage of the Apollo J2 engine, would be the new engine for the NASA Constellation Ares upper stage vehicle. This engine and vehicle combination would provide assured access to the International Space Station to replace that role played by the Space Shuttle and additionally, would serve as the Earth Departure Stage, to push the Crew Excursion Vehicle out of Earth Orbit and head it on a path for rendezvous with the Moon. Test as you fly, fly as you test was chosen to be the guiding philosophy and a pre-requisite for the engine design, development, test and evaluation program. An exhaustive survey of national test facility assets proved the required capability to test the J2X engine at high altitude for long durations did not exist so therefore, a high altitude/near space environment testing capability would have to be developed. After several agency concepts the A3 High Altitude Testing Facility proposal was selected by the J2X engine program on March 2, 2007 and later confirmed by a broad panel of NASA senior leadership in May 2007. This facility is to be built at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center located near Gulfport, Mississippi. 30 plus years of Space Shuttle Main Engine development and flight certification testing makes Stennis uniquely suited to support the Vision For Space Exploration Return to the Moon. Propellant handling infrastructure, engine assembly facilities, a trained and dedicated workforce and a broad and varied technical support base will all ensure that the A3 facility will be built on time to support the schedule needs of the J2X engine and the ultimate flight of the first Ares I vehicle. The A3 facility will be able to simulate pre-ignition altitude from sea-level to 100,000 feet and maintain it up to 650 seconds. Additionally the facility will be able to accommodate initial ignition, shutdown and then restart test profiles. A3 will produce up to 5000 lbm/sec of superheated steam utilizing a Chemical Steam generation system. Two separate inline steam ejectors will be used to produce a test cell vacuum to simulate the 100,000 ft required altitude. Operational capability will ensure that the facility can start up and shutdown without producing adverse pressure gradients across the J2X nozzle. The facility will have a modern thrust measurement system for accurate determination of engine performance. The latest advances in data acquisition and control will be incorporated to measure performance parameters during hotfire testing. Provisions are being made in the initial design of the new altitude facility to allow for testing of other, larger engines and potential upper stage launch vehicles that might require vacuum start testing of the engines. The new facility at Stennis Space Center will be complete and ready for hotfire operations in late 2010.

Maynard, Bryon T.; Raines, Nickey G.

2010-01-01

298

Saturn V First Stage (S-1C) At MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This small group of unidentified officials is dwarfed by the gigantic size of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) at the shipping area of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1960-01-01

299

Aft View of Saturn V Third Stage (S-IVB)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The powerful J-2 engine is prominent in this photograph of a Saturn V Third Stage (S-IVB) resting on a transporter in the Manufacturing Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1960-01-01

300

Engineering Electrical &  

E-print Network

Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

Hickman, Mark

301

Engineering Electrical &  

E-print Network

Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

Hickman, Mark

302

Engineering Engineering Education  

E-print Network

E School of Engineering Engineering Education in a University Setting 292 Degree Programs in Engineering 294 Special Programs 296 Honors 298 Academic Regulations 300 Courses of Study 305 Engineering of Engineering is the largest and oldest private engineering school in the South. Classes offering engineering

Simaan, Nabil

303

The Second Stage of a Saturn V Ready For Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Saturn V S-II (second) stage is being lifted into position for a test at the Vehicle Assembly Building at the Kennedy Space Center. When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burned out and dropped away, power for the Saturn was provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engines used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1970-01-01

304

Upper-Airway Collapsibility*  

PubMed Central

Study objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep. Several techniques have been proposed to assess the collapsibility of the upper airway in awake humans, but sleep-wake comparisons have rarely been attempted and there are few studies comparing OSA patients to control subjects. We sought to compare two collapsibility measurement techniques between normal and apneic subjects, and between wakefulness and sleep. Design We conducted three studies. First, we examined whether collapsibility assessed by negative pressure pulses (NPPs) during wakefulness reflected values during sleep in 21 normal subjects. Second, we determined in these normal subjects whether collapsibility during sleep assessed by NPPs was predictive of collapsibility measured by inspiratory resistive loading (IRL). Finally, we compared upper-airway collapsibility between apnea patients (n = 22) and normal volunteers (n = 38) during wakefulness by NPPs. Setting Clinical and research laboratories at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Participants Two populations of normal subjects (n = 21 and n = 38) and OSA patients (n = 22). Measurements and results Collapsibility during wakefulness, as measured by NPPs, correlated significantly with collapsibility during sleep (r = 0.62; p = 0.003). There was also a significant correlation between the two measures of collapsibility (IRL and NPP) during sleep (r = 0.53; p = 0.04). Both measures revealed a significant increase in pharyngeal collapsibility during sleep as compared to wakefulness. Finally, apnea patients had significantly greater pharyngeal collapsibility than control subjects during wakefulness (p = 0.017). Conclusions These data suggest that upper-airway collapsibility measured during wakefulness does provide useful physiologic information about pharyngeal mechanics during sleep and demonstrates clear differences between individuals with and without sleep apnea. PMID:11451832

Malhotra, Atul; Pillar, Giora; Fogel, Robert; Beauregard, Josee; Edwards, Jill; White, David P.

2015-01-01

305

78 FR 35747 - Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...turbofan engines. This AD was prompted by damage to the high-pressure compressor (HPC) stage 7-9 spool caused by failure...Alliance GP7270 and GP7277 turbofan engines with a high-pressure compressor (HPC) stage 6 disk, part number...

2013-06-14

306

Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

2009-01-01

307

A virtual upper limb prosthesis as a training system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual reality system that improves the functional adjustment between an amputee and an active prosthesis is described. It includes the development of a virtual prosthesis and a myoelectric interface integration. The main purpose of this work is to provide a training system as a previous stage, to subjects who need to use an upper limb myoelectric prosthesis, which will

José Antonio Barraza-Madrigal; Alfredo Ramírez-García; Roberto Muñoz-Guerrero

2010-01-01

308

PLANNING DES STAGES Dpartements  

E-print Network

'offres PFE en laboratoire INSA de 49 jours (Peut avoir lieu en entreprise) Projets innovants Stage 20PLANNING DES STAGES Départements BIOSCIENCES : Filière Biochimie et Biotechnologies 3ère année 4ème année GENIE ENERGETIQUE ET ENVIRONNEMENT 3ère année 4ème année 5ème année Stage de 16 semaines Stage

Stouls, Nicolas

309

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-29

310

How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... stage grouping to determine the stage, expressed in Roman numerals from stage I (the least advanced stage) to ... adding letters and sometimes additional numbers to the Roman numerals. Stage I The cancer is only within the ...

311

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology  

E-print Network

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology Program The Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technology (BSET) is a hands-on program based upon engineering technology fundamentals, engineering for employment or further education. The focus is on current engineering technology issues and applications used

312

78 FR 5710 - Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...high-pressure turbine (HPT) stage 2 nozzles. This AD also requires mandatory removal from service of these HPT stage 2 nozzles at the next engine shop visit. This...inadequate cooling of the HPT stage 2 nozzle, leading to damage to the HPT...

2013-01-28

313

A technology data base for the design of 500 to 5000-lb thrust class liquid rocket engines utilizing hydrogen and oxygen as propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the results of experimental evaluations of candidate designs for igniters, injectors, and propellant-cooled thrust chambers applicable to restartable high-performance, high-reliability upper-stage engines and to pulsing-type reaction control engines (RCE). Injection element types best suited for liquid, gas, and liquid/gas phase propellant supply are identified. The resulting interactions between element type, combustion efficiency, and chamber wall heating are compared. The distinction between thrust chamber design requirements for upper stage vs RCE applications as measured by cycle life requirements is translated into design configurations consisting of all-film-cooled, all-regeneratively-cooled, and composites of the two cooling approaches. The validity of the design approaches is confirmed by data from engine durability testing involving over 90,000 starts and 9,000 thermal cycles on RCE-type designs and multiple long-duration burns (up to 2,000 sec) on regeneratively cooled upper-stage designs.

Schoenman, L.

1982-01-01

314

Environmental mitigation and the Upper Yazoo Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Engineer District, Vicksburg (CELMK), evaluated an array of flood control alternatives, which included up to 167 water control structures, 52 confined disposal facilities, and 47 borrow pits as part of a major flood control effort known as the Upper Yazoo Projects (UYP). Many of these project features are capable of ponding water and thus can be managed to mitigate for aquatic, terrestrial, waterfowl, and wetland resource losses expected to occur as a result of the UYP. The benefits to be derived will depend upon the land uses and management of the ponded areas. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station developed procedures to quantify the cost and habitat benefits of the many management options for these sites. The mitigation strategy was derived by optimizing various combinations of land acquisition, reforestation, land-use change, and site hydrology so that the least-cost mitigation plan could be selected.

