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Sample records for upregulated cellular genes

  1. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T; Minas, Tsion Z; Conn, Erin J; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Üren, Aykut

    2016-06-17

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes. PMID:27137931

  2. Identification of cellular senescence-specific genes by comparative transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Taiki; Nakano, Masayuki; Nakashima, Akio; Onishi, Kengo; Yamao, Shunsuke; Enari, Masato; Kikkawa, Ushio; Kamada, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is defined as permanent cell cycle arrest induced by various stresses. Although the p53 transcriptional activity is essential for senescence induction, the downstream genes that are crucial for senescence remain unsolved. Here, by using a developed experimental system in which cellular senescence or apoptosis is induced preferentially by altering concentration of etoposide, a DNA-damaging drug, we compared gene expression profiles of senescent and apoptotic cells by microarray analysis. Subtraction of the expression profile of apoptotic cells identified 20 genes upregulated specifically in senescent cells. Furthermore, 6 out of 20 genes showed p53-dependent upregulation by comparing gene expression between p53-proficient and -deficient cells. These 6 genes were also upregulated during replicative senescence of normal human diploid fibroblasts, suggesting that upregulation of these genes is a general phenomenon in senescence. Among these genes, 2 genes (PRODH and DAO) were found to be directly regulated by p53, and ectopic expression of 4 genes (PRODH, DAO, EPN3, and GPR172B) affected senescence phenotypes induced by etoposide treatment. Collectively, our results identified several proteins as novel downstream effectors of p53-mediated senescence and provided new clues for further research on the complex signalling networks underlying the induction and maintenance of senescence. PMID:27545311

  3. Identification of cellular senescence-specific genes by comparative transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Taiki; Nakano, Masayuki; Nakashima, Akio; Onishi, Kengo; Yamao, Shunsuke; Enari, Masato; Kikkawa, Ushio; Kamada, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is defined as permanent cell cycle arrest induced by various stresses. Although the p53 transcriptional activity is essential for senescence induction, the downstream genes that are crucial for senescence remain unsolved. Here, by using a developed experimental system in which cellular senescence or apoptosis is induced preferentially by altering concentration of etoposide, a DNA-damaging drug, we compared gene expression profiles of senescent and apoptotic cells by microarray analysis. Subtraction of the expression profile of apoptotic cells identified 20 genes upregulated specifically in senescent cells. Furthermore, 6 out of 20 genes showed p53-dependent upregulation by comparing gene expression between p53-proficient and -deficient cells. These 6 genes were also upregulated during replicative senescence of normal human diploid fibroblasts, suggesting that upregulation of these genes is a general phenomenon in senescence. Among these genes, 2 genes (PRODH and DAO) were found to be directly regulated by p53, and ectopic expression of 4 genes (PRODH, DAO, EPN3, and GPR172B) affected senescence phenotypes induced by etoposide treatment. Collectively, our results identified several proteins as novel downstream effectors of p53-mediated senescence and provided new clues for further research on the complex signalling networks underlying the induction and maintenance of senescence. PMID:27545311

  4. Upregulation of SOX4 antagonizes cellular senescence in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rongfei; Huang, Shiying; Bao, Yonghua; Liu, Xin; Peng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Zhiguo; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qiuping; Wang, Tianfu; Zheng, Duo; Yang, Wancai

    2016-01-01

    Senescence, a terminal cell proliferation arrest that is caused by a variety of cellular stresses such as telomere erosion, DNA damage and oncogenic signaling, is classically considered a tumor defense barrier. However, the mechanism by which cancer cells overcome senescence is undetermined. In this study, the gene expression array data of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was compared with paired normal tissues and showed that a cohort of genes, including proteinases, chemokines and inflammation factors, are upregulated in ESCC, which exhibits the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate that gender determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4) is upregulated in ESCC, and that its expression is inversely correlated with senescence markers. In addition, the knockdown of SOX4 expression by short hairpin RNA decreases ESCC cell proliferation and enhances doxorubicin-induced cell senescence. These results reveal the presence of a senescent microenvironment in ESCC, and suggest an important antisenescence role of SOX4 in ESCC progression. PMID:27446439

  5. HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins up-regulate cellular expression of human topoisomerase IIα

    PubMed Central

    Štros, Michal; Polanská, Eva; Štruncová, Soňa; Pospíšilová, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) is a nuclear enzyme involved in several critical processes, including chromosome replication, segregation and recombination. Previously we have shown that chromosomal protein HMGB1 interacts with topo IIα, and stimulates its catalytic activity. Here we show the effect of HMGB1 on the activity of the human topo IIα gene promoter in different cell lines. We demonstrate that HMGB1, but not a mutant of HMGB1 incapable of DNA bending, up-regulates the activity of the topo IIα promoter in human cells that lack functional retinoblastoma protein pRb. Transient over-expression of pRb in pRb-negative Saos-2 cells inhibits the ability of HMGB1 to activate the topo IIα promoter. The involvement of HMGB1 and its close relative, HMGB2, in modulation of activity of the topo IIα gene is further supported by knock-down of HMGB1/2, as evidenced by significantly decreased levels of topo IIα mRNA and protein. Our experiments suggest a mechanism of up-regulation of cellular expression of topo IIα by HMGB1/2 in pRb-negative cells by modulation of binding of transcription factor NF-Y to the topo IIα promoter, and the results are discussed in the framework of previously observed pRb-inactivation, and increased levels of HMGB1/2 and topo IIα in tumors. PMID:19223331

  6. Auxins upregulate nif and fix genes.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    In a recent publication we analyzed the global effects triggered by IAA overproduction in S. meliloti RD64 under free-living conditions by comparing the gene expression pattern of wild type 1021 with that of RD64 and 1021 treated with IAA and other four chemically or functionally related molecules. Among the genes differentially expressed in RD64 and IAA-treated 1021 cells we found two genes of pho operon, phoT and phoC. Based on this finding we examined the mechanisms for mineral P solubilization in RD64 and the potential ability of this strain to improve Medicago growth under P-starved conditions. Here, we further analyze the expression profiles obtained in microarray analysis and evaluate the specificity and the extent of overlap between all treatments. Venn diagrams indicated that IAA- and 2,4-D-regulated genes were closely related. Furthermore, most differentially expressed genes from pSymA were induced in 1021 cells treated with 2,4-D, ICA, IND and Trp as compared to the untreated 1021 cells. RT-PCR analysis was employed to analyze the differential expression patterns of nitrogen fixation genes under free-living and symbiotic conditions. Under symbiotic condition, the relative expression levels of nif and fix genes were significantly induced in Mt- RD64 plants and in Mt-1021 plants treated with IAA and 2,4-D whereas they were unchanged or repressed in Mt-1021 plants treated with the other selected compounds when compared to the untreated Mt-1021 plants. PMID:20930554

  7. Upregulating endogenous genes by an RNA-programmable artificial transactivator

    PubMed Central

    Fimiani, Cristina; Goina, Elisa; Mallamaci, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    To promote expression of endogenous genes ad libitum, we developed a novel, programmable transcription factor prototype. Kept together via an MS2 coat protein/RNA interface, it includes a fixed, polypeptidic transactivating domain and a variable RNA domain that recognizes the desired gene. Thanks to this device, we specifically upregulated five genes, in cell lines and primary cultures of murine pallial precursors. Gene upregulation was small, however sufficient to robustly inhibit neuronal differentiation. The transactivator interacted with target gene chromatin via its RNA cofactor. Its activity was restricted to cells in which the target gene is normally transcribed. Our device might be useful for specific applications. However for this purpose, it will require an improvement of its transactivation power as well as a better characterization of its target specificity and mechanism of action. PMID:26152305

  8. Nrf2 Protein Up-regulates Antiapoptotic Protein Bcl-2 and Prevents Cellular Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Niture, Suryakant K.; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression and coordinated induction of a battery of genes encoding cytoprotective and drug transporter proteins in response to chemical and radiation stress. This leads to reduced apoptosis, enhanced cell survival, and increased drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in up-regulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and its contribution to stress-induced apoptosis and cell survival. Exposure of mouse hepatoma (Hepa-1) and human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells to antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone led to induction of Bcl-2. Mutagenesis and transfection assays identified an antioxidant response element between nucleotides −3148 and −3140 on the reverse strand of the Bcl-2 gene promoter that was essential for activation of Bcl-2 gene expression. Band/supershift and ChIP assays demonstrated binding of Nrf2 to Bcl-2 antioxidant response element. Alterations in Nrf2 led to altered Bcl-2 induction and cellular apoptosis. Moreover, dysfunctional/mutant inhibitor of Nrf2 (INrf2) in human lung cancer cells failed to degrade Nrf2, resulting in an increased Bcl-2 level and decreased etoposide- and UV/γ radiation-mediated DNA fragmentation. In addition, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Nrf2 also led to decreased apoptosis and increased cell survival. Furthermore, the specific knockdown of Bcl-2 in Nrf2-activated tumor cells led to increased etoposide-induced apoptosis and decreased cell survival and growth/proliferation. These data provide the first evidence of Nrf2 in control of Bcl-2 expression and apoptotic cell death with implications in antioxidant protection, survival of cancer cells, and drug resistance. PMID:22275372

  9. Coordinately up-regulated genes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hough, C D; Cho, K R; Zonderman, A B; Schwartz, D R; Morin, P J

    2001-05-15

    A better understanding of the molecular circuitry in normal ovarian tissues and in ovarian cancer will likely provide new targets for diagnosis and therapy. Recently, much has been learned about the genes expressed in ovarian cancer through studies with cDNA arrays and serial analysis of gene expression. However, these methods do not allow highly quantitative analysis of gene expression on a large number of specimens. Here, we have used quantitative real-time RT-PCR in a panel of 39 microdissected ovarian carcinomas of various subtypes to systematically analyze the expression of 13 genes, many of which were previously identified as up-regulated in a subset of ovarian cancers by serial analyses of gene expression. The genes analyzed are glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), apolipoprotein J/clusterin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2, epithelial cell adhesion molecule/GA733-2, Kop protease inhibitor, matrix gla protein, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3, folate receptor 1, S100A2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, and ceruloplasmin. All of the genes were found overexpressed, some at extremely high levels, in the vast majority of ovarian carcinomas irrespective of the subtype. Interestingly, GPX3 was found at much higher levels in tumors with clear cell histology and may represent a biomarker for this subtype. Some of the genes studied here may thus represent targets for early detection ovarian cancer. The gene expression patterns were not associated with age at diagnosis, stage, or K-ras mutation status in ovarian cancer. We find that several genes are coordinately regulated in ovarian cancer, likely representing the fact that many genes are activated as part of common signaling pathways or that extensive cross-talk exists between several pathways in ovarian cancer. A statistical analysis shows that genes commonly up-regulated in ovarian cancer may result from the aberrant

  10. miR-190 is upregulated in Epstein-Barr Virus type I latency and modulates cellular mRNAs involved in cell survival and viral reactivation.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Elizabeth M; Shao, Ying; Wang, Yan; Yuan, Yan

    2014-09-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a prevalent human pathogen infecting over 90% of the population. Much of the success of the virus is attributed to its ability to maintain latency. The detailed mechanisms underlying the establishment and maintenance of EBV latency remain poorly understood. A microRNA profiling study revealed differential expression of many cellular miRNAs between types I and III latency cells, suggesting cellular miRNAs may play roles in regulating EBV latency. mir-190 is the most differentially up-regulated miRNA in type I latency cells as compared with type III latency cells and the up-regulation appears to be attributed to EBER RNAs that express in higher levels in type I latency cells than type III cells. With the aide of a lentiviral overexpression system and microarray analysis, several cellular mRNAs are identified as potential targets of mir-190. By targeting TP53INP1, miR-190 enhances cell survival by preventing apoptosis and relieving G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Additionally, miR-190 down-regulates NR4A3, a cellular immediate-early gene for EBV reactivation, and inhibits the expression of the viral immediate-early gene bzlf1 and viral lytic DNA replication. Taken together, our data revealed a mechanism that EBV utilizes a cellular microRNA to promote host cell survival and prevent virus from entering lytic life cycle for latency maintenance. PMID:25086243

  11. A Plant Gene Up-Regulated at Rust Infection Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ayliffe, Michael A.; Roberts, James K.; Mitchell, Heidi J.; Zhang, Ren; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Pryor, Tony J.

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the fis1 gene from flax (Linum usitatissimum) is induced by a compatible rust (Melampsora lini) infection. Infection of transgenic plants containing a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of the fis1 promoter showed that induction is highly localized to those leaf mesophyll cells within and immediately surrounding rust infection sites. The level of induction reflects the extent of fungal growth. In a strong resistance reaction, such as the hypersensitive fleck mediated by the L6 resistance gene, there is very little fungal growth and a microscopic level of GUS expression. Partially resistant flax leaves show levels of GUS expression that were intermediate to the level observed in the fully susceptible infection. Sequence and deletion analysis using both transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens expression and stable transformation assays have shown that the rust-inducible fis1 promoter is contained within a 580-bp fragment. Homologs of fis1 were identified in expressed sequence tag databases of a range of plant species including dicots, monocots, and a gymnosperm. Homologous genes isolated from maize (Zea mays; mis1), barley (Hordeum vulgare; bis1), wheat (Triticum aestivum; wis1), and Arabidopsis encode proteins that are highly similar (76%–82%) to the FIS1 protein. The Arabidopsis homologue has been reported to encode a Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase that is involved in the catabolism of proline to glutamate. RNA-blot analysis showed that mis1 in maize and the bis1 homolog in barley are both up-regulated by a compatible infection with the corresponding species-specific rust. The rust-induced genes homologous to fis1 are present in many plants. The promoters of these genes have potential roles for the engineering of synthetic rust resistance genes by targeting transgene expression to the sites of rust infection. PMID:12011348

  12. SERCA2a upregulation ameliorates cellular alternans induced by metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Stary, Victoria; Puppala, Dheeraj; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Dillmann, Wolfgang H; Armoundas, Antonis A

    2016-04-15

    Cardiac alternans has been associated with the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of impaired mitochondrial function in the genesis of cellular alternans and to examine whether modulating the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)ameliorates the level of alternans. Cardiomyocytes isolated from control and doxycyline-induced sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a)-upregulated mice were loaded with two different Ca(2+)indicators to selectively measure mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca(2+)using a custom-made fluorescence photometry system. The degree of alternans was defined as the alternans ratio (AR) [1 - (small Ca(2+)intensity)/(large Ca(2+)intensity)]. Blocking of complex I and II, cytochrome-coxidase, F0F1synthase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase of the electron transport chain, increased alternans in both control and SERCA2a mice (P< 0.01). Changes in AR in SERCA2a-upregulated mice were significantly less pronounced than those observed in control in seven of nine tested conditions (P< 0.04).N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), rescued alternans in myocytes that were previously exposed to an oxidizing agent (P< 0.001). CGP, an antagonist of the mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+)exchanger, had the most severe effect on AR. Exposure to cyclosporin A, a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore reduced CGP-induced alternans (P< 0.0001). The major findings of this study are that impairment of mitochondrial Ca(2+)cycling and energy production leads to a higher amplitude of alternans in both control and SERCA2a-upregulated mice, but changes in SERCA2a-upregulated mice are less severe, indicating that SERCA2a mice are more capable of sustaining electrical stability during stress. This suggests a relationship between sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)content and mitochondrial dysfunction during alternans, which may potentially help to understand changes in Ca(2+)signaling in myocytes from

  13. Cellular microRNAs up-regulate transcription via interaction with promoter TATA-box motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yijun; Fan, Miaomiao; Zhang, Xue; Huang, Feng; Wu, Kang; Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Jun; Huang, Zhuoqiong; Luo, Haihua; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The TATA box represents one of the most prevalent core promoters where the pre-initiation complexes (PICs) for gene transcription are assembled. This assembly is crucial for transcription initiation and well regulated. Here we show that some cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Among them, let-7i sequence specifically binds to the TATA-box motif of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene and elevates IL-2 mRNA and protein production in CD4+ T-lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Through direct interaction with the TATA-box motif, let-7i facilitates the PIC assembly and transcription initiation of IL-2 promoter. Several other cellular miRNAs, such as mir-138, mir-92a or mir-181d, also enhance the promoter activities via binding to the TATA-box motifs of insulin, calcitonin or c-myc, respectively. In agreement with the finding that an HIV-1–encoded miRNA could enhance viral replication through targeting the viral promoter TATA-box motif, our data demonstrate that the interaction with core transcription machinery is a novel mechanism for miRNAs to regulate gene expression. PMID:25336585

  14. In GERD patients, mucosal repair associated genes are upregulated in non-inflamed oesophageal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, D R; Ter Linde, J J M; Van Herwaarden, M A; Schwartz, M P; Shephard, P; Geng, M M; Smout, A J P M; Samsom, M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies addressing the effects of acid reflux and PPI therapy on gene expression in oesophageal epithelium concentrated on inflamed tissue. We aimed to determine changes in gene expression in non-inflamed oesophageal epithelium of GERD patients. Therefore, we included 20 GERD patients with pathological total 24-hr acid exposure of 6–12% and SAP ≥ 95%. Ten patients discontinued PPI treatment (PPI-), 10 took pantoprazole 40 mg bid (PPI+). Ten age/sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Biopsies were taken from non-inflamed mucosa 6 cm and 16 cm proximal to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). Gene expression profiling of biopsies from 6 cm was performed on Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). Genes exhibiting a fold change >1.4 (t-test P-value < 1E– 4) were considered differentially expressed. Results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. In PPI- patients, 92 microarray probesets were deregulated. The majority of the corresponding genes were associated with cell–cell contacts, cytoskeletal reorganization and cellular motility, suggesting facilitation of a migratory phenotype. Genes encoding proteins with anti-apoptotic or anti-proliferative functions or stress-protective functions were also deregulated. No probesets were deregulated in PPI+ patients. QPCR analysis of 20 selected genes confirmed most of the deregulations in PPI- patients, and showed several deregulated genes in PPI+ patients as well. In the biopsies taken at 16 cm QPCR revealed no deregulations of the selected genes. We conclude that upon acid exposure, oesophageal epithelial cells activate a process globally known as epithelial restitution: up-regulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and migration associated genes. Possibly this process helps maintaining barrier function. PMID:19413890

  15. DNA Demethylation Upregulated Nrf2 Expression in Alzheimer’s Disease Cellular Model

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huimin; Wang, Li; Chen, Beibei; Zheng, Peng; He, Yi; Ding, Yubin; Deng, Yushuang; Lu, Xi; Guo, Xiuming; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Yu; Yu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor in the defense against oxidative stress. Cumulative evidence has shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous animal and clinical studies had observed decreased expression of Nrf2 in AD. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms of Nrf2 in AD remain unclear. Here, we used the DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) to test whether Nrf2 expression was regulated by methylation in N2a cells characterizing by expressing human Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (N2a/APPswe). We found 5-Aza treatment increased Nrf2 at both messenger RNA and protein levels via downregulating the expression of Dnmts and DNA demethylation. In addition, 5-Aza-mediated upregulation of Nrf2 expression was concomitant with increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and higher expression of Nrf2 downstream target gene NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductas (NQO1). Our study showed that DNA demethylation promoted the Nrf2 cell signaling pathway, which may enhance the antioxidant system against AD development. PMID:26779013

  16. Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal Genes Upregulated by cis-Dichloroethene in Polaromonas sp. Strain JS666▿

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Laura K.; Chartrand, Michelle M. G.; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Spain, Jim C.; Gossett, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Polaromonas sp. strain JS666 is the only bacterial isolate capable of using cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) as a sole carbon and energy source. Studies of cDCE degradation in this novel organism are of interest because of potential bioremediation and biocatalysis applications. The primary cellular responses of JS666 to growth on cDCE were explored using proteomics and transcriptomics to identify the genes upregulated by cDCE. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed upregulation of genes annotated as encoding glutathione S-transferase, cyclohexanone monooxygenase, and haloacid dehalogenase. DNA microarray experiments confirmed the proteomics findings that the genes indicated above were among the most highly upregulated by cDCE. The upregulation of genes with antioxidant functions and the inhibition of cDCE degradation by elevated oxygen levels suggest that cDCE induces an oxidative stress response. Furthermore, the upregulation of a predicted ABC transporter and two sodium/solute symporters suggests that transport is important in cDCE degradation. The omics data were integrated with data from compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and biochemical experiments to develop a hypothesis for cDCE degradation pathways in JS666. The CSIA results indicate that the measured isotope enrichment factors for aerobic cDCE degradation ranged from −17.4 to −22.4‰. Evidence suggests that cDCE degradation via monooxygenase-catalyzed epoxidation (C=C cleavage) may be only a minor degradation pathway under the conditions of these experiments and that the major degradation pathway involves carbon-chloride cleavage as the initial step, a novel mechanism. The results provide a significant step toward elucidation of cDCE degradation pathways and enhanced understanding of cDCE degradation in JS666. PMID:19363075

  17. Andrographolide up-regulates cellular-reduced glutathione level and protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    PubMed

    Woo, Anthony Y H; Waye, Mary M Y; Tsui, Stephen K W; Yeung, Sandy T W; Cheng, Christopher H K

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies revealed that the herb Andrographis paniculata possesses cardioprotective activities. Using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the cardioprotective actions of several diterpene lactones derived from A. paniculata including andrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, and sodium 14-deoxyandrographolide-12-sulfonate were investigated. Pretreatment with andrographolide but not with the other compounds protected the cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/ reoxygenation injury and up-regulated the cellular-reduced glutathione (GSH) level and antioxidant enzyme activities. The cardioprotective action of andrographolide was found to coincide in a time-dependent manner with the up-regulation of GSH, indicating the important role of GSH. The cardioprotective action of andrographolide was also completely abolished by buthionine sulfoximine, which acts as a specific gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) inhibitor to deplete cellular GSH level. It was subsequently found that the mRNA and protein levels of the GCL catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) were up-regulated by andrographolide. Luciferase reporter assay also demonstrated that andrographolide activated both the GCLC and the GCLM promoters in the transfected rat H9C2 cardiomyocyte cell line. The 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbo-13-acetate response element or the antioxidant response element may be involved in the transactivating actions of andrographolide on the GCLC and GCLM promoters. The present study pinpoints andrographolide as a cardioprotective principle in A. paniculata and reveals its cytoprotective mechanism. PMID:18174384

  18. Translation-dependent mechanisms lead to PML upregulation and mediate oncogenic K-RAS-induced cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Scaglioni, Pier Paolo; Rabellino, Andrea; Yung, Thomas M; Bernardi, Rosa; Choi, Sooyeon; Konstantinidou, Georgia; Nardella, Caterina; Cheng, Ke; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Expression of oncogenic K-RAS in primary cells elicits oncogene-induced cellular senescence (OIS), a form of growth arrest that potently opposes tumourigenesis. This effect has been largely attributed to transcriptional mechanisms that depend on the p53 tumour suppressor protein. The PML tumour suppressor was initially identified as a component of the PML-RARα oncoprotein of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). PML, a critical OIS mediator, is upregulated by oncogenic K-RAS in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate here that oncogenic K-RAS induces PML protein upregulation by activating the RAS/MEK1/mTOR/eIF4E pathway even in the absence of p53. Under these circumstances, PML mRNA is selectively associated to polysomes. Importantly, we find that the PML 5′ untranslated mRNA region plays a key role in mediating PML protein upregulation and that its presence is essential for an efficient OIS response. These findings demonstrate that upregulation of PML translation plays a central role in oncogenic K-RAS-induced OIS. Thus, selective translation initiation plays a critical role in tumour suppression with important therapeutic implications for the treatment of solid tumours and APL. PMID:22359342

  19. ELEVATED GLUTATHIONE LEVELS CONFER CELLULAR SENSITIZATION TO CISPLATIN TOXICITY BY UPREGULATION OF COPPER TRANSPORTER HCTR1*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Helen H. W.; Song, Im-Sook; Hossain, Anwar; Choi, Min-Koo; Yamane, Yoshiaki; Liang, Zheng D.; Lu, Jia; Wu, Lily Y-H; Siddik, Zahid H.; Klomp, Leo W. J.; Savaraj, Niramol; Tien, Kuo Macus

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that treating cultured cells with cisplatin (CDDP) upregulated the expression of glutathione (GSH) and its de novo rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunits. It has also been shown that many CDDP-resistant cell lines exhibit high levels of GCLC/GCLM and GSH. Since GSH system is the major intracellular regulator of redox conditions that serve as an important detoxification cytoprotector, these results have been taken into considerations that elevated levels of GCL/GSH are responsible for the CDDP resistance. In contrast to this context, we demonstrated here that overexpression of GSH by transfection with expression plasmid containing the GCLC cDNA conferred sensitization to CDDP through upregulation of human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1), which is also a transporter for CDDP. Depleting GSH levels in these transfected cells reversed CDDP sensitivity with concomitant reduction of hCtr1 expression. While rates of Cu transport were also upregulated in the transfected cells, these cells exhibited biochemical signature of Cu deficiency, suggesting that GSH functions as an intracellular Cu-chelator and that overexpression of GSH can alter Cu metabolism. More importantly, our results reveal a new role of GSH in the regulation of CDDP sensitivity. Overproduction of GSH depletes bioavailable Cu pool, leading to upregulation of hCtr1 and sensitization of CDDP transport and cell killing. These findings also have important implications that modulation of intracellular Cu pool may be a novel strategy for improving chemotherapeutic efficacy of platinum-based antitumor agents. PMID:18523133

  20. Molecular crowding shapes gene expression in synthetic cellular nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Cheemeng; Saurabh, Saumya; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Schwartz, Russell; Leduc, Philip

    2013-08-01

    The integration of synthetic and cell-free biology has made tremendous strides towards creating artificial cellular nanosystems using concepts from solution-based chemistry, where only the concentrations of reacting species modulate gene expression rates. However, it is known that macromolecular crowding, a key feature in natural cells, can dramatically influence biochemical kinetics via volume exclusion effects, which reduce diffusion rates and enhance binding rates of macromolecules. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular crowding can increase the robustness of gene expression by integrating synthetic cellular components of biological circuits and artificial cellular nanosystems. Furthermore, we reveal how ubiquitous cellular modules, including genetic components, a negative feedback loop and the size of the crowding molecules can fine-tune gene circuit response to molecular crowding. By bridging a key gap between artificial and living cells, our work has implications for efficient and robust control of both synthetic and natural cellular circuits.

  1. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Rebecca; Zeino, Maen; Frewert, Simon; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation.

  2. Thyroid hormones upregulate apolipoprotein E gene expression in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Roman, Corina; Fuior, Elena V; Trusca, Violeta G; Kardassis, Dimitris; Simionescu, Maya; Gafencu, Anca V

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a protein mainly involved in lipid metabolism, is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Despite numerous attempts to elucidate apoE gene regulation in the brain, the exact mechanism is still uncovered. The mechanism of apoE gene regulation in the brain involves the proximal promoter and multienhancers ME.1 and ME.2, which evolved by gene duplication. Herein we questioned whether thyroid hormones and their nuclear receptors have a role in apoE gene regulation in astrocytes. Our data showed that thyroid hormones increase apoE gene expression in HTB14 astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. This effect can be intermediated by the thyroid receptor β (TRβ) which is expressed in these cells. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3) and 9-cis retinoic acid, in astrocytes transfected to overexpress TRβ and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), apoE promoter was indirectly activated through the interaction with ME.2. To determine the location of TRβ/RXRα binding site on ME.2, we performed DNA pull down assays and found that TRβ/RXRα complex bound to the region 341-488 of ME.2. This result was confirmed by transient transfection experiments in which a series of 5'- and 3'-deletion mutants of ME.2 were used. These data support the existence of a biologically active TRβ binding site starting at 409 in ME.2. In conclusion, our data revealed that ligand-activated TRβ/RXRα heterodimers bind with high efficiency on tissue-specific distal regulatory element ME.2 and thus modulate apoE gene expression in the brain. PMID:26519880

  3. Accumulated SET protein up-regulates and interacts with hnRNPK, increasing its binding to nucleic acids, the Bcl-xS repression, and cellular proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Garcia, Cristiana B.; Matos-Silva, Flavia A.; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M.

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • hnRNPK is a new target of SET. • SET regulates hnRNPK. • SET and hnRNPK accumulation promotes tumorigenesis. • SET accumulation is a potential model to study genes regulated by SET-hnRNPK. - Abstract: SET and hnRNPK are proteins involved in gene expression and regulation of cellular signaling. We previously demonstrated that SET accumulates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); hnRNPK is a prognostic marker in cancer. Here, we postulate that SET and hnRNPK proteins interact to promote tumorigenesis. We performed studies in HEK293 and HNSCC (HN6, HN12, and HN13) cell lines with SET/hnRNPK overexpression and knockdown, respectively. We found that SET and/or hnRNPK protein accumulation increased cellular proliferation. SET accumulation up-regulated hnRNPK mRNA and total/phosphorylated protein, promoted hnRNPK nuclear location, and reduced Bcl-x mRNA levels. SET protein directly interacted with hnRNPK, increasing both its binding to nucleic acids and Bcl-xS repression. We propose that hnRNPK should be a new target of SET and that SET–hnRNPK interaction, in turn, has potential implications in cell survival and malignant transformation.

  4. 77 FR 71194 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene... for Biologics Research and Evaluation (CBER), Office of Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies...

  5. Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles indicates genes in spliceosome pathway are up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    PubMed

    Xu, Weijin; Huang, Huixing; Yu, Long; Cao, Lihuan

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the commonest kind of malignant tumors, which accounts for more than 500,000 cases of newly diagnosed cancer annually. Many microarray studies for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC have been conducted, but results have varied across different studies. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of publicly available microarray Gene Expression Omnibus datasets, which covers five independent studies, containing 753 HCC samples and 638 non-tumor liver samples. We identified 192 DEGs that were consistently up-regulated in HCC vs. normal liver tissue. For the 192 up-regulated genes, we performed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. To our surprise, besides several cell growth-related pathways, spliceosome pathway was also up-regulated in HCC. For further exploring the relationship between spliceosome pathway and HCC, we investigated the expression data of spliceosome pathway genes in 15 independent studies in Nextbio database ( https://www.nextbio.com/b/nextbioCorp.nb ). It was found that many genes of spliceosome pathway such as HSPA1A, SNRPE, SF3B2, SF3B4 and TRA2A genes which we identified to be up-regulated in our meta-analysis were generally overexpressed in HCC. At last, using real-time PCR, we also found that BUD31, SF3B2, SF3B4, SNRPE, SPINK1, TPA2A and HSPA1A genes are significantly up-regulated in clinical HCC samples when compared to the corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues. Our study for the first time indicates that many genes of spliceosome pathway are up-regulated in HCC. This finding might put new insights for people's understanding about the relationship of spliceosome pathway and HCC. PMID:25731616

  6. Up-regulation of SNCA gene expression: implications to synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Tagliafierro, L; Chiba-Falek, O

    2016-07-01

    Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases that share a common pathological lesion of intracellular protein inclusions largely composed by aggregates of alpha-synuclein protein. Accumulating evidence, including genome wide association studies, has implicated alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene in the etiology of synucleinopathies. However, the precise variants within SNCA gene that contribute to the sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and other synucleinopathies and their molecular mechanisms of action remain elusive. It has been suggested that SNCA expression levels are critical for the development of these diseases. Here, we review several model systems that have been developed to advance the understanding of the role of SNCA expression levels in the etiology of synucleinopathies. We also describe different molecular mechanisms that regulate SNCA gene expression and discuss possible strategies for SNCA down-regulation as means for therapeutic approaches. Finally, we highlight some examples that underscore the relationships between the genetic association findings and the regulatory mechanisms of SNCA expression, which suggest that genetic variability in SNCA locus is directly responsible, at least in part, to the changes in gene expression and explain the reported associations of SNCA with synucleinopathies. Future studies utilizing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived neuronal lines and genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9, will allow us to validate, characterize, and manipulate the effects of particular cis-genetic variants on SNCA expression. Moreover, this model system will enable us to compare different neuronal and glial lineages involved in synucleinopathies representing an attractive strategy to elucidate-common and specific-SNCA-genetic variants, regulatory mechanisms, and vulnerable expression levels underlying synucleinopathy spectrum disorders. This forthcoming

  7. 20-hydroxyecdysone upregulates Atg genes to induce autophagy in the Bombyx fat body

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ling; Ma, Li; Guo, Enen; Deng, Xiaojuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Xia, Qingyou; Cao, Yang; Li, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is finely regulated at multiple levels and plays crucial roles in development and disease. In the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, autophagy occurs and Atg gene expression peaks during the nonfeeding molting and pupation stages when the steroid hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone; 20E) is high. Injection of 20E into the feeding larvae upregulated Atg genes and reduced TORC1 activity resulting in autophagy induction in the fat body. Conversely, RNAi knockdown of the 20E receptor partner (USP) or targeted overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of the 20E receptor (EcRDN) in the larval fat body reduced autophagy and downregulated the Atg genes, confirming the importance of 20E-induction of Atg gene expression during pupation. Moreover, in vitro treatments of the larval fat body with 20E upregulated the Atg genes. Five Atg genes were potentially 20E primary-responsive, and a 20E response element was identified in the Atg1 (ortholog of human ULK1) promoter region. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of 4 key genes (namely Br-C, E74, HR3 and βftz-F1) in the 20E-triggered transcriptional cascade reduced autophagy and downregulated Atg genes to different levels. Taken together, we conclude that in addition to blocking TORC1 activity for autophagosome initiation, 20E upregulates Atg genes to induce autophagy in the Bombyx fat body. PMID:23674061

  8. Identification of putative immunologic targets for colon cancer prevention based on conserved gene upregulation from preinvasive to malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Elizabeth K; Kim, Rachel; Wiley, Jesse C; Marquez, Juan Pablo; Annis, James E; Pritchard, David; Disis, Mary L

    2013-07-01

    The length of time required for preinvasive adenoma to progress to carcinoma, the immunogenicity of colorectal cancer (CRC), and the identification of high-risk populations make development and testing of a prophylactic vaccine for the prevention of CRC possible. We hypothesized that genes upregulated in adenoma relative to normal tissue, which maintained increased expression in CRC, would encode proteins suitable as putative targets for immunoprevention. We evaluated existing adenoma and CRC microarray datasets and identified 160 genes that were ≥2-fold upregulated in both adenoma and CRC relative to normal colon tissue. We further identified 23 genes that showed protein overexpression in colon adenoma and CRC based on literature review. Silencing the most highly upregulated genes, CDH3, CLDN1, KRT23, and MMP7, in adenoma and CRC cell lines resulted in a significant decrease in viability (P < 0.0001) and proliferation (P < 0.0001) as compared to controls and an increase in cellular apoptosis (P < 0.05 for CDH3, KRT23). Results were duplicated across cell lines representing microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator, and chromosomal instability phenotypes, suggesting immunologic elimination of cells expressing these proteins could impact the progression of all CRC phenotypes. To determine whether these proteins were immunogens, we interrogated sera from early stage CRC patients and controls and found significantly elevated CDH3 (P = 0.006), KRT23 (P = 0.0007), and MMP7 (P < 0.0001) serum immunoglobulin G in cases as compared to controls. These data show a high throughput approach to the identification of biologically relevant putative immunologic targets for CRC and identified three candidates suitable for vaccine development. PMID:23682078

  9. PABPN1 overexpression leads to upregulation of genes encoding nuclear proteins that are sequestered in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy nuclear inclusions.