Dardeau, E. A.; Fischenich, J. C.

1995-02-01

315

Wireless Eddy Current Probe for Engine Health Monitoring  

E-print Network

notch samples ­ 2.4 and 5.7 GHz Signals worked from: · 3rd stage ­ low compressor to 6th stage ­ high compressor · 3rd stage ­ low compressor to 12th stage ­ high compressor · 3rd stage ­ low compressor to turbine · 3rd stage ­ engine inlet · Results exceed design range of borescope to borescope transmission

Dickerson, Julie A.

316

Document Engineering in User Experience Design  

E-print Network

? What is document engineering? The need to bridge the "front stage" and "back stage" DocumentDocument Engineering in User Experience Design Doctrain Vancouver -- 8 May 2008 Bob Glushko engineering in user experience design #12;Who Is This Guy? Adjunct Professor at UC Berkeley "Information

Glushko, Robert J.

317

2008-601-00 ISRP FAN 1 Upper Lemhi River Acquisition 1 Narrative Preamble  

E-print Network

­ Acquisition 2 Upper Salmon and historically a major spawning and rearing tributary for Snake River spring/summer-run Chinook and Snake River steelhead. The Upper Lemhi River Acquisition Project seeks to permanently protect tributary streams to the Lemhi River to benefit all life stages of Snake River spring/summer-run Chinook

318

Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 5 References  

E-print Network

. Hyndman. 1989. Roadside geology of Idaho. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, MT. 394 pp. American Fisheries Society (AFS), Idaho Chapter. 2000. Website. http://www.fisheries.org/idaho/. Accessed November. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: an ecological treasure on the upper Snake River Plain. Rangelands

319

Age and correlation of California Paleogene benthic foraminiferal stages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparisons of age determinations and correlations derived from calcareous plankton with those derived from benthic foraminifers in a number of sections in California show significant overlap in time of the Ynezian through the Ulatisian Stages. Thus interbasin time correlations deduced from these stage assignments must be treated with caution. Calcareous plankton occasionally associated with benthic foraminifers diagnostic of the Narizian through the Zemorrian Stages indicate that the Narizian-Refugian boundary is within the upper Eocene of international usage and that the Refugian is entirely upper Eocene. Overlap of the Narizian and the Refugian appears to be minimal. The Zemorrian correlates, mostly, with the Oligocene, although the upper limit of the Zemorrian might be in the lower Miocene.

Poore, Richard Z.

1980-01-01

320

Staging of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is different from other malignancies because the prognosis in HCC is not only dependent upon the tumor stage but also on the liver function impairment due to accompanying cirrhosis liver. Various other staging systems used in HCC include the European systems [French staging system, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and the cancer of the liver Italian program (CLIP)] and Asian systems [Okuda staging system, Japan integrated Staging (JIS), Tokyo score and Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI)]. Out of all the staging systems used in HCC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is probably the best because it takes in to account the tumor status (defined by tumor size and number, presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread), liver function (defined either by the Child-Pugh's class) and general health status of the patient (defined by the ECOG classification and the presence of symptoms). Since most of the extrahepatic spread in HCC occurs to lymph nodes, lungs and bones, the assessment can be done with either PET/CT or a combination of CT (Chest and abdomen) and a bone scan. This article describes the various staging systems used in HCC, guides choosing a staging system particularly in the Indian context and the assessment of extra-hepatic spread in HCC. PMID:25755615

Duseja, Ajay

2014-08-01

321

Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is different from other malignancies because the prognosis in HCC is not only dependent upon the tumor stage but also on the liver function impairment due to accompanying cirrhosis liver. Various other staging systems used in HCC include the European systems [French staging system, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and the cancer of the liver Italian program (CLIP)] and Asian systems [Okuda staging system, Japan integrated Staging (JIS), Tokyo score and Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI)]. Out of all the staging systems used in HCC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is probably the best because it takes in to account the tumor status (defined by tumor size and number, presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread), liver function (defined either by the Child-Pugh’s class) and general health status of the patient (defined by the ECOG classification and the presence of symptoms). Since most of the extrahepatic spread in HCC occurs to lymph nodes, lungs and bones, the assessment can be done with either PET/CT or a combination of CT (Chest and abdomen) and a bone scan. This article describes the various staging systems used in HCC, guides choosing a staging system particularly in the Indian context and the assessment of extra-hepatic spread in HCC. PMID:25755615

Duseja, Ajay

2014-01-01

322

Two stage catalytic combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

323

Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved Stirling engine, having an expansion piston and a compression piston sliding into respective cylinders and defining an upper side and a lower side therein, a heater and a cooler on the upper side of the cylinders, and a regenerator in communication between the heater and cooler, comprising: a piston rod integral with each piston and moving coaxially to the cylinder axis; a bottom on the lower side of each cylinder for forming respective lower chambers, the rods being slidingly and sealingly engaged through the bottoms; labyrinth dynamic seals formed on the expansion piston, for allowing a seepage of fluid from the upper to the lower side of the cylinder. By means of absorption by the fluid in the lower side of the cylinder, of the heat transferred by conduction from the walls of the cylinder and the expansion piston, a lower Stirling cycle is established in the lower chambers, which produces a double-action effect with heat recovery and work production.

Bartolini, C.M.; Naso, V.; Suraci, F.

1988-08-02

324

Rotorcraft convertible engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Rotorcraft Convertible Engine Study was to define future research and technology effort required for commercial development by 1988 of convertible fan/shaft gas turbine engines for unconventional rotorcraft transports. Two rotorcraft and their respective missions were defined: a Fold Tilt Rotor aircraft and an Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) rotorcraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted with these rotorcraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size, mission fuel requirements, and direct operating costs (DOC). The two rotorcraft were flown with conventional propulsion systems (separate lift/cruise engines) and with convertible propulsion systems to determine the benefits to be derived from convertible engines. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine the optimum engine cycle and staging arrangement for a convertible engine. Advanced technology options applicable to convertible engines were studied. Research and technology programs were identified which would ensure technology readiness for commercial development of convertible engines by 1988.

Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Mar, H. M.

1982-01-01

325

TryEngineering: Engineered Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that engages students in engineering practices as they design, construct, and test a musical instrument that will repeat a pattern of three sounds. Students first examine the construction and operation of the recorder, then work in groups to build instruments from common household items. The driving question of the lesson: How do engineers design musical instruments that will reliably produce notes, tones, and patterns of sound? Editor's Note: A recorder is a type of open-ended column wind instrument. Recorders are easier to study than the better-known transverse flute: they are cheaper to acquire and the dynamics are far less complex. This lesson is appropriate for the upper elementary grades, but can also be adapted for older students by introducing concepts of standing waves and fundamental frequency. See Related Materials for content support in teaching the physics of music. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

326

Five Stages of Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which shows the stages that molecules go through as they move from the turbulent stage of viscous flow, transition into laminar flow, and then transition again into molecular flow. You may pause this animation between stages. Objective: Identify the five stages of flow. This simulation is from Module 98 of the Vacuum Technology and Gas Control Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). You can find this animation under the section "Vacuum Technology & Gas Controls." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

327

A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

2014-01-01

328

Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering  

E-print Network

Civil Engineering Environmental Engineering Dr Derek Clarke Admissions Tutor #12;2 What is Civil) ­ Water Hydraulics (Dams & rivers) ­ Engineering Mathematics Civil Engineering Core Subjects #12;11 Core. Renovation of old canals and tunnels Design of new storage reservoirs #12;17 Civil Engineering

Anderson, Jim

329

Upper carboniferous conodont zones of Russia and their global correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has been marked by significant progress in the study of the stratigraphic ranges of the conodonts characteristic of the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages in shallow-water sediments of the type sections in the Moscow Basin and the deeper facies of the South Urals. This paper discusses the history of studies of the Upper Carboniferous conodont zonation in Russia and abroad, and proposes a refined zonal conodont scale for the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages, which may be included, as a standard, into the general Carboniferous scale of Russia. In this scale, the Kasimovian and Gzhelian stages correspond respectively to six ( subexcelsus, makhlinae, sagittalis, cancellosus, toretzianus, firmus) and five ( simulator, vitali, virgilicus, bellus, wabaunsensis) zones. The proposed scale works for the entire East European Platform and the Urals from the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in the north to the Mugodzhary Mountains in the south. These regions of Russia are occupied by Upper Carboniferous marine facies. At several levels (especially in the Gzhelian Stage), the scale reliably correlates with zones of the Missourian and Virgilian stages in North America and also Dalaun and Mapingian stages in China.