    PubMed

    Corbeil-Girard, Louis-Philippe; Klein, Arnaud F; Sasseville, A Marie-Josée; Lavoie, Hugo; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Saint-Denis, Anik; Pagé, Martin; Duranceau, André; Codère, François; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Karpati, George; Rouleau, Guy A; Massie, Bernard; Langelier, Yves; Brais, Bernard

    2005-04-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disease caused by expanded (GCN)12-17 stretches encoding the N-terminal polyalanine domain of the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). OPMD is characterized by intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in skeletal muscle fibers, which contain PABPN1, molecular chaperones, ubiquitin, proteasome subunits, and poly(A)-mRNA. We describe an adenoviral model of PABPN1 expression that produces INIs in most cells. Microarray analysis revealed that PABPN1 overexpression reproducibly changed the expression of 202 genes. Sixty percent of upregulated genes encode nuclear proteins, including many RNA and DNA binding proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that all tested nuclear proteins encoded by eight upregulated genes colocalize with PABPN1 within the INIs: CUGBP1, SFRS3, FKBP1A, HMG2, HNRPA1, PRC1, S100P, and HSP70. In addition, CUGBP1, SFRS3, and FKBP1A were also found in OPMD muscle INIs. This study demonstrates that a large number of nuclear proteins are sequestered in OPMD INIs, which may compromise cellular function. PMID:15755682

  10. Triazophos up-regulated gene expression in the female brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan-Yuan; Li, Bao-Ling; Liu, Zhao-Bu; Xue, Jian; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Cheng, Jia-An; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-09-01

    The widespread use of insecticides has caused the resurgence of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, in Asia. In this study, we investigated an organo-phosphorous insecticide, triazophos, and its ability to induce gene expression variation in female N. lugens nymphs just before emergence. By using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, a triazophos-induced cDNA library was constructed. In total, 402 differentially expressed cDNA clones were obtained. Real-time qPCR analysis confirmed that triazophos up-regulated the expression of six candidate genes at the transcript level in nymphs on day 3 of the 5th instar. These genes encode N. lugens vitellogenin, bystin, multidrug resistance protein (MRP), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) and carboxylesterase. Our results imply that the up-regulation of these genes may be involved in the induction of N. lugens female reproduction or resistance to insecticides. PMID:20223245

  11. Microarray and KOG analysis of Acanthamoeba healyi genes up-regulated by mouse-brain passage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Xuan, Ying-Hua; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2014-08-01

    Long-term cultivation in a laboratory could reduce the virulence of Acanthamoeba. To identify virulence factors of Acanthamoeba, the authors compared the transcription profiles of long-term cultivated Acanthamoeba healyi (OLD) and three times mouse-brain passaged A. healyi (MBP) using microarray analysis and eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments. Microarray analysis revealed that 601 genes were up-regulated by mouse-brain passage. The results of real-time PCR of 8 randomly selected genes up-regulated in the MBP strain confirmed microarray analysis findings. KOG assignments showed relatively higher percentages of the MBP strain up-regulated genes in T article (signal transduction mechanism), O article (posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones), C article (energy production and conversion), and J article (translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis). In particular, the MBP strain showed higher expressions of cysteine protease and metalloprotease. A comparison of KOG assignments by microarray analysis and previous EST (expressed sequence tags) analysis showed similar populations of up-regulated genes. These results provide important information regarding the identification of virulence factors of pathogenic Acanthamoeba. PMID:24859526

  12. Identification of a conserved set of upregulated genes in mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Thomas; Jackson, Janna R.; England, Jonathan H.; Kirby, Tyler J.; Richards-White, Jena; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of mouse skeletal muscle undergoing two forms of growth (hypertrophy and regrowth) with the goal of identifying a conserved set of differentially expressed genes. Expression profiling by microarray was performed on the plantaris muscle subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of hypertrophy or regrowth following 2 wk of hind-limb suspension. We identified 97 differentially expressed genes (≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) that were conserved during the two forms of muscle growth. The vast majority (∼90%) of the differentially expressed genes was upregulated and occurred at a single time point (64 out of 86 genes), which most often was on the first day of the time course. Microarray analysis from the conserved upregulated genes showed a set of genes related to contractile apparatus and stress response at day 1, including three genes involved in mechanotransduction and four genes encoding heat shock proteins. Our analysis further identified three cell cycle-related genes at day and several genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) at both days 3 and 10. In conclusion, we have identified a core set of genes commonly upregulated in two forms of muscle growth that could play a role in the maintenance of sarcomere stability, ECM remodeling, cell proliferation, fast-to-slow fiber type transition, and the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. These findings suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to increased mechanical loading. PMID:25554798

  13. The measles virus (MV) glycoproteins interact with cellular chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum and MV infection upregulates chaperone expression.

    PubMed

    Bolt, G

    2001-01-01

    The present study examines the coprecipitation of measles virus (MV) glycoproteins with host cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone proteins. Both the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) glycoproteins interacted with calnexin and GRP78, whereas interaction with calreticulin was only demonstrated for the H glycoprotein. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor castanospermine reduced and delayed the association of F proteins with calnexin. We have previously shown that alpha-glucosidase activity is important for the functionality and antigenicity of the MV F glycoprotein and for release of MV particles from infected cells. Thus, interaction with calnexin appears vital for processing of nascent MV F protein into its functional conformation. In contrast to many other viral glycoproteins, a substantial proportion of the pulsed MV glycoproteins remained associated with ER chaperones for more than 2(1/2) h. Thus, the slow and incomplete migration of MV glycoproteins to the cell surface may result from their retention by ER chaperones, probably due to malfolding. MV infection upregulated the cellular expression of calreticulin and GRP78 and also increased their presence at the cell surface. The chaperone proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, and their induction by MV may play a role for the pathogenesis of measles and its sequelae. PMID:11765911

  14. Epigenetics, cellular memory and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Henikoff, Steven; Greally, John M

    2016-07-25

    The field described as 'epigenetics' has captured the imagination of scientists and the lay public. Advances in our understanding of chromatin and gene regulatory mechanisms have had impact on drug development, fueling excitement in the lay public about the prospects of applying this knowledge to address health issues. However, when describing these scientific advances as 'epigenetic', we encounter the problem that this term means different things to different people, starting within the scientific community and amplified in the popular press. To help researchers understand some of the misconceptions in the field and to communicate the science accurately to each other and the lay audience, here we review the basis for many of the assumptions made about what are currently referred to as epigenetic processes. PMID:27458904

  15. Peripheral challenge with a viral mimic upregulates expression of the complement genes in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Michalovicz, Lindsay T; Lally, Brent; Konat, Gregory W

    2015-08-15

    Peripheral challenge with a viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC) induces hippocampal hyperexcitability in mice. Here, we characterized this hippocampal response through a whole genome transcriptome analysis. Intraperitoneal injection of PIC resulted in temporal dysregulation of 625 genes in the hippocampus, indicating an extensive genetic reprogramming. The bioinformatics analysis of these genes revealed the complement pathway to be the most significantly activated. The gene encoding complement factor B (CfB) exhibited the highest response, and its upregulation was commensurate with the development of hyperexcitability. Collectively, these results suggest that the induction of hippocampal hyperexcitability may be mediated by the alternative complement cascades. PMID:26198930

  16. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a novel oncogene, cancer-upregulated gene 2 (CUG2)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soojin . E-mail: leesoojin@cnu.ac.kr; Gang, Jingu; Jeon, Sun Bok; Jung, Jinyoung; Song, Si Young; Koh, Sang Seok . E-mail: sskoh@kribb.re.kr

    2007-08-31

    We examined genome-wide differences in gene expression between tumor biopsies and normal tissues in order to identify differentially regulated genes in tumors. Cancer-upregulated gene 2 (CUG2) was identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) that exhibits significant differential expression in multiple human cancer types. CUG2 showed weak sequence homology with the down-regulator of transcription 1 (DR1) gene, a human transcription repressor. We found that EGFP-CUG2 fusion proteins were predominantly localized in the nucleus, suggesting their putative role in gene regulation. In addition, CUG2-overexpressing mouse fibroblast cells exhibited distinct cancer-specific phenotypes in vitro and developed into tumors in nude mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that CUG2 is a novel tumor-associated gene that is commonly activated in various human cancers and exhibits high transforming activities; it possibly belongs to a transcription regulator family that is involved in tumor biogenesis.

  17. 75 FR 65640 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... Tumor Vaccines and Biotechnology Branch, Office of Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies, Center...

  18. Increased expression of fatty acid synthase provides a survival advantage to colorectal cancer cells via upregulation of cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Harris, Jennifer W; Mitov, Mihail I; Kim, Ji Tae; Butterfield, D Allan; Lee, Eun Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Gao, Tianyan; Evers, B Mark

    2015-08-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a lipogenic enzyme, is upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Increased de novo lipid synthesis is thought to be a metabolic adaptation of cancer cells that promotes survival and metastasis; however, the mechanisms for this phenomenon are not fully understood. We show that FASN plays a role in regulation of energy homeostasis by enhancing cellular respiration in CRC. We demonstrate that endogenously synthesized lipids fuel fatty acid oxidation, particularly during metabolic stress, and maintain energy homeostasis. Increased FASN expression is associated with a decrease in activation of energy-sensing pathways and accumulation of lipid droplets in CRC cells and orthotopic CRCs. Immunohistochemical evaluation demonstrated increased expression of FASN and p62, a marker of autophagy inhibition, in primary CRCs and liver metastases compared to matched normal colonic mucosa. Our findings indicate that overexpression of FASN plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis in CRC via increased oxidation of endogenously synthesized lipids. Importantly, activation of fatty acid oxidation and consequent downregulation of stress-response signaling pathways may be key adaptation mechanisms that mediate the effects of FASN on cancer cell survival and metastasis, providing a strong rationale for targeting this pathway in advanced CRC. PMID:25970773

  19. Liver tumor formation by a mutant retinoblastoma protein in the transgenic mice is caused by an upregulation of c-Myc target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bo; Hikosaka, Keisuke; Sultana, Nishat; Sharkar, Mohammad Tofael Kabir; Noritake, Hidenao; Kimura, Wataru; Wu, Yi-Xin; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Uezato, Tadayoshi; Miura, Naoyuki

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fifty percent of the mutant Rb transgenic mice produced liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the tumor, Foxm1, Skp2, Bmi1 and AP-1 mRNAs were up-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No increase in expression of the Myc-target genes was observed in the non-tumorous liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor formation depends on up-regulation of the Myc-target genes. -- Abstract: The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In order to adapt itself to these biological functions, Rb is subjected to modification cycle, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. To directly determine the effect of phosphorylation-resistant Rb on liver development and function, we generated transgenic mice expressing phosphorylation-resistant human mutant Rb (mt-Rb) under the control of the rat hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 gene promoter/enhancer. Expression of mt-Rb in the liver resulted in macroscopic neoplastic nodules (adenomas) with {approx}50% incidence within 15 months old. Interestingly, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that c-Myc was up-regulated in the liver of mt-Rb transgenic mice irrespective of having tumor tissues or no tumor. In tumor tissues, several c-Myc target genes, Foxm1, c-Jun, c-Fos, Bmi1 and Skp2, were also up-regulated dramatically. We determined whether mt-Rb activated the Myc promoter in the HTP9 cells and demonstrated that mt-Rb acted as an inhibitor of wild-type Rb-induced repression on the Myc promoter. Our results suggest that continued upregulation of c-Myc target genes promotes the liver tumor formation after about 1 year of age.

  20. Increase in gene-transcript levels as indicators of up-regulation of the unfolded protein response in spontaneous canine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Kirsten; MacDonald-Dickinson, Valerie; Linn, Kathleen; Simko, Elemir; Misra, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved cellular response to stressors such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation, is associated with angiogenesis and metastasis in tumor cells. This article discusses a pilot study conducted to determine whether components of the UPR could be identified in spontaneous canine tumors and whether they were up-regulated within tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. Tissue samples of various spontaneous canine neoplasms were taken from 13 dogs shortly after surgical excision or euthanasia; control samples were taken from adjacent normal tissue. RNA purification and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were done to measure the expression of 4 genes associated with the UPR (HERP, CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1s). The results indicated that UPR gene expression can be identified in spontaneous canine tumors and that the UPR is up-regulated, as indicated by significantly increased expression of CHOP and GRP78 within the tumor. PMID:24982546

  1. Screening of upregulated genes induced by high density in the vetch aphid Megoura crassicauda.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Asano; Ishikawa, Yuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Brisson, Jennifer A; Miura, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Aphids exhibit several polyphenisms in which discontinuous, alternative phenotypes are produced depending on environmental conditions. One representative example is the wing polyphenism, where winged and wingless females are produced through parthenogenesis. Previous work has shown that, in some aphid species, the density condition sensed by the mother aphid determines the developmental fate of embryos in her ovary, with high densities leading to winged progeny and low densities to wingless progeny. However, little is known about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the wing polyphenism. To identify genes involved in the wing-morph determination in the vetch aphid, Megoura crassicauda, we compared maternal and embryonic transcripts between high- and low-density conditions using differential display, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Under the high-density condition, two genes (Uba1 and Naca) were found to be upregulated in maternal tissues without ovaries, while one gene (ClpP) was upregulated in ovaries containing embryos. Uba1 and Naca encode factors that function in protein modification or transcriptional/translational regulation, respectively. In addition to differential display, candidate gene approaches focusing on morphogenetic and endocrine genes, i.e., wg, dpp, ap, hh, InR, IRS, Foxo, EcR, and USP, were also carried out. We found that wg was upregulated in maternal tissues under the high-density condition. The identified genes from both approaches are candidates for further study of their involvement in the transduction of density signals in mother aphids and/or the initial process of wing differentiation in embryos. PMID:22514053

  2. The Longitudinal Transcriptomic Response of the Substantia Nigra to Intrastriatal 6-Hydroxydopamine Reveals Significant Upregulation of Regeneration-Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Grabinski, Tessa; Mattingly, Zachary R.; Winn, Mary E.; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Sortwell, Caryl E.; Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Lipton, Jack W.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the study of gene expression at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 16 weeks in the substantia nigra (SN) after intrastriatal 6-OHDA in the Sprague-Dawley rat (rattus norvegicus) would identify cellular responses during the degenerative process that could be axoprotective. Specifically, we hypothesized that genes expressed within the SN that followed a profile of being highly upregulated early after the lesion (during active axonal degeneration) and then progressively declined to baseline over 16 weeks as DA neurons died are indicative of potential protective responses to the striatal 6-OHDA insult. Utilizing a κ-means cluster analysis strategy, we demonstrated that one such cluster followed this hypothesized expression pattern over time, and that this cluster contained several interrelated transcripts that are classified as regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) including Atf3, Sprr1a, Ecel1, Gadd45a, Gpnmb, Sox11, Mmp19, Srgap1, Rab15,Lifr, Trib3, Tgfb1, and Sema3c. All exemplar transcripts tested from this cluster (Sprr1a, Ecel1, Gadd45a, Atf3 and Sox11) were validated by qPCR and a smaller subset (Sprr1a, Gadd45a and Sox11) were shown to be exclusively localized to SN DA neurons using a dual label approach with RNAScope in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Upregulation of RAGs is typically associated with the response to axonal injury in the peripheral nerves and was not previously reported as part of the axodegenerative process for DA neurons of the SN. Interestingly, as part of this cluster, other transcripts were identified based on their expression pattern but without a RAG provenance in the literature. These "RAG-like" transcripts need further characterization to determine if they possess similar functions to or interact with known RAG transcripts. Ultimately, it is hoped that some of the newly identified axodegeneration-reactive transcripts could be exploited as axoprotective therapies in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25992874

  3. 20-hydroxyecdysone upregulates apoptotic genes and induces apoptosis in the Bombyx fat body.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ling; Liu, Shumin; Liu, Hanhan; Li, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    During insect metamorphosis, obsolete larval tissues are removed by programed cell death (PCD), mainly apoptosis and autophagy, which is directed by the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the 20E-triggered transcriptional cascade. Here, we investigated how 20E regulates apoptosis at the transcriptional level in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. As detected by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL), apoptosis weakly occurred during the fourth larval molting, decreased to undetected levels during the early fifth instar, and gradually increased from day 4 of fifth instar to the wandering stage to the prepupal stage. Meanwhile, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR, eight genes involved in apoptosis, including Apaf-1, Nedd2 like1, Nedd2 like2, ICE1, ICE3, ICE5, Arp, and IAP, were highly expressed during molting and pupation, when the 20E titer is high. Injection of 20E into day 2 of fifth instar larvae significantly induced apoptosis and upregulated apoptotic genes after 6 h of treatment, and in vitro treatment of larval fat body tissues with 20E upregulated all the eight apoptotic genes. Moreover, RNAi knockdown of USP, a component of the 20E receptor complex EcR-USP, at the early-wandering stage reduced apoptosis and downregulated apoptotic genes after 24 h of treatment. Taken together, we infer that 20E upregulates apoptotic genes and thus induces apoptosis in the Bombyx fat body during larval molting and the larval-pupal transition. PMID:22517444

  4. Type 1 Interferons Inhibit Myotube Formation Independently of Upregulation of Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15

    PubMed Central

    Franzi, Sara; Salajegheh, Mohammad; Nazareno, Remedios; Greenberg, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 interferon (IFN)-inducible genes and their inducible products are upregulated in dermatomyositis muscle. Of these, IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is one of the most upregulated, suggesting its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. To test this postulate, we developed a model of type 1 IFN mediated myotube toxicity and assessed whether or not downregulation of ISG15 expression prevents this toxicity. Methods Mouse myoblasts (C2C12 cell line) were cultured in the presence of type 1 or type 2 IFNs and ISG15 expression assessed by microarray analysis. The morphology of newly formed myotubes was assessed by measuring their length, diameter, and area on micrographs using imaging software. ISG15 expression was silenced through transfection with small interference RNA. Results Type 1 IFNs, especially IFN-beta, increased ISG15 expression in C2C12 cells and impaired myotube formation. Silencing of ISG15 resulted in knockdown of ISG15 protein, but without phenotypic rescue of myotube formation. Discussion IFN-beta affects myoblast differentiation ability and myotube morphology in vitro.These studies provide evidence that ISG15, which is highly upregulated in dermatomyositis muscle, does not appear to play a key role in IFN-beta-mediated C2C12 myoblast cell fusion. PMID:23750257

  5. Radiation-Induced Upregulation of Gene Expression From Adenoviral Vectors Mediated by DNA Damage Repair and Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nokisalmi, Petri; Rajecki, Maria; Pesonen, Sari; Escutenaire, Sophie; Soliymani, Rabah; Tenhunen, Mikko; Ahtiainen, Laura; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In the present study, we evaluated the combination of replication-deficient adenoviruses and radiotherapy in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the mechanism of radiation-mediated upregulation of adenoviral transgene expression. Methods and Materials: Adenoviral transgene expression (luciferase or green fluorescent protein) was studied with and without radiation in three cell lines: breast cancer M4A4-LM3, prostate cancer PC-3MM2, and lung cancer LNM35/enhanced green fluorescent protein. The effect of the radiation dose, modification of the viral capsid, and five different transgene promoters were studied. The cellular responses were studied using mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis. Double strand break repair was modulated by inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, topoisomerase-I, and DNA protein kinase, and transgene expression was measured. Results: We found that a wide range of radiation doses increased adenoviral transgene expression regardless of the cell line, transgene, promoter, or viral capsid modification. Treatment with adenovirus, radiation, and double strand break repair inhibitors resulted in persistence of double strand breaks and subsequent increases in adenovirus transgene expression. Conclusions: Radiation-induced enhancement of adenoviral transgene expression is linked to DNA damage recognition and repair. Radiation induces a global cellular response that results in increased production of RNA and proteins, including adenoviral transgene products. This study provides a mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with adenoviral gene delivery.

  6. PRMT5 Is Upregulated in HTLV-1-Mediated T-Cell Transformation and Selective Inhibition Alters Viral Gene Expression and Infected Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Panfil, Amanda R.; Al-Saleem, Jacob; Howard, Cory M.; Mates, Jessica M.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Green, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a tumorigenic retrovirus responsible for development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). This disease manifests after a long clinical latency period of up to 2–3 decades. Two viral gene products, Tax and HBZ, have transforming properties and play a role in the pathogenic process. Genetic and epigenetic cellular changes also occur in HTLV-1-infected cells, which contribute to transformation and disease development. However, the role of cellular factors in transformation is not completely understood. Herein, we examined the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) on HTLV-1-mediated cellular transformation and viral gene expression. We found PRMT5 expression was upregulated during HTLV-1-mediated T-cell transformation, as well as in established lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma cell lines and ATLL patient PBMCs. shRNA-mediated reduction in PRMT5 protein levels or its inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor (PRMT5i) in HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes resulted in increased viral gene expression and decreased cellular proliferation. PRMT5i also had selective toxicity in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. Finally, we demonstrated that PRMT5 and the HTLV-1 p30 protein had an additive inhibitory effect on HTLV-1 gene expression. Our study provides evidence for PRMT5 as a host cell factor important in HTLV-1-mediated T-cell transformation, and a potential target for ATLL treatment. PMID:26729154

  7. Bacterial Cellular Engineering by Genome Editing and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence) target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering. PMID:24552876

  8. Urban air pollution produces up-regulation of myocardial inflammatory genes and dark chocolate provides cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (nuclear factor κB), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  9. Upregulation of gene expression in reward-modulatory striatal opioid systems by sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A; Hanlon, Erin C; Obermeyer, William; Bremer, Quentin; Paletz, Elliott; Benca, Ruth M

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a link between sleep loss and the obesity 'epidemic,' and several observations indicate that sleep curtailment engenders positive energy balance via increased palatable-food 'snacking.' These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain systems. We explored the effects of 10 days of sleep deprivation in rats on the expression of striatal opioid peptide (OP) genes that subserve food motivation and hedonic reward, and compared effects with those seen in hypothalamic energy balance-regulatory systems. Sleep-deprived (Sleep-Dep) rats were compared with yoked forced-locomotion apparatus controls (App-Controls), food-restricted rats (Food-Restrict), and unmanipulated controls (Home-Cage). Detection of mRNA levels with in situ hybridization revealed a subregion-specific upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin and prodynorhin gene expression in the Sleep-Dep group relative to all other groups. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and throughout neocortex was also robustly upregulated selectively in the Sleep-Dep group. In contrast, parallel gene expression changes were observed in the Sleep-Dep and Food-Restrict groups in hypothalamic energy-sensing systems (arcuate nucleus NPY was upregulated, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript was downregulated), in alignment with leptin suppression in both groups. Together, these results reveal a novel set of sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes in reward-modulatory peptide systems, which are dissociable from the energy-balance perturbations of sleep loss or the potentially stressful effects of the forced-locomotion procedure. The recruitment of telencephalic food-reward systems may provide a feeding drive highly resistant to feedback control, which could engender obesity through the enhancement of palatable feeding. PMID:23864029

  10. Upregulation of Gene Expression in Reward-Modulatory Striatal Opioid Systems by Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Brian A; Hanlon, Erin C; Obermeyer, William; Bremer, Quentin; Paletz, Elliott; Benca, Ruth M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a link between sleep loss and the obesity ‘epidemic,' and several observations indicate that sleep curtailment engenders positive energy balance via increased palatable-food ‘snacking.' These effects suggest alterations in reward-modulatory brain systems. We explored the effects of 10 days of sleep deprivation in rats on the expression of striatal opioid peptide (OP) genes that subserve food motivation and hedonic reward, and compared effects with those seen in hypothalamic energy balance-regulatory systems. Sleep-deprived (Sleep-Dep) rats were compared with yoked forced-locomotion apparatus controls (App-Controls), food-restricted rats (Food-Restrict), and unmanipulated controls (Home-Cage). Detection of mRNA levels with in situ hybridization revealed a subregion-specific upregulation of striatal preproenkephalin and prodynorhin gene expression in the Sleep-Dep group relative to all other groups. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and throughout neocortex was also robustly upregulated selectively in the Sleep-Dep group. In contrast, parallel gene expression changes were observed in the Sleep-Dep and Food-Restrict groups in hypothalamic energy-sensing systems (arcuate nucleus NPY was upregulated, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript was downregulated), in alignment with leptin suppression in both groups. Together, these results reveal a novel set of sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes in reward-modulatory peptide systems, which are dissociable from the energy-balance perturbations of sleep loss or the potentially stressful effects of the forced-locomotion procedure. The recruitment of telencephalic food-reward systems may provide a feeding drive highly resistant to feedback control, which could engender obesity through the enhancement of palatable feeding. PMID:23864029

  11. Urban Air Pollution Produces Up-Regulation of Myocardial Inflammatory Genes and Dark Chocolate Provides Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: Southwest (SW) and Northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (Nuclear Factor κ B), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  12. Rapid systemic up-regulation of genes after heat-wounding and electrical stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, E.; Vian, A.; Vian, C.; Stankovic, B.

    1997-01-01

    When one leaf of a tomato plant is electrically-stimulated or heat-wounded, proteinase inhibitor genes are rapidly up-regulated in distant leaves. The identity of the systemic wound signal(s) is not yet known, but major candidates include hormones transmitted via the phloem or the xylem, the electrically-stimulated self-propagating electrical signal in the phloem (the action potential, AP), or the heat-wound-induced surge in hydraulic pressure in the xylem evoking a local change in membrane potential in adjacent living cells (the variation potential, VP). In order to discriminate between these signals we have adopted two approaches. The first approach involves applying stimuli that evoke known signals and determining whether these signals have similar effects on the "model" transcripts for proteinase inhibitors (pin) and calmodulin (cal). Here we show that a heat wound almost invariably evokes a VP, while an electrical stimulation occasionally evokes an AP, and both of these signals induce accumulation of transcripts encoding proteinase inhibitors. The second approach involves identifying the array of genes turned on by heat-wounding. To this end, we have constructed a subtractive library for heat-wounded tissue, isolated over 800 putatively up-regulated clones, and shown that all but two of the fifty that we have analyzed by Northern hybridization are, indeed, up-regulated. Here we show the early kinetics of up-regulation of three of these transcripts in the terminal (4th) leaf in response to heat-wounding the 3rd leaf, about 5 cm away. Even though these transcripts show somewhat different time courses of induction, with one peaking at 30 min, another at 15 min, and another at 5 min after flaming of a distant leaf, they all exhibit a similar pattern, i.e., a transient period of transcript accumulation preceding a period of transcript decrease, followed by a second period of transcript accumulation.

  13. Gene Essentiality Is a Quantitative Property Linked to Cellular Evolvability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gaowen; Yong, Mei Yun Jacy; Yurieva, Marina; Srinivasan, Kandhadayar Gopalan; Liu, Jaron; Lim, John Soon Yew; Poidinger, Michael; Wright, Graham Daniel; Zolezzi, Francesca; Choi, Hyungwon; Pavelka, Norman; Rancati, Giulia

    2015-12-01

    Gene essentiality is typically determined by assessing the viability of the corresponding mutant cells, but this definition fails to account for the ability of cells to adaptively evolve to genetic perturbations. Here, we performed a stringent screen to assess the degree to which Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells can survive the deletion of ~1,000 individual "essential" genes and found that ~9% of these genetic perturbations could in fact be overcome by adaptive evolution. Our analyses uncovered a genome-wide gradient of gene essentiality, with certain essential cellular functions being more "evolvable" than others. Ploidy changes were prevalent among the evolved mutant strains, and aneuploidy of a specific chromosome was adaptive for a class of evolvable nucleoporin mutants. These data justify a quantitative redefinition of gene essentiality that incorporates both viability and evolvability of the corresponding mutant cells and will enable selection of therapeutic targets associated with lower risk of emergence of drug resistance. PMID:26627736

  14. Identification of genes upregulated by pinewood nematode inoculation in Japanese red pine.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hanna; Lee, Hyoshin; Woo, Kwan-Soo; Noh, Eun-Woon; Koo, Yeong-Bon; Lee, Kyung-Joon

    2009-03-01

    Pine wilt disease caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, has destroyed huge areas of pine forest in East Asia, including Japan, China and Korea. No protection against PWN has been developed, and the responses of pine trees at the molecular level are unrecorded. We isolated and analyzed upregulated or newly induced genes from PWN-inoculated Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) by using an annealing control primer system and suppression subtractive hybridization. Significant changes occurred in the transcript abundance of genes with functions related to defense, secondary metabolism and transcription, as the disease progressed. Other gene transcripts encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, pinosylvin synthases and metallothioneins were also more abundant in PWN-inoculated trees than in non-inoculated trees. Our report provides fundamental information on the molecular mechanisms controlling the biochemical and physiological responses of Japanese red pine trees to PWN invasion. PMID:19203959

  15. Identification of genes up-regulated in response to Cd exposure in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Minglin, Lang; Yuxiu, Zhang; Tuanyao, Chai

    2005-12-19

    In this paper, the fluorescent mRNA differential display (DD) technique was applied to analyze transcriptional regulation in response to Cd treatment in a heavy-metal accumulator, Brassica juncea. 154 DD bands were identified, of which fragments corresponding to 15 and 13 cDNAs were successfully cloned from leaves and roots, respectively. Many of the genes were confirmed to have a 2-5 fold increase in expression in both roots and leaves after 48 h Cd exposure (approximately 22.4 ppm). However, several isolated genes, e.g., DD2, DD21, DD22, showed a reversed mRNA expression pattern. Sequencing revealed those Cd-induced up-regulated genes displayed mRNAs corresponding to 19 different genes, 18 of which had a clear identity to Arabidopsis thaliana sequences and a putative function was assigned to 15 of them, including the auxin-responsive GH3, ARF-like small GTPases/ARFs, ARD/ARD', APS reductase, Nop, catalase, zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger), diacylglycerol kinase, and haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase families. Three cDNAs corresponded to predicted membrane proteins (KOG3491) or a ribosome-associated membrane protein RAMP4. One other clone, DD26, did not show significant identities to any translated sequence in the GenBank database, suggesting it may either encode unidentified proteins, or correspond to un-translated, non-conserved regions of mRNA molecules. These Cd-responsive up-regulated genes are mostly also regulated by abiotic or biotic stresses, e.g., dehydration, chilling, high salt, auxin, heat and infection, in other plants. The present study leads to an increased understanding of genes and/or the biochemical pathways involved in heavy-metal resistance and accumulation in plants. PMID:16226851

  16. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A.; Berenbaum, May R.

    2013-01-01

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses. PMID:23630255

  17. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses. PMID:23630255

  18. 17-β-estradiol up-regulates apolipoprotein genes expression during osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yuyan; Chu, Nan; Qiu, Xuemin; Tang, Wei; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2016-05-23

    Apolipoproteins are of great physiological importance and are associated with different diseases. Many independent studies of patterns of gene expression during osteoblast differentiation have been described, and some apolipoproteins have been induced during this process. 17-β-estradiol (E2) may enhance osteoblast physiological function. However, no studies have indicated whether E2 can modulate the expression of apolipoproteins during osteoblast differentiation in vitro. The aim of the current study was to observe the regulation of apolipoprotein mRNA expression by E2 during this process. Primary osteoblasts were collected from the calvaria of newborn mice and were subjected to osteoblast differentiation in vitro with serial concentrations of E2. RNA was isolated on days 0, 5, and 25 of differentiation. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze the levels of apolipoprotein mRNA. Results showed that during osteoblast differentiation all of the apolipoprotein genes were up-regulated by E2 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, only ApoE was strongly induced during the mineralization of cultured osteoblasts. This result suggests that ApoE might be involved in osteoblast differentiation. The hypothesis is that E2 promotes osteoblast differentiation by up-regulating ApoE gene expression, though further study is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27074899

  19. Zinc pyrithione impairs zinc homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in reconstructed human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lamore, Sarah D.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc ion homeostasis plays an important role in human cutaneous biology where it is involved in epidermal differentiation and barrier function, inflammatory and antimicrobial regulation, and wound healing. Zinc-based compounds designed for topical delivery therefore represent an important class of cutaneous therapeutics. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is an FDA-approved microbicidal agent used worldwide in over-the-counter topical antimicrobials, and has also been examined as an investigational therapeutic targeting psoriasis and UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia. Recently, we have demonstrated that cultured primary human skin keratinocytes display an exquisite sensitivity to nanomolar ZnPT concentrations causing induction of heat shock response gene expression and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent cell death (Cell Stress Chaperones 15:309–322, 2010). Here we demonstrate that ZnPT causes rapid accumulation of intracellular zinc in primary keratinocytes as observed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and that PARP activation, energy crisis, and genomic impairment are all antagonized by zinc chelation. In epidermal reconstructs (EpiDerm™) exposed to topical ZnPT (0.1–2% in Vanicream™), ICP-MS demonstrated rapid zinc accumulation, and expression array analysis demonstrated upregulation of stress response genes encoding metallothionein-2A (MT2A), heat shock proteins (HSPA6, HSPA1A, HSPB5, HSPA1L, DNAJA1, HSPH1, HSPD1, HSPE1), antioxidants (SOD2, GSTM3, HMOX1), and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). IHC analysis of ZnPT-treated EpiDerm™ confirmed upregulation of Hsp70 and TUNEL-positivity. Taken together our data demonstrate that ZnPT impairs zinc ion homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in primary keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis, activities that may underlie therapeutic and toxicological effects of this topical drug. PMID:21424779

  20. The Absence of Core Fucose Up-regulates GnT-III and Wnt Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kurimoto, Ayako; Kitazume, Shinobu; Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Nakajima, Kazuki; Oka, Ritsuko; Fujinawa, Reiko; Korekane, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Wada, Yoshinao; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Glycans play key roles in a variety of protein functions under normal and pathological conditions, but several glycosyltransferase-deficient mice exhibit no or only mild phenotypes due to redundancy or compensation of glycan functions. However, we have only a limited understanding of the underlying mechanism for these observations. Our previous studies indicated that 70% of Fut8-deficient (Fut8−/−) mice that lack core fucose structure die within 3 days after birth, but the remainder survive for up to several weeks although they show growth retardation as well as emphysema. In this study, we show that, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Fut8−/− mice, another N-glycan branching structure, bisecting GlcNAc, is specifically up-regulated by enhanced gene expression of the responsible enzyme N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III). As candidate target glycoproteins for bisecting GlcNAc modification, we confirmed that level of bisecting GlcNAc on β1-integrin and N-cadherin was increased in Fut8−/− MEFs. Moreover using mass spectrometry, glycan analysis of IgG1 in Fut8−/− mouse serum demonstrated that bisecting GlcNAc contents were also increased by Fut8 deficiency in vivo. As an underlying mechanism, we found that in Fut8−/− MEFs Wnt/β-catenin signaling is up-regulated, and an inhibitor against Wnt signaling was found to abrogate GnT-III expression, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin is involved in GnT-III up-regulation. Furthermore, various oxidative stress-related genes were also increased in Fut8−/− MEFs. These data suggest that Fut8−/− mice adapted to oxidative stress, both ex vivo and in vivo, by inducing various genes including GnT-III, which may compensate for the loss of core fucose functions. PMID:24619415

  1. All-trans retinoic acid induces cellular senescence by up-regulating levels of p16 and p21 via promoter hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joo Song; Park, Sun-Hye; Jang, Kyung Lib

    2011-09-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces cellular senescence via up-regulation of p16 and p21; however, the action mechanism of ATRA is unknown. Here, we show that ATRA induces promoter hypomethylation of p16 and p21 via down-regulation of DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a, and 3b to facilitate binding of Ets1/2 to the p16 promoter and p53 to the p21 promoter, resulting in up-regulation of their expression and subsequent induction of cellular senescence in HepG2 cells. These effects were mediated by retinoic acid receptor β₂ whose promoter was also hypomethylated in the presence of ATRA. Therefore, ATRA can be considered as an epi-drug in cancer therapy. PMID:21843507

  2. [HIV-1 infection up-regulating expression of interferon-stimulated gene 15 in cell lines].