Goreva, N. V.; Alekseev, A. S.

2010-12-01

330

Upper Hudson Dredging Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In preparation for the activity a lecture is given on the properties and history of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. Each student is assigned to one of six groups with an interest in the outcome of the debate. The teams must meet and prepare a position paper on the proposed environmental dredging in the Upper Hudson River. Each team must represent the interests of its assigned constituency. Data and background information is found on the world wide web and from the instructor's collection of related articles. On the day of the debate the student's orally present their position paper (some make posters or powerpoint presentations). After each group has made their opening statement the invited guest senators on the panel (other faculty, myself, interested students, those who were absent for the preparation) ask each group a series of questions related to their stance. After this a general debate begins with detailed and sometimes heated discussions between the groups and the panel. A few moments are saved at the end of class and everyone is allowed to drop their assumed affiliation and speak their mind on what should be done. Before leaving the class is give a series of big picture topics to think about over the weekend and these are discussed during the next class.

Jeff Chiarenzelli

331

Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.  

PubMed

Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

2014-11-01

332

Venus upper atmosphere structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric densities of Venus were measured from the orbital decay of the Pioneer Venus from Dec. 9, 1978 to Aug. 7, 1979 near the 16 deg latitude between 140 and 190 km during the entire day. Comparative atmospheric densities on earth at 150 km are higher by a factor of 3.5 with only a 1% diurnal variation; an atmospheric composition, temperature, and density model based on the orbiter atmospheric drag (OAD) vertical structure is presented. The model shows that atomic oxygen is the major component in the Venus atmosphere above 145 km at night and above 160 km during the day with mixing ratios over 0.1 near 140 km; drag measurements indicate O concentrations from 1 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in daytime to 3 x 10 to the 7th/cu cm at night. It is concluded that the neutral upper atmosphere of Venus is surprisingly insensitive to solar extreme UV variations and changes in the solar wind.

Keating, G. M.; Nicholson, J. Y., III; Lake, L. R.

1980-01-01

333

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Although the incidence of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) may be decreasing, the case fatality associated with it remains unchanged. What do the most recent studies tell us about medical and endoscopic therapy? Erythromycin is a potentially useful adjunct to endoscopy, and further data are needed to establish its role in the management of patients with NVUGIB. The use of proton-pump inhibitors in addition to combination endoscopic therapy appears to reduce the rebleeding rate consistently across different studies; the route of administration, dosage, and duration of treatment require further definition. Although two controlled studies suggest improved outcomes with clot removal and endoscopic therapy, the exact role of endoscopic treatment in the setting of overlying clots remains controversial. Hemoclips have not been found, in general, to be superior to the available endoscopic techniques. Currently, other hemostatic techniques such as injection and thermocoagulation - and in particular, combination therapy using both methods - are preferable. No major "breakthrough" endoscopic treatment has emerged. Newer endoscopic therapies such as cryotherapy are interesting, but have not had widespread application. Endoscopic suturing techniques, as used in the treatment of esophageal reflux and obesity, have not been adapted to the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:14722856

Rollhauser, C; Fleischer, D E

2004-01-01

334

MK2206 in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

2015-03-16

335

Saturn V First Stage Leaves the Dynamic Test Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows the Saturn V first stage being lowered to the ground following a successful test to determine the effects of continual vibrations simulating the effects of an actual launch. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1967-01-01

336

Second Stage (S-II) Arrives at Marshall Space Flight Center For Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The business end of a Second Stage (S-II) slowly emerges from the shipping container as workers prepare to transport the Saturn V component to the testing facility at MSFC. The Second Stage (S-II) underwent vibration and engine firing tests. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

2004-01-01

337

Second Stage (S-II) Plays Key Role in Apollo missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) clearly shows the cluster of five powerful J-2 engines needed to boost the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit following first stage separation. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1970-01-01

338

Principles of tendon reconstruction following complex trauma of the upper limb.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of tendons following complex trauma to the upper limb presents unique clinical and research challenges. In this article, the authors review the principles guiding preoperative assessment, surgical reconstruction, and postoperative rehabilitation and management of the upper extremity. Tissue engineering approaches to address tissue shortages for tendon reconstruction are also discussed. PMID:25685101

Chattopadhyay, Arhana; McGoldrick, Rory; Umansky, Elise; Chang, James

2015-02-01

339

Ergonomic stressors and upper extremity disorders in vehicle manufacturing: cross sectional exposure-response trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between upper extremity soft tissue disorders and exposure to preventable ergonomic stressors in vehicle manufacturing operations. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in one vehicle stamping plant and one engine assembly plant. A standardised physical examination of the upper extremities was performed on all subjects. An interviewer administered questionnaire obtained data on demographics, work

L. Punnett

1998-01-01

340

OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, PRIMARY ORE BIN,OVERBURDEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, PRIMARY ORE BIN,OVERBURDEN PILE, AND DEBRIS SCATTER,LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THE MAIN ACCESS TRAIL BETWEEN THE LOWER MILL AREA GOES ACROSS THE CENTER LEFT TO RIGHT. WINCHING ENGINE AND FOUNDATION IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER (SEE CA-291-37). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

341

System Engineering for J-2X Development: The Simpler, the Better  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I and Ares V Vehicles will utilize the J-2X rocket engine developed for NASA by the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne Company (PWR) as the upper stage engine (USE). The J-2X is an improved higher power version of the original J-2 engine used for Apollo. System Engineering (SE) facilitates direct and open discussions of issues and problems. This simple idea is often overlooked in large, complex engineering development programs. Definition and distribution of requirements from the engine level to the component level is controlled by Allocation Reports which breaks down numerical design objectives (weight, reliability, etc.) into quanta goals for each component area. Linked databases of design and verification requirements help eliminate redundancy and potential mistakes inherent in separated systems. Another tool, the Architecture Design Description (ADD), is used to control J-2X system architecture and effectively communicate configuration changes to those involved in the design process. But the proof of an effective process is in successful program accomplishment. SE is the methodology being used to meet the challenge of completing J-2X engine certification 2 years ahead of any engine program ever developed at PWR. This paper describes the simple, better SE tools and techniques used to achieve this success.

Kelly, William M.; Greasley, Paul; Greene, William D.; Ackerman, Peter

2008-01-01

342

Upper Mississippi River, Pool 7  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is an aerial view looking south from above Pool 7 of the Upper Mississippi River near Trempealeau, WI.  The navigation dam which creates the pool appears slightly below the horizon in the upper left quadrant.  Wing dams are evidenced by the rippling water in the river channel as they direct the...

343

Diagnosis and Staging  

Cancer.gov

Cancer can cause many different symptoms. The doctor will order tests to determine if symptoms are caused by cancer or some other problem. If cancer is diagnosed, the doctor will run tests to determine the stage. Knowing the stage helps the doctor plan treatment and discuss prognosis.

344

"High Stage" Organizing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a psychological theory of stages of transformation in human development currently exists, organizational researchers have yet to elaborate and test any theory of organizational transformation of comparable elegance. According to the organizational stage theory being developed since 1974 by William Torbert, bureaucratic organization, which…

Torbert, William R.

345

Stages of Gallbladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer is found in the wall of the gallbladder and can be completely removed by surgery . Unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic (Stage II, Stage III, ... IV) Unresectable cancer cannot be removed completely by surgery . Most ... with gallbladder cancer have unresectable cancer. Recurrent cancer is cancer ...