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-mei; Sun, Jun; Meng, Zhe-feng; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Xu, Jian-qing

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether HIV-1 infection affects expression of interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and determine the antiviral effect of ISG15 in vitro, ISG15 expression at transcription and protein level and supernatant p24 of HIV-1 was detected in various HIV-1 infected or transfected cell lines, respec tively. HIV-1 molecular clone pNL4-3 was used to transfect 293T, TZM-bl and HeLa cells while HIV-1 pseudo-typed virus was used to infect Jurkat, MT-1 and THP-1 cells. After twenty-four hours post infection or transfection, cells were harvested for extraction of total RNAs and subsequently used in real time PCR for quantification of ISG15 transcriptional expression. After forty-eight hours post infection or transfection, cells were harvested for extraction of total proteins to detect ISG15 protein expression. A significant up-regulation of ISG15 at transcription level was observed in HIV-1 infected or transfected cell lines, particulaly in THP-1 and TZM-bl cells. Up-regulation of ISG15 protein was observed only in TZM-bl cell. Cotransfection of ISG15 and HIV-1 indicated that ISG15 inhibited production of HIV-1 progeny virus in a dose and time depend manner in 293T cell but not TZM-bl cell. These results revealed upregulating ISG15 expression in transcriptional level and potential antagonistic mechanism against ISG15 by HIV-1 infection, simultanelusly. PMID:24386835

  3. A few shared up-regulated genes may influence conidia to yeast transformation in dimorphic fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Theo N

    2016-08-01

    The small number of fungi that commonly cause disease in normal people share the capacity to grow as mycelia in the soil at 25°C and as yeast (or spherules) in mammals at 37°C. This remarkable conversion has long been a topic of interest in medical mycology. The conidia to yeast conversion has been studied by transcription profiling in several fungal species, including Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Talaromyces marneffei One limitation of transcriptional profiling is determining which genes are involved in the process of conversion to yeast as opposed to a result of conversion to yeast. If there are genes that are up-regulated in the yeast phase of more than one dimorphic, pathogenic fungus they might be required for conversion to yeast (or spherules). To address this issue, 24 up-regulated genes common to Coccidioides spp spherules and H. capsulatum yeasts were identified. Four homologs of these genes were also found in P. brasiliensis, B. dermatitidis or T. marneffei genes that were up-regulated in yeast. 4-hydroxyphenylpurvate dioxygenase, a gene involved in tyrosine metabolism and melanin synthesis that has been shown to be required for yeast conversion, is conserved and up-regulated in yeast in all five species. Another up-regulated gene that is conserved in all five species is a MFS sugar porter. These results suggest that a minority of up-regulated yeast (or spherule) genes are conserved across species and raises the possibility that conserved up-regulated genes may be of special interest for differentiation of mycelium into yeast. PMID:27118798

  4. 78 FR 44133 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... on guidance documents issued from the Office of Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies, Center...

  5. Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Da; He, Yanping; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Guonian; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification. PMID:25607733

  6. Upregulation of metastasis-associated gene 2 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Minhua; Ye, Xiaoxia; Deng, Xubin; Wu, Yanxia; Li, Xiaofang; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Metastasis-associated gene 2 (MTA2) is reported to play an important role in tumor progression, but little is known about the role of MTA2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The aim of the study was to explore the expression and function of MTA2 in NPC. Methods Expression of MTA2 in NPC tissues and cell lines was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Relationship between MTA2 expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. Stable MTA2-overexpressing and MTA2-siliencing NPC cells were established by transfection with plasmids encoding MTA2 cDNA and lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA, respectively. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay. Cell migration ability was evaluated by wound healing and transwell invasion assay. The impact of MTA2 knockdown on growth and metastasis of CNE2 cells in vivo was determined by nude mouse xenograft models. Expression of several Akt pathway proteins was detected by Western blotting. Results MTA2 was upregulated in NPC tissues and three NPC cell lines detected (CNE1, CNE2, and HNE1). MTA2 expression was related to clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of patients with NPC. MTA2 upregulation promoted proliferation and invasion of CNE1 cells, while MTA2 depletion had opposite effects on CNE2 cells. Moreover, MTA2 depletion suppressed growth and metastasis of CNE2 cells in vivo. MTA2 overexpression activated Akt and upregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 and cyclin D1. Conclusion We conclude that MTA2 acts as an oncogene in tumorigenesis of NPC. MTA2 may be a potential target for gene therapy in NPC. PMID:27051300

  7. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a mouse gene upregulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment reveals alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kejun; Chen, Yaoming; Dai, Zongming; Bi, Yuan; Cai, Tongjian; Hou, Lichao; Chai, Yubo; Song, Qinghe; Chen, Sumin; Luo, Wenjing; Chen, Jingyuan

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of mouse cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently initiates an inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to characterize cDNA sequences of a new mouse LPS-responsive gene, and to evaluate the effects of MLrg. Full-length cDNAs were obtained from LPS-treated NIH3T3 cells. We report that the MLrg gene produces two alternative splice products (GenBank Accession Nos. (DQ316984) and (DQ320011)), respectively, encoding MLrgW and MLrgS polypeptides. Both proteins contain zinc finger and leucine zipper domains and are thus potential regulators of transcription. Expression of MLrgW and MLrgS were robustly upregulated following LPS treatment, and the proteins were localized predominantly in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm. In stable transfectants over-expressing MLrgW the proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly reduced, while in cells over-expressing MLrgS the proportion of cells in G2 was significantly increased; both proteins are thus potential regulators of cell cycle progression. Upregulation of MLrgW and MLrgS may be an important component of the LPS inflammatory pathway and of the host response to infection with GNB.

  8. Identification of genes preferentially expressed by microglia and upregulated during cuprizone-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Andréanne; Tremblay, Pierrot; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Vallières, Luc

    2007-06-01

    Microglia, monocytes, and peripheral macrophages share a common origin and many characteristics, but what distinguishes them from each other at the level of gene expression remains largely unknown. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profiles of freshly purified microglia, monocytes, and spleen macrophages using Affymetrix Mouse Genome arrays to identify genes predominantly expressed by microglia. Among tens of thousands of genes assayed, 127 potential candidates were found, including nine newly discovered genes encoding plasma membrane and extracellular proteins. In the brain, the latter were selectively expressed by microglia, as revealed by in situ hybridization. Three of them were confirmed to be exclusively (MSR2) or predominantly (GPR12, GPR34) expressed in the brain compared to the other tissues examined. Furthermore, all of these genes were upregulated in activated microglia after treatment with the demyelinating toxin cuprizone, suggesting that they play roles in neuroinflammation. In conclusion, this study reports the identification of new selective markers for microglia, which should prove useful not only to identify and isolate these cells, but also to better understand their distinctive properties. PMID:17285589

  9. Hyperphosphatemia induces cellular senescence in human aorta smooth muscle cells through integrin linked kinase (ILK) up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Troyano, Nuria; Nogal, María Del; Mora, Inés; Diaz-Naves, Manuel; Lopez-Carrillo, Natalia; Sosa, Patricia; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruiz-Torres, María P

    2015-12-01

    Aging is conditioned by genetic and environmental factors. Hyperphosphatemia is related to some pathologies, affecting to vascular cells behavior. This work analyze whether high concentration of extracellular phosphate induces vascular smooth muscle cells senescence, exploring the intracellular mechanisms and highlighting the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon. Human aortic smooth muscle cells treated with β-Glycerophosphate (BGP, 10mM) suffered cellular senescence by increasing p53, p21 and p16 expression and the senescence associated β-galactosidase activity. In parallel, BGP induced ILK overexpression, dependent on the IGF-1 receptor activation, and oxidative stress. Down-regulating ILK expression prevented BGP-induced senescence and oxidative stress. Aortic rings from young rats treated with 10mM BGP for 48h, showed increased p53, p16 and ILK expression and SA-β-gal activity. Seven/eight nephrectomized rats feeding a hyperphosphatemic diet and fifteenth- month old mice showed hyperphosphatemia and aortic ILK, p53 and p16 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high extracellular concentration of phosphate induced senescence in cultured smooth muscle through the activation of IGF-1 receptor and ILK overexpression and provided solid evidences for the in vivo relevance of these results since aged animals showed high levels of serum phosphate linked to increased expression of ILK and senescence genes. PMID:26467393

  10. Depletion of the xynB2 gene upregulates β-xylosidase expression in C. crescentus.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Juliana Moço; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is able to express several enzymes involved in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomasses. Five genes, xynB1-5, that encode β-xylosidases are present in the genome of this bacterium. In this study, the xynB2 gene, which encodes β-xylosidase II (CCNA_02442), was cloned under the control of the PxylX promoter to generate the O-xynB2 strain, which overexpresses the enzyme in the presence of xylose. In addition, a null mutant strain, Δ-xynB2, was created by two homologous recombination events where the chromosomal xynB2 gene was replaced by a copy that was disrupted by the spectinomycin-resistant cassette. We demonstrated that C. crescentus cells lacking β-xylosidase II upregulates the xynB genes inducing β-xylosidase activity. Transcriptional analysis revealed that xynB1 (RT-PCR analysis) and xynB2 (lacZ transcription fusion) gene expression was induced in the Δ-xynB2 cells, and high β-xylosidase activity was observed in the presence of different agro-industrial residues in the null mutant strain, a characteristic that can be explored and applied in biotechnological processes. In contrast, overexpression of the xynB2 gene caused downregulation of the expression and activity of the β-xylosidase. For example, the β-xylosidase activity that was obtained in the presence of sugarcane bagasse was 7-fold and 16-fold higher than the activity measured in the C. crescentus parental and O-xynB2 cells, respectively. Our results suggest that β-xylosidase II may have a role in controlling the expression of the xynB1 and xynB2 genes in C. crescentus. PMID:24142353

  11. Interleukin-6 upregulates paraoxonase 1 gene expression via an AKT/NF-κB-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chi-Chih; Hsueh, Chi-Mei; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •IL-6 could induce PON1 gene expression. •IL-6 increased NF-κB protein expression and NF-κB-p50 and -p65 subunits nuclear translocation. •IL-6-induced PON1 up-regulation was through an AKT/NF-κB pathway. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and atherosclerosis-related inflammation. In this study, human hepatoma HepG2 cell line was used as a hepatocyte model to examine the effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokines on PON1 expression. The results showed that IL-6, but not TNF-α and IL-1β, significantly increased both the function and protein level of PON1; data from real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the IL-6-induced PON1 expression occurred at the transcriptional level. Increase of IκB kinase activity and IκB phosphorylation, and reduction of IκB protein level were also observed in IL-6-treated HepG2 cells compared with untreated culture. This event was accompanied by increase of NF-κB-p50 and -p65 nuclear translocation. Moreover, treatment with IL-6 augmented the DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by PDTC and BAY 11-7082, markedly suppressed the IL-6-mediated PON1 expression. In addition, IL-6 increased the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (PKB, AKT). An AKT inhibitor LY294002 effectively suppressed IKK/IκB/NF-κB signaling and PON1 gene expression induced by IL-6. Our findings demonstrate that IL-6 upregulates PON1 gene expression through an AKT/NF-κB signaling axis in human hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cell line.

  12. Multiple β-defensin genes are upregulated by the vitamin D pathway in cattle.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Kathryn E; Kweh, Mercedes F; Powell, Jessica L; Lippolis, John D; Nelson, Corwin D

    2015-11-01

    Experimental models of bacterial and viral infections in cattle have suggested vitamin D has a role in innate immunity of cattle. The intracrine vitamin D pathway of bovine macrophages, however, has only been shown to activate a nitric oxide-mediated defense mechanism, as opposed to cathelicidin and β-defensin antimicrobial peptides in human macrophages. In this study we have investigated the actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) on a cluster of eleven bovine β-defensin genes on the basis of RNAseq data indicating they were targets of 1,25D in cattle. Treatment of bovine monocyte cultures with 1,25D (10 nM, 18 h) in the absence and presence of LPS stimulation increased the expression of bovine β-defensin 3 (BNBD3), BNBD4, BNBD6, BNBD7, and BNBD10 genes 5 to 10-fold compared to control (P<0.05). Treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes with 0-100 ng/mL 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 also increased BNBD3, BNBD4, BNBD7, and BNBD10 in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of monocytes with the protein translation inhibitor, cycloheximide, however, blocked upregulation of the β-defensins in response to 1,25D suggesting the β-defensins in cattle are not direct targets of the vitamin D receptor. Furthermore, preliminary investigation of vitamin D's contribution to β-defensin expression in vivo revealed that intramammary 1,25D treatment of lactating cows increased BNBD7 expression in mammary macrophages. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that multiple β-defensin genes are upregulated by 1,25D in cattle, providing further indication that vitamin D contributes to bovine innate immunity. PMID:26255277

  13. Up-regulation of the clusterin gene after proteotoxic stress: implication of HSF1-HSF2 heterocomplexes.

    PubMed

    Loison, Fabien; Debure, Laure; Nizard, Philippe; le Goff, Pascale; Michel, Denis; le Dréan, Yves

    2006-04-01

    Clusterin is a secreted protein chaperone up-regulated in several pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study shows that accumulation of aberrant proteins, caused by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or the incorporation of the amino acid analogue AZC (L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid), increased both clusterin protein and mRNA levels in the human glial cell line U-251 MG. Consistently, MG132 treatment was capable of stimulating a 1.3 kb clusterin gene promoter. Promoter deletion and mutation studies revealed a critical MG132-responsive region between -218 and -106 bp, which contains a particular heat-shock element, named CLE for 'clusterin element'. Gel mobility-shift assays demonstrated that MG132 and AZC treatments induced the formation of a protein complex that bound to CLE. As shown by supershift and chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments, CLE is bound by HSF1 (heat-shock factor 1) and HSF2 upon proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assays indicated that these two transcription factors interact. Gel-filtration analyses revealed that the HSF1-HSF2 heterocomplexes bound to CLE after proteasome inhibition have the same apparent mass as HSF1 homotrimers after heat shock, suggesting that HSF1 and HSF2 could heterotrimerize. Therefore these studies indicate that the clusterin is a good candidate to be part of a cellular defence mechanism against neurodegenerative diseases associated with misfolded protein accumulation or decrease in proteasome activity. PMID:16336210

  14. Modulation of Cellular and Viral Gene Expression by the Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Renne, Rolf; Barry, Chris; Dittmer, Dirk; Compitello, Nicole; Brown, Patrick O.; Ganem, Don

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also called human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the likely etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma. Common to these malignancies is that tumor cells are latently infected with KSHV. Viral gene expression is limited to a few genes, one of which is the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), the product of ORF73. Examination of the primary sequence of LANA reveals some structural features reminiscent of transcription factors, leading us to hypothesize that LANA may regulate viral and cellular transcription during latency. In reporter gene-based transient transfection assays, we found that LANA can have either positive or negative effects on gene expression. While expression of a reporter gene from several synthetic promoters was increased in the presence of LANA, expression from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat (LTR)—and from NF-κB-dependent reporter genes—was reduced by LANA expression. In addition, the promoter of KSHV ORF73 itself is activated up to 5.5-fold by LANA. This autoregulation may be important in tumorigenesis, because two other genes (v-cyclin and v-FLIP) with likely roles in cell growth and survival are also controlled by this element. To identify cellular genes influenced by LANA, we employed cDNA array-based expression profiling. Six known genes (and nine expressed sequence tags) were found to be upregulated in LANA-expressing cell lines. One of these, Staf-50, is known to inhibit expression from the HIV LTR; most of the other known genes are interferon inducible, although the interferon genes themselves were not induced by LANA. These data demonstrate that LANA expression has effects on cellular and viral gene expression. We suggest that, whether direct or indirect in origin, these effects may play important roles in the pathobiology of KSHV infection. PMID:11119614

  15. Nitrite reductase gene upregulated during conidiation is involved in macroconidium formation in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Iida, Y; Kurata, T; Harimoto, Y; Tsuge, T

    2008-10-01

    Fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. We previously found that the transcript level of the nitrite reductase gene of F. oxysporum, named FoNIIA, was markedly upregulated during conidiation compared with during vegetative growth. FoNIIA was also found to be positively regulated by Ren1 that is a transcription regulator controlling development of microconidia and macroconidia. In this study, we analyzed the function of FoNIIA in conidiation of F. oxysporum. Conidiation cultures showed markedly higher level of accumulation of FoNiiA protein as well as FoNIIA mRNA than vegetative growth cultures. FoNIIA protein was significantly decreased in cultures of the REN1 disruption mutant compared with that of the wild type. These results confirmed that FoNIIA expression is upregulated during conidiation and is positively regulated by REN1. The FoNIIA disruption mutants produced microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores, which were morphologically indistinguishable from those of the wild type. The mutants, however, produced significantly fewer macroconidia than the wild type, although the wild type and mutant strains produced similar numbers of microconidia and chlamydospores. These results demonstrate that nitrite reductase is involved in quantitative control of macroconidium formation as well as nitrate utilization in F. oxysporum. PMID:18943456

  16. MANGANESE UPREGULATES CELLULAR PRION PROTEINS AND INHIBITS THE RATE OF PROTEINASE-K DEPENDENT LIMITED PROTEOLYSIS IN NEURONAL CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The key event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent cations such as copper to th...

  17. Mammalian Mss51 is a skeletal muscle-specific gene modulating cellular metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Adam L.; Wagner, Kathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathways modulate skeletal muscle growth, regeneration, and cellular metabolism. Several recent gene expression studies have shown that inhibition of myostatin and TGF-β1 signaling consistently leads to a significant reduction in expression of Mss51, also named Zmynd17. The function of mammalian Mss51 is unknown although a putative homolog in yeast is a mitochondrial translational activator. Objective The objective of this work was to characterize mammalian Mss51. Methods Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot of subcellular fractionation were used to determine expression patterns and localization of Mss51. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to reduce expression of Mss51 in C2C12 myoblasts and the function of Mss51 was evaluated in assays of proliferation, differentiation and cellular metabolism. Results Mss51 was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and in those muscles dominated by fast-twitch fibers. In vitro, its expression was upregulated upon differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. Expression of Mss51 was modulated in response to altered TGF-β family signaling. In human muscle, Mss51 localized to the mitochondria. Its genetic disruption resulted in increased levels of cellular ATP, β-oxidation, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions Mss51 is a novel, skeletal muscle-specific gene and a key target of myostatin and TGF-β1 signaling. Unlike myostatin, TGF-β1 and IGF-1, Mss51 does not regulate myoblast proliferation or differentiation. Rather, Mss51 appears to be one of the effectors of these growth factors on metabolic processes including fatty acid oxidation, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26634192

  18. Upregulation of human heme oxygenase gene expression by Ets-family proteins.

    PubMed

    Deramaudt, B M; Remy, P; Abraham, N G

    1999-03-01

    Overexpression of human heme oxygenase-1 has been shown to have the potential to promote EC proliferation and angiogenesis. Since Ets-family proteins have been shown to play an important role in angiogenesis, we investigated the presence of ETS binding sites (EBS), GGAA/T, and ETS protein contributing to human HO-1 gene expression. Several chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs were examined in order to analyze the effect of ETS family proteins on the transduction of HO-1 in Xenopus oocytes and in microvessel endothelial cells. Heme oxygenase promoter activity was up-regulated by FLI-1ERGETS-1 protein(s). Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays demonstrated that the promoter region (-1500 to +19) contains positive and negative control elements and that all three members of the ETS protein family were responsible for the up-regulation of HHO-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), performed with nuclear extracts from endothelial cells overexpressing HHO-1 gene, and specific HHO-1 oligonucleotides probes containing putative EBS resulted in a specific and marked bandshift. Synergistic binding was observed in EMSA between AP-1 on the one hand, FLI-1, ERG, and ETS-1 protein on the other. Moreover, 5'-deletion analysis demonstrated the existence of a negative control element of HHO-1 expression located between positions -1500 and -120 on the HHO-1 promoter. The presence of regulatory sequences for transcription factors such as ETS-1, FLI-1, or ERG, whose activity is associated with cell proliferation, endothelial cell differentiation, and matrix metalloproteinase transduction, may be an indication of the important role that HO-1 may play in coronary collateral circulation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and hemoglobin-induced endothelial cell injuries. PMID:10022513

  19. Biomechanical signals upregulate myogenic gene induction in the presence or absence of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Ravi; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Anghelina, Mirela; Agarwal, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation of the muscle invariably leads to muscle cell damage and impaired regeneration. Biomechanical signals play a vital role in the regulation of myogenesis in healthy and inflamed muscle. We hypothesized that biomechanical signals counteract the actions of proinflammatory mediators and upregulate the basic helix-loop-helix and MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) families of transcription factors, leading to increased myogenesis in inflamed muscle cells. For this purpose, C2C12 cells plated on collagenized silastic membranes were subjected to equibiaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) in the presence or absence of TNF-α, and the myogenic gene induction was examined over a period of 72 h. Exposure of cells to CTS resulted in a significant upregulation of mRNA expressions and synthesis of myogenic regulatory factors, MYOD1, myogenin (MYOG), MEF2A, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A; p21) as well as muscle structural proteins like myosin heavy chain (MYHC) isoforms (MYH1, MYH2, and MYH4) and α-tropomyosin (TPM1), eventually leading to an increase in myotube formation. Contrarily, TNF-α suppressed the expression of all of the above differentiation-inducing factors in C2C12 cells. Further results revealed that simultaneous exposure of C2C12 cells to CTS and TNF-α abrogated the TNF-α-mediated downregulation of myogenic differentiation. In fact, the mRNA expression and protein synthesis of all myogenic factors (Myod1, Myog, Mef2a, Cdkn1a, Myh1, Myh2, Myh4, and Tpm1) were increased in stretched C2C12 cells despite the sustained presence of TNF-α. These results demonstrate that mechanotransduction regulates multiple signaling molecules involved in C2C12 cell differentiation. On one hand, these signals are potent transducers of myotube phenotype in myoblasts; on the other, these signals counteract catabolic actions of proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and allow the expression of myogenic genes to upregulate muscle cell differentiation

  20. Up-regulation of the interferon-related genes in BRCA2 knockout epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Xian, Jian; Vire, Emmanuelle; McKinney, Steven; Wong, Jason; Wei, Vivien; Tong, Rebecca; Kouzarides, Tony; Caldas, Carlos; Aparicio, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    BRCA2 mutations are significantly associated with early onset breast cancer, and the tumour suppressing function of BRCA2 has been attributed to its involvement in homologous recombination [1]-mediated DNA repair. In order to identify additional functions of BRCA2, we generated BRCA2-knockout HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Using genome-wide microarray analyses, we have discovered a link between the loss of BRCA2 and the up-regulation of a subset of interferon (IFN)-related genes, including APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G. The over-expression of IFN-related genes was confirmed in different human BRCA2−/− and mouse Brca2−/− tumour cell lines, and was independent of either senescence or apoptosis. In isogenic wild type BRCA2 cells, we observed over-expression of IFN-related genes after treatment with DNA-damaging agents, and following ionizing radiation. Cells with endogenous DNA damage because of defective BRCA1 or RAD51 also exhibited over-expression of IFN-related genes. Transcriptional activity of the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) was increased in BRCA2 knockout cells, and the expression of BRCA2 greatly decreased IFN-α stimulated ISRE reporter activity, suggesting that BRCA2 directly represses the expression of IFN-related genes through the ISRE. Finally, the colony forming capacity of BRCA2 knockout cells was significantly reduced in the presence of either IFN-β or IFN-γ, suggesting that IFNs may have potential as therapeutic agents in cancer cells with BRCA2 mutations. PMID:25043256

  1. Histone acetylation associated up-regulation of the cell wall related genes is involved in salt stress induced maize root swelling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress usually causes crop growth inhibition and yield decrease. Epigenetic regulation is involved in plant responses to environmental stimuli. The epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related genes associated with the salt-induced cellular response is still little known. This study aimed to analyze cell morphological alterations in maize roots as a consequence of excess salinity in relation to the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related protein genes. Results In this study, maize seedling roots got shorter and displayed swelling after exposure to 200 mM NaCl for 48 h and 96 h. Cytological observation showed that the growth inhibition of maize roots was due to the reduction in meristematic zone cell division activity and elongation zone cell production. The enlargement of the stele tissue and cortex cells contributed to root swelling in the elongation zone. The cell wall is thought to be the major control point for cell enlargement. Cell wall related proteins include xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET), expansins (EXP), and the plasma membrane proton pump (MHA). RT-PCR results displayed an up-regulation of cell wall related ZmEXPA1, ZmEXPA3, ZmEXPA5, ZmEXPB1, ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes and the down-regulation of cell wall related ZmEXPB4 and ZmMHA genes as the duration of exposure was increased. Histone acetylation is regulated by HATs, which are often correlated with gene activation. The expression of histone acetyltransferase genes ZmHATB and ZmGCN5 was increased after 200 mM NaCl treatment, accompanied by an increase in the global acetylation levels of histones H3K9 and H4K5. ChIP experiment showed that the up-regulation of the ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes was associated with the elevated H3K9 acetylation levels on the promoter regions and coding regions of these two genes. Conclusions These data suggested that the up-regulation of some cell wall related genes mediated cell enlargement to possibly mitigate the

  2. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes and cellular processes driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takahiro; Newberg, Justin Y; Kodama, Michiko; Rangel, Roberto; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tien, Jean C; Parsons, Pamela H; Wu, Hao; Finegold, Milton J; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A

    2016-06-14

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to metastasis and chemoresistance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to their poor prognosis. The genes driving EMT in HCC are not yet fully understood, however. Here, we show that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposons in immortalized mouse hepatoblasts induces mesenchymal liver tumors on transplantation to nude mice. These tumors show significant down-regulation of epithelial markers, along with up-regulation of mesenchymal markers and EMT-related transcription factors (EMT-TFs). Sequencing of transposon insertion sites from tumors identified 233 candidate cancer genes (CCGs) that were enriched for genes and cellular processes driving EMT. Subsequent trunk driver analysis identified 23 CCGs that are predicted to function early in tumorigenesis and whose mutation or alteration in patients with HCC is correlated with poor patient survival. Validation of the top trunk drivers identified in the screen, including MET (MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), HECT, UBA, and WWE domain containing 1 (HUWE1), lysine-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 12 (PTPN12), showed that deregulation of these genes activates an EMT program in human HCC cells that enhances tumor cell migration. Finally, deregulation of these genes in human HCC was found to confer sorafenib resistance through apoptotic tolerance and reduced proliferation, consistent with recent studies showing that EMT contributes to the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Our unique cell-based transposon mutagenesis screen appears to be an excellent resource for discovering genes involved in EMT in human HCC and potentially for identifying new drug targets. PMID:27247392

  3. Concise review: Nanoparticles and cellular carriers-allies in cancer imaging and cellular gene therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Catherine; Russell, Pamela J; Martiniello-Wilks, Rosetta; J Rasko, John E; Khatri, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    Ineffective treatment and poor patient management continue to plague the arena of clinical oncology. The crucial issues include inadequate treatment efficacy due to ineffective targeting of cancer deposits, systemic toxicities, suboptimal cancer detection and disease monitoring. This has led to the quest for clinically relevant, innovative multifaceted solutions such as development of targeted and traceable therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the intrinsic ability to “home” to growing tumors and are hypoimmunogenic. Therefore, these can be used as (a) “Trojan Horses” to deliver gene therapy directly into the tumors and (b) carriers of nanoparticles to allow cell tracking and simultaneous cancer detection. The camouflage of MSC carriers can potentially tackle the issues of safety, vector, and/or transgene immunogenicity as well as nanoparticle clearance and toxicity. The versatility of the nanotechnology platform could allow cellular tracking using single or multimodal imaging modalities. Toward that end, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is fast becoming a clinical favorite, though there is scope for improvement in its accuracy and sensitivity. In that, use of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPION) as MRI contrast enhancers may be the best option for tracking therapeutic MSC. The prospects and consequences of synergistic approaches using MSC carriers, gene therapy, and SPION in developing cancer diagnostics and therapeutics are discussed. STEM CELLS 2010; 28:1686–1702. PMID:20629172

  4. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90).

    PubMed

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-02-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle. PMID:12630567

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle.

  6. Modeling gene expression using chromatin features in various cellular contexts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous work has demonstrated that chromatin feature levels correlate with gene expression. The ENCODE project enables us to further explore this relationship using an unprecedented volume of data. Expression levels from more than 100,000 promoters were measured using a variety of high-throughput techniques applied to RNA extracted by different protocols from different cellular compartments of several human cell lines. ENCODE also generated the genome-wide mapping of eleven histone marks, one histone variant, and DNase I hypersensitivity sites in seven cell lines. Results We built a novel quantitative model to study the relationship between chromatin features and expression levels. Our study not only confirms that the general relationships found in previous studies hold across various cell lines, but also makes new suggestions about the relationship between chromatin features and gene expression levels. We found that expression status and expression levels can be predicted by different groups of chromatin features, both with high accuracy. We also found that expression levels measured by CAGE are better predicted than by RNA-PET or RNA-Seq, and different categories of chromatin features are the most predictive of expression for different RNA measurement methods. Additionally, PolyA+ RNA is overall more predictable than PolyA- RNA among different cell compartments, and PolyA+ cytosolic RNA measured with RNA-Seq is more predictable than PolyA+ nuclear RNA, while the opposite is true for PolyA- RNA. Conclusions Our study provides new insights into transcriptional regulation by analyzing chromatin features in different cellular contexts. PMID:22950368

  7. The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1999-01-01

    Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24

  8. Cellular unfolded protein response against viruses used in gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Dwaipayan; Balakrishnan, Balaji; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are excellent vehicles for gene therapy due to their natural ability to infect and deliver the cargo to specific tissues with high efficiency. Although such vectors are usually “gutted” and are replication defective, they are subjected to clearance by the host cells by immune recognition and destruction. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a naturally evolved cyto-protective signaling pathway which is triggered due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in its lumen. The UPR signaling consists of three signaling pathways, namely PKR-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 6, and inositol-requiring protein-1. Once activated, UPR triggers the production of ER molecular chaperones and stress response proteins to help reduce the protein load within the ER. This occurs by degradation of the misfolded proteins and ensues in the arrest of protein translation machinery. If the burden of protein load in ER is beyond its processing capacity, UPR can activate pro-apoptotic pathways or autophagy leading to cell death. Viruses are naturally evolved in hijacking the host cellular translation machinery to generate a large amount of proteins. This phenomenon disrupts ER homeostasis and leads to ER stress. Alternatively, in the case of gutted vectors used in gene therapy, the excess load of recombinant vectors administered and encountered by the cell can trigger UPR. Thus, in the context of gene therapy, UPR becomes a major roadblock that can potentially trigger inflammatory responses against the vectors and reduce the efficiency of gene transfer. PMID:24904562

  9. 78 FR 79699 - Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee..., Tissue, and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), FDA. On February...

  10. 75 FR 66381 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... Lentiviral Vector Based Gene Therapy Products. FDA intends to make background material available to...

  11. 76 FR 22405 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... gene therapy products for the treatment of retinal disorders. Topics to be considered include...

  12. Cellular functions of genetically imprinted genes in human and mouse as annotated in the gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mohamed; Ismael, Siba; Paulsen, Martina; Helms, Volkhard

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the cellular functions of genetically imprinted genes as annotated in the Gene Ontology for human and mouse, we found that imprinted genes are often involved in developmental, transport and regulatory processes. In the human, paternally expressed genes are enriched in GO terms related to the development of organs and of anatomical structures. In the mouse, maternally expressed genes regulate cation transport as well as G-protein signaling processes. Furthermore, we investigated if imprinted genes are regulated by common transcription factors. We identified 25 TF families that showed an enrichment of binding sites in the set of imprinted genes in human and 40 TF families in mouse. In general, maternally and paternally expressed genes are not regulated by different transcription factors. The genes Nnat, Klf14, Blcap, Gnas and Ube3a contribute most to the enrichment of TF families. In the mouse, genes that are maternally expressed in placenta are enriched for AP1 binding sites. In the human, we found that these genes possessed binding sites for both, AP1 and SP1. PMID:23226257

  13. Meta-analysis of heat- and chemically upregulated chaperone genes in plant and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Finka, Andrija; Mattoo, Rayees U. H.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are central to cellular protein homeostasis. In mammals, protein misfolding diseases and aging cause inflammation and progressive tissue loss, in correlation with the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates and the defective expression of chaperone genes. Bacteria and non-diseased, non-aged eukaryotic cells effectively respond to heat shock by inducing the accumulation of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), many of which molecular chaperones involved in protein homeostasis, in reducing stress damages and promoting cellular recovery and thermotolerance. We performed a meta-analysis of published microarray data and compared expression profiles of HSP genes from mammalian and plant cells in response to heat or isothermal treatments with drugs. The differences and overlaps between HSP and chaperone genes were analyzed, and expression patterns were clustered and organized in a network. HSPs and chaperones only partly overlapped. Heat-shock induced a subset of chaperones primarily targeted to the cytoplasm and organelles but not to the endoplasmic reticulum, which organized into a network with a central core of Hsp90s, Hsp70s, and sHSPs. Heat was best mimicked by isothermal treatments with Hsp90 inhibitors, whereas less toxic drugs, some of which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, weakly expressed different subsets of Hsp chaperones. This type of analysis may uncover new HSP-inducing drugs to improve protein homeostasis in misfolding and aging diseases. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-010-0216-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20694844

  14. Identification of Potentially Neuroprotective Genes Upregulated by Neurotrophin Treatment of CA3 Neurons in the Injured Brain

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Saafan Z.; Motamedi, Shahab; Royo, Nicolas C.; LeBold, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Specific neurotrophic factors mediate histological and/or functional improvement in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In previous work, several lines of evidence indicated that the mammalian neurotrophin NT-4/5 is neuroprotective for hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons after experimental TBI. We hypothesized that NT-4/5 neuroprotection is mediated by changes in the expression of specific sets of genes, and that NT-4/5-regulated genes are potential therapeutic targets for blocking delayed neuronal death after TBI. In this study, we performed transcription profiling analysis of CA3 neurons to identify genes regulated by lateral fluid percussion injury, or by treatment with the trkB ligands NT-4/5 or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The results indicate extensive overlap between genes upregulated by neurotrophins and genes upregulated by injury, suggesting that the mechanism behind neurotrophin neuroprotection may mimic the brain's endogenous protective response. A subset of genes selected for further study in vitro exhibited neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity. The neuroprotective genes identified in this study were upregulated at 30 h post-injury, and are thus expected to act during a clinically useful time frame of hours to days after injury. Modulation of these factors and pathways by genetic manipulation or small molecules may confer hippocampal neuroprotection in vivo in preclinical models of TBI. PMID:21083427

  15. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Reveals that Cyclo-oxygenase-2 Gene Therapy Up-regulates Hematopoiesis and Down-regulates Inflammation During Endochondral Bone Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lau, K.-H. William; Popa, Nicoleta L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is an inflammatory mediator that is necessary for the tissue repair, including bone fracture healing. Although the application of Cox-2 gene therapy to a murine closed femoral fracture has accelerated bony union, but the beneficial effect was not observed until the endochondral stage of bone repair that is well after the inflammatory stage normally subsides. Methods To identify the molecular pathways through which Cox-2 regulates fracture healing, we examined gene expression profile in fracture tissues in response to Cox-2 gene therapy during the endochondral bone repair phase. Cox-2 gene therapy was applied to the closed murine femur fracture model. Microarray analysis was performed at 10 days post-fracture to examine global gene expression profile in the fracture tissues during the endochondral bone repair phase. The entire repertoire of significantly expressed genes was examined by gene set enrichment analysis, and the most up-regulated individual genes were evaluated further. Results The genes that normally promote inflammation were under-represented in the microarray analysis, and the expression of several inflammatory chemokines was significantly down-regulated. There was an up-regulation of two key transcription factor genes that regulate hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis. More surprisingly, there was no significant up-regulation in the genes that are normally involved in angiogenesis or bone formation. However, the expression of two tissue remodeling genes was up-regulated. Conclusions The down-regulation of the inflammatory genes in response to Cox-2 gene therapy was unexpected, given the pro-inflammatory role of prostaglandins. Cox-2 gene therapy could promote bony union through hematopoietic precursor proliferation during endochondral bone repair and thereby enhances subsequently fracture callus remodeling that leads to bony union of the fracture gap. PMID:25247155

  16. Age-Associated Epigenetic Upregulation of the FKBP5 Gene Selectively Impairs Stress Resiliency

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Jonathan J.; O'Leary, John C.; Blair, Laura J.; Klengel, Torsten; Nordhues, Bryce A.; Fontaine, Sarah N.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Dickey, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene combine with traumatic events to increase risk for post-traumatic stress and major depressive disorders (PTSD and MDD). These SNPs increase FKBP51 protein expression through a mechanism involving demethylation of the gene and altered glucocorticoid signaling. Aged animals also display elevated FKBP51 levels, which contribute to impaired resiliency to depressive-like behaviors through impaired glucocorticoid signaling, a phenotype that is abrogated in FKBP5−/− mice. But the age of onset and progressive stability of these phenotypes remain unknown. Moreover, it is unclear how FKBP5 deletion affects other glucocorticoid-dependent processes or if age-associated increases in FKBP51 expression are mediated through a similar epigenetic process caused by SNPs in the FKBP5 gene. Here, we show that FKBP51-mediated impairment in stress resiliency and glucocorticoid signaling occurs by 10 months of age and this increased over their lifespan. Surprisingly, despite these progressive changes in glucocorticoid responsiveness, FKBP5−/− mice displayed normal longevity, glucose tolerance, blood composition and cytokine profiles across lifespan, phenotypes normally associated with glucocorticoid signaling. We also found that methylation of Fkbp5 decreased with age in mice, a process that likely explains the age-associated increases in FKBP51 levels. Thus, epigenetic upregulation of FKBP51 with age can selectively impair psychological stress-resiliency, but does not affect other glucocorticoid-mediated physiological processes. This makes FKBP51 a unique and attractive therapeutic target to treat PTSD and MDD. In addition, aged wild-type mice may be a useful model for investigating the mechanisms of FKBP5 SNPs associated with these disorders. PMID:25191701

  17. 77 FR 73472 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  18. Osmotic stress up-regulates aquaporin-3 gene expression in cultured human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Y; Ota, Y; Hara, M; Inoue, S

    2001-12-01

    Of ten members of the aquaporin family (AQP), the mRNA expression and regulation of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP9 in cultured human keratinocytes were examined by an RNase protection assay. AQP3 mRNA was expressed in growing and differentiating cells, while AQP9 mRNA was only detected in differentiating cells. The epidermis in skin-equivalent cultures expressed both AQP3 and AQP9 mRNA. However, neither AQP1 nor AQP4 mRNA was detectable in either monolayer or skin-equivalent cultures. Incubation of keratinocytes in sorbitol-added hypertonic medium increased AQP3 mRNA expression. This was confirmed using other solutes such as NaCl, mannitol, glucose and sucrose. The effect of sorbitol was reversible, dose-dependent and maximal at 24 h after addition. However, AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9 mRNA expression were unchanged under any of the hypertonic conditions examined. These findings indicated that osmotic stress up-regulates AQP3 gene expression in cultured keratinocytes. PMID:11750058

  19. A knowledge driven supervised learning approach to identify gene network of differentially up-regulated genes during neuronal senescence in Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Dholaniya, Pankaj Singh; Ghosh, Soumitra; Surampudi, Bapi Raju; Kondapi, Anand K

    2015-09-01

    Various approaches have been described to infer the gene interaction network from expression data. Several models based on computational and mathematical methods are available. The fundamental thing in the identification of the gene interaction is their biological relevance. Two genes belonging to the same pathway are more likely to affect the expression of each other than the genes of two different pathways. In the present study, interaction network of genes is described based on upregulated genes during neuronal senescence in the Cerebellar granule neurons of rat. We have adopted a supervised learning method and used it in combination with biological pathway information of the genes to develop a gene interaction network. Further modular analysis of the network has been done to identify senescence-related marker genes. Currently there is no adequate information available about the genes implicated in neuronal senescence. Thus identifying multipath genes belonging to the pathway affected by senescence might be very useful in studying the senescence process. PMID:26163927

  20. Transcriptome analysis of copper homeostasis genes reveals coordinated upregulation of SLC31A1,SCO1, and COX11 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Barresi, Vincenza; Trovato-Salinaro, Angela; Spampinato, Giorgia; Musso, Nicolò; Castorina, Sergio; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Condorelli, Daniele Filippo

    2016-08-01

    Copper homeostasis and distribution is strictly regulated by a network of transporters and intracellular chaperones encoded by a group of genes collectively known as copper homeostasis genes (CHGs). In this work, analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database for somatic point mutations in colorectal cancer revealed that inactivating mutations are absent or extremely rare in CHGs. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we found a strong increase in mRNA levels of the membrane copper transporter 1 protein [CTR1; encoded by the solute carrier family 31 member 1 gene (SLC31A1 gene)] in our series of colorectal carcinoma samples. CTR1 is the main copper influx transporter and changes in its expression are able to induce modifications of cellular copper accumulation. The increased SLC31A1 mRNA level is accompanied by a parallel increase in transcript levels for copper efflux pump ATP7A, copper metabolism Murr1 domain containing 1 (COMMD1), the cytochrome C oxidase assembly factors [synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (SCO1) and cytochrome c oxidase copper chaperone 11 (COX11)], the cupric reductase six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate (STEAP3), and the metal-regulatory transcription factors (MTF1, MTF2) and specificity protein 1 (SP1). The significant correlation between SLC31A1,SCO1, and COX11 mRNA levels suggests that this transcriptional upregulation might be part of a coordinated program of gene regulation. Transcript-level upregulation of SLC31A1,SCO1, and COX11 was also confirmed by the analysis of different colon carcinoma cell lines (Caco-2, HT116, HT29) and cancer cell lines of different tissue origin (MCF7, PC3). Finally, exon-level expression analysis of SLC31A1 reveals differential expression of alternative transcripts in colorectal cancer and normal colonic mucosa. PMID:27516958

  1. Prolonged Proteasome Inhibition Cyclically Upregulates Oct3/4 and Nanog Gene Expression, but Reduces Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Elizabeth Z.; Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Power, Rachel A.; Kilroy, Gail; Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Barnes, Christian W.; Strickler, Karen L.; Rim, Jong S.; Harkins, Lettie L.; Gao, Ru; Kim, Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is ample evidence that the ubiquitin–proteasome system is an important regulator of transcription and its activity is necessary for maintaining pluripotency and promoting cellular reprogramming. Moreover, proteasome activity contributes to maintaining the open chromatin structure found in pluripotent stem cells, acting as a transcriptional inhibitor at specific gene loci generally associated with differentiation. The current study was designed to understand further the role of proteasome inhibition in reprogramming and its ability to modulate endogenous expression of pluripotency-related genes and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) colony formation. Herein, we demonstrate that acute combinatorial treatment with the proteasome inhibitors MG101 or MG132 and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) increases gene expression of the pluripotency marker Oct3/4, and that MG101 alone is as effective as VPA in the induction of Oct3/4 mRNA expression in fibroblasts. Prolonged proteasome inhibition cyclically upregulates gene expression of Oct3/4 and Nanog, but reduces colony formation in the presence of the iPSC induction cocktail. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the 26S proteasome is an essential modulator in the reprogramming process. Its inhibition enhances expression of pluripotency-related genes; however, efficient colony formation requires proteasome activity. Therefore, discovery of small molecules that increase proteasome activity might lead to more efficient cell reprogramming and generation of pluripotent cells. PMID:25826722

  2. Senescence-specific gene expression fingerprints reveal cell-type-dependent physical clustering of up-regulated chromosomal loci

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Pan, Kuang-Hung; Cohen, Stanley N.

    2003-01-01

    Replicative senescence is the state of irreversible proliferative arrest that occurs as a concomitant of progressive telomere shortening. By using cDNA microarrays and the gabriel system of computer programs to apply domain-specific and procedural knowledge for data analysis, we investigated global changes in gene transcription occurring during replicative senescence in human fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Here we report the identification of transcriptional “fingerprints” unique to senescence, the finding that gene expression perturbations during senescence differ greatly in fibroblasts and HMECs, and the discovery that despite the disparate nature of the chromosomal loci affected by senescence in fibroblasts and HMECs, the up-regulated loci in both types of cells show physical clustering. This clustering, which contrasts with the random distribution of genes down-regulated during senescence or up-regulated during reversible proliferative arrest (i.e., quiescence), supports the view that replicative senescence is associated with alteration of chromatin structure. PMID:12626749

  3. RNA Sequencing Reveals Upregulation of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 Gene Signatures in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zuquan; Yu, Hongjie; Ding, Yan; Feng, Chenchen; Wei, Hanming; Tao, Sha; Huang, Dan; Zheng, Siqun Lilly; Sun, Jielin; Xu, Jianfeng; Fang, Zujun

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, therapies targeted at the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathways, such as sunitinib and sorafenib, have been developed to treat clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the majority of patients will eventually show resistance to antiangiogenesis therapies. The purpose of our study was to identify novel pathways that could be potentially used as targets for new therapies. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) was conducted on eight matched tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples. A novel RUNX1-RUNX1T1 pathway was identified which was upregulated in ccRCC through gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also confirmed the findings based on previously published gene expression microarray data. Our data shows that upregulated of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene set maybe an important factor contributing to the etiology of ccRCC. PMID:24783204

  4. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 59635), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance of the same title. FDA... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene... Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance...

  5. 78 FR 70307 - Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Federal Register of November 29, 2012 (77 FR 71194), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance... Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene...

  6. 76 FR 64951 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory...

  7. 77 FR 65693 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a meeting of the Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of October 17, 2012 (77 FR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory...

  8. Up-regulated uridine kinase gene identified by RLCS in the ventral horn after crush injury to rat sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Yuh, I; Yaoi, T; Watanabe, S; Okajima, S; Hirasawa, Y; Fushiki, S

    1999-12-01

    Rat sciatic nerve crush injury is one of the models commonly employed for studying the mechanisms of nerve regeneration. In this study, we analyzed the temporal change of gene expression after injury in this model, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in nerve regeneration. First, a cDNA analysis method, Restriction Landmark cDNA Scanning (RLCS), was applied to cells in the ventral horn of the spinal cord during a 7-day period after the crush injury. A total of 1991 cDNA species were detected as spots on gels, and 37 of these were shown to change after the injury. Temporally changed patterns were classified into three categories: the continuously up-regulated type (10 species), the transiently up-regulated type (22 species), and the down-regulated type (5 species). These complex patterns of gene expression demonstrated after the injury suggest that precise regulation in molecular pathways is required for accomplishing nerve regeneration. Secondly, the rat homologue of uridine kinase gene was identified as one of the up-regulated genes. Northern blot analysis on rat ventral horn tissue and brain revealed that the UK gene had three transcripts with different sizes (4.3, 1. 4, and 1.35 kb, respectively). All of the transcripts, especially the 4.3 kb one, were up-regulated mainly in a bimodal fashion during the 28-day period after the injury. The RLCS method that we employed in the present study shows promise as a means to fully analyze molecular changes in nerve regeneration in detail. PMID:10581173

  9. Girdin/GIV is upregulated by cyclic tension, propagates mechanical signal transduction, and is required for the cellular proliferation and migration of MG-63 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jiang-Tian; Li, Yan; Yu, Bing; Gao, Guo-Jie; Zhou, Ting; Li, Song

    2015-08-21

    To explore how Girdin/GIV is regulated by cyclic tension and propagates downstream signals to affect cell proliferation and migration. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were exposed to cyclic tension force at 4000 μstrain and 0.5 Hz for 6 h, produced by a four-point bending system. Cyclic tension force upregulated Girdin and Akt expression and phosphorylation in cultured MG-63 cells. Girdin and Akt each promoted the phosphorylation of the other under stimulated tension. In vitro MTT and transwell assays showed that Girdin and Akt are required for cell proliferation and migration during cellular quiescence. Moreover, STAT3 was determined to be essential for Girdin expression under stimulated tension force in the physiological condition, as well as for osteoblast proliferation and migration during quiescence. These findings suggest that the STAT3/Girdin/Akt pathway activates in osteoblasts in response to mechanical stimulation and may play a significant role in triggering osteoblast proliferation and migration during orthodontic treatment. - Highlights: • Tension force upregulates Girdin and Akt expression and phosphorylation. • Girdin and Akt promotes the phosphorylation of each other under tension stimulation. • Girdin and Akt are required for MG-63 cell proliferation and migration. • STAT3 is essential for Girdin expression after application of the tension forces.

  10. Lymphoid Gene Upregulation on Circulating Progenitors Participates in Their T-Lineage Commitment.

    PubMed

    Zepponi, Vanessa; Michaels Lopez, Victoria; Martinez-Cingolani, Carolina; Boudil, Amine; Pasqualetto, Valérie; Skhiri, Lamia; Gautreau, Laetitia; Legrand, Agnès; Megret, Jerome; Zavala, Flora; Ezine, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    Extrathymic T cell precursors can be detected in many tissues and represent an immediately competent population for rapid T cell reconstitution in the event of immunodeficiencies. Blood T cell progenitors have been detected, but their source in the bone marrow (BM) remains unclear. Prospective purification of BM-resident and circulating progenitors, together with RT-PCR single-cell analysis, was used to evaluate and compare multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Molecular analysis of circulating progenitors in comparison with BM-resident progenitors revealed that CCR9(+) progenitors are more abundant in the blood than CCR7(+) progenitors. Second, although Flt3(-) CLPs are less common in the BM, they are abundant in the blood and have reduced Cd25(+)-expressing cells and downregulated c-Kit and IL-7Rα intensities. Third, in contrast, stage 3 MPP (MPP3) cells, the unique circulating MPP subset, have upregulated Il7r, Gata3, and Notch1 in comparison with BM-resident counterparts. Evaluation of the populations' respective abilities to generate splenic T cell precursors (Lin(-)Thy1.2(+)CD25(+)IL7Rα(+)) after grafting recipient nude mice revealed that MPP3 cells were the most effective subset (relative to CLPs). Although several lymphoid genes are expressed by MPP3 cells and Flt3(-) CLPs, the latter only give rise to B cells in the spleen, and Notch1 expression level is not modulated in the blood, as for MPP3 cells. We conclude that CLPs have reached the point where they cannot be a Notch1 target, a limiting condition on the path to T cell engagement. PMID:26026063

  11. Inhibition of SULT4A1 expression induces up-regulation of phototransduction gene expression in 72-hour postfertilization zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Frank; Thomas, Holly; Ethen, Cheryl M; Wu, Zhengliang L; Chen, Dongquan; Kraft, Timothy W; Parant, John M; Falany, Charles N

    2014-05-01

    Sulfotransferase (SULT) 4A1 is an orphan enzyme that shares distinct structure and sequence similarities with other cytosolic SULTs. SULT4A1 is primarily expressed in neuronal tissue and is also the most conserved SULT, having been identified in every vertebrate investigated to date. Certain haplotypes of the SULT4A1 gene are correlated with higher baseline psychopathology in schizophrenic patients, but no substrate or function for SULT4A1 has yet been identified despite its high level of sequence conservation. In this study, deep RNA sequencing was used to search for alterations in gene expression in 72-hour postfertilization zebrafish larvae following transient SULT4A1 knockdown (KD) utilizing splice blocking morpholino oligonucleotides. This study demonstrates that transient inhibition of SULT4A1 expression in developing zebrafish larvae results in the up-regulation of several genes involved in phototransduction. SULT4A1 KD was verified by immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Gene regulation changes identified by deep RNA sequencing were validated by qPCR. This study is the first identification of a cellular process whose regulation appears to be associated with SULT4A1 expression. PMID:24553382

  12. Inhibition of SULT4A1 Expression Induces Up-Regulation of Phototransduction Gene Expression in 72-Hour Postfertilization Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Frank; Thomas, Holly; Ethen, Cheryl M.; Wu, Zhengliang L.; Chen, Dongquan; Kraft, Timothy W.; Parant, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfotransferase (SULT) 4A1 is an orphan enzyme that shares distinct structure and sequence similarities with other cytosolic SULTs. SULT4A1 is primarily expressed in neuronal tissue and is also the most conserved SULT, having been identified in every vertebrate investigated to date. Certain haplotypes of the SULT4A1 gene are correlated with higher baseline psychopathology in schizophrenic patients, but no substrate or function for SULT4A1 has yet been identified despite its high level of sequence conservation. In this study, deep RNA sequencing was used to search for alterations in gene expression in 72-hour postfertilization zebrafish larvae following transient SULT4A1 knockdown (KD) utilizing splice blocking morpholino oligonucleotides. This study demonstrates that transient inhibition of SULT4A1 expression in developing zebrafish larvae results in the up-regulation of several genes involved in phototransduction. SULT4A1 KD was verified by immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Gene regulation changes identified by deep RNA sequencing were validated by qPCR. This study is the first identification of a cellular process whose regulation appears to be associated with SULT4A1 expression. PMID:24553382

  13. N-acetylcysteine inhibits the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in livers from rats fed ethanol chronically

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Andres A.; Bell, Matthew; Ejiofor, Shannon; Zurcher, Grant; Petersen, Dennis R.; Ronis, Martin J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic ethanol administration to experimental animals induces hepatic oxidative stress and upregulates mitochondrial biogenesis. The mechanisms by which chronic ethanol upregulates mitochondrial biogenesis have not been fully explored. In this work, we hypothesized that oxidative stress is a factor that triggers mitochondrial biogenesis after chronic ethanol feeding. If our hypothesis is correct, co-administration of antioxidants should prevent upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Methods Rats were fed an ethanol-containing diet intragastrically by total enteral nutrition for 150 days, in the absence or presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 1.7 g/kg/day; control rats were administered isocaloric diets where carbohydrates substituted for ethanol calories. Results Ethanol administration significantly increased hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced as decreased liver total glutathione and GSH/GSSG ratio. These effects were inhibited by co-administration of ethanol and NAC. Chronic ethanol increased the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1 alpha and mitochondrial transcription factor A, and mitochondrial DNA; co-administration of ethanol and NAC prevented these effects. Chronic ethanol administration was associated with decreased mitochondrial mass, inactivation and depletion of mitochondrial complex I and complex IV, and increased hepatic mitochondrial oxidative damage, effects that were not prevented by NAC. Conclusions These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by chronic ethanol triggered the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in rat liver, because an antioxidant such as NAC prevented both effects. Because NAC did not prevent liver mitochondrial oxidative damage, extra-mitochondrial effects of reactive oxygen species may regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. In spite of the induction of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis genes by

  14. Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host

    PubMed Central

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  15. Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae infection affects the expression of genes involved in cellular signal transduction and iron metabolism in the kidney of the brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Sarker, Subhodeep; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is an enigmatic endoparasite which causes proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. The life cycle of the European strain of T. bryosalmonae generally completes in an invertebrate host freshwater bryozoan and vertebrate host brown trout (Salmo trutta) Linnaeus, 1758. Little is known about the gene expression in the kidney of brown trout during the developmental stages of T. bryosalmonae. In the present study, quantitative real-time PCR was applied to quantify the target genes of interest in the kidney of brown trout at different time points of T. bryosalmonae development. PCR primers specific for target genes were designed and optimized, and their gene expression levels were quantified in the cDNA kidney samples using SYBR Green Supermix. Expression of Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta, integral membrane protein 2B, NADH dehydrogenase 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6, and 26S protease regulatory subunit S10B were upregulated significantly in infected brown trout, while the expression of the ferritin M middle subunit was downregulated significantly. These results suggest that host genes involved in cellular signal transduction, proteasomal activities, including membrane transporters and cellular iron storage, are differentially upregulated or downregulated in the kidney of brown trout during parasite development. The gene expression pattern of infected renal tissue may support the development of intraluminal sporogonic stages of T. bryosalmonae in the renal tubular lumen of brown trout which may facilitate the release of viable parasite spores to transmit to the invertebrate host bryozoan. PMID:25786607

  16. miR-130b-3p Upregulation Contributes to the Development of Thyroid Adenomas Targeting CCDC6 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Vincenza; Langella, Concetta; Esposito, Francesco; De Martino, Marco; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Bianco, Antonio; Fusco, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously studied the function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in thyroid cells using the differentiated rat thyroid PC Cl 3 cells that need thyrotropin (TSH) for their growth. The miRNA expression profile examination allowed the detection of a set of miRNAs downregulated and upregulated by TSH. Here, we first demonstrated that upregulation of miR-130b-3p occurs through a protein kinase A-cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-dependent mechanism. Then, we analyzed its expression in human thyroid follicular adenomas, where a constitutive CREB activation is frequently present. miR-130b-3p results in upregulation with a high fold-change in most thyroid follicular adenomas. Then, we identified CCDC6, coding for a protein that interacts with CREB1 leading to the transcriptional repression of CREB1 target genes, as a target of this miRNA. The targeting of CCDC6 by miR-130b-3p likely accounts for the mechanism by which its upregulation contributes to the development of thyroid adenomas increasing CREB1 activity. PMID:26835423

  17. 76 FR 81513 - Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee..., Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. FDA intends to make...

  18. 77 FR 63840 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee..., Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... in open session to hear updates of research programs in the Gene Transfer and Immunogenicity...

  19. Vitamin D supplementation up-regulates IL-6 and IL-17A gene expression in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Naghavi Gargari, Bahar; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Shirvani Farsani, Zeinab; Pahlevan Kakhki, Majid; Azimi, Amir Reza

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D regulates gene expression and affects target cell functions. IL-6 and IL-17A are pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with MS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D effects on the expression level of IL-6 and IL-17A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Also, we performed a correlation analysis between the gene expression and some clinical features such as serum level of vitamin D and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Significant up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-17A gene expression was shown under vitamin D treatment. Also, some gender specific correlations between the gene expression with vitamin D levels were detected in female RR-MS patients. PMID:26188623

  20. Rapid acclimation of juvenile corals to CO2 -mediated acidification by upregulation of heat shock protein and Bcl-2 genes.

    PubMed

    Moya, A; Huisman, L; Forêt, S; Gattuso, J-P; Hayward, D C; Ball, E E; Miller, D J

    2015-01-01

    Corals play a key role in ocean ecosystems and carbonate balance, but their molecular response to ocean acidification remains unclear. The only previous whole-transcriptome study (Moya et al. Molecular Ecology, 2012; 21, 2440) documented extensive disruption of gene expression, particularly of genes encoding skeletal organic matrix proteins, in juvenile corals (Acropora millepora) after short-term (3 d) exposure to elevated pCO2 . In this study, whole-transcriptome analysis was used to compare the effects of such 'acute' (3 d) exposure to elevated pCO2 with a longer ('prolonged'; 9 d) period of exposure beginning immediately post-fertilization. Far fewer genes were differentially expressed under the 9-d treatment, and although the transcriptome data implied wholesale disruption of metabolism and calcification genes in the acute treatment experiment, expression of most genes was at control levels after prolonged treatment. There was little overlap between the genes responding to the acute and prolonged treatments, but heat shock proteins (HSPs) and heat shock factors (HSFs) were over-represented amongst the genes responding to both treatments. Amongst these was an HSP70 gene previously shown to be involved in acclimation to thermal stress in a field population of another acroporid coral. The most obvious feature of the molecular response in the 9-d treatment experiment was the upregulation of five distinct Bcl-2 family members, the majority predicted to be anti-apoptotic. This suggests that an important component of the longer term response to elevated CO2 is suppression of apoptosis. It therefore appears that juvenile A. millepora have the capacity to rapidly acclimate to elevated pCO2 , a process mediated by upregulation of specific HSPs and a suite of Bcl-2 family members. PMID:25444080

  1. Survivin enhances telomerase activity via up-regulation of specificity protein 1- and c-Myc-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Endoh, Teruo; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Yagihashi, Atsuhito; Watanabe, Naoki . E-mail: watanabn@sapmed.ac.jp

    2005-05-01

    Suppression of apoptosis is thought to contribute to carcinogenesis. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis family, blocks apoptotic signaling activated by various cellular stresses. Since elevated expression of survivin observed in human cancers of varied origin was associated with poor patient survival, survivin has attracted growing attention as a potential target for cancer treatment. Immortalization of cells also is required for carcinogenesis; telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for cancer cells to proliferate indefinitely. Yet how cancer cells activate telomerase remains unclear. We therefore examined possible interrelationships between survivin expression and telomerase activity. Correlation between survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression was observed in colon cancer tissues, and overexpression of survivin enhanced telomerase activity by up-regulation of hTERT expression in LS180 human colon cancer cells. DNA-binding activities of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and c-Myc to the hTERT core promoter were increased in survivin gene transfectant cells. Phosphorylation of Sp1 and c-Myc at serine and threonine residues was enhanced by survivin, while total amounts of these proteins were unchanged. Further, 'knockdown' of survivin by a small inhibitory RNA decreased Sp1 and c-Myc phosphorylation. Thus survivin participates not only in inhibition of apoptosis, but also in prolonging cellular lifespan.

  2. 78 FR 15726 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue and...

  3. 76 FR 18768 - Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Cellular, Tissue, and...

  4. C. elegans Metabolic Gene Regulatory Networks Govern the Cellular Economy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emma; Walhout, Albertha J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Diet greatly impacts metabolism in health and disease. In response to the presence or absence of specific nutrients, metabolic gene regulatory networks sense the metabolic state of the cell and regulate metabolic flux accordingly, for instance by the transcriptional control of metabolic enzymes. Here we discuss recent insights regarding metazoan metabolic regulatory networks using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, including the modular organization of metabolic gene regulatory networks, the prominent impact of diet on the transcriptome and metabolome, specialized roles of nuclear hormone receptors in responding to dietary conditions, regulation of metabolic genes and metabolic regulators by microRNAs, and feedback between metabolic genes and their regulators. PMID:24731597

  5. Upregulation of two actin genes and redistribution of actin during diapause and cold stress in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two actin genes cloned from Culex pipiens L. are upregulated during adult diapause. Though actins 1 and 2 were expressed throughout diapause, both genes were most highly expressed early in diapause. These changes in gene expression were accompanied by a conspicuous redistribution of polymerized acti...

  6. Heteroconium chaetospira induces resistance to clubroot via upregulation of host genes involved in jasmonic acid, ethylene, and auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lahlali, Rachid; McGregor, Linda; Song, Tao; Gossen, Bruce D; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Peng, Gary

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira isolate BC2HB1 (Hc), suppressed clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae -Pb) on canola in growth-cabinet trials. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Hc penetrated canola roots and colonized cortical tissues. Based on qPCR analysis, the amount of Hc DNA found in canola roots at 14 days after treatment was negatively correlated (r = 0.92, P<0.001) with the severity of clubroot at 5 weeks after treatment at a low (2×10(5) spores pot(-1)) but not high (2×10(5) spores pot(-1)) dose of pathogen inoculum. Transcript levels of nine B. napus (Bn) genes in roots treated with Hc plus Pb, Pb alone and a nontreated control were analyzed using qPCR supplemented with biochemical analysis for the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyases (PAL). These genes encode enzymes involved in several biosynthetic pathways related potentially to plant defence. Hc plus Pb increased the activity of PAL but not that of the other two genes (BnCCR and BnOPCL) involved also in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, relative to Pb inoculation alone. In contrast, expression of several genes involved in the jasmonic acid (BnOPR2), ethylene (BnACO), auxin (BnAAO1), and PR-2 protein (BnPR-2) biosynthesis were upregulated by 63, 48, 3, and 3 fold, respectively, by Hc plus Pb over Pb alone. This indicates that these genes may be involved in inducing resistance in canola by Hc against clubroot. The upregulation of BnAAO1 appears to be related to both pathogenesis of clubroot and induced defence mechanisms in canola roots. This is the first report on regulation of specific host genes involved in induced plant resistance by a non-mycorrhizal endophyte. PMID:24714177

  7. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, the formation of chromoplasts and the upregulation of several carotenogenic genes are temporally coordinated. We investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for this coordinated expression by isolating five G. lutea carotenogenic gene (GlPDS, GlZDS, GlLYCB, GlBCH and GlLYCE) promoters by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each promoter was sufficient for developmentally regulated expression of the gusA reporter gene following transient expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). Interestingly, the GlLYCB and GlBCH promoters drove high levels of gusA expression in chromoplast-containing mature green fruits, but low levels in chloroplast-containing immature green fruits, indicating a strict correlation between promoter activity, tomato fruit development and chromoplast differentiation. As well as core promoter elements such as TATA and CAAT boxes, all five promoters together with previously characterized GlZEP promoter contained three common cis-regulatory motifs involved in the response to methyl jasmonate (CGTCA) and ethylene (ATCTA), and required for endosperm expression (Skn-1_motif, GTCAT). These shared common cis-acting elements may represent binding sites for transcription factors responsible for co-regulation. Our data provide insight into the regulatory basis of the coordinated upregulation of carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in G. lutea. PMID:24256196

  8. Mitotic genes are transcriptionally upregulated in the fibroblast irradiated with very low doses of UV-C.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Seiji; Matsuda, Toshiro; Ono, Ryusuke; Tsujimoto, Mariko; Nishigori, Chikako

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a variety of biological effects, including DNA damage response and cell signaling pathways. We performed transcriptome analysis using microarray in human primary cultured fibroblasts irradiated with UV-C (0.5 or 5 J/m(2)) and harvested at 4 or 12 h following UV exposure. All transcript data were analyzed by comparison with the corresponding results in non-irradiated (control) cells. The number of genes with significantly altered expression (≥2-fold difference relative to the control) is higher in the sample irradiated with high dose of UV, suggesting that gene expression was UV dose-dependent. Pathway analysis on the upregulated genes at 12 h indicates that the expression of some cell cycle-related genes was predominantly induced irrespective of UV-dose. Interestingly, almost all the genes with significant altered expression were cell cycle-related genes designated as 'Mitotic Genes', which function in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Therefore, even a low dose of UV could affect the transcriptional profile. PMID:27378355

  9. Mechanisms of miRNA-Mediated Gene Regulation from Common Downregulation to mRNA-Specific Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh-Bavili, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Discovered in 1993, micoRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as one of the major regulatory gene families in eukaryotes. To date, 24521 microRNAs have been discovered and there are certainly more to come. It was primarily acknowledged that miRNAs result in gene expression repression at both the level of mRNA stability by conducting mRNA degradation and the level of translation (at initiation and after initiation) by inhibiting protein translation or degrading the polypeptides through binding complementarily to 3′UTR of the target mRNAs. Nevertheless, some studies revealed that miRNAs have the capability of activating gene expression directly or indirectly in respond to different cell types and conditions and in the presence of distinct cofactors. This reversibility in their posttranslational gene regulatory natures enables the bearing cells to rapidly response to different cell conditions and consequently block unnecessary energy wastage or maintain the cell state. This paper provides an overview of the current understandings of the miRNA characteristics including their genes and biogenesis, as well as their mediated downregulation. We also review up-to-date knowledge of miRNA-mediated gene upregulation through highlighting some notable examples and discuss the emerging concepts of their associations with other posttranscriptional gene regulation processes. PMID:25180174

  10. Control of Rta expression critically determines transcription of viral and cellular genes following gammaherpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Hair, James R; Lyons, Paul A; Smith, Kenneth G C; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2007-06-01

    The replication and transcriptional activator (Rta), encoded by ORF50 of gammaherpesviruses, initiates the lytic cycle of gene expression; therefore understanding the impact of Rta on viral and cellular gene expression is key to elucidating the transcriptional events governing productive infection and reactivation from latency. To this end, the impact of altering Rta transcription on viral and cellular gene expression was studied in the context of a whole virus infection. Recombinant murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV)-68 engineered to overexpress Rta greatly accelerated expression of specific lytic cycle ORFs, but repressed transcription of the major latency gene, ORF73. Increased expression of Rta accelerated the dysregulation in transcription of specific cellular genes when compared with cells infected with wild-type and revertant viruses. A subset of cellular genes was dysregulated only in cells infected with Rta-overexpressing virus, and never in those infected with non-overexpressing viruses. These data highlight the critical role of Rta abundance in governing viral and cellular gene transcription, and demonstrate the importance of understanding how the relative expression of ORF50 during the virus life cycle impacts on these processes. PMID:17485528

  11. Control of Rta expression critically determines transcription of viral and cellular genes following gammaherpesvirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Hair, James R.; Lyons, Paul A.; Smith, Kenneth G. C.; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2007-01-01

    The replication and transcriptional activator (Rta), encoded by ORF50 of gammaherpesviruses, initiates the lytic cycle of gene expression; therefore understanding the impact of Rta on viral and cellular gene expression is key to elucidating the transcriptional events governing productive infection and reactivation from latency. To this end, the impact of altering Rta transcription on viral and cellular gene expression was studied in the context of a whole virus infection. Recombinant murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV)-68 engineered to overexpress Rta greatly accelerated expression of specific lytic cycle ORFs, but repressed transcription of the major latency gene, ORF73. Increased expression of Rta accelerated the dysregulation in transcription of specific cellular genes when compared with cells infected with wild-type and revertant viruses. A subset of cellular genes was dysregulated only in cells infected with Rta-overexpressing virus, and never in those infected with non-overexpressing viruses. These data highlight the critical role of Rta abundance in governing viral and cellular gene transcription, and demonstrate the importance of understanding how the relative expression of ORF50 during the virus life cycle impacts on these processes. PMID:17485528

  12. Intragraft Expression of the IL-10 Gene Is Up-Regulated in Renal Protocol Biopsies with Early Interstitial Fibrosis, Tubular Atrophy, and Subclinical Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Hueso, Miguel; Navarro, Estanis; Moreso, Francesc; O'Valle, Francisco; Pérez-Riba, Mercè; del Moral, Raimundo García; Grinyó, Josep M.; Serón, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Grafts with subclinical rejection associated with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (SCR+IF/TA) show poorer survival than grafts with subclinical rejection without IF/TA (SCR). Aiming to detect differences among SCR+IF/TA and SCR, we immunophenotyped the inflammatory infiltrate (CD45, CD3, CD20, CD68) and used a low-density array to determine levels of TH1 (interleukin IL-2, IL-3, γ-interferon, tumor necrosis factor-α, lymphotoxin-α, lymphotoxin-β, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and TH2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13) transcripts as well as of IL-2R (as marker for T-cell activation) in 31 protocol biopsies of renal allografts. Here we show that grafts with early IF/TA and SCR can be distinguished from grafts with SCR on the basis of the activation of IL-10 gene expression and of an increased infiltration by B-lymphocytes in a cellular context in which the degree of T-cell activation is similar in both groups of biopsies, as demonstrated by equivalent levels of IL-2R mRNA. These results suggest that the up-regulation of the IL-10 gene expression, as well as an increased proportion of B-lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrates, might be useful as markers of early chronic lesions in grafts with SCR. PMID:20150436

  13. Mitotic genes are transcriptionally upregulated in the fibroblast irradiated with very low doses of UV-C

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Seiji; Matsuda, Toshiro; Ono, Ryusuke; Tsujimoto, Mariko; Nishigori, Chikako

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a variety of biological effects, including DNA damage response and cell signaling pathways. We performed transcriptome analysis using microarray in human primary cultured fibroblasts irradiated with UV-C (0.5 or 5 J/m2) and harvested at 4 or 12 h following UV exposure. All transcript data were analyzed by comparison with the corresponding results in non-irradiated (control) cells. The number of genes with significantly altered expression (≥2-fold difference relative to the control) is higher in the sample irradiated with high dose of UV, suggesting that gene expression was UV dose-dependent. Pathway analysis on the upregulated genes at 12 h indicates that the expression of some cell cycle-related genes was predominantly induced irrespective of UV-dose. Interestingly, almost all the genes with significant altered expression were cell cycle-related genes designated as ‘Mitotic Genes’, which function in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Therefore, even a low dose of UV could affect the transcriptional profile. PMID:27378355

  14. Aniline exposure associated with up-regulated transcriptional responses of three glutathione S-transferase Delta genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Chiao; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2015-03-01

    Complex transcriptional profile of glutathione S-transferase Delta cluster genes occurred in the developmental process of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The purpose of this project was to quantify the expression levels of Gst Delta class genes altered by aniline exposure and to understand the relationship between aniline dosages and the variation of Gst Delta genes expressed in D. melanogaster. Using RT-PCR expression assays, the expression patterns of the transcript mRNAs of the glutathione S-transferase Delta genes were revealed and their expression levels were measured at eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. The adult stage was selected for further dose-response assays. After analysis, the results indicated that three Gst Delta genes (Gst D2, Gst D5 and Gst D6) were found to show a peak of up-regulated transcriptional response at 6-8h of exposure of aniline. Furthermore, the dose-response relationship of their induction levels within the dose regiments (from 1.2 to 2.0 μl/tube) had been measured. The expression patterns and annotations of these genes were discussed in the context. PMID:25682008

  15. GENES FOR TUMOR MARKERS ARE CLUSTERED WITH CELLULAR PROTO-ONCOGENES ON HUMAN CHROMOSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative mapping positions of genes for polypeptides expressed abnormally in tumors (tumor markers) and cellular proto-oncogenes were analyzed and a remarkable degree of co-mapping of tumor marker genes with oncogenes in the human karyotype were found. It is proposed that abe...

  16. Up-regulation of ERG11 gene among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans generated in vitro: is there any clinical implication?