346

Stages of Renal Cell Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Renal Cell Cancer Key Points for This Section After renal cell cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out ... Stage II Stage III Stage IV After renal cell cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

347

Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma Key Points for This Section After Merkel cell carcinoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out ... Stage IIIA Stage IIIB Stage IV After Merkel cell carcinoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

348

Stage-by-stage guaranteeing innovation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to further developments in the theory of designing new multipurpose technical systems. We introduce a\\u000a better model of gradually refining information on uncertain factors in various stages of the system’s lifecycle. We account\\u000a for the uncertainties’ influence not only on the optimality criterion, but also on the control admissibility set. The general\\u000a constructions of a recursive

F. A. Druzhinin; V. V. Tokarev

2010-01-01

349

33engineering EnginEEring and  

E-print Network

33engineering EnginEEring and ThE builT EnvironmEnT www.wits.ac.za/ebe #12;34 guide for applicants 2015 The study of Engineering Career opportunities for engineers are limitless and extend beyond the formal engineering sector. A career in engineering requires special talents ­ engineers need

Wagner, Stephan

350

Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas  

E-print Network

August 1990 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering NITROGEN OXIDES REDUCTION BY STAGED COMBUSTION OF LCV GAS A Thesis by JOSE MANUEL CABRERA SIXTO Approved as to style and content by: Calvin B. Parnell, Jr (Chair of Committee) Wayne A. Le...: Dr. Calvin B. Parnell, Jr. This thesis describes the design, construction and testing of a Low-NO?-stagcd combustor to burn LCV gas derived from agricultural wastes. A cycJone combustor was used as the first stage of the staged combustor. Due...

Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

1990-01-01

351

Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

2014-12-23

352

Early stage colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent “curative” resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., “tumor budding”) should lead to improved staging and clinical care. PMID:24379564

Freeman, Hugh James

2013-01-01

353

Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

2014-12-23

354

Tripropellant engine study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for converting the space shuttle main engine (SSME) to a dual-fuel, dual-mode engine using LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in mode 1 and LOX/H2 in mode 2 was examined. Various engine system concepts were formulated that included staged combustion and gas generator turbine power cycles, and LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 mode 1 propellants. Both oxidizer and fuel regenerative cooling were considered. All of the SSME major components were examined to determine their adaptability to the candidate dual-fuel engines.

Wheeler, D. B.; Kirby, F. M.

1978-01-01

355

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

2014-01-01

356

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

2014-01-01

357

Upper and Lower Case Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do the different upper and lower case letters of the alphabet look like? Use the Graphic Organizer Watch the video. Alphabet Town Video Play this matching game. Alpha Pig s Amazing Alphabet Match Up Game Play this alphabet game. Star Fall Alphabet Match the letters here. ABC Matching Watch this Video. Upper and Lowercase Letter Flashcards Video Now you will complete the project. Each of you will get a digital camera. I want you to go around the classroom and take pictures of upper and lowercase letters you see. ...

Sherman1a

2012-04-04

358

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING PREREQUISITE & GENERAL EDUCATION COURSES  

E-print Network

CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING PREREQUISITE & GENERAL EDUCATION COURSES Mathematics 24 cr MATH&S. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING UPPER-DIVISION COURSE WORK The BSCE degree covers six areas, WA 98195 Phone 206- 543-5092 ceadvice@uw.edu #12;Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE

359

System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.

Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.

2008-01-01

360

V160 Stirling engine program update  

SciTech Connect

Development efforts being made toward the preproduction stage of the V160 Stirling engine are examined. The history of continued reliability encompassing all engine models is reviewed, and efforts towards engine manufacturing and cost reduction are addressed. A preview is given of the initial product line based on the V160 engine and substantiated through testing of the offered configurations.

Johansson, L.; Torstensson, B.; Williams, T. Y.; Houtman, W.H.; Monahan, R.

1988-01-01

361

Saturn V First Stage S-1C LOX Fuel Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Saturn V assembled LOX (Liquid Oxygen) and fuel tanks ready for transport from the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The tanks were then shipped to the launch site at Kennedy Space Center for a flight. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1960-01-01

362

Staging Airliner Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

Hahn, Andrew S.

2007-01-01

363

Stages of Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... also may be used in the staging process: Bone scan : A procedure to check if there are rapidly ... the bones and is detected by a scanner . Bone scan. A small amount of radioactive material is injected ...

364

Stages of Melanoma  

MedlinePLUS

... the tumor and whether cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. The staging ... skin). Whether the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes and if the lymph nodes are joined together ( ...

365

Early-stage returns?  

PubMed

Contrary to conventional thinking, there are compelling reasons for investors to consider early-stage life science ventures, especially in the context of a maturing biotech business 'ecosystem'. PMID:17093473

Booth, Bruce L

2006-11-01

366

Stages of Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... your baby in these three stages. First trimester (week 1-week 12) First trimester See how your baby is ... is each pregnancy. Return to top Second trimester (week 13-week 28) Second trimester See how your ...

367

Stages of Thyroid Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer is considered stage IV thyroid cancer. After thyroid cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to ... out if cancer cells have spread within the thyroid or to other parts of the body. The ...

368

Precision adjustable stage  

DOEpatents

An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA); Silva, Leonard L. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

369

MX stage I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MX stage I program is addressed in summary fashion. It is noted that the MX first stage is now entering development after an extended period of System Definition. Consideration is given to the fact that the design baseline is a selection of technology that represents a balance of risks between performance, cost and schedule. Further, as the largest solid propulsion unit ever developed for ballistic missiles, the design is considered to be of general interest.

Hilden, J. G.; Dykstra, P. R.

1980-06-01

370

Multiple stage railgun  

DOEpatents

A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Scudder, Jonathan K. (Pleasanton, CA); Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

371

[Physiology of the upper airways].  

PubMed

Patency of the upper airways is maintained by an adjustable balance between the level of tonic and phasic upper airway dilator muscle activity and closing forces generated by inspiratory negative pressure, gravity and surface tension. During sleep, dilator muscle tone is decreased, producing elevated respiratory resistances. During exercise, increased ventilation is normally associated with combined oronasal breathing. Various receptors are implicated to maintain an adequate level of respiratory resistances. PMID:8317206

Goffart, Y

1993-01-01

372

Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.  

PubMed

Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

2015-02-01

373

High Head Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objective to develop an unshrouded impeller design, which a meets the performance requirements of a 3-stage fuel pump with a 2-stage pump design, has been accomplished. Performance of the baseline unshrouded impeller has been experimentally verified. Unshrouded impeller trade study and final 6+6 unshrouded impeller configuration has been presented. Structurally viable, 6+6-impeller design concept has been produced. Based on results presented in this study, at a nominal 10% tip-clearance, the 6+6 impeller design would increase payload to orbit by almost 625 lbs. per engine. The RLV vehicle requires 7 engines, therefore, application of high head unshrouded technology would increase payload capability by as much as 4,375 lbs. per vehicle.

Williams, Robert W.; Skelley, Stephen E.; Stewart, Eric T.; Droege, Alan R.; Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung; Williams, Morgan; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

374

College of Engineering College of Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering College of Engineering Office in Engineering Building, Room 202 (970) 491 UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental Engineering Mechanical Engineering

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

375

A cascade thermoacoustic engine.  

PubMed

A cascade thermoacoustic engine is described, consisting of one standing-wave stage plus two traveling-wave stages in series. Most of the acoustic power is produced in the efficient traveling-wave stages. The straight-line series configuration is easy to build and allows no Gedeon streaming. The engine delivers up to 2 kW of acoustic power, with an efficiency (the ratio of acoustic power to heater power) of up to 20%. An understanding of the pressure and volume-velocity waves is very good. The agreement between measured and calculated powers and temperatures is reasonable. Some of the measured thermal power that cannot be accounted for by calculation can be attributed to Rayleigh streaming in the two thermal buffer tubes with the largest aspect ratios. A straightforward extension of this work should yield cascade thermoacoustic engines with efficiencies of around 35-40% of the Carnot efficiency. PMID:14587591

Gardner, D L; Swift, G W

2003-10-01

376

Optical engine initiation: multiple compartment applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern day propulsion systems are used in aerospace applications for different purposes. The aerospace industry typically requires propulsion systems to operate in a rocket mode in order to drive large boost vehicles. The defense industry generally requires propulsion systems to operate in an air-breathing mode in order to drive missiles. A mixed system could use an air-breathing first stage and a rocket-mode upper stage for space access. Thus, propulsion systems can be used for high mass payloads and where the payload is dominated by the fuel/oxidizer mass being used by the propulsion system. The pulse detonation wave engine (PDWE) uses an alternative type of detonation cycle to achieve the same propulsion results. The primary component of the PDWE is the combustion chamber (or detonation tube). The PDWE represents an attractive propulsion source since its engine cycle is thermodynamically closest to that of a constant volume reaction. This characteristic leads to the inference that a maximum of the potential energy of the PDWE is put into thrust and not into flow work. Consequently, the volume must be increased. The technical community has increasingly adopted the alternative choice of increasing total volume by designing the engine to include a set of banks of smaller combustion chambers. This technique increases the complexity of the ignition subsystem because the inter-chamber timing must be considered. Current approaches to igniting the PDWE have involved separate shock or blast wave initiators and chemical additives designed to enhance detonatibility. An optical ignition subsystem generates a series of optical pulses, where the optical pulses ignite the fuel/oxidizer mixture such that the chambers detonate in a desired order. The detonation system also has an optical transport subsystem for transporting the optical pulses from the optical ignition subsystem to the chambers. The use of optical ignition and transport provides a non-toxic, small, lightweight, precisely controlled detonation system.