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mariceli Araujo; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    A well-characterized matched pair of fluconazole (FLU)-susceptible and FLU-resistant isolates, in addition to a clinical resistant isolate, was analyzed. It was found a differential expression of genes: the resistant strains experimentally induced after fluconazole exposure in vitro were associated mainly with up-regulation of ERG11 gene and a clear trailing growth in broth microdilution tests, whereas the isolate with clinically acquired resistance expressed constitutively high level of CDR gene and fluconazole MIC >64 mg mL(-1) within 24 h of incubation. The phenotype of resistant cells generated in vitro was reversible, implying that an induced transcriptional up-regulation of ERG genes would be one adaptive mechanism allowing the cells to grow in the presence of azole drugs. These drugs could have a potential role in modulating genes whose up-regulation would allow cells to remain in the hosts, providing a source for further development of resistance. PMID:16839736

  17. Control of adenovirus early gene expression: Posttranscriptional control mediated by both viral and cellular gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Katze, M.G.; Persson, H.; Philipson, L.

    1981-09-01

    An adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (hr-1) located in region E1A and phenotypically defective in expressing viral messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) from other early regions was analyzed for accumulation of viral RNA in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Nuclear RNA was transcribed from all early regions at the same rate, regardless of whether the drug was present or absent. As expected, low or undetectable levels of RNA were found in the cytoplasm of hr-1-infected cells compared with the wild-type adenovirus type 5 in the absence of drug. When anisomycin was added 30 min before hr-1 infection, cytoplasmic RNA was abundant from early regions E3 and E4 when assayed by filter hybridization. In accordance, early regions E3 and E4 viral messenger RNA species were detected by the S1 endonuclease mapping technique only in hr-1-infected cells that were treated with the drug. Similar results were obtained by in vitro translation studies. Together, these results suggest that this adenovirus type 5 mutant lacks a viral gene product necessary for accumulation of viral messenger RNA, but not for transcription. It is proposed that a cellular gene product serves as a negative regulator of viral messenger RNA accumulation at the posttranscriptional level.

  18. Genes Selectively Up-Regulated by Pheromone in White Cells Are Involved in Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Daniels, Karla J.; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Pujol, Claude; Soll, David R.

    2009-01-01

    To mate, MTL-homozygous strains of the yeast pathogen Candida albicans must switch from the white to opaque phase. Mating-competent opaque cells then release pheromone that induces polarization, a G1 block and conjugation tube formation in opaque cells of opposite mating type. Pheromone also induces mating-incompetent white cells to become adhesive and cohesive, and form thicker biofilms that facilitate mating. The pheromone response pathway of white cells shares the upstream components of that of opaque cells, but targets a different transcription factor. Here we demonstrate that the genes up-regulated by the pheromone in white cells are activated through a common cis-acting sequence, WPRE, which is distinct from the cis-acting sequence, OPRE, responsible for up-regulation in opaque cells. Furthermore, we find that these white-specific genes play roles in white cell biofilm formation, and are essential for biofilm formation in the absence of an added source of pheromone, suggesting either an autocrine or pheromone-independent mechanism. These results suggest an intimate, complex and unique relationship between switching, mating and MTL-homozygous white cell biofilm formation, the latter a presumed virulence factor in C. albicans. PMID:19798425

  19. Genes selectively up-regulated by pheromone in white cells are involved in biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Daniels, Karla J; Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Pujol, Claude; Soll, David R

    2009-10-01

    To mate, MTL-homozygous strains of the yeast pathogen Candida albicans must switch from the white to opaque phase. Mating-competent opaque cells then release pheromone that induces polarization, a G1 block and conjugation tube formation in opaque cells of opposite mating type. Pheromone also induces mating-incompetent white cells to become adhesive and cohesive, and form thicker biofilms that facilitate mating. The pheromone response pathway of white cells shares the upstream components of that of opaque cells, but targets a different transcription factor. Here we demonstrate that the genes up-regulated by the pheromone in white cells are activated through a common cis-acting sequence, WPRE, which is distinct from the cis-acting sequence, OPRE, responsible for up-regulation in opaque cells. Furthermore, we find that these white-specific genes play roles in white cell biofilm formation, and are essential for biofilm formation in the absence of an added source of pheromone, suggesting either an autocrine or pheromone-independent mechanism. These results suggest an intimate, complex and unique relationship between switching, mating and MTL-homozygous white cell biofilm formation, the latter a presumed virulence factor in C. albicans. PMID:19798425

  20. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 promotes tumor-driven angiogenesis by up-regulating pro-angiogenic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Andrew E.; Liu, Bing; Song, Renhua; Li, Jinyan; Pasquier, Eddy; Cheung, Belamy B.; Jiang, Cizhong; Marshall, Glenn M.; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D.; Fletcher, Jamie I.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Liu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor during early childhood. One of the key features of neuroblastoma is extensive tumor-driven angiogenesis due to hypoxia. However, the mechanism through which neuroblastoma cells drive angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 was upregulated in human neuroblastoma cell lines under hypoxic conditions. Conditioned media from neuroblastoma cells transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting MALAT1, compared with conditioned media from neuroblastoma cells transfected with control siRNAs, induced significantly less endothelial cell migration, invasion and vasculature formation. Microarray-based differential gene expression analysis showed that one of the genes most significantly down-regulated following MALAT1 suppression in human neuroblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions was fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses confirmed that MALAT1 suppression reduced FGF2 expression, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays revealed that transfection with MALAT1 siRNAs reduced FGF2 protein secretion from neuroblastoma cells. Importantly, addition of recombinant FGF2 protein to the cell culture media reversed the effects of MALAT1 siRNA on vasculature formation. Taken together, our data suggest that up-regulation of MALAT1 expression in human neuroblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions increases FGF2 expression and promotes vasculature formation, and therefore plays an important role in tumor-driven angiogenesis. PMID:26848616

  1. Blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant-based diets rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent development of several chronic age-related diseases. However, the mechanisms behind this protective effect are not elucidated. We have tested the hypothesis that intake of antioxidant-rich foods can affect groups of genes associated with cellular stress defence in human blood cells. Trial registration number: NCT00520819 http://clinicaltrials.gov. Methods In an 8-week dietary intervention study, 102 healthy male smokers were randomised to either a diet rich in various antioxidant-rich foods, a kiwifruit diet (three kiwifruits/d added to the regular diet) or a control group. Blood cell gene expression profiles were obtained from 10 randomly selected individuals of each group. Diet-induced changes on gene expression were compared to controls using a novel application of the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on transcription profiles obtained using Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus 2.0 whole genome arrays. Results Changes were observed in the blood cell gene expression profiles in both intervention groups when compared to the control group. Groups of genes involved in regulation of cellular stress defence, such as DNA repair, apoptosis and hypoxia, were significantly upregulated (GSEA, FDR q-values < 5%) by both diets compared to the control group. Genes with common regulatory motifs for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (AhR/ARNT) were upregulated by both interventions (FDR q-values < 5%). Plasma antioxidant biomarkers (polyphenols/carotenoids) increased in both groups. Conclusions The observed changes in the blood cell gene expression profiles suggest that the beneficial effects of a plant-based diet on human health may be mediated through optimization of defence processes. PMID:20846424

  2. Upregulation of Slc38a1 Gene Along with Promotion of Neurosphere Growth and Subsequent Neuronal Specification in Undifferentiated Neural Progenitor Cells Exposed to Theanine.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Ogura, Masato; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Kakuda, Takami; Nakazato, Ryota; Kokubo, Hiroshi; Ikeno, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Saki; Kutsukake, Takaya; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    We have shown marked promotion of both cluster growth and neuronal specification in pluripotent P19 cells with overexpression of solute carrier 38a1 (Slc38a1), which is responsible for membrane transport of glutamine. In this study, we evaluated pharmacological profiles of the green tea amino acid ingredient theanine, which is a good substrate for glutamine transporters, on proliferation and neuronal specification in neural progenitor cells from embryonic rat neocortex. Sustained exposure to theanine, but not glutamine, accelerated the growth of neurospheres composed of proliferating cells and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reducing activity at concentrations of 1-100 μM in undifferentiated progenitor cells. Such prior exposure to theanine promoted spontaneous and induced commitment to a neuronal lineage with concomitant deteriorated astroglial specification. Selective upregulation was seen in the expression of Slc38a1 in progenitor cells cultured with theanine. Similarly significant increases in cluster growth and MTT reducing activity were found in P19 cells cultured with theanine for 4 days. Luciferase activity was doubled in a manner sensitive to the deletion of promoter regions in P19 cells with a luciferase reporter plasmid of the Slc38a1 promoter after sustained exposure to theanine for 4 days. Overexpression of X-box binding protein-1 led to a marked increase in luciferase activity in P19 cells transfected with the Slc38a1 reporter plasmid. These results suggest that theanine accelerates cellular proliferation and subsequent neuronal specification through a mechanism relevant to upregulation of Slc38a1 gene in undifferentiated neural progenitor cells. PMID:25957749

  3. Co-evolutionary networks of genes and cellular processes across fungal species

    PubMed Central

    Tuller, Tamir; Kupiec, Martin; Ruppin, Eytan

    2009-01-01

    Background The introduction of measures such as evolutionary rate and propensity for gene loss have significantly advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary history and selection forces acting upon individual genes and cellular processes. Results We present two new measures, the 'relative evolutionary rate pattern' (rERP), which records the relative evolutionary rates of conserved genes across the different branches of a species' phylogenetic tree, and the 'copy number pattern' (CNP), which quantifies the rate of gene loss of less conserved genes. Together, these measures yield a high-resolution study of the co-evolution of genes in 9 fungal species, spanning 3,540 sets of orthologs. We find that the evolutionary tempo of conserved genes varies in different evolutionary periods. The co-evolution of genes' Gene Ontology categories exhibits a significant correlation with their functional distance in the Gene Ontology hierarchy, but not with their location on chromosomes, showing that cellular functions are a more important driving force in gene co-evolution than their chromosomal proximity. Two fundamental patterns of co-evolution of conserved genes, cooperative and reciprocal, are identified; only genes co-evolving cooperatively functionally back each other up. The co-evolution of conserved and less conserved genes exhibits both commonalities and differences; DNA metabolism is positively correlated with nuclear traffic, transcription processes and vacuolar biology in both analyses. Conclusions Overall, this study charts the first global network view of gene co-evolution in fungi. The future application of the approach presented here to other phylogenetic trees holds much promise in characterizing the forces that shape cellular co-evolution. PMID:19416514

  4. Fluoxetine up-regulates expression of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein and inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis in hippocampus-derived neural stem cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, S.-H. . E-mail: shchiou@vghtpe.gov.tw; Chen, S.-J. . E-mail: sjchen@vghtpe.gov.tw; Peng, C-H.; Chang, Y.-L.; Ku, H.-H.; Hsu, W.-M.; Ho, Larry L.-T.; Lee, C.-H.

    2006-05-05

    Fluoxetine is a widely used antidepressant compound which inhibits the reuptake of serotonin in the central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that fluoxetine can promote neurogenesis and improve the survival rate of neurons. However, whether fluoxetine modulates the proliferation or neuroprotection effects of neural stem cells (NSCs) needs to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that 20 {mu}M fluoxetine can increase the cell proliferation of NSCs derived from the hippocampus of adult rats by MTT test. The up-regulated expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in fluoxetine-treated NSCs was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Our results further showed that fluoxetine protects the lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in NSCs, in part, by activating the expression of c-FLIP. Moreover, c-FLIP induction by fluoxetine requires the activation of the c-FLIP promoter region spanning nucleotides -414 to -133, including CREB and SP1 sites. This effect appeared to involve the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, fluoxetine treatment significantly inhibited the induction of proinflammatory factor IL-1{beta}, IL-6, and TNF-{alpha} in the culture medium of LPS-treated NSCs (p < 0.01). The results of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection further confirmed that fluoxentine increased the functional production of serotonin in NSCs. Together, these data demonstrate the specific activation of c-FLIP by fluoxetine and indicate the novel role of fluoxetine for neuroprotection in the treatment of depression.

  5. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis reveals upregulation of immediate early genes and mediators of the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xingwen; Lu, Jui-Yun; Hofmann, Sandra L

    2007-01-01

    Background The infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (also known as infantile Batten disease) is caused by hereditary deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1), and is characterized by severe cortical degeneration with blindness and cognitive and motor dysfunction. The PPT1-deficient knockout mouse recapitulates the key features of the disorder, including seizures and death by 7–9 months of age. In the current study, we compared gene expression profiles of whole brain from PPT1 knockout and normal mice at 3, 5 and 8 months of age to identify temporal changes in molecular pathways implicated in disease pathogenesis. Results A total of 267 genes were significantly (approximately 2-fold) up- or downregulated over the course of the disease. Immediate early genes (Arc, Cyr61, c-fos, jun-b, btg2, NR4A1) were among the first genes upregulated during the presymptomatic period whereas immune response genes dominated at later time points. Chemokine ligands and protease inhibitors were among the most transcriptionally responsive genes. Neuronal survival factors (IGF-1 and CNTF) and a negative regulator of neuronal apoptosis (DAP kinase-1) were upregulated late in the course of the disease. Few genes were downregulated; these included the α2 subunit of the GABA-A receptor, a component of cortical and hippocampal neurons, and Hes5, a transcription factor important in neuronal differentiation. Conclusion A molecular description of gene expression changes occurring in the brain throughout the course of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis suggests distinct phases of disease progression, provides clues to potential markers of disease activity, and points to new targets for therapy. PMID:18021406

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum up-regulates some anti-apoptotic genes in neutrophils and pro-inflammatory genes in mononuclear cells of sheep.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Z; Yavari, C

    2014-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has the unique ability to selectively infect and multiply within the hostile environment of the neutrophil. Previous studies have shown that sheep with TBF are more susceptible to other infections and that infected neutrophils have reduced phagocytic ability and delayed apoptosis. This suggests that survival of A. phagocytophilum in these short-lived cells involves the ability to subvert or resist their bacterial killing, but also to modify the host cells such that the host cells survive long after infection. The present study shows that infection of sheep by A. phagocytophilum is characterized by up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR) in neutrophils and up-regulation of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in mononuclear cells during the period of bacteraemia. Infection with A. phagocytophilum was also characterized by significant up-regulation of CYBB, which is associated with the respiratory burst of neutrophils. PMID:24602324

  7. [Cellular therapy and gene therapy: perspectives in neuromuscular pathology].

    PubMed

    Fardeau, M

    1993-10-01

    Identification of the gene coding for the protein (dystrophin) which is lacking or abnormal in Duchenne or Becker type human muscular dystrophies was a decisive turning point in neuro-muscular pathology. Since that time, a considerable number of gene abnormalities have been identified or at least localized. The severity of these diseases, their steady evolution and the absence of any efficient drug therapy, have lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches based on restoring the genetic capacities of the muscle cell. There are two possibilities for therapy. The first is based on the transfer of myogenic cells derived from the 'satellite' cells normally present at the periphery of muscle fibers. The results obtained from a murine model of Duchenne dystrophy ('mdx' mouse) were very promising. However, the results from application of the same techniques to the canine model (GRMDX) or to affected children are, at the present time, disappointing. A number of biological questions remain to be solved before this technique can be more extensively applied to humans. The second possibility is based on gene transfer, through a viral vector. The adenovirus is presently a possible vector. The first experimental results, on 'mdx' mice, are again very encouraging. Extension of these studies to the canine model is a necessary prerequisite for any human application. It should be noted that these two approaches are complementary. Their future applications may depend on the diffuse or selective nature of the skeletal muscle atrophy, and on whether cardiac and respiratory muscles are involved. PMID:8290312

  8. Up-regulation of glucocorticoid-regulated genes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nuber, Ulrike A; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas; Roloff, Tim C; Guy, Jacky; Selfridge, Jim; Steinhoff, Christine; Schulz, Ralph; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Ropers, H Hilger; Holmes, Megan C; Bird, Adrian

    2005-08-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe form of mental retardation, which is caused by spontaneous mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. How the loss of MeCP2 function leads to RTT is currently unknown. Mice lacking the Mecp2 gene initially show normal postnatal development but later acquire neurological phenotypes, including heightened anxiety, that resemble RTT. The MECP2 gene encodes a methyl-CpG-binding protein that can act as a transcriptional repressor. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that Mecp2-null animals differentially express several genes that are induced during the stress response by glucocorticoids. Increased levels of mRNAs for serum glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk) and FK506-binding protein 51 (Fkbp5) were observed before and after onset of neurological symptoms, but plasma glucocorticoid was not significantly elevated in Mecp2-null mice. MeCP2 is bound to the Fkbp5 and Sgk genes in brain and may function as a modulator of glucocorticoid-inducible gene expression. Given the known deleterious effect of glucocorticoid exposure on brain development, our data raise the possibility that disruption of MeCP2-dependent regulation of stress-responsive genes contributes to the symptoms of RTT. PMID:16002417

  9. Dietary restriction mitigates cocaine-induced alterations of olfactory bulb cellular plasticity and gene expression, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangru; Mughal, Mohamed R; Scott Hall, F; Perona, Maria T G; Pistell, Paul J; Lathia, Justin D; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Becker, Kevin G; Ladenheim, Bruce; Niklason, Laura E; Uhl, George R; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P

    2010-07-01

    Because the olfactory system plays a major role in food consumption, and because 'food addiction' and associated morbidities have reached epidemic proportions, we tested the hypothesis that dietary energy restriction can modify adverse effects of cocaine on behavior and olfactory cellular and molecular plasticity. Mice maintained on an alternate day fasting (ADF) diet exhibited increased baseline locomotion and increased cocaine-sensitized locomotion during cocaine conditioning, despite no change in cocaine conditioned place preference, compared with mice fed ad libitum. Levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the olfactory bulb (OB) were suppressed in mice on the ADF diet compared with mice on the control diet, independent of acute or chronic cocaine treatment. The expression of several enzymes involved in dopamine metabolism including tyrosine hydroxylase, monoamine oxidases A and B, and catechol-O-methyltransferase were significantly reduced in OBs of mice on the ADF diet. Both acute and chronic administration of cocaine suppressed the production of new OB cells, and this effect of cocaine was attenuated in mice on the ADF diet. Cocaine administration to mice on the control diet resulted in up-regulation of OB genes involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism, synaptic plasticity, cellular stress responses, and calcium- and cAMP-mediated signaling, whereas multiple olfactory receptor genes were down-regulated by cocaine treatment. ADF abolished many of the effects of cocaine on OB gene expression. Our findings reveal that dietary energy intake modifies the neural substrates underlying some of the behavioral and physiological responses to repeated cocaine treatment, and also suggest novel roles for the olfactory system in addiction. The data further suggest that modification of dietary energy intake could provide a novel potential approach to addiction treatments. PMID:20456017

  10. Myocardial Gene Transfer: Routes and Devices for Regulation of Transgene Expression by Modulation of Cellular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael G.; Bridges, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Heart diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Gene therapy approaches are becoming promising therapeutic modalities to improve underlying molecular processes affecting failing cardiomyocytes. Numerous cardiac clinical gene therapy trials have yet to demonstrate strong positive results and advantages over current pharmacotherapy. The success of gene therapy depends largely on the creation of a reliable and efficient delivery method. The establishment of such a system is determined by its ability to overcome the existing biological barriers, including cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking as well as modulation of cellular permeability. In this article, we describe a variety of physical and mechanical methods, based on the transient disruption of the cell membrane, which are applied in nonviral gene transfer. In addition, we focus on the use of different physiological techniques and devices and pharmacological agents to enhance endothelial permeability. Development of these methods will undoubtedly help solve major problems facing gene therapy. PMID:23427834

  11. Differential cellular gene expression induced by hepatitis B and C viruses.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Motoyuki; Aizaki, Hideki; Kato, Naoya; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Omata, Masao; Seki, Naohiko

    2003-01-10

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that causes acute and chronic hepatocellular injury and hepatocellular carcinoma. To clarify how HBV proteins regulate host cellular gene expression, we used our in-house cDNA microarray and HepG2.2.15 cells, which are derived from HepG2 cells and produce all HBV proteins. Of 2304 genes investigated, several genes were differentially expressed in HepG2.2.15 cells compared with HepG2 cells. These genes included insulin-like growth factor II and alpha-fetoprotein, consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, we previously performed similar microarray analyses to clarify the effects of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins on host cells, using a HepG2-derivative cell line, which produces all HCV proteins. Using these two microarray results, we compared the differences in cellular gene expression induced by HBV and HCV proteins. The expression of the majority of genes investigated differed only slightly between HBV and HCV protein-producing cells. However, HBV and HCV proteins clearly regulated several genes in a reciprocal manner. Combined, these microarray results shed new light on the effects of HBV proteins on cellular gene expression and on the differences in the pathogenic activities of these two hepatitis viruses. PMID:12504104

  12. Upregulation of isoprenoid pathway genes during enhanced saikosaponin biosynthesis in the hairy roots of Bupleurum falcatum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soon; Cho, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Juncheul; Hwang, Baik

    2006-12-31

    In order to characterize saikosaponin biosynthesis in Bupleurum falcatum, the expression of five isoprenoid pathway genes and their relationship to saikosaponin accumulation in the hairy roots were analyzed. The hairy roots exhibited a rapid accumulation of saikosaponins when incubated in a root culture medium (3XRCM). Homology-based RT-PCR was used to isolate core fragments of five genes, HMGR, IPPI, FPS, SS, and OSC, from the hairy roots. The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited amino acid identities of more than 85% to previously reported genes. Using the fragments as probes, the expression of these five genes in the hairy roots during incubation in 3XRCM medium was examined. Expression of all five genes in the hairy roots increased soon after incubation. In particular, the SS and OSC genes were coordinately induced at 8 days of incubation, and their expression persisted throughout the incubation period. A quantitative HPLC analysis showed that the saikosaponin content of the hairy root culture also began to increase at 8 days of culture. The correlation between SS transcript level and saikosaponin content in the hairy roots suggests that transcriptional regulation plays a regulatory role in saikosaponin biosynthesis. PMID:17202854

  13. The Expression of Porcine Prdx6 Gene Is Up-Regulated by C/EBPβ and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyu; Ji, Panlong; Zhang, Liang; Bu, Guowei; Gu, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin6 (Prdx6) is one of the peroxiredoxin (Prdxs) family members that play an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis. Our previous studies demonstrated that Prdx6 was significantly associated with pig meat quality, especially meat tenderness. However, the transcriptional regulation of porcine Prdx6 remains unclear. In this study, we determined the transcription start site (TSS) of porcine Prdx6 gene by 5′ rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE). Several regulatory elements including CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteinβ (C/EBPβ), Myogenic Differentiation (MyoD), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), stimulating protein1 (Sp1) and heat shock factor (HSF) binding sites were found by computational analyses together with luciferase reporter system. Overexpression and RNA interference experiments showed that C/EBPβ or CREB could up-regulate the expression of porcine Prdx6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) confirmed that C/EBPβ and CREB could interact with Prdx6 promoter. Immuoprecipitation results also showed that C/EBPβ could interact with Prdx6 in vivo. Taken together, our findings identified C/EBPβ and CREB as the important regulators of porcine Prdx6 gene expression, and offered clues for further investigation of Prdx6 gene function. PMID:26659441

  14. Identification of Novel Cellular Targets in Biliary Tract Cancers Using Global Gene Expression Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Donna E.; Rahman, Ayman; Hidalgo, Manuel; Thuluvath, Paul J.; Lillemoe, Keith D.; Shulick, Richard; Ku, Ja-Lok; Park, Jae-Gahb; Miyazaki, Kohje; Ashfaq, Raheela; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Varma, Ram; Hawthorne, Lesleyann; Geradts, Joseph; Argani, Pedram; Maitra, Anirban

    2003-01-01

    Biliary tract carcinoma carries a poor prognosis, and difficulties with clinical management in patients with advanced disease are often due to frequent late-stage diagnosis, lack of serum markers, and limited information regarding biliary tumor pathogenesis. RNA-based global analyses of gene expression have led to the identification of a large number of up-regulated genes in several cancer types. We have used the recently developed Affymetrix U133A gene expression microarrays containing nearly 22,000 unique transcripts to obtain global gene expression profiles from normal biliary epithelial scrapings (n = 5), surgically resected biliary carcinomas (n = 11), and biliary cancer cell lines (n = 9). Microarray hybridization data were normalized using dCHIP (http://www.dCHIP.org) to identify differentially up-regulated genes in primary biliary cancers and biliary cancer cell lines and their expression profiles was compared to that of normal epithelial scrapings using the dCHIP software as well as Significance Analysis of Microarrays or SAM (http://www-stat.stanford.edu/∼tibs/SAM/). Comparison of the dCHIP and SAM datasets revealed an overlapping list of 282 genes expressed at greater than threefold levels in the cancers compared to normal epithelium (t-test P <0.1 in dCHIP, and median false discovery rate <10 in SAM). Several pathways integral to tumorigenesis were up-regulated in the biliary cancers, including proliferation and cell cycle antigens (eg, cyclins D2 and E2, cdc2/p34, and geminin), transcription factors (eg, homeobox B7 and islet-1), growth factors and growth factor receptors (eg, hepatocyte growth factor, amphiregulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor), and enzymes modulating sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (eg, cystathionine β synthase, dCMP deaminase, and CTP synthase). In addition, we identified several “pathway” genes that are rapidly emerging as novel therapeutic targets in cancer (eg, cytosolic phospholipase A2, an upstream

  15. Lactate Up-Regulates the Expression of Lactate Oxidation Complex-Related Genes in Left Ventricular Cardiac Tissue of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; da Cunha, Telma Fatima; Bechara, Luiz Roberto Grassmann; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares; Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Coelho, Marcele de Almeida; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Brum, Patricia Chakur

    2015-01-01

    Background Besides its role as a fuel source in intermediary metabolism, lactate has been considered a signaling molecule modulating lactate-sensitive genes involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Even though the flux of lactate is significantly high in the heart, its role on regulation of cardiac genes regulating lactate oxidation has not been clarified yet. We tested the hypothesis that lactate would increase cardiac levels of reactive oxygen species and up-regulate the expression of genes related to lactate oxidation complex. Methods/Principal Findings Isolated hearts from male adult Wistar rats were perfused with control, lactate or acetate (20mM) added Krebs-Henseleit solution during 120 min in modified Langendorff apparatus. Reactive oxygen species (O2●-/H2O2) levels, and NADH and NADPH oxidase activities (in enriched microsomal or plasmatic membranes, respectively) were evaluated by fluorimetry while SOD and catalase activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry. mRNA levels of lactate oxidation complex and energetic enzymes MCT1, MCT4, HK, LDH, PDH, CS, PGC1α and COXIV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial DNA levels were also evaluated. Hemodynamic parameters were acquired during the experiment. The key findings of this work were that lactate elevated cardiac NADH oxidase activity but not NADPH activity. This response was associated with increased cardiac O2●-/H2O2 levels and up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, LDH and PGC1α with no changes in HK, PDH, CS, COXIV mRNA levels and mitochondrial DNA levels. Lactate increased NRF-2 nuclear expression and SOD activity probably as counter-regulatory responses to increased O2●-/H2O2. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for lactate-induced up-regulation of lactate oxidation complex associated with increased NADH oxidase activity and cardiac O2●-/H2O2 driving to an anti-oxidant response. These results unveil lactate as an important signaling molecule regulating components of

  16. VCAM-1 is a TGF-β1 inducible gene upregulated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Agassandian, Marianna; Tedrow, John R; Sembrat, John; Kass, Daniel J; Zhang, Yingze; Goncharova, Elena A; Kaminski, Naftali; Mallampalli, Rama K; Vuga, Louis J

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lethal interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology. We previously reported that high plasma levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) predict mortality in IPF subjects. Here we investigated the cellular origin and potential role of VCAM-1 in regulating primary lung fibroblast behavior. VCAM-1 mRNA was significantly increased in lungs of subjects with IPF compared to lungs from control subjects (p=0.001), and it negatively correlated with two markers of lung function, forced vital capacity (FVC) and pulmonary diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). VCAM-1 protein levels were highly expressed in IPF subjects where it was detected in fibrotic foci and blood vessels of IPF lung. Treatment of human lung fibroblasts with TGF-β1 significantly increased steady-state VCAM1 mRNA and protein levels without affecting VCAM1 mRNA stability. Further, cellular depletion of VCAM-1 inhibited fibroblast cell proliferation and reduced G2/M and S phases of the cell cycle suggestive of cell cycle arrest. These effects on cell cycle progression triggered by VCAM1 depletion were associated with reductions in levels of phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 and cyclin D1. Thus, these observations suggest that VCAM-1 is a TGF-β1 responsive mediator that partakes in fibroblast proliferation in subjects with IPF. PMID:26386411

  17. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lizhi; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Atigadda, Venkatram R; Belyaeva, Olga V; Harville, Steven R; Elmets, Craig A; Muccio, Donald D; Athar, Mohammad; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2016-01-01

    UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. The results of this study indicate that treatment with UAB30 results in upregulation of genes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the natural agonist of RAR nuclear receptors. Consistent with the increased expression of these genes, the steady-state levels of ATRA are elevated in human skin rafts. In ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated mouse skin, the expression of ATRA target genes is found to be reduced. A reduced expression of ATRA sensitive genes is also observed in epidermis of mouse models of UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas. However, treatment of mouse skin with UAB30 prior to UVB irradiation prevents the UVB-induced decrease in expression of some of the ATRA-responsive genes. Considering its positive effects on ATRA signaling in the epidermis and its low toxicity, UAB30 could be used as a chemoprophylactic agent in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly in organ transplant recipients and other high risk populations. PMID:27078158

  18. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya. PMID:27379138

  19. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya. PMID:27379138

  20. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lizhi; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Atigadda, Venkatram R.; Belyaeva, Olga V.; Harville, Steven R.; Elmets, Craig A.; Muccio, Donald D.; Athar, Mohammad; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2016-01-01

    UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. The results of this study indicate that treatment with UAB30 results in upregulation of genes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the natural agonist of RAR nuclear receptors. Consistent with the increased expression of these genes, the steady-state levels of ATRA are elevated in human skin rafts. In ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated mouse skin, the expression of ATRA target genes is found to be reduced. A reduced expression of ATRA sensitive genes is also observed in epidermis of mouse models of UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas. However, treatment of mouse skin with UAB30 prior to UVB irradiation prevents the UVB-induced decrease in expression of some of the ATRA-responsive genes. Considering its positive effects on ATRA signaling in the epidermis and its low toxicity, UAB30 could be used as a chemoprophylactic agent in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly in organ transplant recipients and other high risk populations. PMID:27078158

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid upregulates LDL receptor gene expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu-Poth, Shaomei; Yin, Dezhong; Zhao, Guixiang; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Etherton, Terry D

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts anticarcinogenic and antiatherosclerotic effects in animals. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of CLA on LDL receptor (LDLr) expression in HepG2 cells, and to evaluate whether the sterol response element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) were involved in the regulation of LDLr expression by CLA. When HepG2 cells were cultured with serum-free DMEM for 48 h, there was a three- to fivefold (P<0.05) increase in LDLr protein and mRNA levels. Incubation of HepG2 cells in serum-free medium supplemented with 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OH, 5 mg/L) for 24 h decreased LDLr protein and mRNA by 50-70% (P<0.05) and mature SREBP-1 by 20-40% (P<0.05). CLA, but not linoleic acid, antagonized the depressive effects of 25OH and increased both LDLr protein and mRNA abundance twofold (P<0.05). LDLr protein and mRNA abundance were not different when HepG2 cells were cultured with CLA (0.4 mmol/L) plus 25OH in the presence or absence of an ACAT inhibitor (58-035, 1 mg/L). Furthermore, CLA had no effect on SREBP-1 abundance. These results suggest that CLA upregulates LDLr expression via a mechanism that is independent of ACAT and SREBP-1. PMID:14704295

  2. Fto colocalizes with a satiety mediator oxytocin in the brain and upregulates oxytocin gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Pawel K.; Fredriksson, Robert; Eriksson, Jenny D.; Mitra, Anaya; Radomska, Katarzyna J.; Gosnell, Blake A.; Solvang, Maria N.; Levine, Allen S.; Schioeth, Helgi B.

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} The majority of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin, coexpress Fto. {yields} The level of colocalization is similar in the male and female brain. {yields} Fto overexpression in hypothalamic neurons increases oxytocin mRNA levels by 50%. {yields} Oxytocin does not affect Fto expression through negative feedback mechanisms. -- Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity in humans. Alterations in Fto expression in transgenic animals affect body weight, energy expenditure and food intake. Fto, a nuclear protein and proposed transcription co-factor, has been speculated to affect energy balance through a functional relationship with specific genes encoding feeding-related peptides. Herein, we employed double immunohistochemistry and showed that the majority of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin, coexpress Fto in the brain of male and female mice. We then overexpressed Fto in a murine hypothalamic cell line and, using qPCR, detected a 50% increase in the level of oxytocin mRNA. Expression levels of several other feeding-related genes, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related protein (AgRP), were unaffected by the FTO transfection. Addition of 10 and 100 nmol oxytocin to the cell culture medium did not affect Fto expression in hypothalamic cells. We conclude that Fto, a proposed transcription co-factor, influences expression of the gene encoding a satiety mediator, oxytocin.

  3. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women.