Hunt, Jeffrey H.

2009-05-01

377

Numerical Simulation of Stage Jettisoning of a Two-Stage Rocket with Different Separation Distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CFD simulations were carried out to evaluate the flow field during the jettisoning process of a two-stage rocket using an inhouse developed RANS code. Two simulations with stage separation distances of 500 mm and 1,000 mm were considered for simulation. For the 500 mm case, there was a severe `jet-upstream' flow interaction which resulted in an upstream flow separation and hence can cause large drag rise. However, there was no such observation of flow separation anywhere on the upper stage for the 1,000 mm case. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of spatial order of accuracy for modelling the governing Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on the simulation results.

Balasubramanian, R.; Anandhanarayanan, K.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Chakraborty, D.

2012-10-01

378

FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL WALLS OF DIFFERING MATERIALS. NOTE DOORWAY TO MTR TO RIGHT OF CHOPPER BUILDING'S CLIPPED CORNER. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

379

Engineering analysis and test results of the pre-stage planetary gear trains for wrist rotation and pitch assembly and azimuth and elevation assembly of the extendable stiff arm manipulator kit assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve the performance capability of the Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM) it was necessary to increase the overall gear ratio by a factor of approximately four. This is accomplished with minimum effect to existing hardware by the interposition of a planetary gear transmission between the respective drive motors and the harmonic drive transmissions. The engineering analysis in support of this design approach and the subsequent no-load test results are reported.

Morris, R. N.

1973-01-01

380

Industrial Engineering Education: A Prospective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the origin of the industrial engineering discipline and how the subject was taught in the early stages of its development. Describes current changes in the curricula to meet new requirements in industry. (Author/CCM)

Elsayed, E. A.

1999-01-01

381

From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

Kynard, Michael

2011-01-01

382

Web Engineering  

SciTech Connect

Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

White, Bebo

2003-06-23

383

Staging role of EUS.  

PubMed

Type of lymphoma and stage of disease are the two decisive prognostic factors and therapeutic determinants. For the locoregional staging, i.e. assessment of the gastric wall infiltration and perigastric lymphonodular involvement, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is highly useful. EUS has, therefore, to be integrated into the standard staging procedure of gastric lymphoma, although its impact on initial treatment decisions might be limited in the individual case. A benefit from the use of miniechoendoscopes, EUS elastography and EUS-guided biopsies has not yet been proven in gastric lymphoma. EUS also confers an important prognostic value regarding treatment responses to Helicobacter pylori eradication. On the contrary, EUS cannot be recommended as a regular part of follow-up investigations considering its limited value in predicting the response of the lymphoma to radiation or chemotherapy. PMID:20206104

Fischbach, W; Al-Taie, O

2010-02-01

384

Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; illustration ...

385

Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing ...

386

Multi-Stage Converters: A New Technology for Traction Drive Juan W. Dixon  

E-print Network

Multi-Stage Converters: A New Technology for Traction Drive Systems Juan W. Dixon Department of Electrical Engineering Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Felipe Ríos, and Alberto Bretón Department of Electrical Engineering Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Abstract A multi-stage converter for electric

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

387

Upper plate stressing and seismicity in the subduction earthquake cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate upper plate stressing during the earthquake cycle in a subduction segment, using three-dimensional (3-D) elastic models to address the effects of strongly heterogeneous coupling along strike of the interplate interface. We show how heterogeneity controls the locations and mechanisms of seismicity in the upper plate. Oblique subduction segments, two from the Aleutians (Andreanof Islands 1986 and Rat Islands 1965) and one from Indonesia (Biak 1996) are studied. All examples of upper plate seismicity from the Aleutians represent events occurring toward the beginning of a new cycle, while in Biak, Indonesia, the examined events occur both toward the end of one cycle and the beginning of the next. In the majority of cases studied, the location and mode of the upper plate seismicity are consistent with space- and time-dependent stressing as predicted by modeling. This confirms earlier observations that seismicity in the vicinity of large/great subduction earthquakes (toward the outer rise, at intermediate depth, and now in the upper plate) depends, in an interpretable manner, on the stage in the earthquake cycle as well as on distribution of coupling along the interplate interface.

Taylor, M. A. J.; Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.

1998-10-01

388

Upper incisors' positions after extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

2014-01-01

389

Electromechanical Engineering  

E-print Network

Electromechanical Engineering Technology The Division of Engineering in an appropriate engineering technology discipline, an associate degree in engineering in engineering/technology related area. A minimum grade point average of 2

Berdichevsky, Victor

390

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering enve.cornell.edu 2013-2014 #12;Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 1 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT

Walter, M.Todd

391

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM GUIDE Fall 2012 Spring 2013  

E-print Network

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM GUIDE Fall 2012 ­ Spring 2013 ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS 1. REQUIRED TOTAL CREDITS Electrical Engineering, 125-126 A minimum of 42 upper-division semester credits (300 by the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. The Lasers & Optical Engineering concentration is also 125

392

Staged fluidized bed  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, R.G.

1983-05-13

393

78 FR 9003 - Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...was prompted by damage to the high-pressure compressor (HPC) stage 7-9...N) 382-100-505-0 from high cycle fatigue. The failures...GP7277 turbofan engines with a high-pressure compressor (HPC) stage 6...

2013-02-07

394

Engine construction  

SciTech Connect

An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured to the cylinder head and the side of the piston opposite from the connecting rod, the motion producing member having a heat treated high temperature extended shape memory position and a low temperature low energy compressed position, the Nitinol member being of hollow tubular form and having pressure and return hoses connected thereto for supplying and removing cooling fluid into and from the Nitinol member, an electrical heating device connected to the Nitinol member, whereby the Nitinol member is easily compressed with relatively little force from the extended shape memory position to the compressed position when cooling fluid is supplied thereto to reduce the temperature of the Nitinol member to or below the lower limit of the transformation temperature range and the Nitinol member is automatically extended with relatively great force from the compressed position to the shape memory position when heated by the heating device to or above the upper limit of the transformation temperature range.

Dillon, C.L.

1984-03-06

395

Jose L. Pons c08.tex V1 -22nd November 2007 11:34 A.M. Page 259 Case Study: An Upper Limb Powered Exoskeleton 259  

E-print Network

Study: An Upper Limb Powered Exoskeleton 259 Figure 8.14 The first version of the NEUROExos 8.5 CASE STUDY: AN UPPER LIMB POWERED EXOSKELETON J. C. Perry and J. Rosen Department of Electrical Engineering generation of an upper limb powered exoskeleton. Previous generations included a 1 DoF system (elbow joint

Rosen, Jacob

396

CERTIFIED SEARCH ENGINE ENGINEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Gartner Group (June 2000) 81% of all website traffic is generated through search engines. Surprisingly many companies invest heavily in building up e-commerce sites and pro- moting them through on- and offline advertising, but show little care in positioning their site within search engines or directories. Defining the right keywords is one parameter of successful search engine positioning;

Clemens Bechter

397

Engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

engineering program and alternative energy technology master's degree program t One of 23 U.S. PACE in entrepreneurial marketing, finance, law and management, as well as engineering. Additionally, engineering students have direct access to a wide range of business incubators, partner services, mentors and advocates both

Berdichevsky, Victor

398

Aerospace Engineering Biomedical Engineering  

E-print Network

· Computer Science · Electrical Engineering · Industrial Engineering · Materials Science & Engineering by Celeste Baine This electronic book is the property of University of Tennessee at Knoxville. You may download and share this edition by email, thumb drive or by using other electronic media. No reposting

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

399

The current status of rehabilitation engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical and electrical engineering devices for paralytic patient care are discussed as they are applied to medical problems. These include means of preventing bedsores, mobility aids, upper extremity orthoses, and electrical stimulation.

Reswick, J. B.