    PubMed

    Maningat, Patricia D; Sen, Partha; Rijnkels, Monique; Hadsell, Darryl L; Bray, Molly S; Haymond, Morey W

    2011-04-27

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained from five normal lactating women. Following 24 h of baseline milk and blood sampling, rhGH (0.1 mg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously once daily for 3 days. Gene expression changes were determined by microarray studies utilizing milk fat globule RNA isolated from each milk sample. Following rhGH administration, DNA synthesis and cell cycle genes were induced, while no significant changes were observed in the expression of milk synthesis genes. Expression of glycolysis and citric acid cycle genes were increased by day 4 compared with day 1, while lipid synthesis genes displayed a circadian-like pattern. Cell cycle gene upregulation occurred after a lag of ∼2 days, likely explaining the failure to increase milk production after only 3 days of rhGH treatment. We conclude that rhGH induces expression of cellular proliferation and metabolism genes but does not induce milk protein gene expression, as potential mechanisms for increasing milk production and could account for the known effect of rhGH to increase milk production following 7-10 days. PMID:21205870

  4. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women

    PubMed Central

    Maningat, Patricia D.; Sen, Partha; Rijnkels, Monique; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Bray, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained from five normal lactating women. Following 24 h of baseline milk and blood sampling, rhGH (0.1 mg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously once daily for 3 days. Gene expression changes were determined by microarray studies utilizing milk fat globule RNA isolated from each milk sample. Following rhGH administration, DNA synthesis and cell cycle genes were induced, while no significant changes were observed in the expression of milk synthesis genes. Expression of glycolysis and citric acid cycle genes were increased by day 4 compared with day 1, while lipid synthesis genes displayed a circadian-like pattern. Cell cycle gene upregulation occurred after a lag of ∼2 days, likely explaining the failure to increase milk production after only 3 days of rhGH treatment. We conclude that rhGH induces expression of cellular proliferation and metabolism genes but does not induce milk protein gene expression, as potential mechanisms for increasing milk production and could account for the known effect of rhGH to increase milk production following 7–10 days. PMID:21205870

  5. Involvement of IL-1 genes in the cellular responses to carbon nanotube exposure.

    PubMed

    Arnoldussen, Yke Jildouw; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Skaug, Vidar; Kasem, Mayes; Haugen, Aage; Benker, Nathalie; Weinbruch, Stephan; Apte, Ron N; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh

    2015-05-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) family has been implicated in cellular responses to nanoparticles including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). IL-1α and β are key proinflammatory cytokines important in inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of IL-1 in cellular responses of CNTs in cells from IL-1α/β wild type (IL1-WT) mice and cells with reduced inflammatory potential from IL-1α/β deficient (IL1-KO) mice. Two multi-walled CNTs, CNT-1 containing long and thick fibers and CNT-2 containing short and thin fibers, were compared to UICC crocidolite asbestos fibers. Upon CNT exposure toxicity and apoptosis were affected differently in IL1-WT and IL1-KO cells. Upregulation of TNFα and IL-1α mRNA expression in IL1-WT cells was dependent on the type of CNT. On the contrary precursor IL-1α protein was downregulated after 24h. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated in IL1-KO cells and regulated by CNTs, whereas no significant changes of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were observed when comparing IL1-WT and IL1-KO cells. In summary, the results presented here indicate that IL-1 contributes to the cellular and molecular effects of CNT exposure and that the type of CNT has an important effect on the cellular response. PMID:25748835

  6. Up-Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Lineage Markers in the Cerebellum of Autistic Patients: Evidence from Network Analysis of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; de Oliveira, Ben-Hur Neves; Casanova, Manuel F; Casanova, Emily L; Noda, Mami; Salmina, Alla B; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by impaired social interaction, deficits in communication skills, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. In neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders, glial cells undergo morphological, biochemical, and functional rearrangements, which are critical for neuronal development, neurotransmission, and synaptic connectivity. Cerebellar function is not limited to motor coordination but also contributes to cognition and may be affected in autism. Oligodendrocytes and specifically oligodendroglial precursors are highly susceptible to oxidative stress and excitotoxic insult. In the present study, we searched for evidence for developmental oligodendropathy in the context of autism by performing a network analysis of gene expression of cerebellar tissue. We created an in silico network model (OLIGO) showing the landscape of interactions between oligodendrocyte markers and demonstrated that more than 50 % (16 out of 30) of the genes within this model displayed significant changes of expression (corrected p value <0.05) in the cerebellum of autistic patients. In particular, we found up-regulation of OLIG2-, MBP-, OLIG1-, and MAG-specific oligodendrocyte markers. We postulate that aberrant expression of oligodendrocyte-specific genes, potentially related to changes in oligodendrogenesis, may contribute to abnormal cerebellar development, impaired myelination, and anomalous synaptic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PMID:26189831

  7. Upregulation of the Adhesin Gene EPA1 Mediated by PDR1 in Candida glabrata Leads to Enhanced Host Colonization.

    PubMed

    Vale-Silva, Luis A; Moeckli, Beat; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common Candida species causing disseminated infection, after C. albicans. C. glabrata is intrinsically less susceptible to the widely used azole antifungal drugs and quickly develops secondary resistance. Resistance typically relies on drug efflux with transporters regulated by the transcription factor Pdr1. Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PDR1 lead to a hyperactive state and thus efflux transporter upregulation. Our laboratory has characterized a collection of C. glabrata clinical isolates in which azole resistance was found to correlate with increased virulence in vivo. Contributing phenotypes were the evasion of adhesion and phagocytosis by macrophages and an increased adhesion to epithelial cells. These phenotypes were found to be dependent on PDR1 GOF mutation and/or C. glabrata strain background. In the search for the molecular effectors, we found that PDR1 hyperactivity leads to overexpression of specific cell wall adhesins of C. glabrata. Further study revealed that EPA1 regulation, in particular, explained the increase in adherence to epithelial cells. Deleting EPA1 eliminates the increase in adherence in an in vitro model of interaction with epithelial cells. In a murine model of urinary tract infection, PDR1 hyperactivity conferred increased ability to colonize the bladder and kidneys in an EPA1-dependent way. In conclusion, this study establishes a relationship between PDR1 and the regulation of cell wall adhesins, an important virulence attribute of C. glabrata. Furthermore, our data show that PDR1 hyperactivity mediates increased adherence to host epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of the adhesin gene EPA1. IMPORTANCE Candida glabrata is an important fungal pathogen in human diseases and is also rapidly acquiring drug resistance. Drug resistance can be mediated by the transcriptional activator PDR1, and this results in the upregulation of multidrug transporters. Intriguingly

  8. Upregulation of the Adhesin Gene EPA1 Mediated by PDR1 in Candida glabrata Leads to Enhanced Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Silva, Luis A.; Moeckli, Beat; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida glabrata is the second most common Candida species causing disseminated infection, after C. albicans. C. glabrata is intrinsically less susceptible to the widely used azole antifungal drugs and quickly develops secondary resistance. Resistance typically relies on drug efflux with transporters regulated by the transcription factor Pdr1. Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PDR1 lead to a hyperactive state and thus efflux transporter upregulation. Our laboratory has characterized a collection of C. glabrata clinical isolates in which azole resistance was found to correlate with increased virulence in vivo. Contributing phenotypes were the evasion of adhesion and phagocytosis by macrophages and an increased adhesion to epithelial cells. These phenotypes were found to be dependent on PDR1 GOF mutation and/or C. glabrata strain background. In the search for the molecular effectors, we found that PDR1 hyperactivity leads to overexpression of specific cell wall adhesins of C. glabrata. Further study revealed that EPA1 regulation, in particular, explained the increase in adherence to epithelial cells. Deleting EPA1 eliminates the increase in adherence in an in vitro model of interaction with epithelial cells. In a murine model of urinary tract infection, PDR1 hyperactivity conferred increased ability to colonize the bladder and kidneys in an EPA1-dependent way. In conclusion, this study establishes a relationship between PDR1 and the regulation of cell wall adhesins, an important virulence attribute of C. glabrata. Furthermore, our data show that PDR1 hyperactivity mediates increased adherence to host epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of the adhesin gene EPA1. IMPORTANCE Candida glabrata is an important fungal pathogen in human diseases and is also rapidly acquiring drug resistance. Drug resistance can be mediated by the transcriptional activator PDR1, and this results in the upregulation of multidrug transporters

  9. Dietary fish oil replacement with canola oil up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 gene expression in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Jenna N; Rout-Pitt, Nathan; Bain, Peter A; Stone, David A J; Schuller, Kathryn A

    2012-08-01

    The marine carnivore yellowtail kingfish (YTK, Seriola lalandi) was fed diets containing 5% residual fish oil (from the dietary fish meal) plus either 20% fish oil (FO), 20% canola oil (CO), 20% poultry oil (PO), 10% fish oil plus 10% canola oil (FO/CO) or 10% fish oil plus 10% poultry oil (FO/PO) and the effects on fish growth and hepatic expression of two glutathione peroxidase (GPx 1 and GPx 4) and two peroxiredoxin (Prx 1 and Prx 4) antioxidant genes were investigated. Partial (50%) replacement of the added dietary fish oil with poultry oil significantly improved fish growth whereas 100% replacement with canola oil significantly depressed fish growth. The fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets generally reflected those of the dietary oils except that there was apparent selective utilization of palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1n-9) and apparent selective retention of eicospentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). The Prx 1 and 4 genes were expressed at 10- and 100-fold the level of the GPx 4 and 1 genes, respectively, and at one-tenth the level of the highly expressed β-actin reference gene. Dietary fish oil replacement with canola oil significantly up-regulated GPx 1 gene expression and there was a non-significant tendency towards down-regulation of Prx 1 and Prx 4. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of fish oil replacement on the peroxidation index of the diets and the resulting effects on the target antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22521527

  10. The Juvenile Phase of Maize Sees Upregulation of Stress-Response Genes and Is Extended by Exogenous Jasmonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Beydler, Benjamin; Osadchuk, Krista; Cheng, Chi-Lien; Manak, J Robert; Irish, Erin E

    2016-08-01

    As maize (Zea mays) plants undergo vegetative phase change from juvenile to adult, they both exhibit heteroblasty, an abrupt change in patterns of leaf morphogenesis, and gain the ability to produce flowers. Both processes are under the control of microRNA156 (miR156), whose levels decline at the end of the juvenile phase. Gain of the ability to flower is conferred by the expression of miR156 targets that encode SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING transcription factors, which, when derepressed in the adult phase, induce the expression of MADS box transcription factors that promote maturation and flowering. How gene expression, including targets of those microRNAs, differs between the two phases remains an open question. Here, we compare transcript levels in primordia that will develop into juvenile or adult leaves to identify genes that define these two developmental states and may influence vegetative phase change. In comparisons among successive leaves at the same developmental stage, plastochron 6, three-fourths of approximately 1,100 differentially expressed genes were more highly expressed in primordia of juvenile leaves. This juvenile set was enriched in photosynthetic genes, particularly those associated with cyclic electron flow at photosystem I, and in genes involved in oxidative stress and retrograde redox signaling. Pathogen- and herbivory-responsive pathways including salicylic acid and jasmonic acid also were up-regulated in juvenile primordia; indeed, exogenous application of jasmonic acid delayed both the appearance of adult traits and the decline in the expression of miR156-encoding loci in maize seedlings. We hypothesize that the stresses associated with germination promote juvenile patterns of differentiation in maize. PMID:27307257

  11. Evaluating long-term cellular effects of the arsenic species thio-DMA(V): qPCR-based gene expression as screening tool.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Franziska; Thomann, Marlies; Witt, Barbara; Müller, Sandra M; Meyer, Sören; Weber, Till; Christmann, Markus; Schwerdtle, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    Thio-dimethylarsinic acid (thio-DMA(V)) is a human urinary metabolite of the class 1 human carcinogen inorganic arsenic as well as of arsenosugars. Thio-DMA(V) exerts strong cellular toxicity, whereas its toxic modes of action are not fully understood. For the first time, this study characterises the impact of a long-term (21days) in vitro incubation of thio-DMA(V) on the expression of selected genes related to cell death, stress response, epigenetics and DNA repair. The observed upregulation of DNMT1 might be a cellular compensation to counterregulate the in a very recent study observed massive global DNA hypomethylation after chronic thio-DMA(V) incubation. Moreover, our data suggest that chronic exposure towards subcytotoxic, pico- to nanomolar concentrations of thio-DMA(V) causes a stress response in human urothelial cells. The upregulation of genes encoding for proteins of DNA repair (Apex1, Lig1, XRCC1, DDB2, XPG, ATR) as well as damage response (GADD45A, GADD45G, Trp53) indicate a potential genotoxic risk emanating from thio-DMA(V) after long-term incubation. PMID:27320638

  12. Exercise associated genes in rat colon mucosa: upregulation of ornithin decarboxylase-1.

    PubMed

    Buehlmeyer, K; Doering, F; Daniel, H; Schulz, T; Michna, H

    2007-05-01

    Epidemiology has revealed that physical activity is an important lifestyle factor that reduces the risk of colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect have so far not been defined. The aim of this study was to identify molecular targets of physical activity in rat colon mucosa by employing our voluntary exercise model. Twenty male rats underwent a 12-week exercise program, with 9 additional rats serving as a control group. Running distances, body weights and heart weights as measures of physical adaptations were recorded, and changes in mRNA steady-state levels of marker genes involved in vascularization (VEGF, HIF-1 alpha, ODC-1), apoptosis (Bcl-2, PPAR gamma) and prostaglandin synthesis (COX-2) were determined by qRT-PCR. The four housekeeping genes GAPDH, beta-actin, 18S and ALDA served as reference genes. Recorded running distances showed great inter-individual differences resulting in three different groups of low (L-EX, < 2629 m/night; n=5), moderate (M-EX, 3003 - 7458 m/night; n=10) and high (H-EX, > 8314 m/night; n=5) physical activity. The M-EX and H-EX group revealed significant (p<0.05) adaptive changes with an increase in heart mass per kg body weight and a decrease in mean body weight. Amongst the marker genes studied by mRNA expression analysis only ODC-1 appears to be differentially expressed. Its 1.8-fold increased steady-state mRNA level in the H-EX group suggests that synthesis of polyamines may be increased by physical activity. This new finding could provide a link between extensive physical activity and its protective effects on colon cancer development. PMID:17111318

  13. Manganese Upregulates Cellular Prion Protein and Contributes to Altered Stabilization and Proteolysis: Relevance to Role of Metals in Pathogenesis of Prion Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases resulting from misfolding of normal cellular prion (PrP**C) into an abnormal form of scrapie prion (PrP**Sc). The cellular mechanisms underlying the misfolding of PrP**C are not well understood. Since cellular prion proteins harbor divalent metal b...

  14. Butyrate enemas upregulate Muc genes expression but decrease adherent mucus thickness in mice colon.

    PubMed

    Gaudier, E; Rival, M; Buisine, M-P; Robineau, I; Hoebler, C

    2009-01-01

    Colonic mucosal protection is provided by the mucus gel, mainly composed of mucins. Several factors can modulate the formation and the secretion of mucins, and among them butyrate, an end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. However, the specific effect of butyrate on the various colonic mucins, and the consequences in terms of the mucus layer thickness are not known. Our aim was to determine whether butyrate modulates colonic MUC genes expression in vivo and whether this results in changes in mucus synthesis and mucus layer thickness. Mice received daily for 7 days rectal enemas of butyrate (100 mM) versus saline. We demonstrated that butyrate stimulated the gene expression of both secreted (Muc2) and membrane-linked (Muc1, Muc3, Muc4) mucins. Butyrate especially induced a 6-fold increase in Muc2 gene expression in proximal colon. However, butyrate enemas did not modify the number of epithelial cells containing the protein Muc2, and caused a 2-fold decrease in the thickness of adherent mucus layer. Further studies should help understanding whether this last phenomenon, i.e. the decrease in adherent mucus gel thickness, results in a diminished protective function or not. PMID:18198997

  15. Impact of pnpR, a LysR-type regulator-encoding gene, on the cellular processes of Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Huang, Fei; Wang, Yicheng; Dong, Weiliang; Wang, Wenhui; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-06-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) regulate various cellular processes in bacteria. pnpR is an LTTR-encoding gene involved in the regulation of hydroquinone (HQ) degradation, and its effects on the cellular processes of Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 were investigated at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that pnpR positively regulated its own expression and that of the pnpC1C2DECX1X2 operon; additionally, pnpR partially regulated the expression of pnpA when P. putida was grown on para-nitrophenol (PNP) or HQ. Strains DLL-E4 and DLL-ΔpnpR exhibited similar cellular morphologies and growth rates. Transcriptome analysis revealed that pnpR regulated the expression of genes in addition to those involved in PNP degradation. A total of 20 genes were upregulated and 19 genes were downregulated by at least 2-fold in strain DLL-ΔpnpR relative to strain DLL-E4. Bioinformatic analysis revealed putative PnpR-binding sites located in the upstream regions of genes involved in PNP degradation, carbon catabolite repression and other cellular processes. The utilization of L-aspartic acid, L-histidine, L-pyroglutamic acid, L-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid, D,L-lactic acid, D-saccharic acid, succinic acid and L-alaninamide was increased at least 1.3-fold in strain DLL-ΔpnpR as shown by BIOLOG assays, indicating that pnpR plays a potential negative regulation role in the utilization of carbon sources. PMID:27190157

  16. An efficient method for in vitro gene delivery via regulation of cellular endocytosis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Li, Caixia; Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Gang; Gao, Rong; Gu, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Transfection efficiency was the primary goal for in vitro gene delivery mediated by nonviral gene carriers. Here, we report a modified gene transfection method that could greatly increase the efficiency of, and accelerate the process mediated by, 25 kDa branched polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in a broad range of cell strains, including tumor, normal, primary, and embryonic stem cells. In this method, the combination of transfection procedure with optimized complexation volume had a determinant effect on gene delivery result. The superiorities of the method were found to be related to the change of cellular endocytosis pathway and decrease of particle size. The efficient and simple method established in this study can be widely used for in vitro gene delivery into cultured cells. We think it may also be applicable for many more nonviral gene delivery materials than polyethyleneimine and liposome. PMID:25767387

  17. EZH2 Inhibition Blocks Multiple Myeloma Cell Growth through Upregulation of Epithelial Tumor Suppressor Genes.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Henar; Gelato, Kathy A; Lesche, Ralf; Beckmann, Georg; Koehr, Silke; Otto, Saskia; Steigemann, Patrick; Stresemann, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by marked heterogeneous genomic instability including frequent genetic alterations in epigenetic enzymes. In particular, the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is overexpressed in multiple myeloma. EZH2 is the catalytic component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), a master transcriptional regulator of differentiation. EZH2 catalyzes methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 and its deregulation in cancer has been reported to contribute to silencing of tumor suppressor genes, resulting in a more undifferentiated state, and thereby contributing to the multiple myeloma phenotype. In this study, we propose the use of EZH2 inhibitors as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of multiple myeloma. We demonstrate that EZH2 inhibition causes a global reduction of H3K27me3 in multiple myeloma cells, promoting reexpression of EZH2-repressed tumor suppressor genes in a subset of cell lines. As a result of this transcriptional activation, multiple myeloma cells treated with EZH2 inhibitors become more adherent and less proliferative compared with untreated cells. The antitumor efficacy of EZH2 inhibitors is also confirmed in vivo in a multiple myeloma xenograft model in mice. Together, our data suggest that EZH2 inhibition may provide a new therapy for multiple myeloma treatment and a promising addition to current treatment options. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(2); 287-98. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26590165

  18. Gene markers of cellular aging in human multipotent stromal cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or other tissue sources have great potential to treat a wide range of injuries and disorders in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In particular, MSCs have inherent characteristics to suppress the immune system and are being studied in clinical studies to prevent graft-versus-host disease. MSCs can be expanded in vitro and have potential for differentiation into multiple cell lineages. However, the impact of cell passaging on gene expression and function of the cells has not been determined. Methods Commercially available human MSCs derived from bone marrow from six different donors, grown under identical culture conditions and harvested at cell passages 3, 5, and 7, were analyzed with gene-expression profiling by using microarray technology. Results The phenotype of these cells did not change as reported previously; however, a statistical analysis revealed a set of 78 significant genes that were distinguishable in expression between passages 3 and 7. None of these significant genes corresponded to the markers established by the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) for MSC identification. When the significant gene lists were analyzed through pathway analysis, these genes were involved in the top-scoring networks of cellular growth and proliferation and cellular development. A meta-analysis of the literature for significant genes revealed that the MSCs seem to be undergoing differentiation into a senescent cell type when cultured extensively. Consistent with the differences in gene expression at passage 3 and 7, MSCs exhibited a significantly greater potential for cell division at passage 3 in comparison to passage 7. Conclusions Our results identified specific gene markers that distinguish aging MSCs grown in cell culture. Confirmatory studies are needed to correlate these molecular markers with biologic attributes that may facilitate the development

  19. Computational evaluation of cellular metabolic costs successfully predicts genes whose expression is deleterious

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Allon; Zarecki, Raphy; Reshef, Leah; Gochev, Camelia; Sorek, Rotem; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

    2013-01-01

    Gene suppression and overexpression are both fundamental tools in linking genotype to phenotype in model organisms. Computational methods have proven invaluable in studying and predicting the deleterious effects of gene deletions, and yet parallel computational methods for overexpression are still lacking. Here, we present Expression-Dependent Gene Effects (EDGE), an in silico method that can predict the deleterious effects resulting from overexpression of either native or foreign metabolic genes. We first test and validate EDGE’s predictive power in bacteria through a combination of small-scale growth experiments that we performed and analysis of extant large-scale datasets. Second, a broad cross-species analysis, ranging from microorganisms to multiple plant and human tissues, shows that genes that EDGE predicts to be deleterious when overexpressed are indeed typically down-regulated. This reflects a universal selection force keeping the expression of potentially deleterious genes in check. Third, EDGE-based analysis shows that cancer genetic reprogramming specifically suppresses genes whose overexpression impedes proliferation. The magnitude of this suppression is large enough to enable an almost perfect distinction between normal and cancerous tissues based solely on EDGE results. We expect EDGE to advance our understanding of human pathologies associated with up-regulation of particular transcripts and to facilitate the utilization of gene overexpression in metabolic engineering. PMID:24198337

  20. Automated analysis of embryonic gene expression with cellular resolution in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John Isaac; Bao, Zhirong; Boyle, Thomas J.; Boeck, Max E.; Mericle, Barbara L.; Nicholas, Thomas J.; Zhao, Zhongying; Sandel, Matthew J.; Waterston, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a system that permits the automated analysis of reporter gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular resolution continuously during embryogenesis and demonstrate its utility by defining the expression patterns of reporters for several embryonically expressed transcription factors. The invariant cell lineage permits the automated alignment of multiple expression profiles, allowing the direct comparison of the expression of different genes' reporters. We have also used the system to monitor perturbations to normal development involving changes both in cell division timing and in cell fate. Systematic application could reveal the gene activity of each cell throughout development. PMID:18587405

  1. Posttranscriptional regulation of cellular gene expression by the c-myc oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Prendergast, G.C.; Cole, M.D. . Dept. of Biology)

    1989-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene has been implicated in the development of many different cancers, yet the mechanism by which the c-myc protein alters cellular growth control has proven elusive. The authors used a cDNA hybridization difference assay to isolate two genes, mr1 and mr2, that were constitutively expressed (i.e., deregulated) in rodent fibroblast cell lines immortalized by transfection of a viral promoter-linked c-myc gene. Both cDNAs were serum inducible in quiescent G/sub o/ fibroblasts, suggesting that they are functionally related to cellular proliferative processes. Although there were significant differences in cytoplasmic mRNA levels between myc-immortalized and control cells, the rates of transcription and mRNA turnover of both genes were similar, suggesting that c-myc regulates mr1 and mr2 expression by some nuclear posttranscriptional mechanism. Their results provide evidence that c-myc can rapidly modulate cellular gene expression and suggest that c-myc may function in gene regulation at the level of RNA export, splicing, or nuclear RNA turnover.

  2. Mycoplasma gallisepticum lipid associated membrane proteins up-regulate inflammatory genes in chicken tracheal epithelial cells via TLR-2 ligation through an NF-κB dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Sanjukta; Zappulla, Frank; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated respiratory inflammation in chickens is associated with accumulation of leukocytes in the tracheal submucosa. However the molecular mechanisms underpinning these changes have not been well described. We hypothesized that the initial inflammatory events are initiated upon ligation of mycoplasma lipid associated membrane proteins (LAMP) to TLRs expressed on chicken tracheal epithelial cells (TEC). To test this hypothesis, live bacteria or LAMPs isolated from a virulent (R(low)) or a non-virulent (R(high)) strain were incubated with primary TECs or chicken tracheae ex vivo. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of several inflammatory and chemokine genes in TECs as early as 1.5 hours post-exposure. Kinetic analysis using RT-qPCR identified the peak of expression for most genes to be at either 1.5 or 6 hours. Ex-vivo exposure also showed up-regulation of inflammatory genes in epithelial cells by 1.5 hours. Among the commonly up-regulated genes were IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, CCL-20, and NOS-2, all of which are important immune-modulators and/or chemo-attractants of leukocytes. While these inflammatory genes were up-regulated in all four treatment groups, R(low) exposed epithelial cells both in vitro and ex vivo showed the most dramatic up-regulation, inducing over 100 unique genes by 5-fold or more in TECs. Upon addition of a TLR-2 inhibitor, LAMP-mediated gene expression of IL-1β and CCL-20 was reduced by almost 5-fold while expression of IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-8 and NOS-2 mRNA was reduced by about 2-3 fold. Conversely, an NF-κB inhibitor abrogated the response entirely for all six genes. miRNA-146a, a negative regulator of TLR-2 signaling, was up-regulated in TECs in response to either R(low) or R(high) exposure. Taken together we conclude that LAMPs isolated from both R(high) and R(low) induced rapid, TLR-2 dependent but transient up-regulation of inflammatory genes in primary TECs through an NF-κB dependent pathway. PMID

  3. TMPRSS4 upregulates uPA gene expression through JNK signaling activation to induce cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Min, Hye-Jin; Lee, Yunhee; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Myung Kyu; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Semi

    2014-02-01

    TMPRSS4 is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that is highly expressed in pancreatic, thyroid, colon, and other cancer tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 mediates tumor cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 induced the transcription of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene through activating the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-1 in mainly a JNK-dependent manner and that the induction of uPA was required for TMPRSS4-mediated cancer cell invasion and signaling events. In addition, the uPA receptor was involved in TMPRSS4-induced signaling activation and subsequent uPA expression probably through its association with TMPRSS4 on the cell surface. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that uPA expression was significantly correlated with TMPRSS4 expression in human lung and prostate cancers. These observations suggest that TMPRSS4 is an important regulator of uPA gene expression; the upregulation of uPA by TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion and may represent a novel mechanism for the control of invasion. PMID:23978400

  4. Exenatide enhances cognitive performance and upregulates neurotrophic factor gene expression levels in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Gumuslu, Esen; Mutlu, Oguz; Celikyurt, Ipek K; Ulak, Guner; Akar, Furuzan; Erden, Faruk; Ertan, Merve

    2016-08-01

    Exenatide is a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor. Recent studies are focused on the effects of GLP-1 analogues on hippocampal neurogenesis, cognition, learning and memory functions. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic exenatide treatment (0.1 μg/kg, s.c, twice daily for 2 weeks) on spatial memory functions by using the modified elevated plus maze (mEPM) test and emotional memory functions by using the passive avoidance (PA) test in streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic mice. As the genes involved in neurite remodelling are among the primary targets of regulation, the effects of diabetes and chronic administration of exenatide on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in the hippocampus of mice were also determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This study revealed that in the mEPM and PA tests, type-2 diabetes-induced mice exhibited significant impairment of learning and memory which were ameliorated by GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that CREB and BDNF gene expression levels were downregulated in diabetic mice, and these alterations were increased by exenatide treatment. Since, exenatide improves cognitive ability in STZ/NA-induced diabetic mice and activates molecular mechanisms of memory storage in response to a learning experience, it may be a candidate for alleviation of mood and cognitive disorder. PMID:26935863

  5. Epigenomics of Neural Cells: REST-Induced Down- and Upregulation of Gene Expression in a Two-Clone PC12 Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Malosio, Maria Luisa; Lazarevic, Dejan; Stupka, Elia; Cittaro, Davide; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Cell epigenomics depends on the marks released by transcription factors operating via the assembly of complexes that induce focal changes of DNA and histone structure. Among these factors is REST, a repressor that, via its strong decrease, governs both neuronal and neural cell differentiation and specificity. REST operation on thousands of possible genes can occur directly or via indirect mechanisms including repression of other factors. In previous studies of gene down- and upregulation, processes had been only partially investigated in neural cells. PC12 are well-known neural cells sharing properties with neurons. In the widely used PC12 populations, low-REST cells coexist with few, spontaneous high-REST PC12 cells. High- and low-REST PC12 clones were employed to investigate the role and the mechanisms of the repressor action. Among 15,500 expressed genes we identified 1,770 target and nontarget, REST-dependent genes. Functionally, these genes were found to operate in many pathways, from synaptic function to extracellular matrix. Mechanistically, downregulated genes were predominantly repressed directly by REST; upregulated genes were mostly governed indirectly. Among other factors, Polycomb complexes cooperated with REST for downregulation, and Smad3 and Myod1 participated in upregulation. In conclusion, we have highlighted that PC12 clones are a useful model to investigate REST, opening opportunities to development of epigenomic investigation. PMID:26413508

  6. β1-Na(+),K(+)-ATPase gene therapy upregulates tight junctions to rescue lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Barravecchia, M; Kothari, P; Young, J L; Dean, D A

    2016-06-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are associated with diverse disorders and characterized by disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, leakage of edema fluid into the lung, and substantial inflammation leading to acute respiratory failure. Gene therapy is a potentially powerful approach to treat ALI/ARDS through repair of alveolar epithelial function. Herein, we show that delivery of a plasmid expressing β1-subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (β1-Na(+),K(+)-ATPase) alone or in combination with epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) α1-subunit using electroporation not only protected from subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated lung injury, but also treated injured lungs. However, transfer of α1-subunit of ENaC (α1-ENaC) alone only provided protection benefit rather than treatment benefit although alveolar fluid clearance had been remarkably enhanced. Gene transfer of β1-Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, but not α1-ENaC, not only enhanced expression of tight junction protein zona occludins-1 (ZO-1) and occludin both in cultured cells and in mouse lungs, but also reduced pre-existing increase of lung permeability in vivo. These results demonstrate that gene transfer of β1-Na(+),K(+)-ATPase upregulates tight junction formation and therefore treats lungs with existing injury, whereas delivery of α1-ENaC only maintains pre-existing tight junction but not for generation. This indicates that the restoration of epithelial/endothelial barrier function may provide better treatment of ALI/ARDS. PMID:26910760

  7. Quercetin ameliorate insulin resistance and up-regulates cellular antioxidants during oleic acid induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Sandeep Varma, R; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2013-03-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we hypothesized that the hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of quercetin would attenuate events leading to NAFLD. Addition of 2.0mM oleic acid (OA) into the culture media induced fatty liver condition in HepG2 cells by 24h. It was marked by significant accumulation of lipid droplets as determined by Oil-Red-O (ORO) based colorimetric assay, increased triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased lipid peroxidation. The inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 levels were significantly increased with decreased antioxidant molecules. OA induced insulin resistance which was evident by inhibition of glucose uptake and cell proliferation. Quercetin (10 μM) increased cell proliferation by 3.05 folds with decreased TAG content (45%) and was effective in increasing insulin mediated glucose uptake by 2.65 folds. The intracellular glutathione content was increased by 2.0 folds without substantial increase in GSSG content. Quercetin (10 μM) decreased TNF-α and IL-8 by 59.74% and 41.11% respectively and inhibited generation of lipid peroxides by 50.5%. In addition, RT-PCR results confirmed quercetin (10 μM) inhibited TNF-alpha gene expression. Further, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased by 1.68, 2.19 and 1.71 folds respectively. Albumin and urea content was increased while the alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity was significantly decreased by quercetin. Hence, quercetin effectively reversed NAFLD symptoms by decreased triacyl glycerol accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokine secretion and increased cellular antioxidants in OA induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:23348005

  8. Cellular gene expression induced by parasite antigens and allergens in neonates from parasite-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Soboslay, Peter T; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gille, Christian; Spring, Bärbel; Kocherscheidt, Lars; Agossou, Abram; Banla, Meba; Bonin, Michael; Köhler, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to parasite antigens or allergens will influence the profile and strength of postnatal immune responses, such contact may tolerize and increase susceptibility to future infections or sensitize to environmental allergens. Exposure in utero to parasite antigens will distinctly alter cellular gene expression in newborns. Gene microarrays were applied to study gene expression in umbilical cord blood cell (UCBC) from parasite-exposed (Para-POS) and non-exposed (Para-NEG) neonates. UCBC were activated with antigens of helminth (Onchocerca volvulus), amoeba (Entamoeba histolytica) or allergens of mite (Dermatophagoides farinae). When UCBC from Para-POS and Para-NEG newborns were exposed to helminth antigens or allergens consistent differences occurred in the expression of genes encoding for MHC class I and II alleles, signal transducers of activation and transcription (STATs), cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, and molecules associated with immune regulation (SOCS, TLR, TGF), inflammation (TNF, CCR) and apoptosis (CASP). Expression of genes associated with innate immune responses were enhanced in Para-NEG, while in Para-POS, the expression of MHC class II and STAT genes was reduced. Within functional gene networks for cellular growth, proliferation and immune responses, Para-NEG neonates presented with significantly higher expression values than Para-POS. In Para-NEG newborns, the gene cluster and pathway analyses suggested that gene expression profiles may predispose for the development of immunological, hematological and dermatological disorders upon postnatal helminth parasite infection or allergen exposure. Thus, prenatal parasite contact will sensitize without generating aberrant inflammatory immune responses, and increased pro-inflammatory but decreased regulatory gene expression profiles will be present in those neonates lacking prenatal parasite antigen encounter. PMID:27062712

  9. Age-accelerated atherosclerosis correlates with failure to upregulate antioxidant genes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Alan R; Lyon, Christopher J; Xia, Xuefeng; Liu, Joey Z; Tangirala, Rajendra K; Yin, Fen; Boyadjian, Rima; Bikineyeva, Alfiya; Praticò, Domenico; Harrison, David G; Hsueh, Willa A

    2009-03-27

    Excess food intake leads to obesity and diabetes, both of which are well-known independent risk factors for atherosclerosis, and both of which are growing epidemics in an aging population. We hypothesized that aging enhances the metabolic and vascular effects of high fat diet (HFD) and therefore examined the effect of age on atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice. We found that 12-month-old (middle-aged) LDLR(-/-) mice developed substantially worse metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and atherosclerosis than 3-month-old (young) LDLR(-/-) mice when both were fed HFD for 3 months, despite similar elevations in total cholesterol levels. Microarray analyses were performed to analyze the mechanism responsible for the marked acceleration of atherosclerosis in middle-aged mice. Chow-fed middle-aged mice had greater aortic expression of multiple antioxidant genes than chow-fed young mice, including glutathione peroxidase-1 and -4, catalase, superoxide dismutase-2, and uncoupling protein-2. Aortic expression of these enzymes markedly increased in young mice fed HFD but decreased or only modestly increased in middle-aged mice fed HFD, despite the fact that systemic oxidative stress and vascular reactive oxygen species generation, measured by plasma F2alpha isoprostane concentration (systemic) and dihydroethidium conversion and p47phox expression (vascular), were greater in middle-aged mice fed HFD. Thus, the mechanism for the accelerated vascular injury in older LDLR(-/-) mice was likely the profound inability to mount an antioxidant response. This effect was related to a decrease in vascular expression of 2 key transcriptional pathways regulating the antioxidant response, DJ-1 and forkhead box, subgroup O family (FOXOs). Treatment of middle-aged mice fed HFD with the antioxidant apocynin attenuated atherosclerosis, whereas treatment with the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone attenuated both metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis

  10. Gene Expression Profile Changes and Cellular Responses to Bleomycin-Induced DNA Damage in Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Kidane, Yared; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms are constantly exposed to space radiation that consists of energetic protons and other heavier charged particles. In addition, DNA in space can be damaged by toxic chemicals or reactive oxygen species generated due to increased levels of environmental and psychological stresses. Understanding the impact of spaceflight factors, microgravity in particular, on cellular responses to DNA damage affects the accuracy of the radiation risk assessment for astronauts and the mutation rate in microorganisms. Although possible synergistic effects of space radiation and microgravity have been investigated since the early days of the human space program, the published results were mostly conflicting and inconsistent. To investigate the effects of spaceflight on cellular responses to DNA damage, confluent human fibroblast cells (AG1522) flown on the International Space Station (ISS) were treated with bleomycin for three hours in the true microgravity environment, which induced DNA damages including double-strand breaks (DSB). Damages in the DNA were quantified by immunofluorescence staining for ?-H2AX, which showed similar percentages of different types of stained cells between flight and ground. However, there was a slight shift in the distribution of the ?-H2AX foci number in the flown cells with countable foci. Comparison of the cells in confluent and in exponential growth conditions indicated that the proliferation rate between flight and the ground may be responsible for such a shift. A microarray analysis of gene expressions in response to bleomycin treatment was also performed. Comparison of the responsive pathways between the flown and ground cells showed similar responses with the p53 network being the top upstream regulator. Similar responses at the RNA level between different gravity conditions were also observed with a PCR array analysis containing a set of genes involved in DNA damage signaling; with BBC3, CDKN1A, PCNA and PPM1D being significantly

  11. Building quantitative, three dimensional atlases of gene expression and morphology at cellular resolution

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, David W.; Biggin, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Animals comprise dynamic three-dimensional arrays of cells that express gene products in intricate spatial and temporal patterns that determine cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. A rigorous understanding of these developmental processes requires automated methods that quantitatively record and analyze complex morphologies and their associated patterns of gene expression at cellular resolution. Here we summarize light microscopy based approaches to establish permanent, quantitative datasets—atlases—that record this information. We focus on experiments that capture data for whole embryos or large areas of tissue in three dimensions, often at multiple time points. We compare and contrast the advantages and limitations of different methods and highlight some of the discoveries made. We emphasize the need for interdisciplinary collaborations and integrated experimental pipelines that link sample preparation, image acquisition, image analysis, database design, visualization and quantitative analysis. PMID:24123936

  12. Transduction of the cellular src gene and 3' adjacent sequences in avian sarcoma virus PR2257.

    PubMed Central

    Geryk, J; Dezélée, P; Barnier, J V; Svoboda, J; Nehyba, J; Karakoz, I; Rynditch, A V; Yatsula, B A; Calothy, G

    1989-01-01

    When injected into chickens, a transformation-defective mutant of the Prague C strain of Rous sarcoma virus induced tumors at low incidence and after a long latency. One such tumor released a replication-defective virus designated PR2257. We molecularly cloned and sequenced the proviral DNA from quail fibroblasts transformed by PR2257. Comparison of PR2257 sequence with that of Prague C, cellular src, and 3' adjacent cellular DNA showed that the spliced version of the c-src gene and about 950 base pairs (bp) of 3'-flanking cellular DNA were transduced into PR2257. This transduction eliminated nearly all replicative genes, since the gag gene splice donor site was linked to the splice acceptor site of the src gene and, on the 3' side, recombination occurred in the end of env gene. Insertion of two extra cytosines 23 bp before and 19 bp after the c-src stop codon resulted in an extension of the coding portion up to 587 amino acids, divergence of sequences after Pro-525 and replacement of Tyr-527 by a valine residue. In addition, it appears that the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of PR2257 result from multiple recombinations between exogenous and endogenous virus genomes. Limited digestion of p66src encoded by PR2257 with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease yielded a V2 peptide (C-terminal moiety) with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kilodaltons, consistent with the 5.7-kilodalton increase expected from the DNA sequence. The structure of PR2257 suggests that the first step in the capture of c-src gene by avian lymphomatosis viruses is the trans splicing of the viral leader mRNA to exon 1 of c-src. Images PMID:2463376

  13. Nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV) enhances RCC cell motility through upregulation of ICAM-1 and COX-2 expression via Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Liping; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Zheng; Ding, Sentai; Lu, Jiaju; Bi, Dongbin; Mei, Yikun; Niu, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) carries a high risk of malignancy and metastasis. The inducible isoform of prostaglandin synthase, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and ICAM-1 may be involved in tumor metastasis. CCN3, also called nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV), has been found to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cancer cells. The effects of NOV on RCC cell migration and expression of COX-2 and ICAM-1 have not described yet in detail. But here, NOV was found to promote the migration and expression of COX-2 and ICAM-1 in human RCC cells. Akt inhibitor was found to interfere with this NOV-induced migration and up-regulation of COX-2 and ICAM-1 in RCC cells. NOV stimulation was here found to promote the phosphorylation of Akt. RCC tissue chips were subjected to IHC staining, which showed COX-2 expression in RCC tissues to be a significantly closely correlated with NOV expression, with significance determined using Pearson correlation testing (P < 0.05). The results of the current work indicate that NOV activates COX-2 and ICAM-1 through Akt, promoting the migration of RCC cells. PMID:25973014

  14. Chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of the developmental switch gene eud-1 control predatory feeding plasticity.

    PubMed

    Serobyan, Vahan; Xiao, Hua; Namdeo, Suryesh; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Witte, Hanh; Röseler, Waltraud; Sommer, Ralf J

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested to act through developmental switches, but little is known about associated molecular mechanisms. In the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the sulfatase eud-1 was identified as part of a developmental switch controlling mouth-form plasticity governing a predatory versus bacteriovorous mouth-form decision. Here we show that mutations in the conserved histone-acetyltransferase Ppa-lsy-12 and the methyl-binding-protein Ppa-mbd-2 mimic the eud-1 phenotype, resulting in the absence of one mouth-form. Mutations in both genes cause histone modification defects and reduced eud-1 expression. Surprisingly, Ppa-lsy-12 mutants also result in the down-regulation of an antisense-eud-1 RNA. eud-1 and antisense-eud-1 are co-expressed and further experiments suggest that antisense-eud-1 acts through eud-1 itself. Indeed, overexpression of the antisense-eud-1 RNA increases the eud-1-sensitive mouth-form and extends eud-1 expression. In contrast, this effect is absent in eud-1 mutants indicating that antisense-eud-1 positively regulates eud-1. Thus, chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of eud-1 control feeding plasticity in Pristionchus. PMID:27487725

  15. Chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of the developmental switch gene eud-1 control predatory feeding plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Serobyan, Vahan; Xiao, Hua; Namdeo, Suryesh; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Witte, Hanh; Röseler, Waltraud; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested to act through developmental switches, but little is known about associated molecular mechanisms. In the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the sulfatase eud-1 was identified as part of a developmental switch controlling mouth-form plasticity governing a predatory versus bacteriovorous mouth-form decision. Here we show that mutations in the conserved histone-acetyltransferase Ppa-lsy-12 and the methyl-binding-protein Ppa-mbd-2 mimic the eud-1 phenotype, resulting in the absence of one mouth-form. Mutations in both genes cause histone modification defects and reduced eud-1 expression. Surprisingly, Ppa-lsy-12 mutants also result in the down-regulation of an antisense-eud-1 RNA. eud-1 and antisense-eud-1 are co-expressed and further experiments suggest that antisense-eud-1 acts through eud-1 itself. Indeed, overexpression of the antisense-eud-1 RNA increases the eud-1-sensitive mouth-form and extends eud-1 expression. In contrast, this effect is absent in eud-1 mutants indicating that antisense-eud-1 positively regulates eud-1. Thus, chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of eud-1 control feeding plasticity in Pristionchus. PMID:27487725

  16. An Arabidopsis thaliana pectin acetylesterase gene is upregulated in nematode feeding sites induced by root-knot and cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Vercauteren, Isabel; de Almeida Engler, Janice; De Groodt, Ruth; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2002-04-01

    By using differential display, gene expression was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana roots shortly after nematode infection, and a putative pectin acetylesterase (PAE) homolog (DiDi 9C-12) was found to be upregulated. PAEs catalyze the deacetylation of pectin, a major compound of primary cell walls. mRNA in situ hybridization experiments showed that the expression of DiDi 9C-12 was enhanced very early after infection in initiating giant-cells and in cells surrounding the nematodes. Later on, the level of DiDi 9C-12 mRNA was lower in giant-cells and transcripts were mainly found in parenchyma, endodermis, and pericycle cells of the root gall. Twenty days after infection, DiDi 9C-12 transcripts could no longer be detected. DiDi 9C-12 transcripts were also found in young syncytia and in the cells surrounding the expanding syncytium. Our results suggest that plant parasitic nematodes can modulate the rapid growth of the feeding cells and the expansion of the root gall by triggering the expression of DiDi 9C-12. PAEs, which probably act together with a range of other pectin-degrading enzymes, could be involved in softening and loosening the primary cell wall in nematode-infected plant roots. PMID:12026180

  17. Quality Controls in Cellular Immunotherapies: Rapid Assessment of Clinical Grade Dendritic Cells by Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Castiello, Luciano; Sabatino, Marianna; Zhao, Yingdong; Tumaini, Barbara; Ren, Jiaqiang; Ping, Jin; Wang, Ena; Wood, Lauren V; Marincola, Francesco M; Puri, Raj K; Stroncek, David F

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based immunotherapies are among the most promising approaches for developing effective and targeted immune response. However, their clinical usefulness and the evaluation of their efficacy rely heavily on complex quality control assessment. Therefore, rapid systematic methods are urgently needed for the in-depth characterization of relevant factors affecting newly developed cell product consistency and the identification of reliable markers for quality control. Using dendritic cells (DCs) as a model, we present a strategy to comprehensively characterize manufactured cellular products in order to define factors affecting their variability, quality and function. After generating clinical grade human monocyte-derived mature DCs (mDCs), we tested by gene expression profiling the degrees of product consistency related to the manufacturing process and variability due to intra- and interdonor factors, and how each factor affects single gene variation. Then, by calculating for each gene an index of variation we selected candidate markers for identity testing, and defined a set of genes that may be useful comparability and potency markers. Subsequently, we confirmed the observed gene index of variation in a larger clinical data set. In conclusion, using high-throughput technology we developed a method for the characterization of cellular therapies and the discovery of novel candidate quality assurance markers. PMID:23147403

  18. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R. . E-mail: nerurkar@pbrc.hawaii.edu

    2006-02-20

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML.

  19. N-acetylcysteine inhibits the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in livers from rats fed ethanol chronically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration to experimental animals induces hepatic oxidative stress and up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. The mechanisms by which chronic EtOH up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis have not been fully explored. In this work, we hypothesized that oxidative ...

  20. Investigation of reference gene expression during human herpesvirus 6B infection indicates peptidylprolyl isomerase A as a stable reference gene and TATA box binding protein as a gene up-regulated by this virus.

    PubMed

    Engdahl, Elin; Dunn, Nicky; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna

    2016-01-01

    When using relative gene expression for quantification of RNA it is crucial that the reference genes used for normalization do not change with the experimental condition. We aimed at investigating the expressional stability of commonly used reference genes during Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) infection. Expression of eight commonly used reference genes were investigated with quantitative PCR in a T-cell line infected with HHV-6B. The stability of genes was investigated using the 2(-ΔΔCT) method and the algorithms BestKeeper, GeNorm and NormFinder. Our results indicate that peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) is the most stably expressed gene while TATA box binding protein (TBP) is the least stably expressed gene during HHV-6B infection. In a confirmatory experiment, TBP was demonstrated to be dose and time dependently upregulated by HHV-6B. The stability of PPIA is in line with other studies investigating different herpesvirus infections whereas the finding that HHV-6B significantly upregulates TBP is novel and most likely specific to HHV-6B. PMID:26542463

  1. Disruption of a cystine transporter downregulates expression of genes involved in sulfur regulation and cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Jessica A; Rickel, Kirby E; Madeo, Marianna; Ahlers, Bethany A; Carlisle, Gabriel B; Nelson, Heidi J; Cardillo, Andrew L; Weber, Emily A; Vitiello, Peter F; Pearce, David A; Vitiello, Seasson P

    2016-01-01

    Cystine and cysteine are important molecules for pathways such as redox signaling and regulation, and thus identifying cellular deficits upon deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cystine transporter Ers1p allows for a further understanding of cystine homeostasis. Previous complementation studies using the human ortholog suggest yeast Ers1p is a cystine transporter. Human CTNS encodes the protein Cystinosin, a cystine transporter that is embedded in the lysosomal membrane and facilitates the export of cystine from the lysosome. When CTNS is mutated, cystine transport is disrupted, leading to cystine accumulation, the diagnostic hallmark of the lysosomal storage disorder cystinosis. Here, we provide biochemical evidence for Ers1p-dependent cystine transport. However, the accumulation of intracellular cystine is not observed when the ERS1 gene is deleted from ers1-Δ yeast, supporting the existence of modifier genes that provide a mechanism in ers1-Δ yeast that prevents or corrects cystine accumulation. Upon comparison of the transcriptomes of isogenic ERS1+ and ers1-Δ strains of S. cerevisiae by DNA microarray followed by targeted qPCR, sixteen genes were identified as being differentially expressed between the two genotypes. Genes that encode proteins functioning in sulfur regulation, cellular respiration, and general transport were enriched in our screen, demonstrating pleiotropic effects of ers1-Δ. These results give insight into yeast cystine regulation and the multiple, seemingly distal, pathways that involve proper cystine recycling. PMID:27142334

  2. Disruption of a cystine transporter downregulates expression of genes involved in sulfur regulation and cellular respiration

    PubMed Central

    Simpkins, Jessica A.; Rickel, Kirby E.; Madeo, Marianna; Ahlers, Bethany A.; Carlisle, Gabriel B.; Nelson, Heidi J.; Cardillo, Andrew L.; Weber, Emily A.; Vitiello, Peter F.; Pearce, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cystine and cysteine are important molecules for pathways such as redox signaling and regulation, and thus identifying cellular deficits upon deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cystine transporter Ers1p allows for a further understanding of cystine homeostasis. Previous complementation studies using the human ortholog suggest yeast Ers1p is a cystine transporter. Human CTNS encodes the protein Cystinosin, a cystine transporter that is embedded in the lysosomal membrane and facilitates the export of cystine from the lysosome. When CTNS is mutated, cystine transport is disrupted, leading to cystine accumulation, the diagnostic hallmark of the lysosomal storage disorder cystinosis. Here, we provide biochemical evidence for Ers1p-dependent cystine transport. However, the accumulation of intracellular cystine is not observed when the ERS1 gene is deleted from ers1-Δ yeast, supporting the existence of modifier genes that provide a mechanism in ers1-Δ yeast that prevents or corrects cystine accumulation. Upon comparison of the transcriptomes of isogenic ERS1+ and ers1-Δ strains of S. cerevisiae by DNA microarray followed by targeted qPCR, sixteen genes were identified as being differentially expressed between the two genotypes. Genes that encode proteins functioning in sulfur regulation, cellular respiration, and general transport were enriched in our screen, demonstrating pleiotropic effects of ers1-Δ. These results give insight into yeast cystine regulation and the multiple, seemingly distal, pathways that involve proper cystine recycling. PMID:27142334

  3. Differential expression of calcium-related genes in gastric cancer cells transfected with cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie; Luo, Guanhong; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Shi, Yongquan; Zhai, Huihong; Sun, Shiren; Jin, Haifeng; Liu, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Faming; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yunping; Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Hongbo; Guo, Xuegang; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2007-06-01

    The prion protein (PrPC) has a primary role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which causes prion disorders partially due to Ca2+ dysregulation. In our previous work, we found that overexpressed PrPC in gastric cancer was involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation, and metastasis of gastric cancer. To better understand how PrPC acts in gastric cancer, a human microarray was performed to select differentially regulated genes that correlate with the biological function of PrPC. The microarray data were analyzed and revealed 3798 genes whose expression increased at least 2-fold in gastric cancer cells transfected with PrPC. These genes encode proteins involved in several aspects of cell biology, among which, we specially detected molecules related to calcium, especially the S100 calcium-binding proteins, and found that PrPC upregulates S100A1, S100A6, S100B, and S100P but downregulates CacyBP in gastric cancer cells. We also found that intracellular Ca2+ levels in cells transfected with PrPC increased, whereas these levels decreased in knockdowns of these cells. Taken together, PrPC might increase intracellular Ca2+, partially through calcium-binding proteins, or PrPC might upregulate the expression of S100 proteins, partially through stimulating the intracellular calcium level in gastric cancer. Though the underlying mechanisms need further exploration, this study provides a new insight into the role of PrPC in gastric cancer and enriches our knowledge of prion protein. PMID:17612632

  4. Cancer-associated fibroblasts up-regulate CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes related to promotion of cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zu-Yau; Chuang, Yen-Hwang; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2012-10-01

    Impact of different cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cell lines on proliferation, migration, invasion and differential expressions of genes in different hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines was investigated. Two human CAF cell lines (F26/KMUH, F28/KMUH) and two human HCC cell lines (HCC24/KMUH, HCC38/KMUH) were studied. Influence of F28/KMUH cells on expressions of genes in HCC38/KMUH cells was detected by microarray to select genes for further analysis. Both CAF cell lines promoted proliferation (all P<0.05), migration (all P<0.05) and Matrigel invasion (all P<0.0001) of both HCC cell lines. F26/KMUH cells showed stronger promoted effects on, firstly, proliferation of HCC24/KMUH cells (P=0.0064) and, secondly, migration of both HCC cell lines than F28/KMUH cells did (all P<0.002). Ten up-regulated genes (APLN, CCL2, CCL26, CXCR4, IL6, MUC1, LOXL2, PDGFA, PGK1, VEGFA) related to proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of HCC detected by microarray were selected for quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both CAF cell lines had same tendency of effects on differential expressions of genes in same HCC cell line, but expressions of genes between different HCC cell lines were not consistent. Only CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes were consistently up-regulated in both HCC cell lines. In conclusion, the effects of CAFs to promote proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells are influenced by the characteristics of both CAFs and HCC cells. Up-regulations of CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes in cancer cells are part of the common effects of CAFs on HCC cells. PMID:22739041

  5. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Qu, Xiaotao; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Jim, Heather S. L.; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Mellissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. Methods In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4). Conclusion These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations

  6. Dietary Fucoxanthin Increases Metabolic Rate and Upregulated mRNA Expressions of the PGC-1alpha Network, Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Fusion Genes in White Adipose Tissues of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng-Ting; Chou, Hong-Nong; Huang, Ching-jang

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism for how fucoxanthin (FX) suppressed adipose accumulation is unclear. We aim to investigate the effects of FX on metabolic rate and expressions of genes related to thermogenesis, mitochondria biogenesis and homeostasis. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, four groups of mice were respectively fed a high sucrose (50% sucrose) or a high-fat diet (23% butter + 7% soybean oil) supplemented with or without 0.2% FX. FX significantly increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. The mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), cell death-inducing DFFA-like effecter a (CIDEA), PPARα, PPARγ, estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and deiodinase 2 (Dio2) were significantly upregulated in inguinal WAT (iWAT) and epididymal WAT (eWAT) by FX. Mitochondrial biogenic genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and NRF2, were increased in eWAT by FX. Noticeably, FX upregulated genes of mitochondrial fusion, mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), Mfn2 and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), but not mitochondrial fission, Fission 1, in both iWAT and eWAT. In conclusion, dietary FX enhanced the metabolic rate and lowered adipose mass irrespective of the diet. These were associated with upregulated genes of the PGC-1α network and mitochondrial fusion in eWAT and iWAT. PMID:24534841

  7. Human p38{delta} MAP kinase mediates UV irradiation induced up-regulation of the gene expression of chemokine BRAK/CXCL14

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Shigeyuki; Ito, Shin; Kato, Yasumasa; Kubota, Eiro; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro

    2010-06-11

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family comprises ERK, JNK, p38 and ERK5 (big-MAPK, BMK1). UV irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma cells induced up-regulation of gene expression of chemokine BRAK/CXCL14, stimulated p38 phosphorylation, and down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK. Human p38 MAPKs exist in 4 isoforms: p38{alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} and {delta}. The UV stimulation of p38 phosphorylation was not inhibited by the presence of SB203580 or PD169316, inhibitors of p38{alpha} and {beta}, suggesting p38 phosphorylation was not dependent on these 2 isoforms and that p38{gamma} and/or {delta} was responsible for the phosphorylation. In fact, inhibition of each of these 4 p38 isoforms by the introduction of short hairpin (sh) RNAs for respective isoforms revealed that only shRNA for p38{delta} attenuated the UV-induced up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. In addition, over-expression of p38 isoforms in the cells showed the association of p38{delta} with ERK1 and 2, concomitant with down-regulation of ERK phosphorylation. The usage of p38{delta} isoform by UV irradiation is not merely due to the abundance of this p38 isoform in the cells. Because serum deprivation of the cells also induced an increase in BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression, and in this case p38{alpha} and/or {beta} isoform is responsible for up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. Taken together, the data indicate that the respective stress-dependent action of p38 isoforms is responsible for the up-regulation of the gene expression of the chemokine BRAK/CXCL14.

  8. Identification of driving network of cellular differentiation from single sample time course gene expression data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ye; Wolanyk, Nathaniel; Ilker, Tunc; Gao, Shouguo; Wang, Xujing

    Methods developed based on bifurcation theory have demonstrated their potential in driving network identification for complex human diseases, including the work by Chen, et al. Recently bifurcation theory has been successfully applied to model cellular differentiation. However, there one often faces a technical challenge in driving network prediction: time course cellular differentiation study often only contains one sample at each time point, while driving network prediction typically require multiple samples at each time point to infer the variation and interaction structures of candidate genes for the driving network. In this study, we investigate several methods to identify both the critical time point and the driving network through examination of how each time point affects the autocorrelation and phase locking. We apply these methods to a high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) dataset of 42 subsets of thymocytes and mature peripheral T cells at multiple time points during their differentiation (GSE48138 from GEO). We compare the predicted driving genes with known transcription regulators of cellular differentiation. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of our proposed methods, as well as potential further improvements of our methods.

  9. MicroRNA-31 controls phenotypic modulation of human vascular smooth muscle cells by regulating its target gene cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jie; Yan, Cheng-Hui; Li, Yang; Xu, Kai; Tian, Xiao-Xiang; Peng, Cheng-Fei; Tao, Jie; Sun, Ming-Yu; Han, Ya-Ling

    2013-05-01

    Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of proliferative vascular diseases. The cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) has been shown to play an important role in phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. However, the mechanism regulating CREG upstream signaling remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been found to play a critical role in cell differentiation via target-gene regulation. This study aimed to identify a miRNA that binds directly to CREG, and may thus be involved in CREG-mediated VSMC phenotypic modulation. Computational analysis indicated that miR-31 bound to the CREG mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR). miR-31 was upregulated in quiescent differentiated VSMCs and downregulated in proliferative cells stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor and serum starvation, demonstrating a negative relationship with the VSMC differentiation marker genes, smooth muscle α-actin, calponin and CREG. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, CREG and VSMC differentiation marker gene expression levels were shown to be suppressed by a miR-31 mimic, but increased by a miR-31 inhibitor at both protein and mRNA levels. Notably, miR-31 overexpression or inhibition affected luciferase expression driven by the CREG 3′-UTR containing the miR-31 binding site. Furthermore, miR-31-mediated VSMC phenotypic modulation was inhibited in CREG-knockdown human VSMCs. We also determined miR-31 levels in the serum of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), with or without in stent restenosis and in healthy controls. miR-31 levels were higher in the serum of CAD patients with restenosis compared to CAD patients without restenosis and in healthy controls. In summary, these data demonstrate that miR-31 not only directly binds to its target gene CREG and modulates the VSMC phenotype through this interaction, but also can be an important biomarker in diseases involving VSMC

  10. Macrophages in gene therapy: cellular delivery vehicles and in vivo targets.

    PubMed

    Burke, B; Sumner, S; Maitland, N; Lewis, C E

    2002-09-01

    The appearance and activation of macrophages are thought to be rapid events in the development of many pathological lesions, including malignant tumors, atherosclerotic plaques, and arthritic joints. This has prompted recent attempts to use macrophages as novel cellular vehicles for gene therapy, in which macrophages are genetically modified ex vivo and then reintroduced into the body with the hope that a proportion will then home to the diseased site. Here, we critically review the efficacy of various gene transfer methods (viral, bacterial, protozoan, and various chemical and physical methods) in transfecting macrophages in vitro, and the results obtained when transfected macrophages are used as gene delivery vehicles. Finally, we discuss the use of various viral and nonviral methods to transfer genes to macrophages in vivo. As will be seen, definitive evidence for the use of macrophages as gene transfer vehicles has yet to be provided and awaits detailed trafficking studies in vivo. Moreover, although methods for transfecting macrophages have improved considerably in efficiency in recent years, targeting of gene transfer specifically to macrophages in vivo remains a problem. However, possible solutions to this include placing transgenes under the control of macrophage-specific promoters to limit expression to macrophages or stably transfecting CD34(+) precursors of monocytes/macrophages and then differentiating these cells into monocytes/macrophages ex vivo. The latter approach could conceivably lead to the bone marrow precursor cells of patients with inherited genetic disorders being permanently fortified or even replaced with genetically modified cells. PMID:12223508

  11. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution II: dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Keränen, Soile VE; Fowlkes, Charless C; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L; Sudar, Damir; Knowles, David W; Malik, Jitendra; Biggin, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Background To accurately describe gene expression and computationally model animal transcriptional networks, it is essential to determine the changing locations of cells in developing embryos. Results Using automated image analysis methods, we provide the first quantitative description of temporal changes in morphology and gene expression at cellular resolution in whole embryos, using the Drosophila blastoderm as a model. Analyses based on both fixed and live embryos reveal complex, previously undetected three-dimensional changes in nuclear density patterns caused by nuclear movements prior to gastrulation. Gene expression patterns move, in part, with these changes in morphology, but additional spatial shifts in expression patterns are also seen, supporting a previously proposed model of pattern dynamics based on the induction and inhibition of gene expression. We show that mutations that disrupt either the anterior/posterior (a/p) or the dorsal/ventral (d/v) transcriptional cascades alter morphology and gene expression along both the a/p and d/v axes in a way suggesting that these two patterning systems interact via both transcriptional and morphological mechanisms. Conclusion Our work establishes a new strategy for measuring temporal changes in the locations of cells and gene expression patterns that uses fixed cell material and computational modeling. It also provides a coordinate framework for the blastoderm embryo that will allow increasingly accurate spatio-temporal modeling of both the transcriptional control network and morphogenesis. PMID:17184547

  12. Stabilization of cellular mRNAs and up-regulation of proteins by oligoribonucleotides homologous to the Bcl2 adenine-uridine rich element motif.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Annamaria; Ghisolfi, Laura; Franzi, Sara; Maresca, Giovanna; Gherzi, Roberto; Capaccioli, Sergio; Nicolin, Angelo; Canti, Gianfranco

    2007-02-01

    Adenine-uridine rich elements (AREs) play an important role in modulating mRNA stability, being the target site of many ARE-binding proteins (AUBPs) that are involved in the decay process. Three 26-mer 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) homologous to the core region of ARE of bcl2 mRNA have been studied for decoy-aptamer activity in UV cross-linking assays. Sense-oriented ORNs competed with the ARE motif for the interaction with both destabilizing and stabilizing AUBPs in cell-free systems and in cell lines. Moreover, ORNs induced mRNA stabilization and up-regulated both Bcl2 mRNA and protein levels in the cells. Bcl2 ORNs stabilized other ARE-containing transcripts and up-regulated their expression. These results indicate that Bcl2 ORNs compete for AUBP-ARE interactions independently of ARE class and suggest that in the cell, the default labile status of ARE-containing mRNAs depends on the combined interaction of such transcripts with destabilizing AUBPs. PMID:17077270

  13. Ebola virion attachment and entry into human macrophages profoundly effects early cellular gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Kurz, Sabine; Feldmann, Friedericke; Buehler, Lukas K; Kindrachuk, Jason; DeFilippis, Victor; da Silva Correia, Jean; Früh, Klaus; Kuhn, Jens H; Burton, Dennis R; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) infections are associated with high lethality in primates. ZEBOV primarily targets mononuclear phagocytes, which are activated upon infection and secrete mediators believed to trigger initial stages of pathogenesis. The characterization of the responses of target cells to ZEBOV infection may therefore not only further understanding of pathogenesis but also suggest possible points of therapeutic intervention. Gene expression profiles of primary human macrophages exposed to ZEBOV were determined using DNA microarrays and quantitative PCR to gain insight into the cellular response immediately after cell entry. Significant changes in mRNA concentrations encoding for 88 cellular proteins were observed. Most of these proteins have not yet been implicated in ZEBOV infection. Some, however, are inflammatory mediators known to be elevated during the acute phase of disease in the blood of ZEBOV-infected humans. Interestingly, the cellular response occurred within the first hour of Ebola virion exposure, i.e. prior to virus gene expression. This observation supports the hypothesis that virion binding or entry mediated by the spike glycoprotein (GP(1,2)) is the primary stimulus for an initial response. Indeed, ZEBOV virions, LPS, and virus-like particles consisting of only the ZEBOV matrix protein VP40 and GP(1,2) (VLP(VP40-GP)) triggered comparable responses in macrophages, including pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signals. In contrast, VLP(VP40) (particles lacking GP(1,2)) caused an aberrant response. This suggests that GP(1,2) binding to macrophages plays an important role in the immediate cellular response. PMID:22028943

  14. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  15. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  16. Helicobacter pylori CagA induces tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation by upregulating DNMT1 via AKT-NFκB pathway in gastric cancer development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Gui; Hu, Lei; Zang, Ming De; Wang, He-Xiao; Zhao, Wei; Li, Jian-Fang; Su, Li-Ping; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2016-03-01

    Methylation of CpG islands in tumor suppressor gene prompter is one of the most characteristic abnormalities in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastric carcinoma (GC). Here, we investigated the pathogenic and molecular mechanisms underlying hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in HP induced GC development. We found that tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation, represented by MGMT, positively correlated with CagA in clinical specimens, gastric tissues from HP infected C57 mice and GC cell lines transfected by CagA or treated by HP infection. CagA enhanced PDK1 and AKT interaction and increased AKT phosphorylation. The P-AKT subsequent activated NFκB, which then bound to DNMT1 promoter and increased its expression. Finally, the upregulated DNMT1 promoted tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation with MGMT as a representative. In conclusion, CagA increased tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation via stimulating DNMT1 expression through the AKT-NFκB pathway. PMID:26848521

  17. Helicobacter pylori CagA induces tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation by upregulating DNMT1 via AKT-NFκB pathway in gastric cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He-xiao; Zhao, Wei; Li, Jian-fang; Su, Li-ping; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zheng-gang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of CpG islands in tumor suppressor gene prompter is one of the most characteristic abnormalities in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastric carcinoma (GC). Here, we investigated the pathogenic and molecular mechanisms underlying hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in HP induced GC development. We found that tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation, represented by MGMT, positively correlated with CagA in clinical specimens, gastric tissues from HP infected C57 mice and GC cell lines transfected by CagA or treated by HP infection. CagA enhanced PDK1 and AKT interaction and increased AKT phosphorylation. The P-AKT subsequent activated NFκB, which then bound to DNMT1 promoter and increased its expression. Finally, the upregulated DNMT1 promoted tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation with MGMT as a representative. In conclusion, CagA increased tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation via stimulating DNMT1 expression through the AKT-NFκB pathway. PMID:26848521

  18. Cellular Expression of Smarca4 (Brg1)-regulated Genes in Zebrafish Retinas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a recent genomic study, Leung et al. used a factorial microarray analysis to identify Smarca4 (Brg1)-regulated genes in micro-dissected zebrafish retinas. Two hundred and fifty nine genes were grouped in three-way ANOVA models which carried the most specific retinal change. To validate the microarray results and to elucidate cellular expression patterns of the significant genes for further characterization, 32 known genes were randomly selected from this group. In situ hybridization of these genes was performed on the same types of samples (wild-type (WT) and smarca4a50/a50 (yng) mutant) at the same stages (36 and 52 hours post-fertilization (hpf)) as in the microarray study. Results Thirty out of 32 riboprobes showed a positive in situ staining signal. Twenty seven out of these 30 genes were originally further classified as Smarca4-regulated retinal genes, while the remaining three as retinal-specific expression independent of Smarca4 regulation. It was found that 90.32% of the significant microarray comparisons that were used to identify Smarca4-regulated retinal genes had a corresponding qualitative expression change in the in situ hybridization comparisons. This is highly concordant with the theoretical true discovery rate of 95%. Hierarchical clustering was used to investigate the similarity of the cellular expression patterns of 25 out of the 27 Smarca4-regulated retinal genes that had a sufficiently high expression signal for an unambiguous identification of retinal expression domains. Three broad groups of expression pattern were identified; including 1) photoreceptor layer/outer nuclear layer specific expression at 52 hpf, 2) ganglion cell layer (GCL) and/or inner nuclear layer (INL) specific expression at both 36 & 52 hpf, and 3) GCL and/or INL specific expression at 52 hpf only. Some of these genes have recently been demonstrated to play key roles in retinal cell-type specification, differentiation and lamination. For the remaining three

  19. Modified pectin-based carrier for gene delivery: Cellular barriers in gene delivery course

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharides as DNA carriers has high potential for gene therapy applications. Pectin is a structural plant polysaccharide heterogeneous with respect to its chemical structure. It contains branches rich in galactose residues which serve as potential liga...

  20. Cellular retinol binding protein 1 could be a tumor suppressor gene in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Rodriguez, Mónica; Arreola, Hugo; Valdivia, Alejandra; Peralta, Raúl; Serna, Humberto; Villegas, Vanessa; Romero, Pablo; Alvarado-Hernández, Beatriz; Paniagua, Lucero; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; Meraz, Marco A; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Cervical Cancer (CC) is one of the most important health problems in women. It frequently presents genetic changes at chromosome region 3q21. This region contains the Cellular Retinol Binding Protein 1 gene (CRBP1) which has been implicated as an important element in the development of other types of cancer. The main goal of the present work was to determine the molecular alterations of CRBP1 and its relationship to CC. Methods: To determine the molecular alterations of CRBP1 gene in CC; twenty-six CC and twenty-six healthy cervix samples were evaluated for: 1) Copy number gain by real-time PCR analysis, 2) expression levels by an immunohistochemistry assay on tissue microarray, and 3) the methylation status of the CRBP1 promoter region. Results: The increase in CRBP1 copy number was observed in 10 out of the 26 CC samples analyzed, while healthy cervices samples showed no changes in the copy number. In addition, there was a lack of expression of the CRBP1 gene in an important number of the CC samples (17/26), and the CRBP1 gene promoter was methylated in 15/26 of the CC samples. Interestingly, there was a significant association between the lack of expression of the CRBP1 gene and its methylation status. Conclusions: The data indicates that, both activating and inactivating changes in the CRBP1 gene could be significant events in the development and progression of CC, and the lack of expression of the CRBP1 protein could be related with to the development of CC. We believe that there is enough evidence to consider to CRBP1 gene as a tumor suppressor gene for CC. PMID:24040446

  1. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  2. Lentiviral gene therapy using cellular promoters cures type 1 Gaucher disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Maria; Doyle, Alexander; Olsson, Karin; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Marques, André R A; Mirzaian, Mina; Aerts, Johannes M; Ehinger, Mats; Rothe, Michael; Modlich, Ute; Schambach, Axel; Karlsson, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme glucosylceramidase. Due to the lack of a fully functional enzyme, there is progressive build-up of the lipid component glucosylceramide. Insufficient glucosylceramidase activity results in hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, and bone disease in patients. Gene therapy represents a future therapeutic option for patients unresponsive to enzyme replacement therapy and lacking a suitable bone marrow donor. By proof-of-principle experiments, we have previously demonstrated a reversal of symptoms in a murine disease model of type 1 Gaucher disease, using gammaretroviral vectors harboring strong viral promoters to drive glucosidase β-acid (GBA) gene expression. To investigate whether safer vectors can correct the enzyme deficiency, we utilized self-inactivating lentiviral vectors (SIN LVs) with the GBA gene under the control of human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and CD68 promoter, respectively. Here, we report prevention of, as well as reversal of, manifest disease symptoms after lentiviral gene transfer. Glucosylceramidase activity above levels required for clearance of glucosylceramide from tissues resulted in reversal of splenomegaly, reduced Gaucher cell infiltration and a restoration of hematological parameters. These findings support the use of SIN-LVs with cellular promoters in future clinical gene therapy protocols for type 1 Gaucher disease. PMID:25655314

  3. Lentiviral Gene Therapy Using Cellular Promoters Cures Type 1 Gaucher Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Maria; Doyle, Alexander; Olsson, Karin; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Marques, André R A; Mirzaian, Mina; Aerts, Johannes M; Ehinger, Mats; Rothe, Michael; Modlich, Ute; Schambach, Axel; Karlsson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme glucosylceramidase. Due to the lack of a fully functional enzyme, there is progressive build-up of the lipid component glucosylceramide. Insufficient glucosylceramidase activity results in hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, and bone disease in patients. Gene therapy represents a future therapeutic option for patients unresponsive to enzyme replacement therapy and lacking a suitable bone marrow donor. By proof-of-principle experiments, we have previously demonstrated a reversal of symptoms in a murine disease model of type 1 Gaucher disease, using gammaretroviral vectors harboring strong viral promoters to drive glucosidase β-acid (GBA) gene expression. To investigate whether safer vectors can correct the enzyme deficiency, we utilized self-inactivating lentiviral vectors (SIN LVs) with the GBA gene under the control of human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and CD68 promoter, respectively. Here, we report prevention of, as well as reversal of, manifest disease symptoms after lentiviral gene transfer. Glucosylceramidase activity above levels required for clearance of glucosylceramide from tissues resulted in reversal of splenomegaly, reduced Gaucher cell infiltration and a restoration of hematological parameters. These findings support the use of SIN-LVs with cellular promoters in future clinical gene therapy protocols for type 1 Gaucher disease. PMID:25655314

  4. Implication of p53-dependent cellular senescence related gene, TARSH in tumor suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Wakoh, Takeshi; Uekawa, Natsuko; Terauchi, Kunihiko; Sugimoto, Masataka; Ishigami, Akihito; Shimada, Jun-ichi; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2009-03-20

    A novel target of NESH-SH3 (TARSH) was identified as a cellular senescence related gene in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) replicative senescence, the expression of which has been suppressed in primary clinical lung cancer specimens. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of TARSH involved in pulmonary tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the reduction of TARSH gene expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system robustly inhibited the MEFs proliferation with increase in senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) activity. Using p53{sup -/-} MEFs, we further suggest that this growth arrest by loss of TARSH is evoked by p53-dependent p21{sup Cip1} accumulation. Moreover, we also reveal that TARSH reduction induces multicentrosome in MEFs, which is linked in chromosome instability and tumor development. These results suggest that TARSH plays an important role in proliferation of replicative senescence and may serve as a trigger of tumor development.