1974-01-01

400

Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Airbreathing Hypersonic Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Established analyses of conventional ramjet/scramjet performance characteristics indicate that a considerable decrease in efficiency can be expected at off-design flight conditions. This can be explained, in large part, by the deterioration of intake mass flow and limited inlet compression at low flight speeds and by the onset of thrust degradation effects associated with increased burner entry temperature at high flight speeds. In combination, these effects tend to impose lower and upper Mach number limits for practical flight. It has been noted, however, that Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy management techniques represent a possible means for extending the flight Mach number envelope of conventional engines. By transferring enthalpy between different stages of the engine cycle, it appears that the onset of thrust degradation may be delayed to higher flight speeds. Obviously, the introduction of additional process inefficiencies is inevitable with this approach, but it is believed that these losses are more than compensated through optimization of the combustion process. The fundamental idea is to use MHD energy conversion processes to extract and bypass a portion of the intake kinetic energy around the burner. We refer to this general class of propulsion system as an MHD-bypass engine. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass airbreathing hypersonic engines using ideal gasdynamics and fundamental thermodynamic principles.

Litchford, Ron J.; Bityurin, Valentine A.; Lineberry, John T.

1999-01-01

401

Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal/fluids analysis of a direct gain solar thermal upper stage engine is presented and the results are discussed. The engine has been designed and constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for ground testing in a facility that can provide about 10 kilowatts of concentrated solar energy to the engine. The engine transfers that energy to a coolant (hydrogen) that is heated and accelerated through a nozzle to produce thrust. For the nominal design values and a hydrogen flowrate of 2 lb/hr., the results of the analysis show that the hydrogen temperature in the chamber (nozzle entrance) reaches about 3800 F after 30 minutes of heating and about 3850 F at steady-state (slightly below the desired design temperature of about 4100 F). Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be relatively insensitive to the values used for the absorber surface infrared emissivity and the convection coefficient within the cooling ducts but very sensitive to the hydrogen flowrate. Decreasing the hydrogen flowrate to 1 lb/hr. increases the hydrogen steady-state chamber temperature to about 4700 F, but also causes an undesirable decrease in thrust.

Alexander, Reginald A.; Coleman, Hugh W.

1998-01-01

402

Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal/fluids analysis of a direct gain solar thermal upper stage engine is presented and the results are discussed. The engine was designed and constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for ground testing in a facility that can provide about 10 kilowatts of concentrated solar energy to the engine. The engine transfers energy to a coolant (hydrogen) that is heated and accelerated through a nozzle to produce thrust. For the nominal design values and a hydrogen flowrate of 2 lb./hr., the results of the analysis show that the hydrogen temperature in the chamber (nozzle entrance) reaches about 3800 F after 30 minutes of heating and about 3850 F at steady-state (slightly below the desired design temperature of about 4100 F. Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be relatively insensitive to the values used for the absorber surface infrared emissivity and the convection coefficient within the cooling ducts but very sensitive to the hydrogen flowrate. Decreasing the hydrogen flowrate to 1 lb./hr. increases the hydrogen steady-state chamber temperature to about 4700 F, but also of course causes a decrease in thrust.

Alexander, Reginald A.; Coleman, Hugh W.

1999-01-01

403

Stage cementing valve  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for stage cementing a string of pipe in a well bore. The string of pipe includes a stage valve having a tubular valve collar intermediate of its length and has a tubular sleeve valve member slidably received in the stage collar for movement between first and second longitudinal positions relative to the stage collar and where the sleeve valve member has a flange in engagement with an engagement surface on the valve collar in the first longitudinal position. The sleeve valve member has a piston portion located in an annular chamber between the sleeve valve member and the valve collar and where the sleeve valve member has a sleeve valve port with access to one surface of the piston portion in the annular chamber for placing the one surface in fluid communication with the bore of the sleeve valve member. The valve collar has a valve collar port with access to the other surface of the of the piston portion in the annular chamber for placing the other surface in fluid communication with the exterior of the valve collar. The piston portion separates the sleeve valve port from the valve collar in a the first longitudinal position and permits the ports to be in fluid communication with one another in an the second longitudinal position.

Lindsey, H.E.; Adams, R.W.

1989-11-14

404

End-Stage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through her reflections on dealing with dialysis for end-stage renal disease and awaiting a kidney transplant, the author presents insights into how her experience was shaped by the physical, emotional, and multicultural forces she faced. Among the issues discussed are her ambivalent feelings between pursuing a regular lifestyle and receiving…

Moua, Mai Neng

2001-01-01

405

Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

406

Ages & Stages Activity Development  

E-print Network

Ages & Stages Activity Answer Key Scenario Domain of Development Age Range When Behavior Occurs Cognitive 5 Years Girls are as much as 2 years ahead of boys in physical maturity Girls may begin Years Develop heightened level of self- consciousness Become very cause oriented Self

407

Crescentic ramp turbine stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

2007-01-01

408

MASTER OF SCIENCE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

sensitive parameter for predicting fouling in the rear stages is the efficiency. KEYWORDS: Gas TurbineMASTER OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 67 ANALYSIS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF MULTI-STAGE AXIAL analysis of the impact of blade roughness on the mass flow, work coefficient, and efficiency of a three

409

Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

Rhoads, James

410

Lung cancer staging now and in the future.  

PubMed

For a long time lung cancer was associated with a fatalistic approach by healthcare professionals. In recent years, advances in imaging, improved diagnostic techniques and more effective treatment modalities are reasons for optimism. Accurate lung cancer staging is vitally important because treatment options and prognosis differ significantly by stage. The staging algorithm should include a contrast computed tomography (CT) of the chest and the upper abdomen including adrenals, positron emission tomography/CT for staging the mediastinum and to rule out extrathoracic metastasis in patients considered for surgical resection, endosonography-guided needle sampling procedure replacing mediastinoscopy for near complete mediastinal staging, and brain imaging as clinically indicated. Applicability of evidence-based guidelines for staging of lung cancer depends on the available expertise and level of resources and is directly impacted by financial issues. Considering the diversity of healthcare infrastructure and economic performance of Asian countries, optimal and cost-effective use of staging methods appropriate to the available resources is prudent. The pulmonologist plays a central role in the multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer diagnosis, staging and management. Regional respiratory societies such as the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology should work with national respiratory societies to strive for uniform standards of care. For developing countries, a minimum set of care standards should be formulated. Cost-effective delivery of optimal care for lung cancer patients, including staging within the various healthcare systems, should be encouraged and most importantly, tobacco control implementation should receive an absolute priority status in all countries in Asia. PMID:25682805

Liam, Chong-Kin; Andarini, Sita; Lee, Pyng; Ho, James Chung-Man; Chau, Ngo Quy; Tscheikuna, Jamsak

2015-05-01

411

4. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM ENGINE, FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL; AS SEEN FROM THE UPPER LEVEL BRIDGE CRANE, THIS ENGINE WAS THE DIRECT DRIVE TO THE 40" BLOOMING MILL LOCATED IN THE ADJACENT ROOM TO THE LEFT. THE UNITED-TOD ENGINE, A TWIN TANDEM COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE, WAS RATED AT 20,000 MP. IN 1946 NEW HIGH PRESSURE CYLINDERS WERE INSTALLED AND THE ENGINE RAN ON 200 PSI STEAM, WITH A 44"X76"X60" STROKE, TO A BUILT-UP COUNTER-BALANCED CENTER CRANK. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

412

Staging of bladder cancer.  

PubMed

The definitive diagnosis of bladder cancer is established at cystoscopic examination and confirmed by means of a transurethral biopsy. A careful bimanual palpation of the bladder under anesthesia is an integral part of the initial assessment of each patient. The most important part of the assessment of patients with bladder cancer is a thorough pathologic examination of the biopsy material establishing the histologic type of tumor, histologic grade, tumor configuration, depth of invasion of the bladder wall, and depth of the bladder wall available for assessment. If possible, the size of the tumor and the presence of associated carcinoma in situ should also be reported. Imaging studies play a smaller role in the clinical staging of bladder cancer. However, when initial staging procedures point to invasion of the muscularis propria, chest X-ray, bone scan, and computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis may provide valuable information about possible metastases. Whereas the clinical staging is essential to select and evaluate therapy, the pathologic stage (pTNM) provides the most precise data with which to estimate prognosis and calculate end results. The pathologic assessment entails resection of the primary tumor or a biopsy adequate to evaluate the highest pT category, removal of lymph nodes adequate to validate the absence of regional lymph node metastasis, as well as biopsy and microscopic examination for assessment of distant metastases. Although numerous factors have an impact on the behaviour of the malignancy, in bladder cancer the anatomic extent of disease reflected in the current staging classification remains the most powerful indicator of outcome. PMID:8115786

Gospodarowicz, M K

1994-01-01

413

Analysis of the possible cause of break up of PSLV-C3\\/PS4 stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 19t h December 2001 the orbiting spent PS4 stage of PSLV -C3 had undergone a break up. Following this event, the Two Line Element (TLE) sets of more than 300 debris pieces from the upper stage are available in public domain by January 2002. These TLE sets are the major input used in this study. Here the velocity components

P. Bandyopadhyay; R. Sharma; V. Adimurthy

2002-01-01

414

Rituximab and Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

2013-01-04

415

The Art and Science of Systems Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established in 1958, and its Marshall Space Flight Center was founded in 1960, as space-related work was transferred from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, where Marshall is located. With this heritage, Marshall contributes almost 50 years of systems engineering experience with human-rated launch vehicles and scientific spacecraft to fulfill NASA's mission exploration and discovery. These complex, highly specialized systems have provided vital platforms for expanding the knowledge base about Earth, the solar system, and cosmos; developing new technologies that also benefit life on Earth; and opening new frontiers for America's strategic space goals. From Mercury and Gemini, to Apollo and the Space Shuttle, Marshall's systems engineering expertise is an unsurpassed foundational competency for NASA and the nation. Current assignments comprise managing Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; developing environmental control and life support systems and coordinating science operations on the International Space Station; and a number of exploration-related responsibilities. These include managing and performing science missions, such as the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter slated to launch for the Moon in April 2009, to developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and integrating the vehicle stack in house, as well as designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle and contributing to the development of the Altair Lunar Lander and an International Lunar Network with communications nodes and other infrastructure.

Singer, Christopher E.

2009-01-01

416

J-2 Engine Assembly Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

J-2 engines for the Saturn IB/Saturn V launch vehicles are lined up in the assembly area at Rocketdyne's manufacturing plant in Canoga Park, California. Five J-2 engines provided more than 1,000,000 pounds of thrust to accelerate the second stage toward a Moon trajectory.

1963-01-01

417

electrical, engineering  

E-print Network

engineering materials science and engineering mechanical engineering solar energy engineering and Sustainable Solar Technologies (QESST), works with students building solar cars in Fulton Engineering's BEST OF ENGINEERING School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering P.O. Box 875706 Tempe, AZ 85287

Zhang, Junshan

418

Depositional environment of Upper Devonian sandstones in Westmoreland County, southwestern Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

. APPENDIX A. APPENDIX B. 26 27 27 30 34 35 39 39 48 48 49 49 50 51 52 52 56 56 56 58 67 76 78 81 91 VITA. 94 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Nap of the Appalachian basin shcwina surrounding structural features... distribution of Upper Devonian lithofacies in the northern part of the Appalachian basin. . . . 13 Upper Devonian rock units of the Chautauquan Stage present in the subsur- face of western Pennsylvania. . . . . . . , . . . . . . 16 Details of sedimentary...

McGee, Patricia Ann

1985-01-01

419

Targeting metastatic upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Upper gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, including adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and biliary tree, have traditionally been difficult to treat with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. There has been little drug development success in treating these cancers over the last 20 years, perhaps a reflection of a combination of the aggressive biology of these tumors, the void in effective and specific drug development for these varied tumors, and the lack of properly designed, biologically-based clinical trials. Recently, so called “targeted agents” have risen to the forefront in the care of cancer patients and have made strong impacts in many areas of oncology, particularly gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), colon, breast, and lung cancers. Unfortunately, slow progress has been made using such agents in upper GI tumors. However, more recently, trials in some tumor types have demonstrated gains in progression free survival and overall survival. In this review, we discuss the drugs and pathways that have been most successful in the treatment of upper GI tumors and present the relevant data supporting their use for each tumor site. Additionally, we will explore a few novel pathways that may prove effective in the treatment of upper GI malignancies in the near future. PMID:21611088

Spratlin, Jennifer L; Chu, Quincy; Koski, Sheryl; King, Karen; Mulder, Karen

2011-01-01

420

Upper Back Pain COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

than injury to the spine. Your back may feel tight or sore to touch. Muscle spasms may develop will help the muscles relax. Headache is a common side effect of tight, sore muscles of the upper back, such as improper lifting, bending, or twisting motion, or from poor conditioning (muscle strengthen

Virginia Tech

421

Taking centre stage...  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HAMLET (Highly Automated Multimedia Light Enhanced Theatre) was the star performance at the recent finals of the `Young Engineer for Britain' competition, held at the Commonwealth Institute in London. This state-of-the-art computer-controlled theatre lighting system won the title `Young Engineers for Britain 1998' for David Kelnar, Jonathan Scott, Ramsay Waller and John Wyllie (all aged 16) from Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh. HAMLET replaces conventional manually-operated controls with a special computer program, and should find use in the thousands of small theatres, schools and amateur drama productions that operate with limited resources and without specialist expertise. The four students received a £2500 prize between them, along with £2500 for their school, and in addition they were invited to spend a special day with the Royal Engineers. A project designed to improve car locking systems enabled Ian Robinson of Durham University to take the `Working in industry award' worth £1000. He was also given the opportunity of a day at sea with the Royal Navy. Other prizewinners with their projects included: Jun Baba of Bloxham School, Banbury (a cardboard armchair which converts into a desk and chair); Kobika Sritharan and Gemma Hancock, Bancroft's School, Essex (a rain warning system for a washing line); and Alistair Clarke, Sam James and Ruth Jenkins, Bishop of Llandaff High School, Cardiff (a mechanism to open and close the retractable roof of the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff). The two principal national sponsors of the competition, which is organized by the Engineering Council, are Lloyd's Register and GEC. Industrial companies, professional engineering institutions and educational bodies also provided national and regional prizes and support. During this year's finals, various additional activities took place, allowing the students to surf the Internet and navigate individual engineering websites on a network of computers. They also visited the Millennium Dome site, constructing a model of the Dome and designing a range of Dome exhibits from innovative assembly kits. Details of the 1999 competition will be available from the Engineering Council at 10 Maltravers Street, London WC2R 3ER (tel: 0171 240 7891, http://www.engc.org.uk).

1998-11-01

422

Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal place for the settlement of the Late Palaeolithic fishers. There came an abrupt end to this situation when the Nile returned to its meandering regime at the end of the LGM. This situation created an catastrophic food crisis for the

Vermeersch, Pierre M.

2014-05-01

423

Saturn V First Stage Lowered to the Ground After Static Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This vintage photograph shows the 138-foot long first stage of the Saturn V being lowered to the ground following a successful static test firing at Marshall Space flight Center's S-1C test stand. The firing provided NASA engineers information on the booster's systems. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1966-01-01

424

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering  

E-print Network

as a member of expert panels reviewing the health impacts of wind turbines. seminar Predicting Turbofan Fan down, the fan stage becomes the main engine noise source. The noise exists mainly due to the interaction of the fan rotor wake with the fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs). Both tonal and broadband noise

425

Precision adjustable stage  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an adjustable mounting stage comprising: base means having two opposite sides and an end wall, each side including a pair of spaced ball bearing support means mounted proximate opposite ends of the base means without intermediate support means; a rectangular block adapted for sliding movement along the spaced ball-bearing support means; and an adjustment screw journaled at the end wall and threaded into one end of the block for reversibly moving the block along the ball-bearing support means; the adjustment screw including a knob for facilitating rotation, and the stage further comprising ball detent means between the end wall and the knob for preventing undesired rotation of the knob and associated movement of the block.

Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

1988-09-20

426

The Elizabethan Stage  

E-print Network

r n a t e scenes upon the f r o n t stage; which extended i n t o the auditorium l i k e the lower h a l f of a c a p i t a l A, and the r e a r stage, which was p a r t i t i o n e d o f f by a c u r t a i n or a traverse working upon a rod... between f i x e d p i l l a r s — these p i l l a r s supporting the shadow or peaked roof of t i l e which forms such a prominent feature i n the Swan drawing. This r e a r scene was used e x c l u s i v e l y when the c u r t a i n s were drawn a s i...