  5. A gene deletion that up-regulates viral gene expression yields an attenuated RSV vaccine with improved antibody responses in children.

    PubMed

    Karron, Ruth A; Luongo, Cindy; Thumar, Bhagvanji; Loehr, Karen M; Englund, Janet A; Collins, Peter L; Buchholz, Ursula J

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral cause of severe pediatric respiratory illness, and a safe and effective vaccine for use in infancy and early childhood is needed. We previously showed that deletion of the coding sequence for the viral M2-2 protein (ΔM2-2) down-regulated viral RNA replication and up-regulated gene transcription and antigen synthesis, raising the possibility of development of an attenuated vaccine with enhanced immunogenicity. RSV MEDI ΔM2-2 was therefore evaluated as a live intranasal vaccine in adults, RSV-seropositive children, and RSV-seronegative children. When results in RSV-seronegative children were compared to those achieved with the previous leading live attenuated RSV candidate vaccine, vaccine virus shedding was significantly more restricted, yet the postvaccination RSV-neutralizing serum antibody achieved [geometric mean titer (GMT) = 1:97] was significantly greater. Surveillance during the subsequent RSV season showed that several seronegative RSV MEDI ΔM2-2 recipients had substantial antibody rises without reported illness, suggesting that the vaccine was protective yet primed for anamnestic responses to RSV. Rational design appears to have yielded a candidate RSV vaccine that is intrinsically superior at eliciting protective antibody in RSV-naïve children and highlights an approach for the development of live attenuated RSV vaccines. PMID:26537255

  6. GSIV serine/threonine kinase can induce apoptotic cell death via p53 and pro-apoptotic gene Bax upregulation in fish cells.

    PubMed

    Reshi, Latif; Wu, Horng-Cherng; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that GSIV induces apoptotic cell death through upregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Bak in Grouper fin cells (GF-1 cells). However, the role of viral genome-encoded protein(s) in this death process remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the Giant seaperch iridovirus (GSIV) genome encoded a serine/threonine kinase (ST kinase) protein, and induced apoptotic cell death via a p53-mediated Bax upregulation approach and a downregulation of Bcl-2 in fish cells. The ST kinase expression profile was identified through Western blot analyses, which indicated that expression started at day 1 h post-infection (PI), increased up to day 3, and then decreased by day 5 PI. This profile indicated the role of ST kinase expression during the early and middle phases of viral replication. We then cloned the ST kinase gene and tested its function in fish cells. The ST kinase was transiently expressed and used to investigate possible novel protein functions. The transient expression of ST kinase in GF-1 cells resulted in apoptotic cell features, as revealed with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays and Hoechst 33258 staining at 24 h (37 %) and 48 h post-transfection (PT) (49 %). Then, through studies on the mechanism of cell death, we found that ST kinase overexpression could upregulate the anti-stress gene p53 and the pro-apoptotic gene Bax at 48 h PT. Interestingly, this upregulation of p53 and Bax also correlated to alterations in the mitochondria function that induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activated the initiator caspase-9 and the effector caspase-3 in the downstream. Moreover, when the p53-dependent transcriptional downstream gene was blocked by a specific transcriptional inhibitor, it was found that pifithrin-α not only reduced Bax expression, but also averted cell death in GF-1 cells during the ST kinase overexpression. Taken altogether, these

  7. Genes Upregulated in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during Mild Freezing and Subsequent Thawing Suggest Sequential Activation of Multiple Response Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Daniel Z.

    2015-01-01

    Exposing fully cold-acclimated wheat plants to a mild freeze-thaw cycle of −3°C for 24h followed by +3°C for 24 or 48h results in dramatically improved tolerance of subsequent exposure to sub-freezing temperatures. Gene enrichment analysis of crown tissue from plants collected before or after the −3°C freeze or after thawing at +3°C for 24 or 48h revealed that many biological processes and molecular functions were activated during the freeze-thaw cycle in an increasing cascade of responses such that over 150 processes or functions were significantly enhanced by the end of the 48 h, post-freeze thaw. Nearly 2,000 individual genes were upregulated more than 2-fold over the 72 h course of freezing and thawing, but more than 70% of these genes were upregulated during only one of the time periods examined, suggesting a series of genes and gene functions were involved in activation of the processes that led to enhanced freezing tolerance. This series of functions appeared to include extensive cell signaling, activation of stress response mechanisms and the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, extensive modification of secondary metabolites, and physical restructuring of cell membranes. By identifying plant lines that are especially able to activate these multiple mechanisms it may be possible to develop lines with enhanced winterhardiness. PMID:26173115

  8. miR-6734 Up-Regulates p21 Gene Expression and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Moo Rim; Park, Ki Hwan; Yang, Jeong-Ook; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Lee, Myeong Youl; Han, Sang-Bae; Kang, Jong Soon

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression in terms of both gene silencing and gene activation. Here, we investigated the effects of miR-6734, which has a sequence homology with a specific region of p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21) promoter, on cancer cell growth and the mechanisms involved in this effect. miR-6734 up-regulated p21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using biotin-labeled miR-6734 confirmed the association of miR-6734 with p21 promoter. Moreover, miR-6734 inhibited cancer cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT-116 cells, which was abolished by knockdown of p21. The phosphorylation of Rb and the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP were suppressed by miR-6734 transfection in HCT-116 cells and these effects were also reversed by p21 knockdown. In addition, miR-6734 transfection caused prolonged induction of p21 gene and modification of histones in p21 promoter, which are typical aspects of a phenomenon referred to as RNA activation (RNAa). Collectively, our results demonstrated that miR-6734 inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells by up-regulating p21 gene expression and subsequent induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, suggesting its role as an important endogenous regulator of cancer cell proliferation and survival. PMID:27509128

  9. Mycoplasma synoviae induces upregulation of apoptotic genes, secretion of nitric oxide and appearance of an apoptotic phenotype in infected chicken chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The role of chondrocytes in the development of infectious arthritis is not well understood. Several examples of mycoplasma-induced arthritis in animals indicate that chondrocytes come into direct contact with bacteria. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of an arthrogenic Mycoplasma synoviae strain WVU 1853 with chicken chondrocytes. We found that M. synoviae significantly reduces chondrocyte respiration. This was accompanied by alterations in chondrocyte morphology, namely cell shrinkage and cytoplasm condensation, as well as nuclear condensation and formation of plasma membrane invaginations containing nuclear material, which appeared to cleave off the cell surface. In concordance with these apoptosis-like events in chondrocytes, transcription was increased in several pro-apoptotic genes. Twenty-four hours after infection, strong upregulation was assayed in NOS2, Mapk11, CASP8 and Casp3 genes. Twenty-four and 72 h incubation of chondrocytes with M. synoviae induced upregulation of AIFM1, NFκB1, htrA3 and BCL2. Casp3 and NOS2 remained upregulated, but upregulation ceased for Mapk11 and CASP8 genes. Increased production of nitric oxide was also confirmed in cell supernates. The data suggests that chicken chondrocytes infected with M. synoviae die by apoptosis involving production of nitric oxide, caspase 3 activation and mitochondrial inactivation. The results of this study show for the first time that mycoplasmas could cause chondrocyte apoptosis. This could contribute to tissue destruction and influence the development of arthritic conditions. Hence, the study gives new insights into the role of mycoplasma infection on chondrocyte biology and development of infectious arthritis in chickens and potentially in humans. PMID:22280251

  10. Upregulation of expression of the reticulocyte homology gene 4 in the Plasmodium falciparum clone Dd2 is associated with a switch in the erythrocyte invasion pathway.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Deepak; Furuya, Tetsuya; Mu, Jianbing; Jiang, Lu-bin; Su, Xin-zhuan; Miller, Louis H

    2006-02-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum clone, Dd2, that requires sialic acid for invasion can switch to a sialic acid independent pathway, Dd2(NM). To elucidate the molecular basis of the switch in invasion phenotype of Dd2 to Dd2(NM), we performed expression profiling of the parasites using an oligonucleotide microarray and real-time RT-PCR. We found that four genes were upregulated in Dd2(NM) by microarray analysis, only two of which could be confirmed by real time RT-PCR. One gene, PfRH4, is a member of the reticulocyte homology family and the other, PEBL, is a pseudogene of the Duffy binding-like family. The two genes are contiguous but transcribed in opposite directions. The DNA sequence of these ORFs, their 5'-intergenic region and a 1.1kb region 3' to each ORF are identical between Dd2 and Dd2(NM), suggesting that their transcription upregulation relates to transactivating factors. The transcription upregulation of PfRH4 was reflected at the protein level as PfRH4 protein expression was detected in Dd2(NM) and not in Dd2. Other sialic acid independent and dependent clones of P. falciparum showed variable transcript levels of PfRH4 and PEBL, unrelated to their dependence on sialic acid for invasion, suggesting that different P. falciparum clones use different receptors for sialic acid independent invasion. As Dd2(NM) is a selected subclone of Dd2, the marked upregulation of PfRH4 expression in Dd2(NM) suggests its role in erythrocyte invasion through the sialic acid independent pathway of Dd2(NM). PMID:16289357

  11. A functional screen for copper homeostasis genes identifies a pharmacologically tractable cellular system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Copper is essential for the survival of aerobic organisms. If copper is not properly regulated in the body however, it can be extremely cytotoxic and genetic mutations that compromise copper homeostasis result in severe clinical phenotypes. Understanding how cells maintain optimal copper levels is therefore highly relevant to human health. Results We found that addition of copper (Cu) to culture medium leads to increased respiratory growth of yeast, a phenotype which we then systematically and quantitatively measured in 5050 homozygous diploid deletion strains. Cu’s positive effect on respiratory growth was quantitatively reduced in deletion strains representing 73 different genes, the function of which identify increased iron uptake as a cause of the increase in growth rate. Conversely, these effects were enhanced in strains representing 93 genes. Many of these strains exhibited respiratory defects that were specifically rescued by supplementing the growth medium with Cu. Among the genes identified are known and direct regulators of copper homeostasis, genes required to maintain low vacuolar pH, and genes where evidence supporting a functional link with Cu has been heretofore lacking. Roughly half of the genes are conserved in man, and several of these are associated with Mendelian disorders, including the Cu-imbalance syndromes Menkes and Wilson’s disease. We additionally demonstrate that pharmacological agents, including the approved drug disulfiram, can rescue Cu-deficiencies of both environmental and genetic origin. Conclusions A functional screen in yeast has expanded the list of genes required for Cu-dependent fitness, revealing a complex cellular system with implications for human health. Respiratory fitness defects arising from perturbations in this system can be corrected with pharmacological agents that increase intracellular copper concentrations. PMID:24708151

  12. Up-regulation of expression of tubulin genes and roles of microtubules in hypergravity-induced growth modification in Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Shouhei; Saito, Yuka; Kumasaki, Saori; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    We examined the roles of microtubules in gravity-induced modification of growth and development in plants by analyzing the expression levels of the α- and β-tubulin gene family and growth behavior of Arabidopsis hypocotyls treated with the microtubule-disrupting reagents colchicine, oryzalin, and propyzamide. Expression of the majority of the examined α- and β-tubulin genes was up-regulated by hypergravity at 300 g, although the extent was variable among genes, indicating that up-regulation of the expression of tubulin genes is the universal response of Arabidopsis hypocotyls to hypergravity. Hypergravity suppressed elongation growth by decreasing the cell-wall extensibility, whereas it stimulated lateral thickening of hypocotyls. By treatment with colchicine, oryzalin, and propyzamide, the elongation growth was suppressed, lateral thickening was stimulated, and the cell-wall extensibility of hypocotyls decreased dose-dependently even under 1 g conditions. The degree of hypergravity-induced changes decreased with increasing concentration of microtubule-disrupting reagents. As a result, hypergravity affected neither the length, the thickness, nor the cell-wall extensibility of hypocotyls in the presence of high concentrations of microtubule-disrupting reagents. Moreover, colchicine-treated seedlings showed helical growth even under 1 g conditions, and this phenotype was intensified under hypergravity conditions. These results suggest that the up-regulation of the expression of tubulin genes is involved in gravity-induced modification of microtubule dynamics, which may play an important role in the resistance of plant organs to the gravitational force and maintenance of normal growth phenotype.

  13. A cellular genetics approach identifies gene-drug interactions and pinpoints drug toxicity pathway nodes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Oscar T.; Frick, Amber; Parks, Bethany B.; Trask, O. Joseph; Butz, Natasha; Steffy, Brian; Chan, Emmanuel; Scoville, David K.; Healy, Eric; Benton, Cristina; McQuaid, Patricia E.; Thomas, Russell S.; Wiltshire, Tim

    2014-01-01

    New approaches to toxicity testing have incorporated high-throughput screening across a broad-range of in vitro assays to identify potential key events in response to chemical or drug treatment. To date, these approaches have primarily utilized repurposed drug discovery assays. In this study, we describe an approach that combines in vitro screening with genetic approaches for the experimental identification of genes and pathways involved in chemical or drug toxicity. Primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from 32 genetically-characterized inbred mouse strains were treated in concentration-response format with 65 compounds, including pharmaceutical drugs, environmental chemicals, and compounds with known modes-of-action. Integrated cellular responses were measured at 24 and 72 h using high-content imaging and included cell loss, membrane permeability, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis. Genetic association analysis of cross-strain differences in the cellular responses resulted in a collection of candidate loci potentially underlying the variable strain response to each chemical. As a demonstration of the approach, one candidate gene involved in rotenone sensitivity, Cybb, was experimentally validated in vitro and in vivo. Pathway analysis on the combined list of candidate loci across all chemicals identified a number of over-connected nodes that may serve as core regulatory points in toxicity pathways. PMID:25221565

  14. Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Homeostasis and Pathophysiology--From Gene Expression, Signal Transduction to Cellular Communication.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    During embryogenesis, progenitor cells are specified and differentiated into mature cardiomyocytes. Soon after birth, the ability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate is strongly restrained, and thereafter, they grow in size without cell division. Under pathological conditions, cardiomyocytes show adaptive and maladaptive responses through complex intracellular signaling pathways and cross-talking networks of intercellular and inter-tissue communications, but ultimately, they become dysfunctional and undergo cell death or degeneration. Cardiovascular diseases remain the most prevalent, costly, disabling, and deadly medical conditions. To develop novel therapies for them, it is important to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that govern gene expression, signal transduction to cellular communication. In this review article for the 2014 SATO Memorial Award, an approach to uncover molecular and cellular pathophysiology is summarized, focusing on homeobox transcription factor Nkx2-5 in the transcriptional regulation of the cardiac gene program, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, in the regulation of postnatal cardiomyocyte growth, survival, and function, angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the development of pathological hypertrophy and remodeling, and mast cell infiltration in the pathogenesis of atrial remodeling and fibrillation. PMID:26538467

  15. REST-Governed Gene Expression Profiling in a Neuronal Cell Model Reveals Novel Direct and Indirect Processes of Repression and Up-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Folladori, Lucrezia; Malosio, Maria L.; Lazarevic, Dejan; Stupka, Elia; Cittaro, Davide; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The role of REST changes in neurons, including the rapid decrease of its level during differentiation and its fluctuations during many mature functions and diseases, is well established. However, identification of many thousand possible REST-target genes, mostly based on indirect criteria, and demonstration of their operative dependence on the repressor have been established for only a relatively small fraction. In the present study, starting from our recently published work, we have expanded the identification of REST-dependent genes, investigated in two clones of the PC12 line, a recognized neuronal cell model, spontaneously expressing different levels of REST: very low as in neurons and much higher as in most non-neural cells. The molecular, structural and functional differences of the two PC12 clones were shown to depend largely on their different REST level and the ensuing variable expression of some dependent genes. Comprehensive RNA-Seq analyses of the 13,700 genes expressed, validated by parallel RT-PCR and western analyses of mRNAs and encoded proteins, identified in the high-REST clone two groups of almost 900 repressed and up-regulated genes. Repression is often due to direct binding of REST to target genes; up-regulation to indirect mechanism(s) mostly mediated by REST repression of repressive transcription factors. Most, but not all, genes governing neurosecretion, excitability, and receptor channel signaling were repressed in the high REST clone. The genes governing expression of non-channel receptors (G protein-coupled and others), although variably affected, were often up-regulated together with the genes of intracellular kinases, small G proteins, cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix proteins. Expression of REST-dependent genes governing functions other than those mentioned so far were also identified. The results obtained by the parallel investigation of the two PC12 clones revealed the complexity of the REST molecular and

  16. BRCA1 Haploinsufficiency Leads to Altered Expression of Genes Involved in Cellular Proliferation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Feilotter, Harriet E.; Michel, Claire; Uy, Paolo; Bathurst, Lauren; Davey, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of BRCA1 and BRCA2 coding sequences to identify pathogenic mutations associated with inherited breast/ovarian cancer syndrome has provided a method to identify high-risk individuals, allowing them to seek preventative treatments and strategies. However, the current test is expensive, and cannot differentiate between pathogenic variants and those that may be benign. Focusing only on one of the two BRCA partners, we have developed a biological assay for haploinsufficiency of BRCA1. Using a series of EBV-transformed cell lines, we explored gene expression patterns in cells that were BRCA1 wildtype compared to those that carried (heterozygous) BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. We identified a subset of 43 genes whose combined expression pattern is a sensitive predictor of BRCA1 status. The gene set was disproportionately made up of genes involved in cellular differentiation, lending credence to the hypothesis that single copy loss of BRCA1 function may impact differentiation, rendering cells more susceptible to undergoing malignant processes. PMID:24950059

  17. The dormancy-breaking stimuli "chilling, hypoxia and cyanamide exposure" up-regulate the expression of α-amylase genes in grapevine buds.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Sebastián; Donoso, Amanda; Pérez, Francisco J

    2014-03-15

    It has been suggested that respiratory stress is involved in the mechanism underlying the dormancy-breaking effect of hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2) and sodium azide in grapevine buds; indeed, reductions in oxygen levels (hypoxia) and inhibitors of respiration promote bud-break in grapevines. In this study, we showed that, hypoxia increased starch hydrolysis soluble sugar consumption and up-regulated the expression of α-amylase genes (Vvα-AMYs) in grapevine buds, suggesting that these biochemical changes induced by hypoxia, may play a relevant role in the release of buds from endodormancy (ED). Three of the four Vvα-AMY genes that are expressed in grapevine buds were up-regulated by hypoxia and a correlation between changes in sugar content and level of Vvα-AMY gene expression during the hypoxia treatment was found, suggesting that soluble sugars mediate the effect of hypoxia on Vvα-AMY gene expression. Exogenous applications of soluble sugars and sugar analogs confirmed this finding and revealed that osmotic stress induces the expression of Vvα-AMY1 and Vvα-AMY3 and that soluble sugars induces Vvα-AMY2 and Vvα-AMY4 gene expression. Interestingly, the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA3) induced the expression of Vvα-AMY3 and Vvα-AMY4 genes, while dormancy breaking stimuli, chilling and cyanamide exposure, mainly induced the expression of Vvα-AMY1 and Vvα-AMY2 genes, suggesting that these two α-amylase genes might be involved in the release of grapevine buds from the ED. PMID:24594388

  18. Functional characterization of calliphorid cell death genes and cellularization gene promoters for controlling gene expression and cell viability in early embryos.

    PubMed

    Edman, R M; Linger, R J; Belikoff, E J; Li, F; Sze, S-H; Tarone, A M; Scott, M J

    2015-02-01

    The New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, and the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina, are major pests of livestock. The sterile insect technique was used to eradicate C. hominivorax from North and Central America. This involved area-wide releases of male and female flies that had been sterilized by radiation. Genetic systems have been developed for making 'male-only' strains that would improve the efficiency of genetic control of insect pests. One system involves induction of female lethality in embryos through activation of a pro-apoptotic gene by the tetracycline-dependent transactivator. Sex-specific expression is achieved using an intron from the transformer gene, which we previously isolated from several calliphorids. In the present study, we report the isolation of the promoters from the C. hominivorax slam and Lucilia sericata bnk cellularization genes and show that these promoters can drive expression of a GFP reporter gene in early embryos of transgenic L. cuprina. Additionally, we report the isolation of the L. sericata pro-apoptotic hid and rpr genes, identify conserved motifs in the encoded proteins and determine the relative expression of these genes at different stages of development. We show that widespread expression of the L. sericata pro-apoptotic genes was lethal in Drosophila melanogaster. The isolated gene promoters and pro-apoptotic genes could potentially be used to build transgenic embryonic sexing strains of calliphorid livestock pests. PMID:25225046

  19. Mitigating effects of L-selenomethionine on low-dose iron ion radiation-induced changes in gene expression associated with cellular stress.

    PubMed

    Nuth, Manunya; Kennedy, Ann R

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation associated with highly energetic and charged heavy (HZE) particles poses a danger to astronauts during space travel. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the patterns of gene expression associated with cellular exposure to low-dose iron ion irradiation, in the presence and absence of L-selenomethionine (SeM). Human thyroid epithelial cells (HTori-3) were exposed to low-dose iron ion (1 GeV/n) irradiation at 10 or 20 cGy with or without SeM pretreatment. The cells were harvested 6 and 16 h post-irradiation and analyzed by the Affymetrix U133Av2 gene chip arrays. Genes exhibiting a 1.5-fold expression cut-off and 5% false discovery rate (FDR) were considered statistically significant and subsequently analyzed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) for pathway analysis. Representative genes were further validated by real-time RT-PCR. Even at low doses of radiation from iron ions, global genome profiling of the irradiated cells revealed the upregulation of genes associated with the activation of stress-related signaling pathways (ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, p53 signaling, cell cycle and apoptosis), which occurred in a dose-dependent manner. A 24-h pretreatment with SeM was shown to reduce the radiation effects by mitigating stress-related signaling pathways and downregulating certain genes associated with cell adhesion. The mechanism by which SeM prevents radiation-induced transformation in vitro may involve the suppression of the expression of genes associated with stress-related signaling and certain cell adhesion events. PMID:23946774

  20. Cellular defense system gene expression profiling of human whole blood: opportunities to predict health benefits in response to diet.

    PubMed

    Drew, Janice E

    2012-07-01

    Diet is a critical factor in the maintenance of human cellular defense systems, immunity, inflammation, redox regulation, metabolism, and DNA repair that ensure optimal health and reduce disease risk. Assessment of dietary modulation of cellular defense systems in humans has been limited due to difficulties in accessing target tissues. Notably, peripheral blood gene expression profiles associated with nonhematologic disease are detectable. Coupled with recent innovations in gene expression technologies, gene expression profiling of human blood to determine predictive markers associated with health status and dietary modulation is now a feasible prospect for nutrition scientists. This review focuses on cellular defense system gene expression profiling of human whole blood and the opportunities this presents, using recent technological advances, to predict health status and benefits conferred by diet. PMID:22797985

  1. Desensitization of leptin receptors is coincident with the upregulation of dopamine-related genes in the prefrontal cortex of adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Danila; Del Olmo, Nuria; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated in adolescent mice the effect of subchronic leptin on (i) leptin receptor expression and functionality, and (ii) dopamine-related gene expression (tyrosine hydroxylase, Th; dopamine type-1 receptor, Drd1; dopamine type-2 receptor, Drd2) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is involved in sensory perception of food and reward sensitivity, and the hippocampus, a brain area sensitive to food composition and pivotal in learning and memory processes related to feeding behaviour. Here, we show that leptin treatment triggered leptin resistance both in the hippocampus and in the PFC. In contrast, leptin induced the upregulation of dopamine-related genes in the PFC, whereas it failed to modify the expression of these genes in the hippocampus. The effect of leptin was similar irrespective of the time elapsed since the last leptin administration (either 2 or 14 h), indicating that the effect detected was not associated with leptin withdrawal. Our data show that leptin receptor desensitization is coincident with the upregulation of dopamine-related genes in the PFC of adolescent mice undergoing hyperleptinaemia triggered by exogenous leptin. PMID:27031872

  2. Involvement of the HP0165-HP0166 Two-Component System in Expression of Some Acidic-pH-Upregulated Genes of Helicobacter pylori†

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Feng, Jing; Scott, David R.; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Sachs, George

    2006-01-01

    About 200 genes of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori increase expression at medium pHs of 6.2, 5.5, and 4.5, an increase that is abolished or much reduced by the buffering action of urease. Genes up-regulated by a low pH include the two-component system HP0165-HP0166, suggesting a role in the regulation of some of the pH-sensitive genes. To identify targets of HP0165-HP0166, the promoter regions of genes up-regulated by a low pH were grouped based on sequence similarity. Probes for promoter sequences representing each group were subjected to electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with recombinant HP0166-His6 or a mutated response regulator, HP0166-D52N-His6, that can specifically determine the role of phosphorylation of HP0166 in binding (including a control EMSA with in-vitro-phosphorylated HP0166-His6). Nineteen of 45 promoter-regulatory regions were found to interact with HP0166-His6. Seven promoters for genes encoding α-carbonic anhydrase, omp11, fecD, lpp20, hypA, and two with unknown function (pHP1397-1396 and pHP0654-0675) were clustered in gene group A, which may respond to changes in the periplasmic pH at a constant cytoplasmic pH and showed phosphorylation-dependent binding in EMSA with HP0166-D52N-His6. Twelve promoters were clustered in groups B and C whose up-regulation likely also depends on a reduction of the cytoplasmic pH at a medium pH of 5.5 or 4.5. Most of the target promoters in groups B and C showed phosphorylation-dependent binding with HP0166-D52N-His6, but promoters for ompR (pHP0166-0162), pHP0682-0681, and pHP1288-1289 showed phosphorylation-independent binding. These findings, combined with DNase I footprinting, suggest that HP0165-0166 is an acid-responsive signaling system affecting the expression of pH-sensitive genes. Regulation of these genes responds either to a decrease in the periplasmic pH alone (HP0165 dependent) or also to a decrease in the cytoplasmic pH (HP0165 independent). PMID:16484186

  3. Promoter analysis of the membrane protein gp64 gene of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, N; Fukuzawa, M; Saito, T; Sakaitani, T; Ochiai, H

    1999-10-28

    We cloned a genomic fragment of the membrane protein gp64 gene of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum by inverse PCR. Primer extension analysis identified a major transcription start site 65 bp upstream of the translation start codon. The promoter region of the gp64 gene contains sequences homologous to a TATA box at position -47 to -37 and to an initiator (Inr, PyPyCAPyPyPyPy) at position -3 to +5 from the transcription start site. Successively truncated segments of the promoter were tested for their ability to drive expression of the beta-galactosidase reporter gene in transformed cells; also the difference in activity between growth conditions was compared. The results indicated that there are two positive vegetative regulatory elements extending between -187 and -62 bp from the transcription start site of the gp64 promoter; also their activity was two to three times higher in the cells grown with bacteria in shaken suspension than in the cells grown in an axenic medium. PMID:10542319

  4. Interleukin-10 but not transforming growth factor-β1 gene expression is up-regulated by vitamin D treatment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Farsani, Zeinab Shirvani; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2015-03-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and autoimmune disease. Variety of different genetics and environmental factors are involved in MS pathology. The epidemiological studies demonstrated that vitamin D has immune and immunomodulating effects on MS disease. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of vitamin D treatment on the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) genes in MS patients. We found that, the expression level of IL-10 gene in treated patients was up-regulated 3.84 times more than before treatment, but the expression level of TGF-β1 was not affected by vitamin D treatment. Also, a significant relationship was observed between vitamin D level and EDSS in MS patients. Our results indicated that the increased level of serum vitamin D and IL-10 gene expression may be associated with the reduction of EDSS scores in MS patients. PMID:25680585

  5. RNA helicase A in the MEF1 transcription factor complex up-regulates the MDR1 gene in multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoling; Safa, Ahmad R

    2004-04-23

    RNA helicase A (RHA) is a member of the DEAD/H family of RNA helicases and unwinds duplex RNA and DNA. Recent studies have shown that RHA regulates the activity of gene promoters. However, little information is available about the in vivo relevance of RHA in the regulation of natural genes. We previously characterized a nuclear protein (MEF1) that binds to the proximal promoter of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and up-regulates the promoter activity. In the present study, we isolated and identified RHA as a component of the MEF1 complex by using DNA-affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. The antibody against RHA specifically disrupted the complex formation in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, confirming the identity of RHA. Western blotting showed that RHA in drug-resistant cells had a higher molecular weight than that in drug-sensitive cells. Similar results were obtained when FLAG-tagged RHA was overexpressed in these cells. This size difference probably reflects posttranslational modification(s) of RHA in drug-resistant cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RHA occupies the MDR1 promoter in vivo. Overexpression of RHA enhanced expression of the MDR1 promoter/reporter construct and endogenous P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the MDR1 gene product, and increased drug resistance of drug-resistant cells but not the drug-sensitive counterpart. Introduction of short interfering RNA targeting the RHA gene sequence selectively knocked-down RHA expression and concomitantly reduced P-gp level. Thus, our study demonstrates, for the first time, the involvement of RHA in up-regulation of the MDR1 gene. Interactions of RHA with other protein factors in the MEF1 complex bound to the promoter element may contribute to P-gp overexpression and multidrug resistance phenotype in drug-resistant cancer cells. PMID:14769796

  6. The Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-Glucan Binding Protein Gene Is Upregulated in White Spot Virus-Infected Shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris)

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Michelle M.; Pain, Arnab; Klimpel, Kurt R.; Dhar, Arun K.

    2002-01-01

    Pattern recognition proteins such as lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) play an important role in the innate immune response of crustaceans and insects. Random sequencing of cDNA clones from a hepatopancreas cDNA library of white spot virus (WSV)-infected shrimp provided a partial cDNA (PsEST-289) that showed similarity to the LGBP gene of crayfish and insects. Subsequently full-length cDNA was cloned by the 5′-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique and sequenced. The shrimp LGBP gene is 1,352 bases in length and is capable of encoding a polypeptide of 376 amino acids that showed significant similarity to homologous genes from crayfish, insects, earthworms, and sea urchins. Analysis of the shrimp LGBP deduced amino acid sequence identified conserved features of this gene family including a potential recognition motif for β-(1→3) linkage of polysaccharides and putative RGD cell adhesion sites. It is known that LGBP gene expression is upregulated in bacterial and fungal infection and that the binding of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan to LGBP activates the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade. The temporal expression of LGBP and proPO genes in healthy and WSV-challenged Penaeus stylirostris shrimp was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and we showed that LGBP gene expression in shrimp was upregulated as the WSV infection progressed. Interestingly, the proPO expression was upregulated initially after infection followed by a downregulation as the viral infection progressed. The downward trend in the expression of proPO coincided with the detection of WSV in the infected shrimp. Our data suggest that shrimp LGBP is an inducible acute-phase protein that may play a critical role in shrimp-WSV interaction and that the WSV infection regulates the activation and/or activity of the proPO cascade in a novel way. PMID:12072514

  7. Tumor cells as cellular vehicles to deliver gene therapies to metastatic tumors.

    PubMed

    García-Castro, Javier; Martínez-Palacio, Jesús; Lillo, Rosa; García-Sánchez, Félix; Alemany, Ramón; Madero, Luis; Bueren, Juan A; Ramírez, Manuel

    2005-04-01

    A long-pursued goal in cancer treatment is to deliver a therapy specifically to metastases. As a result of the disseminated nature of the metastatic disease, carrying the therapeutic agent to the sites of tumor growth represents a major step for success. We hypothesized that tumor cells injected intravenously (i.v.) into an animal with metastases would respond to many of the factors driving the metastatic process, and would target metastases. Using a model of spontaneous metastases, we report here that i.v. injected tumor cells localized on metastatic lesions. Based on this fact, we used genetically transduced tumor cells for tumor targeting of anticancer agents such as a suicide gene or an oncolytic virus, with evident antitumoral effect and negligible systemic toxicity. Therefore, autologous tumor cells may be used as cellular vehicles for systemic delivery of anticancer therapies to metastatic tumors. PMID:15650763

  8. Resveratrol Reverses Cadmium Chloride-induced Testicular Damage and Subfertility by Downregulating p53 and Bax and Upregulating Gonadotropins and Bcl-2 gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    ELEAWA, Samy M; ALKHATEEB, Mahmoud A; ALHASHEM, Fahaid H; BIN-JALIAH, Ismaeel; SAKR, Hussein F; ELREFAEY, Hesham M; ELKARIB, Abbas O; ALESSA, Riyad M; HAIDARA, Mohammad A; SHATOOR, Abdullah S.; KHALIL, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of resveratrol (RES) against CdCl2-induced toxicity in rat testes. Seven experimental groups of adult male rats were formulated as follows: A) controls+NS, B) control+vehicle (saline solution of hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin), C) RES treated, D) CdCl2+NS, E) CdCl2+vehicle, F) RES followed by CdCl2 and M) CdCl2 followed by RES. At the end of the protocol, serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured in all groups, and testicular levels of TBARS and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Epididymal semen analysis was performed, and testicular expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax was assessed by RT-PCR. Also, histopathological changes of the testes were examined microscopically. Administration of RES before or after cadmium chloride in rats improved semen parameters including count, motility, daily sperm production and morphology, increased serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone, decreased testicular lipid peroxidation and increased SOD activity. RES not only attenuated cadmium chloride-induced testicular histopathology but was also able to protect against the onset of cadmium chloride testicular toxicity. Cadmium chloride downregulated the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. Resveratrol protected against and partially reversed cadmium chloride testicular toxicity via upregulation of Bcl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax gene expression. The antioxidant activity of RES protects against cadmium chloride testicular toxicity and partially reverses its effect via upregulation of BCl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax expression. PMID:24492640

  9. Epstein-Barr virus transcription factor Zta acts through distal regulatory elements to directly control cellular gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ramasubramanyan, Sharada; Osborn, Kay; Al-Mohammad, Rajaei; Naranjo Perez-Fernandez, Ijiel B; Zuo, Jianmin; Balan, Nicolae; Godfrey, Anja; Patel, Harshil; Peters, Gordon; Rowe, Martin; Jenner, Richard G; Sinclair, Alison J

    2015-04-20

    Lytic replication of the human gamma herpes virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an essential prerequisite for the spread of the virus. Differential regulation of a limited number of cellular genes has been reported in B-cells during the viral lytic replication cycle. We asked whether a viral bZIP transcription factor, Zta (BZLF1, ZEBRA, EB1), drives some of these changes. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to next-generation DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) we established a map of Zta interactions across the human genome. Using sensitive transcriptome analyses we identified 2263 cellular genes whose expression is significantly changed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. Zta binds 278 of the regulated genes and the distribution of binding sites shows that Zta binds mostly to sites that are distal to transcription start sites. This differs from the prevailing view that Zta activates viral genes by binding exclusively at promoter elements. We show that a synthetic Zta binding element confers Zta regulation at a distance and that distal Zta binding sites from cellular genes can confer Zta-mediated regulation on a heterologous promoter. This leads us to propose that Zta directly reprograms the expression of cellular genes through distal elements. PMID:25779048

  10. Upregulation of Haploinsufficient Gene Expression in the Brain by Targeting a Long Non-coding RNA Improves Seizure Phenotype in a Model of Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, J; Yuan, T Y; Tsai, M S; Lu, C Y; Lin, Y C; Lee, M L; Lin, S W; Chang, F C; Liu Pimentel, H; Olive, C; Coito, C; Shen, G; Young, M; Thorne, T; Lawrence, M; Magistri, M; Faghihi, M A; Khorkova, O; Wahlestedt, C

    2016-07-01

    Dravet syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. There are currently no treatments, but the upregulation of SCN1A healthy allele represents an appealing therapeutic strategy. In this study we identified a novel, evolutionary conserved mechanism controlling the expression of SCN1A that is mediated by an antisense non-coding RNA (SCN1ANAT). Using oligonucleotide-based compounds (AntagoNATs) targeting SCN1ANAT we were able to induce specific upregulation of SCN1A both in vitro and in vivo, in the brain of Dravet knock-in mouse model and a non-human primate. AntagoNAT-mediated upregulation of Scn1a in postnatal Dravet mice led to significant improvements in seizure phenotype and excitability of hippocampal interneurons. These results further elucidate the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and outline a possible new approach for the treatment of this and other genetic disorders with similar etiology. PMID:27333023