Hill, Murray Gardner

1907-05-01

427

Working with Career Stages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Struggling job seekers want to know what work will give meaning to the 40-plus years they spend at it and a measure of happiness. The author suggests that career practitioners and supervisors can help if they know who we are when, what someone is in the career game for, and how we decide where next to grow. This paper will review the career stage

Jonas, M. Rose

428

Staged depressurization system  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump.

Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, Westmoreland County, PA)

1993-01-01

429

Staged depressurization system  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump. 4 figures.

Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-02

430

Reservoir facies architecture of two upper point bar deposits  

SciTech Connect

The exposed upper parts of the oldest and youngest point bar deposits along the Mississippi River at Duncan Point south of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, present information about the change in reservoir architecture during their latest stages of development. The youngest and inner one is still growing because it becomes inundated yearly and is sandier than the higher point bar that receives sediment only during the very occasional high flood stage. Maximum inundation of the point bar normally results in a wide and shallow water body across the entire upper point bar, providing conditions that are more favorable for the deposition of fine-grained sediment. The dense vegetation on the older point bars helps reduce current velocities. Although gamma-ray measurements indicate that the sand:mud ratio differs slightly between these two point bars, the sedimentary structures are much the same in type but not in occurrence. Horizontal heterogeneity can be observed in both locations, but vertical connectivity changes from reasonable in the younger point bar to low in the older one because of silty clay and clayey mud layers in between sandy ones. The exposures together give more complete information about the upper point bar reservoir characteristics. A gradual decrease in vertical permeability is typical, but seating conditions require that fine-grained overbank muds cover the point bar deposits.

Bouma, A.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bouma, L.O. [Geo-Marine Consultants, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1994-09-01

431

A Trait Specific Model of GM Crop Adoption among U.S. Corn Farmers in the Upper Midwest  

E-print Network

A Trait Specific Model of GM Crop Adoption among U.S. Corn Farmers in the Upper Midwest Pilar such copies. #12;2 A Trait Specific Model of GM Crop Adoption among U.S. Corn Farmers in the Upper Midwest 1. Introduction The advent of genetic engineering techniques has transformed how scientists can manipulate

Foltz, Jeremy D.

432

College of Engineering College of Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering _______________ 2.8 Page 1 College of Engineering Office in Engineering Professor Thomas Siller, Associate Dean UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental

Stephens, Graeme L.

433

College of Engineering College of Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering _______________ 2.7 Page 1 College of Engineering Office in Engineering Siller, Associate Dean UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental

434

Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

2007-11-01

435

Turbine Design and Analysis for the J-2X Engine Turbopumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center are developing the advanced upper stage J-2X engine based on the legacy design of the J-2/J-2S family of engines which powered the Apollo missions. The cryogenic propellant turbopumps have been denoted as Mark72-F and Mark72-0 for the fuel and oxidizer side, respectively. Special attention is focused on preserving the essential flight-proven design features while adapting the design to the new turbopump configuration. Advanced 3-D CFD analysis has been employed to verify turbine aero performance at current flow regime boundary conditions and to mitigate risks associated with stresses. A limited amount of redesign and overall configuration modifications allow for a robust design with performance level matching or exceeding requirement.

Marcu, Bogdan; Tran, Ken; Dorney, Daniel J.; Schmauch, Preston

2008-01-01

436

Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

2014-12-23

437

Combined Rotation and Advancement Flap Reconstruction for a Defect of the Upper Lip: 2 Cases  

PubMed Central

Many types of upper lip reconstruction have been introduced to treat defects after a tumor excision or trauma. The authors treated two cases of upper lip defects. A 35-year-old woman presented with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left upper lip that had invaded the corner of the mouth. After resecting the tumor, the defect was 3.7×3.5 cm in size. A 52-year-old woman presented with a dog bite of the right upper lip. The defect measured 4.0×2.2 cm in size. The two cases were reconstructed by combined rotation and advancement of a cheek flap. This technique produced a good functional outcome that allowed for oral competence and created an opening of adequate size. A combination of rotation and an advancement flap can be used to treat upper lip defects in a single-stage procedure. This approach produces a good functional and cosmetic outcome. PMID:22783534

Lee, Junsang; Jung, Sung Won; Koh, Sung Hoon

2012-01-01

438

Gastritis staging: interobserver agreement by applying OLGA and OLGIM systems.  

PubMed

Atrophic gastritis remains a difficult histopathological diagnosis with low interobserver agreement. The aim of our study was to compare gastritis staging and interobserver agreement between general and expert gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists using Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM). We enrolled 835 patients undergoing upper endoscopy in the study. Two general and two expert gastrointestinal pathologists graded biopsy specimens according to the Sydney classification, and the stage of gastritis was assessed by OLGA and OLGIM system. Using OLGA, 280 (33.4 %) patients had gastritis (stage I-IV), whereas with OLGIM this was 167 (19.9 %). OLGA stage III- IV gastritis was observed in 25 patients, whereas by OLGIM stage III-IV was found in 23 patients. Interobserver agreement between expert GI pathologists for atrophy in the antrum, incisura angularis, and corpus was moderate (kappa?=?0.53, 0.57 and 0.41, respectively, p?staging provided the highest interobserver agreement, but a substantial proportion of potentially high-risk individuals would be missed if only OLGIM staging is applied. Therefore, we recommend to use a combination of OLGA and OLGIM for staging of chronic gastritis. PMID:24477629

Isajevs, Sergejs; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Janciauskas, Dainius; Moisejevs, Georgijs; Putnins, Viesturs; Funka, Konrads; Kikuste, Ilze; Vanags, Aigars; Tolmanis, Ivars; Leja, Marcis

2014-04-01

439

Offshore-onshore correlation of upper Pleistocene strata, New Jersey Coastal Plain to continental shelf and slope  

E-print Network

Offshore-onshore correlation of upper Pleistocene strata, New Jersey Coastal Plain to continental to the continental slope. The d18 O stage 5/6 boundary identified at Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 903 on the continental slope anchors the onshore-offshore seismic correlations. Above the d18 O stage 5 sequence

440

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars missions. The NCPS is being designed to readily integrate with the Space Launch System (SLS). A wide range of strategies for enabling affordable NCPS development, qualification, and utilization should be considered. These include multiple test and demonstration strategies (both ground and in-space), multiple potential test sites, and multiple engine designs. Two potential NCPS fuels are currently under consideration - coated graphite composite fuel and tungsten cermet fuel. During 2014 a representative, partial length (approximately 16") coated graphite composite fuel element with prototypic depleted uranium loading is being fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, a representative, partial length (approximately 16") cermet fuel element with prototypic depleted uranium loading is being fabricated at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the development process small samples (approximately 3" length) will be tested in the Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET) at high temperature (approximately 2800 K) in a hydrogen environment to help ensure that basic fuel design and manufacturing process are adequate and have been performed correctly. Once designs and processes have been developed, longer fuel element segments will be fabricated and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREE) at high temperature (approximately 2800 K) and in flowing hydrogen.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

2014-01-01

441

Endoscopic approaches for early-stage esophageal cancer: current options.  

PubMed

Early esophageal cancer is confined to the mucosa or submucosa of the esophagus. While most esophageal cancer is detected at an advanced stage (requiring surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation), early-stage mucosal lesions may be detected through Barrett's surveillance programs or incidentally on diagnostic upper endoscopies performed for other reasons. These early-stage cancers are often amenable to endoscopic therapies, including mucosal resection, ablation, and cryotherapy. Studies suggest equivalent survival rates and reduced morbidity but higher recurrence rates with endoscopic removal of early-stage cancers compared to surgical resection. There is emerging data regarding the efficacy and long-term outcomes of endoscopic therapy for early esophageal cancer that is promising, and further research is needed to better define the role of endoscopic therapy in the management of early esophageal cancer. PMID:25416315

Patel, Vaishali; Burbridge, Rebecca A

2015-01-01

442

Cryo Propulsive Stage: HEFT Phase 2 Point of Departure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CPS is an in-space high thrust propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides high thrust GV for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility: a) Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryofluid management. b) Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryofluid management.

Martinez, Roland M.; Jones, David L.

2011-01-01

443

Training for Engineering Craftsmen: The Module System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New arrangements for craft training in the British engineering industry call for a three stage structure: (1) a year of basic training in a wide variety of skills (welding, vehicle painting, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and others); (2) selected training in specialized skills under controlled conditions; (3) experience in using…

Engineering Industry Training Board, London (England).